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Endocrine System By: Sheravia Bryant Victoria Brown

PURPOSE • Produces and releases different types of hormones to maintain and control a number of functions throughout the body such as: • Growth and development • Metabolism

• tissue function • The main purpose is extracellular communication

HORMONES • Vasopressin – helps to maintain blood pressure and monitor electrolyte balance • Growth Hormone (GH) – stimulates growth during childhood and also cell reproduction which helps adults maintain muscle and bone mass

• Calcitonin – aides in bone construction • Insulin – regulates glucose by bringing blood into cells • Adrenaline – Also called the “Fight or flight instinct”; • Noradrenaline – works with Adrenaline to help the endocrine system produce the fight or flight response

HORMONES CONT. • Androgen – stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates; main male sex hormone • Estrogen – crucial for woman’s health; main female sex hormone

Fact: Everybody, male and female, have both androgens and estrogen, only the amount varies by sex.

CUSHING’S SYNDROME • A condition when the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) • Usually caused by a tumor, excess growth (hyperplasia) of the pituitary gland or ACTH hormone medications • Tumors are usually located at the base of the brain

CUSHING’S SYNDROME • Signs – • Seizures • Anxiety • Short term memory loss • High Cortisol levels • Symptoms – • Upper body obesity • Purple marks (1/2 inch or more wide), called strae, on the skin of the abdomen, thighs, and chest • Thin skin with easy bruising • Severe fatigue


• It greatly depends on the cause of the disease • Most cases can be cured • Who’s at risk?

• Affects women five times more frequently than men and most commonly occurs between 25-40 years of age • Facts – • It is relatively rare, affecting only about 2 people per million per year


• based on a review of the patient's medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests • X-rays of adrenal or pituitary gland to look for tumors

• 24 hour Urinary Free Cortisol Level (in adults levels higher than 50-100 micrograms suggest Cushing’s)


• depends on the specific reason for Cortisol excess • May include radiation, chemotherapy, the use of Cortisolinhibiting drugs, or the most common, surgical removal of any tumor(s)

ORGANS • Testis – male gonads; the organ that produces sperm, the male reproductive cell, and androgens, the male hormones; • Ovaries – gonad and endocrine gland found in women; ovum producing reproductive organs • Liver – vital organ; detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals needed for digestion • Pancreas – located deep in the abdomen; produces important hormones such as insulin and secretes pancreatic juice that help in the break down of carbohydrates, protein, and fat

GLANDS • Pituitary Gland – “master gland” under the control of the hypothalamus; secrete hormones important to female functions • Hypothalamus Gland – in control of pituitary gland and together they manage other endocrine functions • Pineal Gland – stimulated by nerves from the eyes; directly stimulated by light; affects thyroid and adrenal cortex functions

GLANDS • Thyroid Gland – regulate metabolism (body temperature and weight); contain iodine which is needed to manufacture hormones • Parathyroid Gland – produce parathyroid hormone control amount of calcium in the blood and within bones

• Adrenal Gland – two parts, outer cortex secretes cortisone (antiinflammatory) and inner medulla responds to stressors (fight, anger, caffeine, low blood sugar) • Thymus Gland – produces and helps adapt T cells which are critical of the adaptive immune system

WORKING WITH OTHER SYSTEMS • Works with and helps control:

• Nervous system • Reproductive system • Consequently, because it produces hormones, it has an effect on all of the body systems

EFFECTS OF AGING • As you age hormone levels and target organs are altered in the endocrine system • Hormones usually increase or decrease depending on the person, this can lead to a number of different problems

LEARNED MEDICAL WORDS • Acromegaly – abnormal enlargement of the extremeties that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty • Adrenalitis – inflammation of the adrenal glands • Aldosteronism – abnormality of elelctrolyte balance caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone


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Endocrine System