Page 1


GermAny IN FOCUS

Instructional Strategies for Secondary Educators

AuThOrS: Steven A. Goldberg Gerrit C. Book Kim D. O’Neil Featuring contributions from social studies educators within the TOP Fellow network

A PuBlIc/PrIvATe Partnership for north American Social Studies educators


ŠCopyright 2014 Goethe-Institut Washington

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Transatlantic Outreach Program Goethe-Institut Washington 812 7th Street NW Washington, DC 20001 USA www.goethe.de/top top@washington.goethe.org Tel: (202) 289-1200


Author Introduction “I was living in Prenzlauerberg [East Berlin] .… in grade 12 making my Abitur …. It started with the Monday demonstrations …. that was a stunning feeling, when you are standing within the masses and you really have the feeling you’re fighting now for something real good. . … It was something intoxicating. And then the Wall fell…. Well, November 9 was a Thursday …. and I was sitting with a classmate studying for an exam in history class … and we listened to Radio DT64 [the GDR youth radio] and then there was the news that Schabowski [government spokesman of the East German government] made this announcement and that the Wall was supposed to be open. …. I called my mom (who was not at home) and said: “Mom, mom the Wall is open, we need to go.” And she replied: “No child, go back to bed …” She just didn’t believe me! …I went to bed to be well-rested the next morning to go to school. And I didn’t have to write the exam anymore, because on that day history class was suspended! The whole curriculum was suspended. In 12th grade the only topic was the history of the SED (Socialist Unity Party of East Germany) and this was sort of suspended on November 9, too…” -Juliane (age 39) reflects on the excitement of the historic event of November 9, 1989, a memorable day in modern Germany history when die Mauer (the Berlin Wall) was opened as a result of a peaceful revolution by the people of the German Democratic Republic, and the process of reunification began.

Germany in Focus: Instructional Strategies for Secondary Educators is designed to provide social studies teachers with comprehensive lessons on Germany — historical and contemporary — that can be easily integrated into pre-existing curricula in world history, geography, comparative government, economics, and sustainability. The book is organized in seven sections or foci: Geography: Where in the world is Germany? Society: Who are the modern Germans? History: How do Germans face their past? Reunification: What is the legacy of the German Democratic Republic? Political System: What is the social contract between Germans and their government? Economy: What do Germans do for a living? Sustainability: How do Germans try to live in harmony with their environment? Each focus section begins with excerpts from interviews with a diverse group of Germans which concentrate on a critical question related to the focus topic. Teachers may wish to use these as stimuli to pique student interest in the focus topic. The lesson organization consists of a focus question(s) to guide the instruction. The careful use of the material included in the lesson and the use of the suggested instructional strategies will enable the students to talk intelligently about the focus questions. Each lesson is correlated to the revised 2010 NCSS Standards and includes a lesson overview which summarizes the objective of the lesson, pertinent teacher background, a suggested time frame, instructional resources (most of which will be easily accessed from the accompanying Instructional Resource Disc), and a detailed lesson procedure. In addition, there is a whole group reflection which reconnects the student with the focus question(s), lesson modifications and extensions. The entire book is available on the included Instructional Resource Disc as a PDF file. The Common Core State Standards in Literacy, adopted by 45 states to be fully implemented in 2014, require students to read more nonfiction and increasingly complex informational texts; to improve their speaking and listening skills; to cite evidence from texts to support arguments in written work, and to expand their academic vocabulary. As these apply to social studies, students will be expected to work individually and collaboratively to develop and interpret questions and analyze societal issues, trends, and events by applying concepts, knowledge and skills from civics, economics, geography, and history. (Source: Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects, p. 4.) The Common Core lays out a vision of what it means to be a literate person in the twenty-first century. The lessons in this book are intended to provide content and understanding as students are actively engaged to read high-quality literary and informational texts that build knowledge, enlarge experience, and broaden worldviews. Through the challenging activities, students will be able to demonstrate the cogent reasoning and use of evidence that is essential to decision-making and responsible global citizenship. Students in American and Canadian high schools need to know far more about Germany and the European Union than can be learned from a chapter in a history textbook. Since the social studies curriculum is crowded with “essential content,” teachers need to determine where and when to stop and have students think about and apply the content they are learning. With the increased pressures to meet the high standards of the Common Core, we believe that Germany in Focus: Instructional Strategies for Secondary Educators provides teachers with a rich selection of lessons to challenge their students and better prepare them for college, career and civic life. Steven A. Goldberg / Gerrit C. Book / Kim D. O’Neil


In addition to the authors, the Transatlantic Outreach Program would like to acknowledge the partners and dedicated individuals whose contributions made this text possible. The Partners of the Transatlantic Outreach Program: •• The Federal Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany •• The German Embassy Washington, Cultural Affairs Department •• Former German Ambassador to the United States, Dr. Klaus Scharioth •• German Ambassador to the United States, Dr. Peter Ammon •• Mr. Dieter Berg, Chairman, Robert Bosch Stiftung •• Ms. Edith Pürschel, Director, Deutsche Bank, Group Brand Communications & Corporate Citizenship •• Mr. Klaus P. Stegemann, Chief Financial Officer, Siemens Corporation •• Ms. Alison Taylor, Vice President, Sustainability-Americas, Siemens Corporation •• Colleagues of the Goethe-Institut Washington Content Review Panelists: •• Linda Cotter, Elementary Educator – Columbus, Ohio •• Paul Dickler, University Professor – Dodgeville, Wisconsin •• William Linser, High School Educator – Seattle, Washington •• Connie Manter, Curriculum Specialist – East Boothbay, Maine •• Scott Noet, Middle School Educator – Faribault, Minnesota •• Henry Rehn, High School Educator – Sterling Heights, Michigan •• Pam Su’a, Curriculum Specialist – West Jordan, Utah TOOLKIT AUTHORSHIP TEAM: •• Jacqueline Littlefield, Curriculum Specialist - Saco, Maine •• Connie Manter, Curriculum Specialist - East Boothbay, Maine TOP Fellows Whose Lessons Contributed to This Text: •• Seth Altman – Yorktown Heights, New York •• Kristi Brand-Neuroth – Brentwood, Tennessee •• Barbara Hairfield – Charleston, South Carolina •• Jacqueline Littlefield – Saco, Maine •• Sigrid Ann Olson – Salem, Oregon •• Henry Rehn - Sterling Heights, Michigan •• Michael Robinson – Germantown, Tennessee •• Jeanne Sheppach – San Ramon, California •• Jessica Stock – Ann Arbor, Michigan •• Faith Vautour – Camden, Maine Special curriculum Consultant: •• Neal Shultz, Teacher – New Rochelle, New York


Acknowledgements: •• Tim Anderson, Associate Professor, School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, Nebraska •• Lars Bergmann, Consultant, LAMBDA – Berlin, Germany •• Christa Brandt-Hastedt, Teacher, Haupt- and Realschule Bösel – Bösel, Gerrmany •• Andreas Dahlke, Consultant – Berlin, Germany •• Lisa Ehrenecker, Apprentice, Deutsche Bank – Frankfurt (Main), Germany •• Marcel Fuchs, Apprentice, Robert Bosch GmbH – Stuttgart, Germany •• Daniel Gaede, Educational Director, Buchenwald Memorial – Weimar, Germany •• Andrew B. Goldberg, Technology Consultant – Columbia, Maryland •• Gregor Hempel, Consultant, LAMBDA – Berlin, Germany •• Irmtraud Hollitzer, Docent, Citizens Committee of Leipzig – Leipzig, Germany •• Tobias Hollitzer, Director, Citizens Committee of Leipzig – Leipzig, Germany •• Christiane Janku, Teacher, St. Thomas Kolleg – Vechta, Germany •• Marlise Kasper, Teacher, Albert Schweitzer Gymnasium – Gundelfingen, Germany •• Laszlo Kunfalvi, Apprenticeship Supervisor, Robert Bosch GmbH – Stuttgart, Germany •• Jürgen Milde, Teacher, Gymnasium Am Sonnenkamp Neukloster – Neukloster, Germany •• Erin O‘Neil, Consultant – Liverpool, New York, USA •• Kathleen O‘Neil, Consultant – Liverpool, New York, USA •• Nina Ohlerich, Teacher, Friedrich-Ebert-Oberschule (Gymnasium) – Berlin, Germany •• Gregor Ohlerich, Consultant – Berlin, Germany •• Ludger Ostendorf, Teacher, Haupt- und Realschule Bösel – Bösel, Gerrmany •• Eva Pohl, Teacher, Heinz-Berggruen-Gymnasium – Berlin, Germany •• Roger Schäublin, Global Logistics Services, Deutsche Bank – Frankfurt (Main), Germany •• Christian Schmitz, Apprentice, Deutsche Bank – Frankfurt (Main), Germany •• P. Ulrich Schulte, Consultant, St. Thomas Kolleg – Vechta, Germany •• Oliver Stoisiek, Apprenticeship Supervisor, Deutsche Bank – Frankfurt (Main), Germany •• Raphael Verstege, Apprenticeship Supervisor, Robert Bosch GmbH – Stuttgart, Germany •• Students from Berlin, Bösel, Gundelfingen, Neukloster and Vechta


Graphic Design & Layout: •• Annika Simon, in puncto druck + medien GmbH – Bonn, Germany Editors: •• Isabel Bauer Metcalf – Alexandria, Virginia •• William Gilcher – Silver Springs, Maryland •• Wood Powell – Washington, DC •• Kelsey Smith – Denver, Colorado •• Sarah Yabroff – Washington, DC Project Managers: •• Klaus Brodersen, TOP Director – Washington, DC •• Stefan Brunner, TOP Director (2006-2009) – Washington, DC •• Wood Powell, TOP Coordinator – Washington, DC •• Kelsey Smith, TOP Assistant Coordinator (2005-2009) – Washington, DC •• Sarah Yabroff, TOP Assistant Coordinator – Washington, DC


Table of Contents FOCUS 1: GEOGRAPHY •• •• •• •• ••

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Geography of Germany Geography and FIFA World Cup Soccer Germany: A Member of the European Union German Military and International Peacekeeping Four American Presidents and the Berlin Wall

FOCUS 2: Society •• •• •• •• •• ••

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Immigration and Demographic Diversity Religion in a Pluralistic Society Women in German Society German Education System Youth in Germany Germanisms - German Words in the English Language

FOCUS 3: History •• •• •• •• •• ••

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

The Brandenburg Gate as a Witness to History Collective Memory: Memorials and Monuments Schwarzfahrer: A Case Study in Human Rights Studying the Holocaust in Germany November 9 in German History: Why Not a Holiday? Germans Who Have Contributed to World Civilization

FOCUS 4: REUNIFICATION •• •• •• ••

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

Post World War II/Cold War Timeline We Are the People — Peaceful Revolution in Leipzig 1989 Ostalgie — Remembering Life in the GDR The Stasi and Espionage in the GDR

FOCUS 5: POLITICAL SYSTEM •• •• •• ••

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

German Post-Reunification Timeline National Identity and National Symbols: Flag and National Anthem The Bundestag and Germany’s Multiparty Political System Comparative Study of the Political Systems in the United States and Germany

FOCUS 6: ECONOMY •• •• •• •• ••

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

Transitioning from a Command to a Market Economy Social Market Economy: Workplace and Social Services The German Trade Fair: German Products Apprenticeship Program (Case Studies: Robert Bosch GmbH and Deutsche Bank AG) Eurozone

FOCUS 7: SUSTAINABILITY •• •• •• ••

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

The Dresden Elbe Valley: UNESCO World Heritage Site Status and Economic Decision Making Germany: A Model of Sustainability Greening Your School: Shades of Green SIEMENS: Leading the Way Toward a Low Carbon Economy

p. 12-33

p. 14 p. 18 p. 20 p. 26 p. 30 p. 34-59

p. 36 p. 42 p. 46 p. 50 p. 54 p. 58 p. 60-81

p. 62 p. 66 p. 70 p. 74 p. 78 p. 80 p. 82-105

p. 84 p. 88 p. 92 p. 100 p. 106-125

p. 108 p. 112 p. 116 p. 120 p. 126-147

p. 128 p. 130 p. 134 p. 138 p. 142 p. 148-171

p. 150 p. 154 p. 160 p. 164


INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE CONTENT STRUCTURE SUMMARY FOR EDUCATORS Dear Educator, The Transatlantic Outreach Program has orchestrated a ‘Grand Vision’ combing authors’ research and talents, on-site interviews, panelists’ critical advice, teachers’ and students’ feedback, and editors’ expertise. The TOP curriculum is designed to support educators and engage students! The program’s newest instructional guides, LET’S EXPLORE MODERN GERMANY for elementary classrooms and GERMANY IN FOCUS for secondary classrooms, are aligned with National Council for Social Studies Curriculum Standards and Common Core Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies. Embedded with elements from Understanding by Design and other models for curriculum, instruction, and assessment, Focus Areas and Lessons include instructional strategies for individual and collaborative learning, complex thinking skills, and literacy standards: reading, writing, researching, listening, speaking, and taking actions. Focus Areas include Geography, Culture and Society, History, Reunification, Political Systems, Economy, and Sustainability. A summary of the key instructional components featured in GERMANY IN FOCUS are as follows: •• Flexibility: Focus Areas and Lessons to enhance existing curriculum •• Standards: Lessons aligned with two types of standards: NCSS and Common Core History/Social Studies •• Focus Questions: Overarching questions that frame Focus Areas and Lessons •• Lesson Overviews: Descriptions of ‘Lessons in a Nutshell’ •• Anticipatory Sets: Engaging ‘Hooks’ to Set the Stage •• Teacher Background Information: In-depth research of challenging and interesting content •• Instructional Resource Disc: Resources to support teachers and students for each lesson •• Procedures: A variety of instructional strategies, performance tasks, activities, formative assessments for students as individual and collaborative learners •• Individual and Whole Group Reflections: Opportunities for students to reflect on their learning with Standards, Focus Questions, Procedures and Performance Tasks •• Modifications and Extensions: Rigorous standards and opportunities for each student to provide evidence of learning We are confident that the latest instructional guides from the Transatlantic Outreach Program will help you on your journey to create a classroom learning environment that can “span continents.” Should these materials inspire you to take a workshop leadership role, then we invite you to request a copy of the TOP Toolkit for professional development. For more information on leading TOP workshops and all-expenses-paid study tours to Germany, please visit the TOP website at www.goethe.de/top. Sincerely, Constance Manter & Jacqueline Littlefield TOP Toolkit Authorship Team


Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.1 GERMANY QUIZ Can you answer these questions about Germany? 1.

Which German states border on the North Sea?

2.

Where was Beethoven born?

3.

What is the center of the porcelain industry in the eastern states of Germany?

4.

In which state is the Black Forest located?

5.

Name the largest German lake.

6.

Which important river begins in the Black Forest?

7.

Name the highest mountain in Germany.

8.

Name a well-known industrial area in Germany.

9.

What four allied countries occupied Germany after WW2?

10.

Which large German seaport lies on the Elbe River?

11.

What is the northernmost state in Germany?

12.

What is the name of a famous forest in southwest Germany?

13.

What is the second largest city in Germany?

14.

In which direction does the Rhine flow?

15.

What is the capital of Bavaria?

16.

Where is the famous street Unter den Linden?

17.

In which part of Germany is Bavaria located?

18.

From what two valleys does Germany produce its most famous wines?

19.

In which direction is Poland in relation to Germany?

20.

In which state is the Neuschwanstein Castle located?

21.

In which city are Volkswagens manufactured?

22.

In which area of Germany are the Alps?

23.

What is the capital of Germany?

24.

Which city was divided into east and west by a wall?

25.

On which river is the Cologne cathedral situated?

26.

Where is Germany’s largest airport?

27.

In which city is the famous Oktoberfest held?

28.

What river flows into the North Sea by Bremerhaven?

29.

Which country lies directly north of Germany?

30.

What is the largest country bordering Germany to the west?

31.

On which river is the city of Frankfurt?

32.

In which direction is Frankfurt from Munich?

33.

In which direction is Bonn from Cologne?

34.

What sea borders on the western coast of Germany?

GERMANY IN FOCUS

A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

1.1.1 Germany Quiz

Handout


Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.1 Germany Quiz

1.1.1 GERMANY QUIZ Answers 1.

Which German states border on the North Sea? (Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony)

2.

Where was Beethoven born? (Bonn)

3.

What is the center of the porcelain industry in the eastern states of Germany? (Meißen)

4.

In which state is the Black Forest located? (Baden-Württemberg)

5.

Name the largest German lake. (Lake Muritz)

6.

Which important river begins in the Black Forest? (the Danube)

7.

Name the highest mountain in Germany. (the Zugspitze)

8.

Name a well-known industrial area in Germany. (the Ruhr District)

9.

What four allied countries occupied Germany after WW2? (United States, Great Britain, France, Soviet Union)

10.

Which large German seaport lies on the Elbe River? (Hamburg)

11.

What is the northernmost state in Germany? (Schleswig-Holstein)

12.

What is the name of a famous forest in southwest Germany? (the Black Forest)

13.

What is the second largest city in Germany? (Hamburg)

14.

In which direction does the Rhine flow? (from south to north)

15.

What is the capital of Bavaria? (Munich)

16.

Where is the famous street Unter den Linden? (Berlin)

17.

In which part of Germany is Bavaria located? (in the south)

18.

From what two valleys does Germany produce its most famous wines? (the Rhine and Mosel valleys)

19.

In which direction is Poland in relation to Germany? (east)

20.

In which state is the Neuschwanstein Castle located? (Bavaria)

21.

In which city are Volkswagens manufactured? (Wolfsburg)

22.

In which area of Germany are the Alps? (in the south)

23.

What is the capital of Germany? (Berlin)

24.

Which city was divided into east and west by a wall? (Berlin)

25.

On which river is the Köln cathedral situated? (Rhine)

26.

Where is Germany‘s largest airport? (Frankfurt am Main)

27.

In which city is the famous Oktoberfest held? (Munich)

28.

What river flows into the North Sea by Bremerhaven? (the Weser)

29.

Which country lies directly north of Germany? (Denmark)

30.

What is the largest country bordering Germany to the west? (France)

31.

On which river is the city of Frankfurt? (the Main or the Oder)

32.

In which direction is Frankfurt from Munich? (Frankfurt on Main is NW and Frankfurt on Oder is NE)

33.

In which direction is Bonn from Cologne? (in the south)

34.

What sea borders on the western coast of Germany? (the North Sea)

GERMANY IN FOCUS

A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

Handout


FOCUS 1 – Geography

1.1.2 Icebreaker activity

1.1.2 ICEBREAKER ACTIVITY FIND A DIFFERENT STUDENT IN THE CLASS WHO CAN ANSWER EACH QUESTION. HAVE THE STUDENT SIGN HER/HIS NAME AND WRITE THE ANSWER IN THE BOX.

In which state is Neuschwanstein Castle located?

Name a wellWhich important river known industrial area begins in the Black in Germany Forest?

Which city was divided into east and west by a wall?

What four allied countries occupied Germany after WW2?

On which river is the Cologne Cathedral situated?

In which city is the famous Oktoberfest held?

What sea borders on the western coast of Germany?

What is the capital of Germany?

GERMANY IN FOCUS

A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

HANDOUT


FOCUS 1 – Geography

1.1.2 Icebreaker activity

1.1.2 ICEBREAKER ACTIVITY ANSWERS

In which state is Neuschwanstein Castle located?

Name a wellWhich important river known industrial area begins in the Black in Germany Forest?

Bavaria

The Ruhr District

The Danube

Which city was divided into east and west by a wall?

What four allied countries occupied Germany after WW2?

On which river is the Cologne Cathedral situated?

Berlin

The United States, France,

The Rhine

Great Britain, Soviet Union

In which city is the famous Oktoberfest held?

What sea borders on the western coast of Germany?

What is the capital of Germany?

Munich

The North Sea

Berlin

GERMANY IN FOCUS

A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

HANDOUT


Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.3 Five Themes of Geography

1.1.3 Five Themes of Geography The five themes of geography were created in 1984 by the National Council for Geographic Education and the Association of American Geographers to facilitate and organize the teaching of geography in the K-12 classroom and still provide an effective organization of the teaching of geography.

1. Location Most geographic study begins with learning the location of places. Location can be absolute or relative. Absolute location provides a definite reference to locate a place, such as latitude and longitude. Relative location describes a place with respect to its environment and its connection to other places. 2. Place Place describes the human and physical characteristics of a location, such as its land and water forms or the culture of the people who live there. 3. Human-Environment Interaction This theme considers how humans adapt to and modify the environment. Humans shape the landscape through their interaction with the land; this has both positive and negative effects on the environment. 4. Movement Movement is the travel of people, goods, and ideas from one location to another. 5. Region Region divides the world into manageable units for geographic study. Region is an area on the earth’s surface that is defined by certain unifying characteristics. The unifying characteristics may be physical, human, or cultural. Geographers also study how a region changes over time.

Sources: National Council for Geographic Education; Association of American Geographers. (1984). Guidelines for Geographic Education, Elementary and Secondary Schools. Wording adapted from Lisa Key-Mathews, Department of Geography, University of North Alabama http://www.kyrene.org/cms/lib2/AZ01001083/Centricity/Domain/893/THE%20FIVE%20THEMES%20OF%20GEOGRAPHY.pdf

GERMANY IN FOCUS

A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

Handout


Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.4 outline map of germany

GERMANY IN FOCUS

A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

1.1.4 Outline Map of Germany

Handout


FOCUS 1 – Geography

1.1.5 German Land Tri-fold Brochure

1.1.5 GERMAN LAND TRI-FOLD BROCHURE The Federal Republic of Germany is divided into 16 states or Länder: Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, SchleswigHolstein, Thuringia. In this assignment, you will select one of these Länder and create a two-sided tri-fold brochure (8 ½ x 11 inches) in which you will apply the Five Themes of Geography: location, place, human-environment interaction, movement and region. Use the separate worksheet to gather the information which you need to design and implement this brochure. You may use online resources, such as CIA – The World Factbook (https:// www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/gm.html) or Facts about Germany (http://www.tatsachen-ueber-deutschland. de/en/home1.html) or the Official Portal of the Federal Republic of Germany (http://www. deutschland.de/en/state.html).

You are limited to the tri-fold which can be created in two different ways: The following website provides instructions on how to construct a tri-fold using Microsoft Word: https://office.microsoft.com/en-us/templates/

Be creative, but be accurate.

GERMANY IN FOCUS

A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

HANDOUT


1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 Support Documents Area and population – Live births and deaths

2009 Regional breakdown Live births

Deaths

Excess of

Excess of

births (+) or

births (+) or

deaths (-)

Live births

number Baden-Wuerttemberg Bayern

Deaths

per 1,000 inhabitants

deaths (-) 1)

89.678

97.556

-7.878

8,3

9,1

-0,7

103.710

122.494

-18.784

8,3

9,8

-1,5

Berlin

32.104

31.713

391

9,3

9,2

0,1

Brandenburg

18.537

27.309

-8.772

7,4

10,9

-3,5

5.481

7.655

-2.174

8,3

11,6

-3,3

Hamburg

16.779

17.188

-409

9,4

9,7

-0,2

Hessen

50.744

60.676

-9.932

8,4

10

-1,6

Mecklenburg-Western Pome-

13.014

18.342

-5.328

7,9

11,1

-3,2

62.228

85.673

-23.445

7,8

10,8

-3

Nordrhein-Westfalen

145.029

190.814

-45.785

8,1

10,7

-2,6

Rhineland-Palatinate

Bremen

rania Niedersachsen

1)

30.881

43.903

-13.022

7,7

10,9

-3,2

Saarland

6.927

12.588

-5.661

6,8

12,3

-5,5

Sachsen

34.093

50.365

-16.272

8,2

12,1

-3,9

Sachsen-Anhalt

17.144

30.480

-13.336

7,2

12,9

-5,6

Schleswig-Holstein

21.923

31.014

-9.091

7,7

11

-3,2

Thüringen

16.854

26.774

-9.920

7,5

11,9

-4,4

Germany

665.126

854.544

-189.418

8,1

10,4

-2,3

Note: Average population

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb01_jahrtab3.asp

GERMANY IN FOCUS

A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

Handout


1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) agriculture – harvested Quantities

2009 Harvested quantities of

Regional breakdown grain1)

potatoes

sugar beets1)

vegetables2)

fruits3)

must4)

Baden-Wuerttemberg

3.969

219

1.304

242

400

2.306

Bavaria

8.225

1.933

5.145

546

71

452

.

.

.

.

.

-

3.057

341

449

120

38

0

Bremen

.

.

-

.

.

-

Hamburg

.

.

.

15

45

-

Hessen

2.245

189

1.061

215

19

247

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

4.240

564

1.295

54

45

0

Lower Saxony

7.693

5.507

7.138

498

367

-

North Rhine-Westphalia

5.663

1.422

3.992

565

111

1

Rhineland-Palatinate

1.662

303

1.306

590

94

6.088

146

6

-

.

.

10

Saxony

2.805

306

975

65

122

10

Saxony-Anhalt

4.467

578

2.829

119

38

25

Schleswig-Holstein

2.784

222

476

363

30

-

Thuringia

2.759

92

592

43

52

.

Germany

49.748

11.683

25.919

3.443

1.434

9.139

Berlin Brandenburg

Saarland

1)

Länder results and result for Germany originating from different sources.

2)

Outdoor vegetables.

3)

Tree fruit and strawberries, market production.

4)

Results of Saxony-Anhalt incl. data for Thuringia

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb11_jahrtab21.asp

GERMANY IN FOCUS

A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

Handout


1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) agriculture – holdings, labour force, land use

2007 Agricultural

2008

including

Labor in

in holdings with

ecological holdings

1)

agriculture

agriculture

Number

2)

total

1.000

incl. arable

ecological

land

agriculture

1,000 ha

57.049

2.896

226,9

1.440,50

838,8

94,6

121.659

4.565

318,1

3.216,50

2.089,50

146,5

Berlin

1.275

38

5,3

24,7

8,8

1,6

Brandenburg

6.704

613

38

1.323,60

1.035,90

133,8

Bremen

1.275

38

5,3

24,7

8,8

1,6

Hamburg

1.275

38

5,3

24,7

8,8

1,6

22.355

1.415

69,5

774,7

481,8

61,1

5.432

693

28,1

1.353,50

1.081,50

120

Lower Saxony

49.917

1.152

168,2

2.615,40

1.885,50

74,8

North Rhine-Westphalia

47.511

1.257

144,6

1.502,60

1.066,50

48,9

Rhineland-Palatinate 2)

25.529

580

105,2

719,4

400,1

25,8

Saarland 2)

1.660

98

4,2

78,4

37,9

7,2

Saxony

8.313

300

41,4

914,1

720,6

32

Saxony-Anhalt

4.842

266

25,9

1.170,40

998,3

44,7

17.479

403

50

998,1

673,2

29,7

Thuringia

4.789

198

25,9

793,5

614

40,4

Germany

374.514

14.474

1.251,40

16.925,70

11.932,50

861,2

Bavaria

Hessen Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

Schleswig-Holstein

1)

Agriculturally used area1)

holdings with

Regional breakdown

Baden-Wuerttemberg

2007

Agricultural holdings with an agriculturally used area of 2 ha and over or with special crops or livestock, if minimum sizes stipulated are

reached or exceeded. 2)

Family labour and non-family labour working in the holding; in agricultural holdings with an agriculturally used area of 2 ha and over or

with special crops or livestock, if minimum sizes stipulated are reached or exceeded;results of the representative agricultural structure survey. Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb11_jahrtab20.asp

GERMANY IN FOCUS

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1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) agriculture – Livestock farming

3 NOV 2010 Regional breakdown

2009

Stock of cattle Stock of pigs

1)

2009

Milk-

Quantity slaughtered,

incl. dairy total

cows

production2)

total3)

Baden-Wuerttemberg

2.083

1.027

353

2.217

530

Bavaria

3.550

3.350

1.244

7.535

842

·

1

·

800

570

159

1.364

176

Bremen

·

10

4

·

69

Hamburg

·

6

1

·

1

Hessen

674

472

149

1.017

81

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

781

552

172

1.451

92

Lower Saxony

8.308

2.531

776

5.591

1.770

North Rhine-Westphalia

6.369

1.431

398

2.915

2.044

245

374

119

788

126

8

50

14

90

2

665

504

186

1.596

68

Saxony-Anhalt

1.113

343

123

1.059

311

Schleswig-Holstein

1.503

1.137

373

2.589

186

Thuringia

803

347

109

950

181

Germany

26.901

12.706

4.182

29.199

6.479

Berlin Brandenburg

Rhineland-Palatinate 2) Saarland 2) Saxony

1)

Germany, excluding the city states.

2)

Differences in totals due to rounding.

3)

From commercial and home slaughtering.

· = Nummerical value unknown or not to be disclosed. Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb11_jahrtab22.asp

GERMANY IN FOCUS

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Handout


1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) elections – bundestag elections

Bundesland

Persons

Voter

Valid

entitled

partici-

second

to vote

pation

votes

number

%

Valid votes obtained by CDU, CSU

1)

SPD

FDP

GRÜNE

DIE LINKE

Others

number 27.09.2009

Baden-Wuerttemberg

7.633.818

72,4

88.153

1.874.481 1.051.198 1.022.958

755.648

389.637

348.167

Bavaria

9.382.583

71,6

68.496

2.830.238 1.120.018

976.379

719.265

429.371

576.765

Berlin

2.471.665

70,9

29.434

393.180

348.082

198.516

299.535

348.661

135.431

Brandenburg

2.128.715

67

37.750

327.454

348.216

129.642

84.567

395.566

102.107

487.978

70,3

4.416

80.964

102.419

35.968

52.283

48.369

18.608

Hamburg

1.256.634

71,3

9.715

246.667

242.942

117.143

138.454

99.096

42.036

Hessen

4.398.919

73,8

67.070

1.022.822

812.721

527.432

381.948

271.455

161.193

1.400.298

63

14.909

287.481

143.607

85.203

47.841

251.536

51.599

6.112.110

73,3

49.738

1.471.530 1.297.940

588.401

475.742

380.373

218.625

13.288.291

71,4

104.438

3.111.478 2.678.956 1.394.554

945.831

789.814

468.779

3.103.878

72

40.419

767.487

520.990

364.673

211.971

205.180

122.828

808.554

73,7

11.327

179.289

144.464

69.427

39.550

123.880

28.257

Saxony

3.518.195

65

33.594

800.898

328.753

299.135

151.283

551.461

120.829

Saxony-Anhalt

2.028.572

60,5

24.049

362.311

202.850

124.247

61.734

389.456

62.074

Schleswig-Holstein

2.234.720

73,6

34.882

518.457

430.739

261.767

203.782

127.203

67.554

Thuringia

1.913.559

65,2

15.995

383.778

216.593

120.635

73.838

354.875

82.050

Germany

62.168.489

70,8

Bremen

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Lower Saxony North Rhine-Westphalia Rhineland-Palatinate Saarland

1)

634.385 14.658.515 9.990.488 6.316.080 4.643.272 5.155.933 2.606.902

CSU only in Bavaria.

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb03_jahrtabw1.asp

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1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) education – pupils at schools of general education

School year Regional breakdown

2008/2009

2009/2010

number

Change on the preceding year in %

Baden-Wuerttemberg

1.269.084

1.248.907

-1,6

Bavaria

1.431.280

1.413.080

-1,3

Berlin

327.830

325.559

-0,7

Brandenburg

218.412

215.827

-1,2

69.777

69.007

-1,1

Hamburg

182.222

183.053

0,5

Hessen

678.631

672.098

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

128.295

127.472

-0,6

Lower Saxony

954.410

940.622

-1,4

2.205.459

2.176.599

-1,3

Rhineland-Palatinate

469.174

460.014

-2

Saarland

105.600

100.444

-4,9

Saxony

304.331

304.027

-0,1

Saxony-Anhalt

176.469

173.799

-1,5

Schleswig-Holstein

330.299

324.107

-1,9

Thuringia

172.299

171.185

-0,6

Germany

9.023.572

8.905.800

-1,3

Bremen

North Rhine-Westphalia

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb04_jahrtab25sch.asp

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1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) education – pupils at vocational schools

School year Regional breakdown

2008/2009

2009/2010

number

Change on the preceding year in %

Baden-Wuerttemberg

418.547

420.704

0,5

Bavaria

398.226

398.586

0,1

Berlin

96.784

94.952

-1,9

Brandenburg

72.143

63.696

-11,7

Bremen

27.392

27.508

0,4

Hamburg

61.963

61.149

-1,3

194.871

194.965

0

58.140

51.546

-11,3

Lower Saxony

286.010

285.506

-0,2

North Rhine-Westphalia

620.703

622.660

0,3

Rhineland-Palatinate

132.833

132.420

-0,3

38.996

38.780

-0,6

148.974

137.205

-7,9

Saxony-Anhalt

74.810

68.094

-9

Schleswig-Holstein

96.512

98.396

2

Thuringia

79.036

72.604

-8,1

Germany

2.805.940

2.768.771

-1,3

Hessen Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

Saarland Saxony

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb04_jahrtab27sch.asp

GERMANY IN FOCUS

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1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) employment – labour market

20103) Regional breakdown

Unemployed

Unemployment rate1)

Reported vacancies2)

number

%

number

Baden-Wuerttemberg

273.151

4,9

51.546

Bavaria

299.610

4,5

50.629

Berlin

231.485

13,6

9.973

Brandenburg

149.186

11,1

8.588

Bremen

38.738

12

3.724

Hamburg

75.562

8,2

14.138

Hessen

198.790

6,4

30.821

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

109.945

12,7

6.637

Lower Saxony

299.596

7,5

35.298

North Rhine-Westphalia

780.970

8,7

74.263

Rhineland-Palatinate

120.071

5,7

17.048

37.889

7,5

4.284

Saxony

253.518

11,9

15.457

Saxony-Anhalt

151.495

12,5

8.323

Schleswig-Holstein

107.318

7,5

11.601

Thuringia

117.147

9,8

10.811

Germany

3.244.470

7,7

359.038

Saarland

1)

Unemployed in percent of the total civilian active population.

2)

Including the announced places of the central office for employment agency (ZAV).

3)

Annual averages.

Source: Federal Employment Agency (BA) Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb02_jahrtab13.asp

GERMANY IN FOCUS

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1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) area and population – foreign population

31 DEC 2009 Regional breakdown

Population

Foreign population total

% of total

Baden-Wuerttemberg

10.744.921

1.263.975

11,8

Bavaria

12.510.331

1.164.027

9,3

Berlin

3.442.675

473.209

13,7

Brandenburg

2.511.525

64.904

2,6

661.716

83.271

12,6

Hamburg

1.774.224

239.371

13,5

Hessen

6.061.951

672.623

11,1

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

1.651.216

38.337

2,3

Lower Saxony

7.928.815

522.676

6,6

17.872.763

1.868.770

10,5

Rhineland-Palatinate

4.012.675

306.453

7,6

Saarland

1.022.585

84.833

8,3

Saxony

4.168.732

114.076

2,7

Saxony-Anhalt

2.356.219

42.169

1,8

Schleswig-Holstein

2.832.027

144.602

5,1

Thuringia

2.249.882

47.623

2,1

Germany

81.802.257

7.130.919

8,7

Bremen

North Rhine-Westphalia

Source: Results of current population statistics. Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb01_jahrtab2.asp

GERMANY IN FOCUS

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1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) education – students

Winter term 2009/2010 1) Number of students (at) Regional breakdown

Specialised colleges Total

Universities 2)

Colleges of art and music

of higher education (Fachhochschulen) 3)

number Baden-Wuerttemberg

277.372

165.632

4.361

107.379

Bavaria

272.666

181.032

3.275

88.359

Berlin

139.534

97.770

4.720

37.044

Brandenburg

49.572

32.958

532

16.082

Bremen

30.880

18.167

790

11.923

Hamburg

75.457

47.100

1.594

26.763

184.482

122.281

1.593

60.608

38.843

27.248

548

11.047

Lower Saxony

144.608

99.960

2.515

42.133

North Rhine-Westphalia

508.501

359.665

5.805

143.031

Rhineland-Palatinate

110.079

75.132

0

34.947

23.071

15.631

684

6.756

109.213

76.464

2.841

29.908

Saxony-Anhalt

52.606

31.501

1.178

19.927

Schleswig-Holstein

50.079

29.437

963

19.679

Thuringia

52.522

35.525

897

16.100

Germany

2.119.485

1.415.503

32.296

671.686

Hessen Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

Saarland Saxony

1)

Preliminary results.

2)

Incl. colleges of education and of theology as well as comprehensive universities.

3)

Incl. colleges of public administration.

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb04_jahrtab50.asp

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1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) justice – finally convicted persons

2008 Regional breakdown

Total

Juveniles

Adolescents

Adults

number Baden-Wuerttemberg

117.838

9.341

12.409

96.088

Bavaria

133.476

10.393

13.622

109.461

Berlin

52.015

2.081

4.337

45.597

Brandenburg

28.718

1.543

2.695

24.480

9.258

247

498

8.513

Hamburg

23.009

1.049

1.669

20.291

Hessen

56.515

3.660

4.489

48.366

18.909

837

2.243

15.829

86.517

8.630

9.443

68.444

182.491

13.460

16.502

152.529

Rhineland-Palatinate

40.293

3.166

4.173

32.954

Saarland

12.548

970

1.116

10.462

Saxony

46.868

2.324

5.410

39.134

Saxony-Anhalt

23.504

1.612

2.922

18.970

Schleswig-Holstein

20.709

1.774

1.869

17.066

Thuringia

22.023

1.129

2.766

18.128

Germany

874.691

62.216

86.163

726.312

Bremen

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Lower Saxony North Rhine-Westphalia

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb07_jahrtab47.asp

GERMANY IN FOCUS

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1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) land use

31 DEC 2009 including Housing and transport area 1) Regional breakdown

including

Total area total

building and adjacent

agricultural

recreation transport

open area

area

area

sheet forest

of water

area km²

Baden-Wuerttemberg

35.751

5.030

2.700

301

1.951

16.388

13.682

384

Bavaria

70.550

7.919

4.026

376

3.368

34.935

24.709

1.441

892

626

368

102

136

39

163

60

29.482

2.699

1.351

197

1.068

14.538

10.474

1.003

Bremen

404

231

139

33

48

113

8

46

Hamburg

755

450

281

62

92

180

47

61

21.115

3.262

1.588

202

1.404

8.903

8.477

284

23.189

1.821

817

274

685

14.598

5.020

1.373

Lower Saxony

47.635

6.435

3.455

433

2.423

28.674

10.299

1.109

North Rhine-Westphalia

34.088

7.611

4.343

621

2.392

16.794

8.707

663

Rhineland-Palatinate 2)

19.854

2.821

1.171

337

1.234

8.325

8.324

272

2.570

528

316

25

160

1.120

864

26

Saxony

18.420

2.279

1.255

199

762

10.173

5.003

359

Saxony-Anhalt

20.449

2.249

897

521

777

12.669

4.954

440

Schleswig-Holstein

15.799

1.975

1.095

149

688

11.046

1.652

796

Thuringia

16.172

1.488

709

73

667

8.794

5.153

198

357.125

47.422

24.512

3.905

17.856

187.291

107.534

8.513

Berlin Brandenburg

Hessen Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

Saarland 2)

Deutschland Explanation of symbols 1)

The „built-up and traffic area“ is not identical with the „sealed areas“ as the former contains also non-built-up and unsealed areas.

2)

Including the common sovereign territory of Germany and Luxembourg.

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb09_jahrtabf1.asp GERMANY IN FOCUS

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1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) manufacturing and mining – enterprises

2008 Regional breakdown

Enterprises

Investments

number

EUR mn

1)

Baden-Wuerttemberg

7.080

12.346

Bavaria

5.863

13.597

Berlin

570

671

Brandenburg

701

1.012

Bremen

244

289

Hamburg

363

1.534

2.336

3.665

441

563

Lower Saxony

3.085

5.346

North Rhine-Westphalia

8.549

11.187

Rhineland-Palatinate

1.807

2.356

425

848

Saxony

2.344

2.572

Saxony-Anhalt

1.017

1.663

Schleswig-Holstein

1.065

930

Thuringia

1.430

1.452

Germany

37.320

60.032

Hessen Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

Saarland

1)

Results for enterprises, generally with 20 and more employees, incl. crafts.

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb12_jahrtab23.asp

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1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) area and population

31-Dec-09 Population2) Regional breakdown

Area

total

male

km²

per km²

number

35.751,45

10.744.921

5.285.946

5.458.975

301

Bavaria

70.549,97

12.510.331

6.136.004

6.374.327

177

891,54

3.442.675

1.686.256

1.756.419

3.861

29.481,95

2.511.525

1.244.101

1.267.424

85

Bremen

404,28

661.716

322.227

339.489

1.637

Hamburg

755,16

1.774.224

866.623

907.601

2.349

21.114,91

6.061.951

2.970.776

3.091.175

287

23.188,98

1.651.216

818.119

833.097

71

Lower Saxony

47.634,98

7.928.815

3.894.627

4.034.188

166

North Rhine-Westphalia

34.088,01

17.872.763

8.719.694

9.153.069

524

Rhineland-Palatinate 2)

19.853,58

4.012.675

1.970.665

2.042.010

202

2.568,66

1.022.585

497.605

524.980

398

Saxony

18.419,70

4.168.732

2.039.451

2.129.281

226

Saxony-Anhalt

20.448,86

2.356.219

1.153.749

1.202.470

115

Schleswig-Holstein

15.799,07

2.832.027

1.387.049

1.444.978

179

Thuringia

16.172,41

2.249.882

1.110.714

1.139.168

139

Germany

357.123,50

81.802.257

40.103.606

41.698.651

229

2.009

Germany

357.111,91

82.002.356

40.184.283

41.818.073

230

2008

Brandenburg

Hessen Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

Saarland 2)

Area in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate: Including the area »Gemeinsames deutsch-luxemburgisches Hoheitsgebiet« of 6.20 km². Varia-

tions in the area are possible due to rounding. 2)

female

Baden-Wuerttemberg

Berlin

1)

Inhabitants

1)

Results of current population statistics.

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb01_jahrtab1.asp GERMANY IN FOCUS

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Handout


1.1.6 Data Handout

Focus 1 – Geography

1.1.6 handout (Data) tourism

Jul-09 Regional breakdown

2009

Bed places offered

Arrivals

incl. visitors from abroad

Overnights

incl. visitors from abroad

Baden-Wuerttemberg

390

16.053

3.258

42.417

7.360

Bavaria

702

26.360

5.780

75.195

12.152

Berlin

108

8.263

2.881

18.872

7.458

Brandenburg

122

3.706

308

10.252

663

Bremen

11

912

196

1.639

391

Hamburg

43

4.368

806

8.190

1.655

Hessen

245

11.187

2.619

26.928

4.941

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

278

6.917

288

28.421

804

Lower Saxony

380

11.600

1.153

37.591

2.798

North Rhine-Westphalia

342

17.263

3.406

40.223

7.451

Rhineland-Palatinate

231

7.438

1.794

20.139

5.241

21

705

93

2.119

212

144

6.124

627

16.265

1.443

74

2.685

189

6.743

436

Schleswig-Holstein

256

5.850

597

24.319

1.277

Thuringia

107

3.407

227

9.424

542

Germany

3.456

132.838

24.220

368.737

54.824

Saarland Saxony Saxony-Anhalt

Source: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en/en_jb15_jahrtab32.asp

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1.1.7

FOCUS 1 – Geography

1.1.7

FOCUS 1 – Geography

GERMANY MAP ACTIVITY Specialty Maps Based on Data

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1.1.8 Histogramm

Focus 1 – Geography

HISTOGRAM GRAPH DIRECTIONS 1.

Use the website, http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/en, to find the statistics for the histogram. Write the topic of the statistics in Box A, and write its value in Box B.

2.

Complete the histogram by writing in the name for each of the sixteen German states (Länder) in the appropriate box.

3.

Use the completed histogram to determine 4 or 5 categories for the statistical data.

4.

Use the clickable German map from the Powerpoint (PC) or the Keynote (Mac) document to construct the Chloropleth map. Make sure the map has the following items: Title, Date, Source, Legend, and Border. The color scheme should be from dark to light of similar colors, e.g. dark blue to light blue.

Box A

Number of German States

10

5

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1.3.1

FOCUS 1 – Geography

1.3.1

FOCUS 1 – Geography

EUROPEAN UNION GERMANY: A FOUNDING MEMBER COUNTRY

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1.3.2 EU Growth Maps

Focus 1 – Geography

1.3.2 Eu Growth Maps Using a political map of Europe, locate the following nations that are members of the European Union. Use different colors to indicate the year each country joined the EU.

❏❏ Austria (1995)

❏❏ Germany (1951)

❏❏ Poland (2004)

❏❏ Belgium (1951)

❏❏ Greece (1981)

❏❏ Portugal (1986)

❏❏ Bulgaria (2007)

❏❏ Hungary (2004)

❏❏ Romania (2007)

❏❏ Cyprus (Greek) (2004)

❏❏ Ireland (1973)

❏❏ Slovakia (2004)

❏❏ Croatia (2013)

❏❏ Italy (1951)

❏❏ Slovenia (2004)

❏❏ Czech Republic (2004)

❏❏ Latvia (2004)

❏❏ Spain (1986)

❏❏ Denmark (1973)

❏❏ Lithuania (2004)

❏❏ Sweden (1995)

❏❏ Estonia (2004)

❏❏ Luxembourg (1951)

❏❏ United Kingdom (1973)

❏❏ Finland (1995)

❏❏ Malta (2004)

❏❏ France (1951)

❏❏ Netherlands (1951)

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1.3.2 Euro Growth Maps

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1.3.3 Venn Diagram: United States and Europe

Focus 1 – Geography

1.3.3 Venn Diagram: United States and Europe

United States

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1.3.4 Time Line Exit Ticket

1.3.4 TimeLine Exit Ticket Name: Directions: You have just viewed the EU PowerPoint. Now, place the following events in the order they occurred (1-15).

_ Lisbon Treaty _ European Coal and Steel Community _ Rome Treaty _ European Economic Community _ Denmark, UK, Ireland _ Greece, Spain, Portugal _ Removal of All Barriers to Trade Between Member States _ Abolish Check Points at the Border _ France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg _ Sweden, Finland, Austria _ Establishing a European Citizenship _ Estonia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Cyprus, Latvia, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Lithuania, Malta _ Croatia _ Romania and Bulgaria _ Introduction of the Euro

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1.3.4 Time Line Exit Ticket

1.3.4 TimeLine Exit Ticket Answers Directions: You have just viewed the EU PowerPoint. Now, place the following events in the order they occurred (1-15).

14 Lisbon Treaty 1 European Coal and Steel Community 3 Rome Treaty 4 European Economic Community 5 Denmark, UK, Ireland 6 Greece, Spain, Portugal 7 Removal of All Barriers to Trade Between Member States 8 Abolish Check Points at the Border 2 France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg 10 Sweden, Finland, Austria 9 Establishing a European Citizenship 12 Estonia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Cyprus, Latvia, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Lithuania, Malta 15 Croatia 13 Romania and Bulgaria 11 Introduction of the Euro

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1.3.5 Winston Churchill Speech

Focus 1 – Geography

1.3.5 Winston Churchill Speech Winston Churchill’s Zurich Speech 1946 Winston Churchill was an ardent supporter of a federal Europe. Read this excerpt from a speech he made in September 1946. Use your background knowledge as well as analysis of the document to answer the questions that follow:

“We must build a kind of United States of Europe.” “The structure of the United States of Europe, if well and truly built, will be such as to make the material strength of a single state less important. Small nations will count as much as large ones and gain their honor by their contribution to the common cause.”

Selections from Winston Churchill’s Zurich speech1

1. How did Winston Churchill feel about a united Europe?

2. How would a small state be able to be as important as a larger one?

3. What global event had just ended?

4. Why might these words be thought to have a strong link to the creation of the European Union?

Churchill, Winston. (September 19, 1946). The Tragedy of Europe. Zurich, Switzerland.

1

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1.3.6 Lisbon and Copenhagen

1.3.6 LISBON TREATY AND COPENHAGEN CRITERIA COPENHAGEN CRITERIA (1993)1

The European Union will assist accepted countries to adopt European Union laws and provide financial assistance to improve their infrastructure and economy. To become a European Union member, countries must fulfill economic and political conditions called the Copenhagen Criteria: • be a democratic nation, respect human rights, and show respect for and protection of minorities • have a functioning market economy and the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the European Union • adopt the common rules, standards, and policies of European Union law

Questions: Use your background knowledge as well as analysis of the document to answer the following questions. 1. What are the political and economic systems applying European Union members must fulfill?

2. What indicates that the European Union is not only interested in the prosperity of its citizens?

3. Why must the country have a strong executive branch?

4. Why would the US support this organization?

5. Why might the US be concerned about the strength of the European Union?

1

European Commission. (n.d.). Accession Criteria. Retrieved from European Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/

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1.3.6 Lisbon and Copenhagen

1.3.6 LISBON TREATY AND COPENHAGEN CRITERIA TREATY OF LISBON (2009)2

The Treaty of Lisbon is the international agreement that amends the two treaties — the Treaty on European Union (also known as the Maastricht Treaty) and the Treaty establishing the European Community (also known as the Treaty of Rome) — which comprise the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU). It provides the EU with the legal framework and tools necessary to meet future challenges and to respond to citizens‘ demands.

There are four main changes in the Treaty: 1. A more democratic and transparent Europe, with a strengthened role for the European Parliament and national parliaments, more opportunities for citizens to have  their voices heard and a clearer sense of who does what at European and national level. 2. A more efficient Europe, with simplified working methods and voting rules, streamlined and modern institutions for a European Union of 28 members. It establishes the function of President of the European Council and an improved ability to act in areas of major priority for today‘s Union, such as combating terrorism, studying climate change, etc. 3. A Europe of rights and values, freedom, solidarity and security, promoting the Union‘s values, introducing the Charter of Fundamental Rights into European primary law, providing for new solidarity mechanisms and ensuring better protection of European citizens. 4. Europe as an actor on the global stage by giving Europe a clear voice in relations with its partners worldwide. It harnesses Europe‘s economic, humanitarian, political and diplomatic strengths to promote European interests and values worldwide, while respecting the particular interests of the member states in international affairs. Activity: Research Germany’s response to each of these general provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon.

2

European Union. (n.d.). Treaty of Lisbon. Retrieved from Europa: http://europa.eu/

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1.4.1 German Military and International Peacekeeping

Focus 1 – Geography

1.4.1 German Military and Peacekeeping ArticleS THE New York TIMES

Letter From Europe In Germany, Few Voice the W Word By Judy Dempsey August 11, 2009 BERLIN — With just seven weeks to go before Germany’s federal

perceive themselves “as being in warlike situations. And I can com-

elections, one of the most controversial issues that has haunted

pletely understand that. I’m not a big fan of semantic exercises.”

Chancellor Angela Merkel’s government — Afghanistan — is no issue in this campaign.

Mr. Nachtwei said he could understand why the German government does not want to use the word “war.” After Hitler plunged Nazi

Even though opinion polls consistently show that a majority of Ger-

Germany into World War II, Germans have been brought up to op-

mans are against the war in Afghanistan, neither Mrs. Merkel’s con-

pose any kind of militarism. But some politicians, notably the former

servative Christian Democrats nor her coalition partners, the Social

Greens leader and foreign minister, Joschka Fischer, have said that

Democrats, have explained to the electorate why more than 4,000

Germany cannot remain pacifist if it wants a greater influence in in-

German soldiers must remain there.

ternational security affairs.

The German government has held no hearings on Afghanistan since

Then there are the legal implications about using the word: Waging

Germany first sent troops there seven years ago. “Neither the foreign

a war would not be compatible with the United Nations mandate

affairs committee nor the defense committee of the Parliament

under which NATO troops in the International Security Assistance

have ever held a hearing bringing in outside experts,” said Winfried

Force serve. “The mandate is about bringing security and not about

Nachtwei, a Greens legislator and a leading security expert. “I repea-

fighting,” Mr. Nachtwei said.

tedly proposed that we hold one, but the coalition would not agree,” said Mr. Nachtwei, who has visited Afghanistan many times.

This is despite the separate U.S. strategy, or “surge” against the Taliban in the south of Afghanistan, which is supported by NATO but

Neither the German government nor politicians use the word “war”

has little to do with the original terms of the U.N. mandate.

to describe what is happening in Afghanistan, even though over the past few months German troops in the northern region of Kun-

Above all, Germans do not see the conflict in Afghanistan as a war

duz, where the Taliban has recently taken root, have come under

in the classic interpretation of one country fighting another. “It is an

frequent fire from insurgents. The German word “Gefallen,” used to

asymmetric conflict in which using the word ‘war’ makes little sense,”

describe a soldier killed in battle, was used publicly this year for the

said a German Foreign Ministry official who spoke on condition of

first time since World War II — and not without controversy. Thirty-

anonymity, adding that using the word would provide legitimacy

five German soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan, far fewer than

to the Taliban.

U.S., British and Canadian fatalities. Nevertheless, the sight of military funerals has unsettled German society.

The failure to hold hearings is a different matter. Elke Hoff, a foreign affairs expert with the opposition Free Democrats, has criticized the

Defense Minister Franz Josef Jung recently said on German public

government for not explaining its strategy on Afghanistan. Yet Ms.

television that there was no war in Afghanistan. “If you are in a war,

Hoff shies away from the idea of holding hearings. “Maybe if the si-

you don’t build schools, you don’t take care of the water and energy

tuation escalated in Kunduz, a hearing might be needed,” she said,

supply, you don’t build kindergartens and hospitals and you don’t

acknowledging that by then it might be too late.

train the military and the police,” he said, naming some of the projects on which German troops are working.

Charles Grant, director of the independent Center for European Reform in London, said that if the German government did hold hea-

German soldiers in Afghanistan have a different view. Reinhold Rob-

rings, it would be confronted with evidence that would upset its

be, the German Parliament’s military commissioner, said the soldiers

view of the world.

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“Germans have this pacifist world view whereby most problems can be solved through dialogue, aid, compromise and not by force,” Mr. Grant said. Yet Germany’s attempts to train the Afghan police force ended in failure because of lack of funds, personnel and adequate planning. “There would be evidence in a hearing that development and civilian aid alone will not defeat the Taliban. Force would be necessary too. It is this idea of force that the Germans do not want to deal with or hear about,” he added. The upshot is that because involvement in Afghanistan is so unpopular among Germans, the government knows it would win no points in holding a hearing or making this military mission an issue in the campaign. The war in Iraq was a big issue in the U.S. presidential election last year. It was also one of the reasons why Tony Blair, the former British prime minister, fell out of popular favor. Yes those governments that have borne the brunt of the fighting, especially in the south of Afghanistan, have held comprehensive hearings about what is taking place there. This is despite the evergrowing unpopularity across Europe and Canada of the conflict in Afghanistan. The foreign and defense committees of the U.S., British, Canadian, Danish and Dutch governments have carried out many hearings, gathering evidence from military experts, nongovernmental organizations and journalists. Only last week, the Foreign Affairs Select Committee of the British House of Commons published a report on Britain’s role in Afghanistan that criticized the unwillingness of some NATO allies to do more, as well as the lack of coordination by the European Union. “Afghanistan is extremely crucial,” said Gisela Stuart, a Labour Party legislator and member of the committee. “In a way, I am very, very surprised that the German government has yet to hold a hearing. On the other hand, Afghanistan is such a poisoned chalice it would prove a real test for Berlin if it were to hold such a hearing because everything would come out,” she added. But surely Germany’s soldiers, who are risking their lives halfway around the world, as well as the Afghan people who are so often caught up in the fighting, deserve such a hearing? From The New York Times, 2010 ©2009 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited.

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1.4.1 German Military and International Peacekeeping

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Macleans

Germany Gets Tough In a break with the postwar past, German troops step into combat By Katie Engelhart August 27, 2009 It’s the “war” that no one calls by name. Instead, the German govern-

gical threshold has been crossed.” Until now, argues Markus Kaim

ment refers to its “stabilization mission” in northern Afghanistan.

of the German Institute for International and Security Affairs in

And the more than 4,000 German soldiers stationed there, preclu-

Berlin, Germans have operated in a “post-heroic” society, where

ded from using the word “attack,” will be careful only to speak of the

“soldierly values” and displays of military pride are scorned. There

“use of appropriate force.” Still, this guarded language—dubbed “an

have been “no photos of people standing on the street when fallen

aggravating semantic farce” by a leading German newspaper—is

soldiers return home,” he explains. Even plans to build a memorial

not enough to hide a simple fact: the mission that officials are too

for dead soldiers, he says, are controversial. But that is shifting, too.

abashed to call a war is starting to look like just that.

Last month, Chancellor Angela Merkel gave out the country’s first

The German government is officially rewriting its rules of enga-

bravery medals since 1945—to four soldiers who fought in Afgha-

gement in Afghanistan—allowing Bundeswehr forces to adopt a

nistan.

more offensive combat role. “The major change,” explains Christian

“Psychological threshold” aside, it’s clear the changes are, in part, a

Leuprecht, associate professor at the Royal Military College of Canada, “is that Germans no longer have to wait to be fired upon before they can fight back.” Until recently, German forces in Afghanistan could not operate offensively. They could not take pre-emptive measures to prevent assaults, or even pursue fleeing rebels. Effectively, they had to wait until they came under attack. Another change addresses verbal warnings that German troops had to issue before firing on enemies. “United Nations—stop, or I will fire” was the official call: to be used first in English, then Pashtu, and then Dari. Now, those rules have been changed to let soldiers return fire—and give warnings later.

result of shifting conditions on the ground. The German-patrolled north has traditionally seen less insurgent activity. But Leuprecht stresses that “the threat environment is changing.” Pressure from NATO forces in the south has pushed insurgents up. And foreign fighters are trickling in. The real spark may have been the deaths of three German soldiers in June that some argue could have been prevented—if soldiers had been allowed to take offensive action first. Now, in addition to giving troops more flexibility on the ground, the changes will relieve them of what some say is a constant fear of prosecution for violating a “caveat.” Already in May, charges against a German soldier who killed three Afghan civilians

The measures might seem paltry, but they signal a meaningful shift.

in 2008 when their car did not stop at a checkpoint were dropped.

After the Second World War, explains Leuprecht, there was “appre-

His lawyer says that’s a signal to troops that they shouldn’t be afraid

hension about Germans taking too aggressive a stance” in world

to defend themselves if need be.

affairs, and the Bundeswehr was limited to defensive operations. It was only in 1994 that the military was permitted to deploy troops abroad; and even then, only in multilateral, UN-backed non-combat operations. In the context of Afghanistan, this docility resulted in a series of national “caveats”: special limitations on Germany’s

For all the talk of a newly aggressive Germany, about 70 per cent of Germans oppose the war. But, says Leuprecht, while headlines decry the changes, the fact remains that for years NATO allies have accused Germany of passively “shirking responsibility” in Afghanistan’s

participation in the NATO-led mission. But as these are stripped

less hazardous north. Ultimately, Kaim thinks that the real change

away, Germany has begun to flex some military muscle. At the end

comes from a better understanding of the Afghan mission. Peo-

of July, officials announced that a major new offensive against the

ple thought we were “in Afghanistan to walk little girls to school,”

Taliban would be backed by over 300 German soldiers—their big-

he says, “but that’s not the UN mandate. The UN mandate is about

gest operation yet in the country.

providing security.” Seven years after starting the mission, he says,

The escalation marks Germany’s first military offensive since the Second World War—a benchmark that has not been overlooked.

politicians finally get it—although they’re unlikely to start using the word “war” in place of “stabilization mission.”

“Some are angry, while others seem almost fatalistic,” the newsma-

Engelhart, K. (2009, August 27). Germany Gets Tough. Retrieved

gazine Der Spiegel proclaimed. “But they all agree that a psycholo-

from Macleans: http://www.macleans.ca

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University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Beyond their Borders Beyond Their Borders: Military evolves to fill interventionist role By Katherine Harpster 2007 In some Cold War scenarios, World War III would begin as hordes

another 3 million were missing in action and presumed dead. Milli-

of Soviet tanks poured over West Germany’s eastern horizon like

ons of widows walked the streets dressed in black.

armor-plated cockroaches, their tracks churning emerald green fields to muck in their wake. At its inception in 1955, the Bundewehr – West Germany’s armed forces – had the single explicit role of holding back those tanks of buying time until U.S. and other NATO units could arrive to stem the tide of T- 72s. But in 1989, everything changed. The Soviet Union collapsed, and the Iron Curtain disintegrated. When the dust settled, the Bundeswehr realized that it had become an army without an enemy, it out a role, without a purpose.

“The hospitals were filled with the human debris of war: the sightless, armless, legless; the scarred, burned, and mutilated soldiers, the still-living human sacrifices to Hitler’s war making,” Hartrich wrote. Some historians call this time Stunde Null, or “zero hour.” Stunde Null represents the crippling psychological and physical damage that prevailed in Germany at the end of the war. It also represents an abrupt shift in the way Germans viewed the military’s place in society and the use of military force. The war’s terrible destruction, as well as the horrific atrocities some Wehrmacht units committed under the

The West Germans created an enigma in 1955. The Bundeswehr has

Nazi regime, fostered an abhorrence of military culture that became

struggled throughout its history to define its role in a society that

ingrained in the German psyche.

today is almost universally opposed to warfare after launching the two most catastrophic conflicts in world history. Now, because of pressure from its NATO allies and the desire to once again play a central role in the international community, Germany has decided to commit its military to missions outside the country. The Bundeswehr, forged in the crucible of the Cold War, faces the daunting task of transforming itself into a modern military force capable of fighting and keeping the peace in a range of foreign missions. With every step, the Bundeswehr must deal with the obstacles of its present – and the demons of its past – in its search for a purpose. When the fighting finally stopped in the summer of 1945, Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich and its vaunted war machine, the Wehrmacht, lay in ruins. Edwin Hartrich, who served as a soldier in the 44th Infantry Division in Germany and later worked as a consultant to German industrial firms, described the widespread devastation in post-war Germany in his 1980 book, The Fourth and Richest Reich. “The war had reduced German cities to dusty heaps of broken stone and brick rubble, desolate facades of gutted buildings: roofless, windowless, and without floors,” he wrote.

The conquering Allies played their own part in Stunde Null with their program of Three Ds: demilitarization, denazification and democratization. The first of these was arguably the easiest. Little was left of the Wehrmacht save a few captured tanks and field guns. The rest of the army littered Europe’s roads and fields with burnt-out hulks. From the beginning, however, the Allies knew Germany could not remain disarmed and neutral for long. In the early 1950s, with the Cold War beginning to heat up, Germany had to face the inevitability of rearmament. Konrad Adenauer, who took office as West Germany’s first chancellor in September 1949, was the first major political figure to push for West Germany’s rearmament after the war. Adenauer, Hartrich wrote, saw rearmament “as the instrument with which to free his country from the Allied occupation rule and to obtain almost complete political and economic freedom for the fledgling Republic.” War-weary Germans resisted any plans to rearm, however, and it was only in 1954 that Germany’s parliament authorized Adenauer to begin negotiations with the Allies. In October of that year, he signed the Treaty of Paris with representatives from the U.S., Britain

The human toll was even more devastating. More than 2 million

and France, ending the Allied occupation of West Germany and re-

German soldiers had died on battlefields that spanned the globe,

cognizing it as a sovereign state. West Germany became the 15th

from the deserts of North Africa to the hedgerows of northern

member of NATO, and Adenauer agreed to place the country’s full

France and the shattered streets of Stalingrad and Berlin. The Allies

support behind the defense of Western Europe against the Soviet

detained about 2.5 million soldiers in prisoner of war camps, and

Union.

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Edward Homze, a professor emeritus of modern Germany and the European military at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, studied for two years at the Free University of Berlin in the late 1950s. He spoke at length about Germany’s heated debate on the military’s place in society. “When the Germans decided to build their own army, they were badly split,” he said, adding that many Germans were afraid the

The term of conscription when Reimer joined was 15 months. “In [those] days conscription was enforced by very tough laws,” he said. “Everybody who was not going to serve in the armed forces had to undergo a very tough process of questioning.” Most of Reimer’s friends joined the Bundeswehr for this reason. “Most of them,” Reimer said, “served because they had to.”

Bundeswehr would become an elite, militaristic body similar to the

Most conscripts also decided to leave after their term. But Reimer

previous army. “How are you to weed out, in the case of the Ger-

stayed.

mans, this kind of authoritarianism that’s so inbred in any military “I’ve always been a patriot,” he said. “So I wanted to defend my coun-

organization?”

try, and where could I have done this – from the perspective of a When the parliament created the Bundeswehr in 1955, it built several

young man – better than being a member of the armed forces?”

key elements into the military’s framework that served to weave it into the fabric of society. These measures, along with strict politi-

During the past 30 years, Reimer has commanded platoons, compa-

cal control, were meant to keep the military from becoming a state

nies and a regiment, he said. His rise through the ranks gave him a

within a state that could grow powerful enough to guide foreign

better perspective on what the army needed to do to improve. He

policy as it had in the past.

saw problems he wanted to help solve.

The first of these elements is the concept of Innere Führung, or “mo-

“So I stayed, strived to get up the ladder, strived for positions with

ral leadership.” Innere Führung states that German law and values

more and more influence and tried to contribute to fixing things as

should guide a soldier’s actions while he is serving in the Bundes-

best as I could,” he said.

wehr. This mind-set is meant to create an environment in which German soldiers can think for themselves, thereby preventing the blind obedience to orders that led to so many atrocities during World War II.

German soldiers are “citizens in uniform” who have the same legal rights and responsibilities as any other member of society. Conscription, the final and most basic element of the framework, acts as the binding force between the armed forces and society. The universal male conscription system is meant to force participation in the military at all levels of society, again to prevent an elite military class from developing. West Germany called up its first pool of conscripts in 1956. Col. Hans Reimer, German liaison officer to the United States Joint Forces Command in Norfolk, Va., volunteered to serve in the German army in 1977 when he was 18. “I didn’t even think about anything else than joining the armed forces,” he wrote in an e-mail interview with a reporter. “I was ready to die for defending my country.” Both of Reimer’s grandfathers had served in the German infantry in World War I, and one later joined the air force. Reimer’s father joined the army at age 15 and served in World War II. He was severely injured fighting American troops on the Western front and taken as a

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le. When it laid the foundation for the German military, the German parliament was clear on a final, unequivocal point: The Bundeswehr was created as a defensive force only. Its purpose was to deter the

Closely related to Innere Führung is the ideal of Bürger in Uniform.

prisoner of war.

For Reimer and every other German soldier, their mission was simp-

Soviet Union, not to wage war. In 1989, that purpose evaporated into thin air. When communism collapsed in Eastern Europe, the Germans found themselves surrounded by friends. More than any other European military, the Bundeswehr had been geared toward fighting a static land battle against massive Soviet armored formations. The end of the Cold War prompted a new debate about the Bundeswehr’s purpose in a new global security environment. Maj. Alexander Bitter, an air force officer who works as a researcher for the German Institute for International and Security Affairs in Berlin, knows firsthand the difficulties the Bundeswehr has faced in defining its role. His dark brown eyes flashed as he described the military’s internal turmoil in the early 1990s. “We have [had] German soldiers in western Germany since 1955. They were here for saying ‘stop’ to the Russians,” he said, jabbing his index finger against the table with a thump. “But that was it.” Reimer also remembers the changed atmosphere in the German military after 1989. “Some didn’t know what was going to happen,” he said. “But most

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1.4.1 German Military and International Peacekeeping

Focus 1 – Geography

were bound into daily business.” The army’s first task was to integrate 88,000 soldiers from the East German National People’s Army into the Bundeswehr. The army’s ranks swelled to almost 530,000 but had to be reduced to about

legality of sending German troops abroad. The “out-of-area debate” focused on two articles in the German Basic Law that stated the military could be used only for defensive purposes or within a system of collective security like the U.N.

370,000 to comply with an agreement signed in 1990 by the four

In July 1994, the German Constitutional Court finally settled the

occupying powers and East and West Germany.

debate by ruling that the conservatives’ incremental approach was

“The National People’s Army was a force that recruited a lot of its personnel by conscription,” Reimer said. “So it was not that hard to reduce the numbers.” Reimer said the Bundeswehr initially offered no real incentives, such as a bonus or an offer for another job, for soldiers to leave the armed forces.

legal, provided that any Bundeswehr deployment receive a majority vote from the parliament. This effectively gave the CDU consent to continue its approach and made it legal to deploy the Bundeswehr on a variety of missions in the future. In March 1999, the German military launched its first combat mission. Four Tornado strike aircraft stationed at an airbase in Italy flew bombing missions against Serbian troops in Kosovo to prevent the

“On the other hand there was also no obligation to stay,” he said. “If

expulsion and oppression of the Muslim population there. The mis-

a member of the forces wanted to quit because of better chances

sion represented a new step in Germany’s acceptance of the use of

on the private market – only East Germans – he could simply apply,

military force. Then-Chancellor Gerhard Schröder justified the NATO

and it was approved.”

mission by saying that Germany had a moral obligation to lend its support and that “there was no other option open but to end the

In the early 1990s, some Germans believed the Bundeswehr’s role

murdering in Kosovo.”

should be expanded to include participation in NATO and U.N. missions outside the country. However, the 1991 Gulf War illustrated

Reimer served as an adviser to the commanding officer in a brigade

that Germany was still hesitant to use force, despite pressure from

headquarters during the Kosovo campaign.

its NATO allies to participate. Germany sent a handful of obsolete aircraft to Turkey and a few minesweepers to patrol the Persian Gulf after the fighting had stopped. The Gulf War, however, did convince some Germans in the conservative Christian Democratic Union party that Germany had to do more if it wanted to retain its credibility in the international community. In the years after the Gulf War, Germany embarked on a series

“I supervised the whole spectrum of tasks to be fulfilled in peacebuilding missions, like running a jail, supporting forensic research, hunting down indicted war criminals, you name it,” he said. Reimer also helped start an Albanian-language newspaper Days of Hope. He said the newspaper “opened the local population’s ears to our messages.”

of small, low-profile missions in an incremental approach to military

While the missions in Kosovo, Somalia, Yugoslavia and Cambodia

intervention. These small steps would set precedents and lay the

helped make Germans more accustomed to the use of military

groundwork for larger missions. Many Germans were convinced

force, they had revealed deep flaws within the Bundeswehr’s struc-

that, in the new security environment, Germany had both the me-

ture and way of thinking. The German military was a creature of the

ans and the responsibility to take a more active role in international

Cold War, and, as the 20th century came to a close, military planners

peacekeeping and humanitarian missions.

saw that the structure – and the very mentality – of the Bundeswehr

The first real step came in 1992. For the first time since 1945, German soldiers left their native soil; they entered a land emerging from ye-

would have to adapt to modern conflicts that varied in scope and intensity.

ars of civil war. But still, they did not go to fight. About 140 German

The Bundeswehr Transformation Center is a sprawling complex of

soldiers arrived in Cambodia in May 1992 as part of a U.N. peace-

white stucco buildings and gravel driveways planted among the

keeping mission. The Germans set up a field hospital to assist victims

pine trees a few miles east of Berlin. In an ironic twist, the complex

of the Khmer Rouge. One year later, the CDU-dominated parliament

once housed the East German military command, a subtle, everyday

committed 1,640 troops to a U.N. peacekeeping mission in Somalia

reminder to Capt. Friedhelm Stappen of how quickly the winds can

to provide food, water and protection from local warlords. In July

shift.

1992, Germany began participating in an arms embargo against Yugoslavia by providing airborne reconnaissance and control aircraft. The more liberal Social Democratic Party, however, disputed the

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“We are quite an example of how things have changed in Germany and in the world,” said Stappen, the center’s deputy commander. “Our outlook has changed completely, and our mission – the missi-

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on of the armed forces – has changed.” The Bundeswehr’s new role is to act as an interventionist force that can fight small regional conflicts, combat terrorism and stop or prevent civil wars, non-state violence and ethnic conflict. The Bundeswehr Transformation Center, founded in 2004, is a German Defense Ministry think tank responsible for planning and managing the transformation process in cooperation with other defense policy

Some critics within Germany suggest that the Bundeswehr’s current strategy is like trying to change a flat tire while still driving down the road. They argue that the Bundeswehr has taken on too many missions while trying to modernize its equipment at the same time, straining an already thin budget. Instead of investing in research and development of new weapons, it is funneling money into the maintenance of obsolete vehicles and equipment.

groups. It is working to make the Bundeswehr leaner and more le-

“Funding is always a big issue,” said Benjamin Schreer, another re-

thal, with each military branch working seamlessly with the others,

searcher at the German Institute for International and Security Af-

an elusive quality called “jointness.”

fairs. “The baseline is that there will not be a substantial increase in

In other words, its job is akin to changing a sumo wrestler into a

money to fund for arms or defense transformation.” A few ongoing defense programs illustrate the difficulties the Bun-

triathlete. Reimer said the most important change the Bundeswehr must make is in its mind-set.

deswehr faces in modernizing its equipment. The military needs communications systems, intelligence gathering equipment and precision-guided weapons, to name a few.

“You may have heard the phrase that there is just one thing harder

Schreer, who specializes in military transformation, said the army

than to get a new idea into people’s minds,” he said, “and that is to

has a particular shortage of armored fighting vehicles and armored

get an old idea out of it.”

personnel carriers for use in Afghanistan – where German troops

Bitter, the think-tank researcher, agreed and added that the Bundeswehr was not yet fully prepared for overseas missions. “We have kind of a mindset from the Cold War, and we try to change the structures to be more effective,” he said. “We don’t have the strategic airlift capacity, we don’t have weapons, we don’t have light armored trucks – and we are changing that.” Those structural changes cost money, however – lots of money. Indeed, funding has proved to be transformation’s greatest obstacle. Chronic under-funding has hamstrung the Bundeswehr since the mid-1990s, and the defense budget remains stagnant.

have been operating since shortly after Sept. 11, 2001 – largely because the army can’t afford new ones. “They are mostly outdated, or they are in too few numbers to be deployed on a larger scale,” Schreer said. “So at the moment, you see in Afghanistan some interesting developments with the army getting more armor on their vehicles, but it’s a very slow process.” Another problem area is strategic airlift capability, a vital requirement for any military that wants to reach crisis points quickly. According to the 2003 Johns Hopkins study, the U.S. has 250 heavy transport aircraft – its European allies have 11. To increase its airlift capacity, the German air force has ordered 60 Airbus A400 M heavy-

In 2003, Germany’s defense spending was about 1.5 percent of its

lift transports, the first of which should be delivered in 2010. Until

gross domestic product, compared to about 4 percent in the Uni-

then, the Bundeswehr continues to lease former Russian aircraft from

ted States. According to an October 2006 article in Deutsche Welle,

Ukraine.

Germany also spends less on its military than Norway, Holland or Finland.

“The European A400 M is still a long way to go,” Schreer said, “so that is a severe problem when looking at operations in Afghanistan

A 2003 report by the American Institute for Contemporary German

when there have already been instances in which the Bundeswehr

Studies at The Johns Hopkins University takes a close look at the

was unable to fly out their troops with their own aircraft.”

Bundeswehr’s transformation process, including the funding problem. According to the report, more than half of the Bundeswehr’s budget goes to salaries and benefits for its personnel while only about 13 percent goes to new equipment. The trend extends across Europe: “European nations spend far greater proportions of their defense budgets on personnel costs than does the United States

Bitter, at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs, described the prolonged development of the Eurofighter, the crown jewel of the air force’s modernization program. Bitter chuckled as he recalled several name changes required by delays in getting the fighter, whose development began in the 1980s.

and spend only about one fourth of their budgets on research and

“It was called Fighter ’90, then it was called Eurofighter 2000, and

development.”

now we call it Eurofighter because the 2000 felt so old,” he said.

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Bitter said the bill for the 180 Eurofighters the air force plans to buy

port stated that the Bundeswehr would assume a greater internati-

and for the A400 M program runs to about 20 billion Euros, or $26

onal role and would be capable of deploying 14,000 troops on five

billion. The Bundeswehr receives nearly 23 billion Euros a year in fun-

simultaneous missions.

ding, with much of that going to air force programs, a major point of contention within military circles. “The navy is in Lebanon, the army is all over the world, the air force is nearly nowhere and gets most of the money,” Bitter said. “So it will

Times had changed. Today, from the rugged hills of northern Afghanistan to the waters off Lebanon and the Horn of Africa, almost 10,000 German soldiers,

be a hard fight.”

sailors and airmen have been deployed on foreign missions.

The transformation process faces obstacles not only with money

In Afghanistan, 2,900 Bundeswehr soldiers are part of the NATO-led

and high-tech weaponry. The mindset of the soldiers themselves may be most important. Some argue that the process is paralyzed by bureaucratic infighting, a problem hardly unique to Germany.

International Security Assistance Force, which works to prevent Taliban or al-Qaida attacks on civilians. In 2004, German soldiers also helped administer the first presidential elections in the country’s history. Their mission in Afghanistan, however, has strained the de-

Homze, the UNL professor, said that like many large institutions, the

fense budget and raised questions about the quality of German sol-

Bundeswehr has become set in its ways.

diers’ training. In the fall of 2006, several pictures surfaced in German

“They kind of get used to certain things, doing things in a certain way,” he said. “It’s hard to restructure them.” Schreer, the German Institute for International and Security Affairs analyst, said much of the resistance to transformation comes from within the leadership of the individual branches of the military. “Particularly the army, at least until recently, had been very resistant to change,” he said.

newspapers of Bundeswehr soldiers posing with human skulls while on patrol near Kabul. The incident is reflective of the problems the German military faces in its new role. Debates continue on the effectiveness of the transformation process and whether Germany should even send troops to places like Afghanistan, where actual combat is more likely than in previous mission areas. The 2006 white paper also confirmed the Bundeswehr would keep

Planners say the transformation process will be mostly completed

the conscription system, which many analysts and military officials

by 2010, a date Schreer considers optimistic. “I wouldn’t be surprised

say has become obsolete.

if the deadline would be met two or three years later.”

Despite the fact that Germany’s democracy has been stable for de-

In 2001, the transformation process took a back seat to a new mis-

cades, many in Germany see conscription as sacrosanct, a vital safe-

sion. The terrorist attacks against the U.S. on Sept. 11 led Schröder

guard against the possibility of a nationalistic, authoritarian military.

to pledge his full support to the U.S., and German troops headed for Afghanistan soon after.

According to the 2003 Johns Hopkins policy report, conscription also “has provided a pool of low-paid workers for public service jobs

But relations between the U.S. and Germany soured in 2003 as the

by way of those draftees who choose civilian rather than military

Bush administration tried to gather support among its European al-

service.”

lies for an invasion of Iraq. Schröder refused to support the U.S.-led coalition because he felt Germans would not allow the country to

Many conscripts choose to don scrubs instead of camouflage fa-

play a part in a mission that lacked international backing.

tigues. Conscripts are allowed to opt out of military service and

In May 2003, Peter Struck, Germany’s defense minister under Schröder, revealed a new set of defense policy guidelines that would have been unimaginable a decade earlier. He said since Germany no longer faced a conventional threat, it had to protect “our security wherever it is in jeopardy.” In one oft-quoted statement, Struck said

work instead at hospitals, assisted-living centers and other health care facilities. The Bundeswehr screens out many other conscripts because of health problems. Schreer admits the military is struggling to attract the kind of people it needs to fill its professional ranks and that about half of military service.

Germany’s defense began at the Hindu Kush, a mountain range in

Joseph Cicmanec, a 24-year-old university student in Stuttgart, cho-

eastern Afghanistan.

se to take a civil service assignment instead of joining the army.

In October 2006, the German Defense Ministry released a defense

“I chose the civil service because I wanted to stay here and play soc-

policy white paper, the first of its kind since 1994. The 133-page re-

cer for my team,” he wrote in an e-mail.

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Cicmanec worked at a care center for the elderly where he cooked

military as a tool that can be used to solve many foreign policy pro-

and served meals for residents, took them shopping and accompa-

blems, including terrorism. The Germans see military force as a last

nied them on visits to the doctor.

resort.

“I was there to make their lives easier,” he said.

“In the United States, or in particular in certain elements of the U.S.

He added that one of his friends worked for the same agency, but most of his friends joined the army, despite the negative images of the military that many Germans still have. “Some of my friends think about the Bundeswehr that it is a waste of time,” Cicmanec said. When it began in 1956, conscription required each soldier to serve 12 months. Conscripts today have only nine-month service requirements, not enough time to receive effective training for modern warfare, according to the Johns Hopkins report. The report concludes that these conscripts “will be more of a nuisance than an asset.” Schreer said German soldiers go through a basic training program that is similar to those of other Western armies. After that, their specialized training depends on the type of unit they are assigned to or for which they volunteer.

Army, you have this war-fighting ethos,” Schreer said. “You don’t have that in Germany, likely due to historical experiences after the second world war.” Today, the German soldier serves as a peacekeeper and a humanitarian, not a war-fighter. The Bundeswehr’s current missions within the U.N. and NATO frameworks are a good fit for this philosophy, a senior German press official at the U.S. Embassy in Berlin said. “Germany is good at the type of reconstruction mission it is now undertaking in Afghanistan because Germans are good at organizing large projects,” the official said. “That’s what we do well. As for the fighting part, that’s not really for us.” Bitter, however, said future combat missions for the Bundeswehr are inevitable. NATO has already placed great pressure on Germany to send troops to the more volatile southern region of Afghanistan, where U.S. and British troops now play the largest role. German spe-

“Some of them go to highly complex units,” Schreer said, such as

cial forces units have already participated in some combat action

paratrooper detachments, for example. “Others are, you know – they

in the south, and the parliament has approved the deployment of

end up as a barkeeper.”

a number of Tornado reconnaissance aircraft to assist NATO forces there.

Eliminating conscription could finally ease the Bundeswehr’s budget constraints and free up money the military now spends on person-

“They will come. There is no doubt,” Bitter said, referring to future

nel costs. With an all-volunteer army, like those of the United States

combat missions. “But it is a process that the society has to deal with.

and many of its allies, the Bundeswehr could be more effective in its

It is a very slow process, and it is a change of mindset.”

new interventionist role.

Despite all the obstacles, the Bundeswehr’s transformation into a

Despite misgivings in some circles, Schreer said the number of out-

leaner, more flexible foreign policy tool has begun. The process will

of-area missions the Bundeswehr takes on will probably increase in

last until the end of the decade and cost billions of Euros and count-

the future, mainly because of Germany’s desire to boost its stature

less headaches and heartaches for German soldiers, politicians and

within the international community, especially within the U.N. and

civilians. Germany still wrestles with memories of its dark military

the European Union.

past, but it has learned to balance respect for those memories with responsibility in the international community. The Bundeswehr has

“If you want to be credible and fulfill that role, of course you have to

found a purpose, and after decades of soul-searching, the German

contribute more to international security,” he said, “and I think we are

armed forces have finally stepped back into the sun.

seeing an increase in the number of international operations.” Harpster, K. (2007). Beyond Their Borders: Military Evolves to Fill InterThe Bundeswehr’s story illustrates the fact that Germany views de-

ventionist Role. In Renovating the Republic: Unified Germany Confronts

fense policy far differently from the way the United States and many

its History. University of Nebraska at Lincoln.

of its European allies do. The Germans have rejected unilateral military action and adopted an ideal of “never on our own,” a mind-set demonstrated by the German refusal to participate in the U.S. war with Iraq. Trade, diplomacy and developmental aid – not just military force – are also important to German defense policy. The U.S. views its

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DER Spiegel

Civilian Service May 2010 The Twilight of the Civvies: Germany To Scale Back Mandatory Civilian Service By Candice Novak May 21, 2010 Angela Merkel’s cabinet moved this week to shorten the

the handicapped. But in recent years, the length of civilian service

country’s obligatory military conscription from nine months

has fallen -- the last cuts made in 2004 dropped service to just nine

down to six. But the move will also mean deep cuts to the civi-

months. The number of participants have declined too. In April,

lian service required of conscientious objectors that, over the

38,000 of the 111,000 civilian service posts across the country re-

years, has become a vital part of the German social safety net.

mained vacant.

Michael Sonntag may have a breathing tube taped to his throat, but

But the program is also costly for the government, with an estima-

he’s still a real talker. Most of the people in the Berlin facility for the

ted price tag of €631 million in 2010 alone. Around 85 percent of

handicapped where he is a resident have trouble speaking or can’t

that money goes towards the civvies’ pay -- a modest €10 per day

do so at all. But Sonntag takes up the slack, and these days he knows

-- and room and board. The government has slowly dismantled the

he is speaking on behalf of his fellow residents.

program over the years, and the latest cuts are expected to save

The man, in his fifties, has been thinking a lot about the news lately.

around €180 million.

The German government is pushing through legislation that would cut the length of the country’s Zivildienst, or civilian service, in a way that could have serious consequences for the residents of the St. Elisabeth Haus. For years, young men -- and some women -- fresh out of high school have helped out at the facility as civilian service workers. The cuts in the duration of time the “Zivis,” or “civvies,” as they are affectionately dubbed by Germans, will inevitably mean there will be less care provided to patients like Sonntag. It will also bring additional burdens for the professional staff and deprive patients of personal friendships with the civvies they have long cherished. “It is us who will have to live with it,” says Sonntag, who has been in the care of the St. Elisabeth House, a home run by Germany’s Catholic charity Caritas, in Berlin’s Lichtenrade district for the past decade. During those 10 years, dozens of civvies spent the better part of a year providing Sonntag and St. Elisabeth’s 47 other residents with care. Once the new rules are applied in July, though, the mandatory period will be reduced to six months. An Expensive Tradition

The new legislation is part of a deal forged between Chancellor Angela Merkel’s conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the business-friendly Free Democratic Party (FDP). In its election campaign, the FDP had pledged to eliminate conscription altogether and switch to a purely professional and volunteer military and civilian service program, noting that only seven European countries still have mandatory armed forces service. But Merkel’s conservatives want to maintain the tradition. Ultimately, the two parties reached a compromise -- and the amount of time spent in either the military or civilian service will be reduced to six months beginning in July. The deal, agreed by Merkel’s cabinet on Wednesday, also includes a provision allowing civvies to voluntarily extend their service by three to six months -- a decision the government estimates about one-third will make. “The civilian service program has been saved,” Family Minister Kristina Schröder of the CDU told SPIEGEL ONLINE. “The young men can extend their civilian service and civilian service locations will finally have the planning security they need.”

The civvies make up an important part of Germany’s cradle-tograve social safety net. As recently as a decade ago, as many as

But many see the decision as a weak compromise. Florian Bern-

130,000 young people participated in the program -- set up as an

schneider, the man responsible for civilian service policy in parlia-

alternative to obligatory military service for young men registered

ment for the FDP, argues the volunteer provision will result in milli-

as conscientious objectors and for female volunteers -- each year,

ons in extra costs for the government, “money that could be used

doing volunteer work for a stint of 13 months. They were posted

more sensibly elsewhere.” The change still requires the approval of

by the government in retirement homes, hospitals and facilities for

Germany’s parliament.

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Dwindling Government Support For institutions that rely on the good, cheap labor provided by the

Novak, C. (2010, May 21). The Twilight of the Civvies: Germany to Sca-

civilian service, each cut to the program is more painful than the

le Back Mandatory Civilian Service. Retrieved from Spiegel Online:

last. A growing number of organizations are simply withdrawing

http://www.spiegel.de/international

from the program.

From Der Spiegel, 2010 © 2010 Der Spiegel. All rights reserved. Used by

Take the Red Cross in the central German city of Fulda. At its peak,

permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States.

the organization had some 50 civvies who stayed for 20 months and

The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content

received professional training as paramedics, which could take up

without express written permission is prohibited.

to three months to complete. After several months, civvies could be seen driving ambulances to the scenes of accidents and treating heart attack victims. It was a mutually beneficial relationship -- the emergency workers got needed help and the civvies received valuable job training and could make a career out of it if they wanted. The few civvies still working with the Red Cross in the city today are relegated to more mundane tasks like transporting patients. But even that is expensive for the charity organization: Training civvies just to be emergency helpers with simpler tasks still requires at least two months and costs the Red Cross around €2,400. Germany’s social services organizations are at a loss over how they can continue to deliver the same level of service they have up until now without the generous civvie help. Some are tolling the death bell for civilian service. Rainer Hub of the German Protestant Church’s social services organization Diakonie, told SPIEGEL last year that plans to shorten the service period would be a “death blow” to modern German tradition. He said many organizations that currently place youths from the civilian service would stop doing so. For such a short time commitment, he said, the cost of training would be too great to make it worthwhile. An alternative to mandatory civilian service has also grown in popularity in recent years. In 2009, some 37,000 Germans served in the so-called voluntary social year program designed for people up to the age of 27. A study commissioned by the German Family Ministry concluded that the only thing curbing growth of the program is the number of placements available -- and that the current figure could triple if sufficient slots are created. For the institutions hosting volunteers, though, the program is costlier than the government’s more generously subsidized civilian service program. Institutions are expected to provide room and board, work clothing and around €150 a month in pocket money for the volunteers. Many social institutions are also turning to other alternatives, using low-paid, part-time workers -- often the long-term unemployed or young or old workers who are part of the full-time labor force -- who are participating in government-sponsored employment schemes.

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German Federal Ministry of Defense

Suspension of compulsory military Suspension of compulsory military service given the green light by the German Bundestag March 24, 2011 July 2011 will be a turning point in history: This is the day on which

Evaluation to take place after a year

the German Bundestag has decided that compulsory military ser-

The Minister said he was not going to be party to speculations on

vice will be officially suspended. On 24 March, the parliamentarians

how many volunteers would actually join the Bundeswehr in July.

adopted the draft act by a large majority.

“I welcome everyone who decides to enlist.“ At the same time, he

The Act Amending Military Law suspends conscription for basic military service as from 1 July and, at the same time, introduces voluntary military service. “Both are key elements on the way to realigning

announced that he was going to have the Act Amending Military Law evaluated with respect to its feasibility and social acceptance after a year.

the Bundeswehr,“ said Federal Minister of Defense Thomas de Mai-

The adoption of the Act Amending Military Law would abolish neit-

zière in a speech in the German Bundestag.

her the constitutional nor the non-constitutional basis of compul-

The Minister stated that Germany needed armed forces that were modern, efficient, effective, globally respected, anchored in the alliance and financially sustainable. In addition, they had to be ade-

sory military service as a whole. De Maizière said that this would also serve as a safeguard against potential changes in the security environment in the future.

quately prepared and flexible and capable of adapting to new chal-

Further decisions to be taken by June

lenges. In order to achieve this goal, Germany did not need a large

The Minister promised that decisions as to the further implemen-

number of military personnel, but a highly professional force.

tation of the Bundeswehr reform would be taken by June. They

No cause for rejoicing “Our suspension of compulsory military service gives me no cause for rejoicing today. It is a necessary step, but not one that makes me

concerned the number of military personnel, the capability profile and the Bundeswehr’s rough organizational structures as well as the Ministry and the civilian defense administration.

happy,“ said de Maizière. However, he said that there was no turning

Pauli, H. (2011, March 11). Suspension of Compuslory Military Service

back now: “Firstly, the security situation does not justify a conscript

Given the Green Light by the German Bundestag. Retrieved from Fede-

army any longer; secondly, it is not a military necessity any longer;

ral Ministry of Defence: http://www.bmvg.de

and thirdly, comprehensive equity in conscription would not be guaranteed any longer.“ Financial incentives are not everything The Minister advocated that women in particular should be recruited for the armed forces. “Those who render voluntary military service must be better off than those who don’t,“ the Minister went on to explain. The best and most capable people would have to be recruited for this new voluntary service. “Those who join the Bundeswehr purely for financial reasons may be just the ones we do not want around,“ he emphasized. “Soldiers must be assured that serving in the Bundeswehr is regarded as and respected for what it is: serving our society and serving our country honorably – a service they and our country are proud of.“

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Germany’s Combat Revival The Bundeswehr’s recent offensive in Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush mountains is too timid for Washington, yet too bold for many in Germany. By Elizabeth Pond 2009 Engelholm, Sweden — Today’s Germans have not yet fully reconciled their post-Hitler conscience with the use of military force for anything beyond narrow homeland defense. But Berlin has just tiptoed over another red line, in the Hindu Kush mountains. To be sure, Germany’s recent first use of heavy weapons and tanklike vehicles in a two-week offensive against insurgents will hardly satisfy the American hope for more German combat action in southern Afghanistan. Yet the new German assertiveness does augur a certain convergence. Just as Berlin is getting drawn into easing

Until now the Tajik northern sector has been far more peaceful than the Pashtun east and south, where US combat forces are concentrated. In their sector, the Germans could afford to focus on training Afghan troops and police on the one hand and building bridges and schools on the other (while taking fewer casualties than their American and British allies). But lately the Taliban have reinfiltrated the north and threaten to disrupt this month’s election there, too. That’s why 300 German Quick Reaction Force troops recently reinforced the anti-Taliban offensive of 1,000 Afghan soldiers and policemen around Kunduz.

national restrictions and letting its troops engage in American-style

This new Bundeswehr posture is still too timid for Washington’s

firefights to repulse Taliban intimidation of Afghan villagers, so is the

taste, but too bold for many German parliamentarians and voters.

Obama administration shifting American priorities toward German-

Left Bundestag members and a rising 69 percent of citizens now

style emphasis on local civilian development.

say they want German soldiers to withdraw from Afghanistan, fast.

After World War II the (West) Germans recoiled against Hitler’s vi-

Yet at heart, as the new US counterinsurgency doctrine of last De-

olent conquests and renounced possession of armed forces alto-

cember stresses, US-style war fighting and German-style develop-

gether. Only after a decade – and a fierce controversy – did they

ment are both essential. Mobile infantry sweeps can never win the

acquiesce in forming a new, democratic Army called the Bundes-

war if Afghan teenagers with no future prospects constantly replace

wehr. Legally they confined it to defense of NATO territory alone and

killed insurgents. And young Afghans can never imagine a peaceful

subordinated it to the Western alliance’s command.

future for themselves if the Taliban are not blocked from repeatedly

Even after the cold war ended in 1989 and Moscow withdrew the 20 Soviet divisions surrounding Berlin a thousand miles to the east – and the United States redefined NATO’s mission as global export of stability – the Germans moved gingerly. A few Bundeswehr medics joined international monitors in Cambodia in 1992; then rather more medics and soldiers went to Bosnia to set up clinics in 1994; then German troops joined the NATO-led peacekeeping forces in

blowing up those new schools and bridges. Surely, transatlantic convergence is called for. Reused with permission from the [August 7] issue of The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com. © [2009] The Christian Science Monitor. All rights reserved. For permissions, contact copyright@csmonitor.com.

Kosovo after the 1999 war there. Only after the provocation of 9/11 did Germans overcome their lingering aversion to participating in combat and send troops to an actual war zone outside the European homeland, dispatching special forces to fight alongside US troops in Afghanistan. Seven years later, the 4,300 German forces guarding the north Afghan sector constitute the third-largest foreign contingent in the country, after Britain’s 9,000 and America’s dominant 55,000.

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1.4.1 German Military and International Peacekeeping

Focus 1 – Geography

The New york times

As Past Recedes, Germans Reconsider the Draft By Michael Slackman August 30, 2010 BERLIN — For the first time in more than half a century, Germany’s

but was thrust onto the front burner on Monday by the popular

political leadership appears ready to end the draft, a post World War

defense minister, Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg, when he unveiled a

II mandate embedded in the Constitution to prevent this nation’s

plan to revamp the Bundeswehr, or armed forces. His plan called for

military from ever again developing into a state-within-a-state that

reducing the force size to 163,000 from about 250,000 today, stre-

could impede democracy and start war.

amlining the command structure, closing military bases and free-

The idea of the draft has become an anachronism in the post-cold-

zing conscription.

war world, where security concerns have shifted, demanding smal-

He pressed his case by saying the overhaul was necessary to save

ler, professional militaries to deal with hot spots around the world

money — about eight billion euros, or around $10 billion, in three

and to combat terrorist threats. Most of the West long ago aban-

years — and to deal with changing security demands. His rationale,

doned conscription.

if not all the details of his plan, was widely supported.

But Germany’s history and a deep attachment to the draft by the

But it was the concept of a draft as essential to preserving democra-

conservative parties have until now meant clinging to conscription,

cy that proved, for some, the hardest to let go.

even as it became largely symbolic. Few young men served, and those who did usually served just six months. The draft was instituted in 1956 to develop an army of so-called “citizens in uniform,” creating an armed force integrated with society, loyal to the civilian leadership and immune to the kind of elitist force that dominated state affairs during the years of the Weimar Republic and before. Germans today are less constrained by their past, motivated increasingly by their own perceived self-interest. The willingness to overhaul the military has been cast as another step in the normalization of the state. In ways large and small, Germans are increasingly comfortable in their own skin, waving flags and singing national

“The model of a ‘citizen in uniform’ should be kept,” wrote a conservative Christian Democrat and member of Parliament, Patricia Lips, on her blog. “Conscription is the important social link between Bundeswehr and society and it has proven that Bundeswehr is an army of democracy.” Chancellor Angela Merkel, also a Christian Democrat, appears ready to accept a political compromise on the subject, one that would preserve the legal requirement of conscription — to calm her own party members — but that would freeze the actual process. Experts said that a decision on the plan was expected by November.

anthems, gestures once seen as nationalist taboos. “Our coming to

“I wouldn’t have thought it would be so easy for them put it away,

terms with the past is nearly done,” said Hajo Funke, a professor of

but it looks like they will stop it,” said Richard Hilmer, managing di-

political science at Free University in Berlin, who said he supported

rector of Infratest dimap, one of Germany’s major polling firms. “It

moving to an all-volunteer military.

was part of German culture. There is a danger, if you have professio-

The Germany that was willing to exert its economic power and resist pressure to stimulate its economy during the financial crisis is the Germany that now appears ready to freeze the draft. “Drafting young men instead of having professional soldiers was a guarantee for a democratic army,” said Rainer Arnold of the opposition Social Democrats and the ranking member on the Defense Committee of the German Bundestag, or Parliament. “But today, almost nobody fears anymore that an army consisting largely of professional soldiers would extract itself from civilian control and pursue its own interests. But it took time to arrive at this trust.” The issue of overhauling the military has been discussed for years,

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nal only, you have a separate institution less integrated with German society.” The issue of the draft is an emotional one in any nation, but it is most fraught in Germany. After World War II, it appeared that Germany would never again have a military. That changed during the cold war. West Germany was admitted to NATO in 1954, and in 1956 it instituted the draft. In 1963, West Germany passed a law allowing all conscientious objectors to perform civil service, for example working in health care facilities instead of in the military. The Communist threat prompted most West Germans to continue to serve, but after unification, already thin public support for the

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draft plummeted, said Michael Wolffsohn, a professor of modern history at the University of the Bundeswehr in Munich. “The basic fact is that Germans have not yet come to terms, for obvious reasons, that they have to fight again in a war,” he said. “After all they have learned their lesson, so to speak, and they learned it correctly that using military force is basically and fundamentally wrong, given German history.” After unification, the state’s commitment to the draft became increasingly symbolic. By 2002 conscripts had to serve only nine months, and then in July, the length of service was cut to six months, a period that even supporters of the draft say is so short as to render it useless. “At present, unfortunately, the symptoms for a speedy abandonment are multiplying,” said Col. Ulrich Kirsch, who heads an organization representing soldiers’ interests and who supports preserving the draft. “This is certainly due to the fact that the model which is practiced at present is hardly viable after the shortening of the national service.” Indeed, some young Germans who were entering the draft induction center this week said they had no idea why the draft was instituted in the first place, and knew that it meant only giving up their time for something they were not really interested in doing. “We are strongly in favor of an all-volunteer army,” said Dennis Josten, 23, as he escorted his younger brother to the center. “It’s just a waste of time.” Over the years, the size of the force was cut about in half, so that only 17 percent of those eligible were even drafted, and in recent years many more conscripts chose civil service over military service. In 2009, the most recent year for which final statistics are available, 68,304 young men went into military service, while 90,555 served in health care facilities. Starving the system ultimately helped fuel the argument for abandoning it all together. “To have an army integrated in the society is very, very important, very important for us as Greens the same way as for Conservatives,” said Winfried Nachtwei, a security expert with the opposition Green Party. “But today, conscription isn’t accomplishing that. We have to get it in other ways.” From The New York Times, 2010 ©2010 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited.

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1.4.2 Basic Law

1.4.2 Basic Law Excerpt from the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany Article 12a [Compulsory military or alternative service] (1) Men who have attained the age of eighteen may be required to serve in the Armed Forces, in the Federal Border Police, or in a civil defense organization. (2) Any person who, on grounds of conscience, refuses to render military service involving the use of arms may be required to perform alternative service. The duration of alternative service shall not exceed that of military service. Details shall be regulated by a law, which shall not interfere with the freedom to make a decision in accordance with the dictates of conscience, and which shall also provide for the possibility of alternative service not connected with units of the Armed Forces or of the Federal Border Police. (3) Persons liable to compulsory military service who are not called upon to render service pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of this Article may, when a state of defense is in effect, be assigned by or pursuant to a law to employment involving civilian services for defense purposes, including the protection of the civilian population; they may be assigned to public employment only for the purpose of discharging police functions or such other sovereign functions of public administration as can be discharged only by persons employed in the public service. The employment contemplated by the first sentence of this paragraph may include services within the Armed Forces, in the provision of military supplies, or with public administrative authorities; assignments to employment connected with supplying and servicing the civilian population shall be permissible only to meet their basic requirements or to guarantee their safety. (4) If, during a state of defense, the need for civilian services in the civilian health system or in stationary military hospitals cannot be met on a voluntary basis, women between the ages of eighteen and fifty-five may be called upon to render such services by or pursuant to a law. Under no circumstances may they render service involving the use of arms. (5) Prior to the existence of a state of defense, assignments under paragraph (3) of this Article may be made only if the requirements of paragraph (1) of Article 80a are met. In preparation for the provision of services under paragraph (3) of this Article that demand special knowledge or skills, participation in training courses may be required by or pursuant to a law. In this case the first sentence of this paragraph shall not apply. (6) If, during a state of defense, the need for workers in the areas specified in the second sentence of paragraph (3) of this Article cannot be met on a voluntary basis, the right of German citizens to abandon their occupation or place of employment may be restricted by or pursuant to a law in order to meet this need. Prior to the existence of a state of defense, the first sentence of paragraph (5) of this Article shall apply mutatis mutandis. Deutscher Bundestag. (October 2010). Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. In C. Tomuschat, D. Currie, & D. Kommers (Translation), Basic Rights. German Bundestag, Public Relations Division.

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1.4.3 Germany gets tough

Focus 1 – Geography

1.4.3 Germany gets tough In a break with the postwar past, German troops step into combat By Katie Engelhart on Thursday, August 27, 2009 It’s the “war” that no one calls by name. Instead, the German govern-

gical threshold has been crossed.” Until now, argues Markus Kaim

ment refers to its “stabilization mission” in northern Afghanistan.

of the German Institute for International and Security Affairs in

And the more than 4,000 German soldiers stationed there, preclu-

Berlin, Germans have operated in a “post-heroic” society, where

ded from using the word “attack,” will be careful only to speak of the

“soldierly values” and displays of military pride are scorned. There

“use of appropriate force.” Still, this guarded language—dubbed “an

have been “no photos of people standing on the street when fallen

aggravating semantic farce” by a leading German newspaper—is

soldiers return home,” he explains. Even plans to build a memorial

not enough to hide a simple fact: the mission that officials are too

for dead soldiers, he says, are controversial. But that is shifting, too.

abashed to call a war is starting to look like just that.

Last month, Chancellor Angela Merkel gave out the country’s first

The German government is officially rewriting its rules of enga-

bravery medals since 1945—to four soldiers who fought in Afgha-

gement in Afghanistan—allowing Bundeswehr forces to adopt a

nistan.

more offensive combat role. “The major change,” explains Christian

“Psychological threshold” aside, it’s clear the changes are, in part, a

Leuprecht, associate professor at the Royal Military College of Canada, “is that Germans no longer have to wait to be fired upon before they can fight back.” Until recently, German forces in Afghanistan could not operate offensively. They could not take pre-emptive measures to prevent assaults, or even pursue fleeing rebels. Effectively, they had to wait until they came under attack. Another change addresses verbal warnings that German troops had to issue before firing on enemies. “United Nations—stop, or I will fire” was the official call: to be used first in English, then Pashtu, and then Dari. Now, those rules have been changed to let soldiers return fire—and give warnings later.

result of shifting conditions on the ground. The German-patrolled north has traditionally seen less insurgent activity. But Leuprecht stresses that “the threat environment is changing.” Pressure from NATO forces in the south has pushed insurgents up. And foreign fighters are trickling in. The real spark may have been the deaths of three German soldiers in June that some argue could have been prevented—if soldiers had been allowed to take offensive action first. Now, in addition to giving troops more flexibility on the ground, the changes will relieve them of what some say is a constant fear of prosecution for violating a “caveat.” Already in May, charges against a German soldier who killed three Afghan civilians

The measures might seem paltry, but they signal a meaningful shift.

in 2008 when their car did not stop at a checkpoint were dropped.

After the Second World War, explains Leuprecht, there was “appre-

His lawyer says that’s a signal to troops that they shouldn’t be afraid

hension about Germans taking too aggressive a stance” in world

to defend themselves if need be.

affairs, and the Bundeswehr was limited to defensive operations. It was only in 1994 that the military was permitted to deploy troops abroad; and even then, only in multilateral, UN-backed non-combat operations. In the context of Afghanistan, this docility resulted

For all the talk of a newly aggressive Germany, about 70 per cent of Germans oppose the war. But, says Leuprecht, while headlines decry the changes, the fact remains that for years NATO allies have ac-

in a series of national “caveats”: special limitations on Germany’s

cused Germany of passively “shirking responsibility” in Afghanistan’s

participation in the NATO-led mission. But as these are stripped

less hazardous north. Ultimately, Kaim thinks that the real change

away, Germany has begun to flex some military muscle. At the end

comes from a better understanding of the Afghan mission. Peo-

of July, officials announced that a major new offensive against the

ple thought we were “in Afghanistan to walk little girls to school,”

Taliban would be backed by over 300 German soldiers—their big-

he says, “but that’s not the UN mandate. The UN mandate is about

gest operation yet in the country.

providing security.” Seven years after starting the mission, he says,

The escalation marks Germany’s first military offensive since the Second World War—a benchmark that has not been overlooked.

politicians finally get it—although they’re unlikely to start using the word “war” in place of “stabilization mission.”

“Some are angry, while others seem almost fatalistic,” the newsma-

Engelhart, K. (2009, August 27). Germany Gets Tough. Retrieved

gazine Der Spiegel proclaimed. “But they all agree that a psycholo-

from Macleans: http://www.macleans.ca

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1.4.4 Beyond their Borders

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1.4.4 Beyond their Borders Beyond Their Borders: Military evolves to fill interventionist role Harpster, K. (2007). Beyond Their Borders: Military Evolves to Fill Interventionist Role. In Renovating the Republic: Unified Germany Confronts its History. University of Nebraska at Lincoln. In some Cold War scenarios, World War III would begin as hordes

detained about 2.5 million soldiers in prisoner of war camps, and

of Soviet tanks poured over West Germany’s eastern horizon like

another 3 million were missing in action and presumed dead. Milli-

armor-plated cockroaches, their tracks churning emerald green

ons of widows walked the streets dressed in black.

fields to muck in their wake. At its inception in 1955, the Bundewehr – West Germany’s armed forces – had the single explicit role of holding back those tanks of buying time until U.S. and other NATO units could arrive to stem the tide of T- 72s. But in 1989, everything changed. The Soviet Union collapsed, and the Iron Curtain disintegrated. When the dust settled, the Bundeswehr realized that it had become an army without an enemy, it out a role, without a purpose. The West Germans created an enigma in 1955. The Bundeswehr has struggled throughout its history to define its role in a society that today is almost universally opposed to warfare after launching the two most catastrophic conflicts in world history. Now, because of pressure from its NATO allies and the desire to once again play a

“The hospitals were filled with the human debris of war: the sightless, armless, legless; the scarred, burned, and mutilated soldiers, the still-living human sacrifices to Hitler’s war making,” Hartrich wrote. Some historians call this time Stunde Null, or “zero hour.” Stunde Null represents the crippling psychological and physical damage that prevailed in Germany at the end of the war. It also represents an abrupt shift in the way Germans viewed the military’s place in society and the use of military force. The war’s terrible destruction, as well as the horrific atrocities some Wehrmacht units committed under the Nazi regime, fostered an abhorrence of military culture that became ingrained in the German psyche.

central role in the international community, Germany has decided

The conquering Allies played their own part in Stunde Null with their

to commit its military to missions outside the country. The Bundes-

program of Three Ds: demilitarization, denazification and democra-

wehr, forged in the crucible of the Cold War, faces the daunting task

tization. The first of these was arguably the easiest. Little was left of

of transforming itself into a modern military force capable of figh-

the Wehrmacht save a few captured tanks and field guns. The rest

ting and keeping the peace in a range of foreign missions. With eve-

of the army littered Europe’s roads and fields with burnt-out hulks.

ry step, the Bundeswehr must deal with the obstacles of its present

From the beginning, however, the Allies knew Germany could not

– and the demons of its past – in its search for a purpose.

remain disarmed and neutral for long. In the early 1950s, with the

When the fighting finally stopped in the summer of 1945, Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich and its vaunted war machine, the Wehrmacht, lay

Cold War beginning to heat up, Germany had to face the inevitability of rearmament.

in ruins. Edwin Hartrich, who served as a soldier in the 44th Infantry

Konrad Adenauer, who took office as West Germany’s first chancel-

Division in Germany and later worked as a consultant to German

lor in September 1949, was the first major political figure to push

industrial firms, described the widespread devastation in post-war

for West Germany’s rearmament after the war. Adenauer, Hartrich

Germany in his 1980 book, The Fourth and Richest Reich.

wrote, saw rearmament “as the instrument with which to free his

“The war had reduced German cities to dusty heaps of broken stone and brick rubble, desolate facades of gutted buildings: roofless, windowless, and without floors,” he wrote. The human toll was even more devastating. More than 2 million German soldiers had died on battlefields that spanned the globe, from the deserts of North Africa to the hedgerows of northern France and the shattered streets of Stalingrad and Berlin. The Allies

GERMANY IN FOCUS

country from the Allied occupation rule and to obtain almost complete political and economic freedom for the fledgling Republic.” War-weary Germans resisted any plans to rearm, however, and it was only in 1954 that Germany’s parliament authorized Adenauer to begin negotiations with the Allies. In October of that year, he signed the Treaty of Paris with representatives from the U.S., Britain and France, ending the Allied occupation of West Germany and re-

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cognizing it as a sovereign state. West Germany became the 15th

Both of Reimer’s grandfathers had served in the German infantry in

member of NATO, and Adenauer agreed to place the country’s full

World War I, and one later joined the air force. Reimer’s father joi-

support behind the defense of Western Europe against the Soviet

ned the army at age 15 and served in World War II. He was severely

Union.

injured fighting American troops on the Western front and taken as

Edward Homze, a professor emeritus of modern Germany and the European military at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, studied for two years at the Free University of Berlin in the late 1950s. He spoke at length about Germany’s heated debate on the military’s place in society.

a prisoner of war. The term of conscription when Reimer joined was 15 months. “In [those] days conscription was enforced by very tough laws,” he said. “Everybody who was not going to serve in the armed forces had to undergo a very tough process of questioning.”

“When the Germans decided to build their own army, they were badly split,” he said, adding that many Germans were afraid the Bundeswehr would become an elite, militaristic body similar to the

Most of Reimer’s friends joined the Bundeswehr for this reason. “Most of them,” Reimer said, “served because they had to.”

previous army. “How are you to weed out, in the case of the Ger-

Most conscripts also decided to leave after their term. But Reimer

mans, this kind of authoritarianism that’s so inbred in any military

stayed.

organization?” “I’ve always been a patriot,” he said. “So I wanted to defend my counWhen the parliament created the Bundeswehr in 1955, it built seve-

try, and where could I have done this – from the perspective of a

ral key elements into the military’s framework that served to weave

young man – better than being a member of the armed forces?”

it into the fabric of society. These measures, along with strict political control, were meant to keep the military from becoming a state

During the past 30 years, Reimer has commanded platoons, com-

within a state that could grow powerful enough to guide foreign

panies and a regiment, he said. His rise through the ranks gave him

policy as it had in the past.

a better perspective on what the army needed to do to improve. He saw problems he wanted to help solve.

The first of these elements is the concept of Innere Führung, or “moral leadership.” Innere Führung states that German law and values

“So I stayed, strived to get up the ladder, strived for positions with

should guide a soldier’s actions while he is serving in the Bundes-

more and more influence and tried to contribute to fixing things as

wehr. This mind-set is meant to create an environment in which

best as I could,” he said.

German soldiers can think for themselves, thereby preventing the blind obedience to orders that led to so many atrocities during World War II.

For Reimer and every other German soldier, their mission was simple. When it laid the foundation for the German military, the German parliament was clear on a final, unequivocal point: The Bundeswehr

Closely related to Innere Führung is the ideal of Bürger in Uniform.

was created as a defensive force only. Its purpose was to deter the

German soldiers are “citizens in uniform” who have the same legal

Soviet Union, not to wage war.

rights and responsibilities as any other member of society. Conscription, the final and most basic element of the framework, acts as the binding force between the armed forces and society. The universal male conscription system is meant to force participation in the military at all levels of society, again to prevent an elite military class from developing. West Germany called up its first pool of conscripts in 1956. Col. Hans Reimer, German liaison officer to the United States Joint Forces Command in Norfolk, Va., volunteered to serve in the German army in 1977 when he was 18.

In 1989, that purpose evaporated into thin air. When communism collapsed in Eastern Europe, the Germans found themselves surrounded by friends. More than any other European military, the Bundeswehr had been geared toward fighting a static land battle against massive Soviet armored formations. The end of the Cold War prompted a new debate about the Bundeswehr’s purpose in a new global security environment. Maj. Alexander Bitter, an air force officer who works as a researcher for the German Institute for International and Security Affairs in Berlin, knows firsthand the difficulties the Bundeswehr has faced in

“I didn’t even think about anything else than joining the armed

defining its role. His dark brown eyes flashed as he described the

forces,” he wrote in an e-mail interview with a reporter. “I was ready

military’s internal turmoil in the early 1990s.

to die for defending my country.”

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“We have [had] German soldiers in western Germany since 1955.

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1.4.4 Beyond their Borders

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They were here for saying ‘stop’ to the Russians,” he said, jabbing his

of the Khmer Rouge. One year later, the CDU-dominated parliament

index finger against the table with a thump. “But that was it.”

committed 1,640 troops to a U.N. peacekeeping mission in Somalia

Reimer also remembers the changed atmosphere in the German military after 1989.

to provide food, water and protection from local warlords. In July 1992, Germany began participating in an arms embargo against Yugoslavia by providing airborne reconnaissance and control aircraft.

“Some didn’t know what was going to happen,” he said. “But most were bound into daily business.”

The more liberal Social Democratic Party, however, disputed the legality of sending German troops abroad. The “out-of-area debate”

The army’s first task was to integrate 88,000 soldiers from the East

focused on two articles in the German Basic Law that stated the mi-

German National People’s Army into the Bundeswehr. The army’s

litary could be used only for defensive purposes or within a system

ranks swelled to almost 530,000 but had to be reduced to about

of collective security like the U.N.

370,000 to comply with an agreement signed in 1990 by the four occupying powers and East and West Germany.

In July 1994, the German Constitutional Court finally settled the debate by ruling that the conservatives’ incremental approach was

“The National People’s Army was a force that recruited a lot of its

legal, provided that any Bundeswehr deployment receive a majority

personnel by conscription,” Reimer said. “So it was not that hard to

vote from the parliament. This effectively gave the CDU consent to

reduce the numbers.”

continue its approach and made it legal to deploy the Bundeswehr on a variety of missions in the future.

Reimer said the Bundeswehr initially offered no real incentives, such as a bonus or an offer for another job, for soldiers to leave the armed

In March 1999, the German military launched its first combat mis-

forces.

sion. Four Tornado strike aircraft stationed at an airbase in Italy flew bombing missions against Serbian troops in Kosovo to prevent the

“On the other hand there was also no obligation to stay,” he said. “If

expulsion and oppression of the Muslim population there. The mis-

a member of the forces wanted to quit because of better chances

sion represented a new step in Germany’s acceptance of the use of

on the private market – only East Germans – he could simply apply,

military force. Then-Chancellor Gerhard Schröder justified the NATO

and it was approved.”

mission by saying that Germany had a moral obligation to lend its

In the early 1990s, some Germans believed the Bundeswehr’s role should be expanded to include participation in NATO and U.N. mis-

support and that “there was no other option open but to end the murdering in Kosovo.”

sions outside the country. However, the 1991 Gulf War illustrated

Reimer served as an adviser to the commanding officer in a brigade

that Germany was still hesitant to use force, despite pressure from

headquarters during the Kosovo campaign.

its NATO allies to participate. Germany sent a handful of obsolete aircraft to Turkey and a few minesweepers to patrol the Persian Gulf

“I supervised the whole spectrum of tasks to be fulfilled in peace-

after the fighting had stopped.

building missions, like running a jail, supporting forensic research, hunting down indicted war criminals, you name it,” he said.

The Gulf War, however, did convince some Germans in the conservative Christian Democratic Union party that Germany had to do

Reimer also helped start an Albanian-language newspaper Days of

more if it wanted to retain its credibility in the international commu-

Hope. He said the newspaper “opened the local population’s ears to

nity. In the years after the Gulf War, Germany embarked on a series

our messages.”

of small, low-profile missions in an incremental approach to military intervention. These small steps would set precedents and lay the groundwork for larger missions. Many Germans were convinced that, in the new security environment, Germany had both the means and the responsibility to take a more active role in international peacekeeping and humanitarian missions.

While the missions in Kosovo, Somalia, Yugoslavia and Cambodia helped make Germans more accustomed to the use of military force, they had revealed deep flaws within the Bundeswehr’s structure and way of thinking. The German military was a creature of the Cold War, and, as the 20th century came to a close, military planners saw that the structure – and the very mentality – of the Bundeswehr

The first real step came in 1992. For the first time since 1945, German

would have to adapt to modern conflicts that varied in scope and

soldiers left their native soil; they entered a land emerging from ye-

intensity.

ars of civil war. But still, they did not go to fight. About 140 German soldiers arrived in Cambodia in May 1992 as part of a U.N. peacekeeping mission. The Germans set up a field hospital to assist victims

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The Bundeswehr Transformation Center is a sprawling complex of white stucco buildings and gravel driveways planted among the pine trees a few miles east of Berlin. In an ironic twist, the complex

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1.4.4 Beyond their Borders

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once housed the East German military command, a subtle, everyday

budget goes to salaries and benefits for its personnel while only

reminder to Capt. Friedhelm Stappen of how quickly the winds can

about 13 percent goes to new equipment. The trend extends across

shift.

Europe: “European nations spend far greater proportions of their

“We are quite an example of how things have changed in Germany and in the world,” said Stappen, the center’s deputy commander. “Our outlook has changed completely, and our mission – the mission of the armed forces – has changed.” The Bundeswehr’s new role is to act as an interventionist force that can fight small regional conflicts, combat terrorism and stop or prevent civil wars, non-state violence and ethnic conflict. The Bundeswehr Transformation Center, founded in 2004, is a German Defense Ministry think tank responsible for planning and managing the transformation process in cooperation with other defense policy

defense budgets on personnel costs than does the United States and spend only about one fourth of their budgets on research and development.” Some critics within Germany suggest that the Bundeswehr’s current strategy is like trying to change a flat tire while still driving down the road. They argue that the Bundeswehr has taken on too many missions while trying to modernize its equipment at the same time, straining an already thin budget. Instead of investing in research and development of new weapons, it is funneling money into the maintenance of obsolete vehicles and equipment.

groups. It is working to make the Bundeswehr leaner and more le-

“Funding is always a big issue,” said Benjamin Schreer, another re-

thal, with each military branch working seamlessly with the others,

searcher at the German Institute for International and Security Af-

an elusive quality called “jointness.”

fairs. “The baseline is that there will not be a substantial increase in

In other words, its job is akin to changing a sumo wrestler into a triathlete.

money to fund for arms or defense transformation.” A few ongoing defense programs illustrate the difficulties the Bun-

Reimer said the most important change the Bundeswehr must make is in its mind-set.

deswehr faces in modernizing its equipment. The military needs communications systems, intelligence gathering equipment and precision-guided weapons, to name a few.

“You may have heard the phrase that there is just one thing harder than to get a new idea into people’s minds,” he said, “and that is to get an old idea out of it.”

Schreer, who specializes in military transformation, said the army has a particular shortage of armored fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers for use in Afghanistan – where German troops

Bitter, the think-tank researcher, agreed and added that the Bundes-

have been operating since shortly after Sept. 11, 2001 – largely be-

wehr was not yet fully prepared for overseas missions.

cause the army can’t afford new ones.

“We have kind of a mindset from the Cold War, and we try to change

“They are mostly outdated, or they are in too few numbers to be de-

the structures to be more effective,” he said. “We don’t have the stra-

ployed on a larger scale,” Schreer said. “So at the moment, you see in

tegic airlift capacity, we don’t have weapons, we don’t have light

Afghanistan some interesting developments with the army getting

armored trucks – and we are changing that.”

more armor on their vehicles, but it’s a very slow process.”

Those structural changes cost money, however – lots of money. In-

Another problem area is strategic airlift capability, a vital require-

deed, funding has proved to be transformation’s greatest obstacle.

ment for any military that wants to reach crisis points quickly. Ac-

Chronic under-funding has hamstrung the Bundeswehr since the

cording to the 2003 Johns Hopkins study, the U.S. has 250 heavy

mid-1990s, and the defense budget remains stagnant.

transport aircraft – its European allies have 11. To increase its airlift capacity, the German air force has ordered 60 Airbus A400 M heavy-

In 2003, Germany’s defense spending was about 1.5 percent of its

lift transports, the first of which should be delivered in 2010. Until

gross domestic product, compared to about 4 percent in the Uni-

then, the Bundeswehr continues to lease former Russian aircraft from

ted States. According to an October 2006 article in Deutsche Welle,

Ukraine.

Germany also spends less on its military than Norway, Holland or “The European A400 M is still a long way to go,” Schreer said, “so

Finland.

that is a severe problem when looking at operations in Afghanistan A 2003 report by the American Institute for Contemporary German

when there have already been instances in which the Bundeswehr

Studies at The Johns Hopkins University takes a close look at the

was unable to fly out their troops with their own aircraft.”

Bundeswehr’s transformation process, including the funding problem. According to the report, more than half of the Bundeswehr’s

Bitter, at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs, described the prolonged development of the Eurofighter, the crown

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Focus 1 – Geography

jewel of the air force’s modernization program. Bitter chuckled as

no longer faced a conventional threat, it had to protect “our security

he recalled several name changes required by delays in getting the

wherever it is in jeopardy.” In one oft-quoted statement, Struck said

fighter, whose development began in the 1980s.

Germany’s defense began at the Hindu Kush, a mountain range in

“It was called Fighter ’90, then it was called Eurofighter 2000, and now we call it Eurofighter because the 2000 felt so old,” he said. Bitter said the bill for the 180 Eurofighters the air force plans to buy and for the A400 M program runs to about 20 billion Euros, or $26 billion. The Bundeswehr receives nearly 23 billion Euros a year in funding, with much of that going to air force programs, a major point

eastern Afghanistan. In October 2006, the German Defense Ministry released a defense policy white paper, the first of its kind since 1994. The 133-page report stated that the Bundeswehr would assume a greater international role and would be capable of deploying 14,000 troops on five simultaneous missions.

of contention within military circles.

Times had changed.

“The navy is in Lebanon, the army is all over the world, the air force

Today, from the rugged hills of northern Afghanistan to the waters

is nearly nowhere and gets most of the money,” Bitter said. “So it will

off Lebanon and the Horn of Africa, almost 10,000 German soldiers,

be a hard fight.”

sailors and airmen have been deployed on foreign missions.

The transformation process faces obstacles not only with money

In Afghanistan, 2,900 Bundeswehr soldiers are part of the NATO-led

and high-tech weaponry. The mindset of the soldiers themselves

International Security Assistance Force, which works to prevent Ta-

may be most important. Some argue that the process is paralyzed

liban or al-Qaida attacks on civilians. In 2004, German soldiers also

by bureaucratic infighting, a problem hardly unique to Germany.

helped administer the first presidential elections in the country’s

Homze, the UNL professor, said that like many large institutions, the Bundeswehr has become set in its ways.

history. Their mission in Afghanistan, however, has strained the defense budget and raised questions about the quality of German soldiers’ training. In the fall of 2006, several pictures surfaced in German

“They kind of get used to certain things, doing things in a certain

newspapers of Bundeswehr soldiers posing with human skulls while

way,” he said. “It’s hard to restructure them.”

on patrol near Kabul.

Schreer, the German Institute for International and Security Affairs

The incident is reflective of the problems the German military faces

analyst, said much of the resistance to transformation comes from

in its new role. Debates continue on the effectiveness of the trans-

within the leadership of the individual branches of the military.

formation process and whether Germany should even send troops to places like Afghanistan, where actual combat is more likely than

“Particularly the army, at least until recently, had been very resistant

in previous mission areas.

to change,” he said. The 2006 white paper also confirmed the Bundeswehr would keep Planners say the transformation process will be mostly completed

the conscription system, which many analysts and military officials

by 2010, a date Schreer considers optimistic. “I wouldn’t be surprised

say has become obsolete.

if the deadline would be met two or three years later.” Despite the fact that Germany’s democracy has been stable for deIn 2001, the transformation process took a back seat to a new mis-

cades, many in Germany see conscription as sacrosanct, a vital safe-

sion. The terrorist attacks against the U.S. on Sept. 11 led Schröder

guard against the possibility of a nationalistic, authoritarian military.

to pledge his full support to the U.S., and German troops headed for Afghanistan soon after.

According to the 2003 Johns Hopkins policy report, conscription also “has provided a pool of low-paid workers for public service jobs

But relations between the U.S. and Germany soured in 2003 as the

by way of those draftees who choose civilian rather than military

Bush administration tried to gather support among its European al-

service.”

lies for an invasion of Iraq. Schröder refused to support the U.S.-led coalition because he felt Germans would not allow the country to

Many conscripts choose to don scrubs instead of camouflage fa-

play a part in a mission that lacked international backing.

tigues. Conscripts are allowed to opt out of military service and work instead at hospitals, assisted-living centers and other health

In May 2003, Peter Struck, Germany’s defense minister under Schrö-

care facilities. The Bundeswehr screens out many other conscripts

der, revealed a new set of defense policy guidelines that would

because of health problems. Schreer admits the military is strugg-

have been unimaginable a decade earlier. He said since Germany

ling to attract the kind of people it needs to fill its professional ranks

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and that about half of military service. Joseph Cicmanec, a 24-year-old university student in Stuttgart, chose to take a civil service assignment instead of joining the army. “I chose the civil service because I wanted to stay here and play soccer for my team,” he wrote in an e-mail.

of its European allies do. The Germans have rejected unilateral military action and adopted an ideal of “never on our own,” a mind-set demonstrated by the German refusal to participate in the U.S. war with Iraq. Trade, diplomacy and developmental aid – not just military force – are also important to German defense policy. The U.S. views its

Cicmanec worked at a care center for the elderly where he cooked

military as a tool that can be used to solve many foreign policy pro-

and served meals for residents, took them shopping and accompa-

blems, including terrorism. The Germans see military force as a last

nied them on visits to the doctor.

resort.

“I was there to make their lives easier,” he said.

“In the United States, or in particular in certain elements of the U.S. Army, you have this war-fighting ethos,” Schreer said. “You don’t have

He added that one of his friends worked for the same agency, but

that in Germany, likely due to historical experiences after the second

most of his friends joined the army, despite the negative images of

world war.”

the military that many Germans still have. Today, the German soldier serves as a peacekeeper and a humanita“Some of my friends think about the Bundeswehr that it is a waste of

rian, not a war-fighter. The Bundeswehr’s current missions within the

time,” Cicmanec said.

U.N. and NATO frameworks are a good fit for this philosophy, a senior

When it began in 1956, conscription required each soldier to serve

German press official at the U.S. Embassy in Berlin said.

12 months. Conscripts today have only nine-month service requi-

“Germany is good at the type of reconstruction mission it is now un-

rements, not enough time to receive effective training for modern

dertaking in Afghanistan because Germans are good at organizing

warfare, according to the Johns Hopkins report. The report conclu-

large projects,” the official said. “That’s what we do well. As for the

des that these conscripts “will be more of a nuisance than an asset.”

fighting part, that’s not really for us.”

Schreer said German soldiers go through a basic training program

Bitter, however, said future combat missions for the Bundeswehr are

that is similar to those of other Western armies. After that, their spe-

inevitable. NATO has already placed great pressure on Germany to

cialized training depends on the type of unit they are assigned to or

send troops to the more volatile southern region of Afghanistan,

for which they volunteer.

where U.S. and British troops now play the largest role. German spe-

“Some of them go to highly complex units,” Schreer said, such as paratrooper detachments, for example. “Others are, you know – they end up as a barkeeper.” Eliminating conscription could finally ease the Bundeswehr’s budget constraints and free up money the military now spends on personnel costs. With an all-volunteer army, like those of the United States and many of its allies, the Bundeswehr could be more effective in its new interventionist role. Despite misgivings in some circles, Schreer said the number of outof-area missions the Bundeswehr takes on will probably increase in the future, mainly because of Germany’s desire to boost its stature within the international community, especially within the U.N. and the European Union.

cial forces units have already participated in some combat action in the south, and the parliament has approved the deployment of a number of Tornado reconnaissance aircraft to assist NATO forces there. “They will come. There is no doubt,” Bitter said, referring to future combat missions. “But it is a process that the society has to deal with. It is a very slow process, and it is a change of mindset.” Despite all the obstacles, the Bundeswehr’s transformation into a leaner, more flexible foreign policy tool has begun. The process will last until the end of the decade and cost billions of Euros and countless headaches and heartaches for German soldiers, politicians and civilians. Germany still wrestles with memories of its dark military past, but it has learned to balance respect for those memories with responsibility in the international community. The Bundeswehr has

“If you want to be credible and fulfill that role, of course you have to

found a purpose, and after decades of soul-searching, the German

contribute more to international security,” he said, “and I think we are

armed forces have finally stepped back into the sun.

seeing an increase in the number of international operations.” The Bundeswehr’s story illustrates the fact that Germany views defense policy far differently from the way the United States and many

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1.4.5 Civilian Service May 2010 The Twilight of the Civvies: Germany To Scale Back Mandatory Civilian Service 05/21/2010 By Candice Novak

Angela Merkel’s cabinet moved this week to shorten the

the handicapped. But in recent years, the length of civilian service

country’s obligatory military conscription from nine months

has fallen -- the last cuts made in 2004 dropped service to just nine

down to six. But the move will also mean deep cuts to the civi-

months. The number of participants have declined too. In April,

lian service required of conscientious objectors that, over the

38,000 of the 111,000 civilian service posts across the country re-

years, has become a vital part of the German social safety net.

mained vacant.

Michael Sonntag may have a breathing tube taped to his throat, but

But the program is also costly for the government, with an estima-

he’s still a real talker. Most of the people in the Berlin facility for the

ted price tag of €631 million in 2010 alone. Around 85 percent of

handicapped where he is a resident have trouble speaking or can’t

that money goes towards the civvies’ pay -- a modest €10 per day

do so at all. But Sonntag takes up the slack, and these days he knows

-- and room and board. The government has slowly dismantled the

he is speaking on behalf of his fellow residents.

program over the years, and the latest cuts are expected to save

The man, in his fifties, has been thinking a lot about the news lately.

around €180 million.

The German government is pushing through legislation that would cut the length of the country’s Zivildienst, or civilian service, in a way that could have serious consequences for the residents of the St. Elisabeth Haus. For years, young men -- and some women -- fresh out of high school have helped out at the facility as civilian service workers. The cuts in the duration of time the “Zivis,” or “civvies,” as they are affectionately dubbed by Germans, will inevitably mean there will be less care provided to patients like Sonntag. It will also bring additional burdens for the professional staff and deprive patients of personal friendships with the civvies they have long cherished. “It is us who will have to live with it,” says Sonntag, who has been in the care of the St. Elisabeth House, a home run by Germany’s Catholic charity Caritas, in Berlin’s Lichtenrade district for the past decade. During those 10 years, dozens of civvies spent the better part of a year providing Sonntag and St. Elisabeth’s 47 other residents with care. Once the new rules are applied in July, though, the mandatory period will be reduced to six months. An Expensive Tradition

The new legislation is part of a deal forged between Chancellor Angela Merkel’s conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the business-friendly Free Democratic Party (FDP). In its election campaign, the FDP had pledged to eliminate conscription altogether and switch to a purely professional and volunteer military and civilian service program, noting that only seven European countries still have mandatory armed forces service. But Merkel’s conservatives want to maintain the tradition. Ultimately, the two parties reached a compromise -- and the amount of time spent in either the military or civilian service will be reduced to six months beginning in July. The deal, agreed by Merkel’s cabinet on Wednesday, also includes a provision allowing civvies to voluntarily extend their service by three to six months -- a decision the government estimates about one-third will make. “The civilian service program has been saved,” Family Minister Kristina Schröder of the CDU told SPIEGEL ONLINE. “The young men can extend their civilian service and civilian service locations will finally have the planning security they need.”

The civvies make up an important part of Germany’s cradle-tograve social safety net. As recently as a decade ago, as many as

But many see the decision as a weak compromise. Florian Bern-

130,000 young people participated in the program -- set up as an

schneider, the man responsible for civilian service policy in parlia-

alternative to obligatory military service for young men registered

ment for the FDP, argues the volunteer provision will result in milli-

as conscientious objectors and for female volunteers -- each year,

ons in extra costs for the government, “money that could be used

doing volunteer work for a stint of 13 months. They were posted

more sensibly elsewhere.” The change still requires the approval of

by the government in retirement homes, hospitals and facilities for

Germany’s parliament.

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1.4.5 Civilian Service May 2010

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Dwindling Government Support For institutions that rely on the good, cheap labor provided by the

Novak, C. (2010, May 21). The Twilight of the Civvies: Germany to Sca-

civilian service, each cut to the program is more painful than the

le Back Mandatory Civilian Service. Retrieved from Spiegel Online:

last. A growing number of organizations are simply withdrawing

http://www.spiegel.de/international

from the program.

© SPIEGEL ONLINE 2010

Take the Red Cross in the central German city of Fulda. At its peak,

All Rights Reserved

the organization had some 50 civvies who stayed for 20 months and received professional training as paramedics, which could take up to three months to complete. After several months, civvies could be seen driving ambulances to the scenes of accidents and treating heart attack victims. It was a mutually beneficial relationship -- the emergency workers got needed help and the civvies received valuable job training and could make a career out of it if they wanted. The few civvies still working with the Red Cross in the city today are relegated to more mundane tasks like transporting patients. But even that is expensive for the charity organization: Training civvies just to be emergency helpers with simpler tasks still requires at least two months and costs the Red Cross around €2,400. Germany’s social services organizations are at a loss over how they can continue to deliver the same level of service they have up until now without the generous civvie help. Some are tolling the death bell for civilian service. Rainer Hub of the German Protestant Church’s social services organization Diakonie, told SPIEGEL last year that plans to shorten the service period would be a “death blow” to modern German tradition. He said many organizations that currently place youths from the civilian service would stop doing so. For such a short time commitment, he said, the cost of training would be too great to make it worthwhile. An alternative to mandatory civilian service has also grown in popularity in recent years. In 2009, some 37,000 Germans served in the so-called voluntary social year program designed for people up to the age of 27. A study commissioned by the German Family Ministry concluded that the only thing curbing growth of the program is the number of placements available -- and that the current figure could triple if sufficient slots are created. For the institutions hosting volunteers, though, the program is costlier than the government’s more generously subsidized civilian service program. Institutions are expected to provide room and board, work clothing and around €150 a month in pocket money for the volunteers. Many social institutions are also turning to other alternatives, using low-paid, part-time workers -- often the long-term unemployed or young or old workers who are part of the full-time labor force -- who are participating in government-sponsored employment schemes.

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1.4.6 Suspension of compulsory

Focus 1 – Geography

1.4.6 Suspension of compulsory military Suspension of compulsory military service given the green light by the German Bundestag

German Federal Ministry of Defense Berlin, 24.03.2011. July 2011 will be a turning point in history: This is the day on which

Evaluation to take place after a year

the German Bundestag has decided that compulsory military ser-

The Minister said he was not going to be party to speculations on

vice will be officially suspended. On 24 March, the parliamentarians

how many volunteers would actually join the Bundeswehr in July.

adopted the draft act by a large majority.

“I welcome everyone who decides to enlist.“ At the same time, he

The Act Amending Military Law suspends conscription for basic military service as from 1 July and, at the same time, introduces voluntary military service. “Both are key elements on the way to realigning

announced that he was going to have the Act Amending Military Law evaluated with respect to its feasibility and social acceptance after a year.

the Bundeswehr,“ said Federal Minister of Defense Thomas de Maizière in a speech in the German Bundestag. The Minister stated that Germany needed armed forces that were modern, efficient, effective, globally respected, anchored in the alliance and financially sustainable. In addition, they had to be adequately prepared and flexible and capable of adapting to new chal-

The adoption of the Act Amending Military Law would abolish neither the constitutional nor the non-constitutional basis of compulsory military service as a whole. De Maizière said that this would also serve as a safeguard against potential changes in the security environment in the future.

lenges. In order to achieve this goal, Germany did not need a large

Further decisions to be taken by June

number of military personnel, but a highly professional force.

The Minister promised that decisions as to the further implemen-

No cause for rejoicing “Our suspension of compulsory military service gives me no cause for rejoicing today. It is a necessary step, but not one that makes me happy,“ said de Maizière. However, he said that there was no turning

tation of the Bundeswehr reform would be taken by June. They concerned the number of military personnel, the capability profile and the Bundeswehr’s rough organizational structures as well as the Ministry and the civilian defense administration.

back now: “Firstly, the security situation does not justify a conscript

Pauli, H. (2011, March 11). Suspension of Compuslory Military Service

army any longer; secondly, it is not a military necessity any longer;

Given the Green Light by the German Bundestag. Retrieved from Fede-

and thirdly, comprehensive equity in conscription would not be gu-

ral Ministry of Defence: http://www.bmvg.de

aranteed any longer.“ Financial incentives are not everything The Minister advocated that women in particular should be recruited for the armed forces. “Those who render voluntary military service must be better off than those who don’t,“ the Minister went on to explain. The best and most capable people would have to be recruited for this new voluntary service. “Those who join the Bundeswehr purely for financial reasons may be just the ones we do not want around,“ he emphasized. “Soldiers must be assured that serving in the Bundeswehr is regarded as and respected for what it is: serving our society and serving our country honorably – a service they and our country are proud of.“

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1.4.7 Germany’s combat revival

Focus 1 – Geography

1.4.7 Germany’s combat revival The Christian Science Monitor - CSMonitor.com The Bundeswehr’s recent offensive in Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush mountains is too timid for Washington, yet too bold for many in Germany. By Elizabeth Pond. Reused with permission from the [August 7] issue of The Christian Science Monitor (http://www.csmonitor.com). © [2009] The Christian Science Monitor. All rights reserved. For permissions, contact copyright@csmonitor.com. Engelholm, Sweden — Today’s Germans have not yet fully reconciled their post-Hitler conscience with the use of military force for anything beyond narrow homeland defense. But Berlin has just tiptoed over another red line, in the Hindu Kush mountains. To be sure, Germany’s recent first use of heavy weapons and tanklike vehicles in a two-week offensive against insurgents will hardly satisfy the American hope for more German combat action in southern Afghanistan. Yet the new German assertiveness does augur a certain convergence. Just as Berlin is getting drawn into easing

Until now the Tajik northern sector has been far more peaceful than the Pashtun east and south, where US combat forces are concentrated. In their sector, the Germans could afford to focus on training Afghan troops and police on the one hand and building bridges and schools on the other (while taking fewer casualties than their American and British allies). But lately the Taliban have reinfiltrated the north and threaten to disrupt this month’s election there, too. That’s why 300 German Quick Reaction Force troops recently reinforced the anti-Taliban offensive of 1,000 Afghan soldiers and policemen around Kunduz.

national restrictions and letting its troops engage in American-style

This new Bundeswehr posture is still too timid for Washington’s

firefights to repulse Taliban intimidation of Afghan villagers, so is the

taste, but too bold for many German parliamentarians and voters.

Obama administration shifting American priorities toward German-

Left Bundestag members and a rising 69 percent of citizens now

style emphasis on local civilian development.

say they want German soldiers to withdraw from Afghanistan, fast.

After World War II the (West) Germans recoiled against Hitler’s vi-

Yet at heart, as the new US counterinsurgency doctrine of last De-

olent conquests and renounced possession of armed forces alto-

cember stresses, US-style war fighting and German-style develop-

gether. Only after a decade – and a fierce controversy – did they

ment are both essential. Mobile infantry sweeps can never win the

acquiesce in forming a new, democratic Army called the Bundes-

war if Afghan teenagers with no future prospects constantly replace

wehr. Legally they confined it to defense of NATO territory alone and

killed insurgents. And young Afghans can never imagine a peaceful

subordinated it to the Western alliance’s command.

future for themselves if the Taliban are not blocked from repeatedly

Even after the cold war ended in 1989 and Moscow withdrew the 20 Soviet divisions surrounding Berlin a thousand miles to the east

blowing up those new schools and bridges. Surely, transatlantic convergence is called for.

– and the United States redefined NATO’s mission as global export of stability – the Germans moved gingerly. A few Bundeswehr medics joined international monitors in Cambodia in 1992; then rather more medics and soldiers went to Bosnia to set up clinics in 1994; then German troops joined the NATO-led peacekeeping forces in Kosovo after the 1999 war there. Only after the provocation of 9/11 did Germans overcome their lingering aversion to participating in combat and send troops to an actual war zone outside the European homeland, dispatching special forces to fight alongside US troops in Afghanistan. Seven years later, the 4,300 German forces guarding the north Afghan sector constitute the third-largest foreign contingent in the country, after Britain’s 9,000 and America’s dominant 55,000.

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1.4.8 New york times article

Focus 1 – Geography

1.4.8 New york times article As Past Recedes, Germans Reconsider the Draft

August 30, 2010 By MICHAEL SLACKMAN BERLIN — For the first time in more than half a century, Germany’s

nal soldiers would extract itself from civilian control and pursue its

political leadership appears ready to end the draft, a post World War

own interests. But it took time to arrive at this trust.”

II mandate embedded in the Constitution to prevent this nation’s military from ever again developing into a state-within-a-state that could impede democracy and start war.

The issue of overhauling the military has been discussed for years, but was thrust onto the front burner on Monday by the popular defense minister, Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg, when he unveiled a

The idea of the draft has become an anachronism in the post-cold-

plan to revamp the Bundeswehr, or armed forces. His plan called for

war world, where security concerns have shifted, demanding smal-

reducing the force size to 163,000 from about 250,000 today, stre-

ler, professional militaries to deal with hot spots around the world

amlining the command structure, closing military bases and free-

and to combat terrorist threats. Most of the West long ago aban-

zing conscription.

doned conscription.

He pressed his case by saying the overhaul was necessary to save

But Germany’s history and a deep attachment to the draft by the

money — about eight billion euros, or around $10 billion, in three

conservative parties have until now meant clinging to conscription,

years — and to deal with changing security demands. His rationale,

even as it became largely symbolic. Few young men served, and

if not all the details of his plan, was widely supported.

those who did usually served just six months. The draft was instituted in 1956 to develop an army of so-called “citizens in uniform,” creating an armed force integrated with society, loyal to the civilian

But it was the concept of a draft as essential to preserving democracy that proved, for some, the hardest to let go.

leadership and immune to the kind of elitist force that dominated

“The model of a ‘citizen in uniform’ should be kept,” wrote a conser-

state affairs during the years of the Weimar Republic and before.

vative Christian Democrat and member of Parliament, Patricia Lips,

Germans today are less constrained by their past, motivated increasingly by their own perceived self-interest. The willingness to overhaul the military has been cast as another step in the normali-

on her blog. “Conscription is the important social link between Bundeswehr and society and it has proven that Bundeswehr is an army of democracy.”

zation of the state. In ways large and small, Germans are increasingly

Chancellor Angela Merkel, also a Christian Democrat, appears ready

comfortable in their own skin, waving flags and singing national

to accept a political compromise on the subject, one that would

anthems, gestures once seen as nationalist taboos. “Our coming to

preserve the legal requirement of conscription — to calm her own

terms with the past is nearly done,” said Hajo Funke, a professor of

party members — but that would freeze the actual process. Experts

political science at Free University in Berlin, who said he supported

said that a decision on the plan was expected by November.

moving to an all-volunteer military.

“I wouldn’t have thought it would be so easy for them put it away,

The Germany that was willing to exert its economic power and resist

but it looks like they will stop it,” said Richard Hilmer, managing di-

pressure to stimulate its economy during the financial crisis is the

rector of Infratest dimap, one of Germany’s major polling firms. “It

Germany that now appears ready to freeze the draft.

was part of German culture. There is a danger, if you have professio-

“Drafting young men instead of having professional soldiers was a guarantee for a democratic army,” said Rainer Arnold of the oppositi-

nal only, you have a separate institution less integrated with German society.”

on Social Democrats and the ranking member on the Defense Com-

The issue of the draft is an emotional one in any nation, but it is most

mittee of the German Bundestag, or Parliament. “But today, almost

fraught in Germany. After World War II, it appeared that Germany

nobody fears anymore that an army consisting largely of professio-

would never again have a military. That changed during the cold

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war. West Germany was admitted to NATO in 1954, and in 1956 it instituted the draft. In 1963, West Germany passed a law allowing all conscientious objectors to perform civil service, for example working in health care facilities instead of in the military. The Communist threat prompted most West Germans to continue to serve, but after unification, already thin public support for the draft plummeted, said Michael Wolffsohn, a professor of modern history at the University of the Bundeswehr in Munich. “The basic fact is that Germans have not yet come to terms, for obvious reasons, that they have to fight again in a war,” he said. “After all they have learned their lesson, so to speak, and they learned it correctly that using military force is basically and fundamentally wrong, given German history.” After unification, the state’s commitment to the draft became increasingly symbolic. By 2002 conscripts had to serve only nine months, and then in July, the length of service was cut to six months, a period that even supporters of the draft say is so short as to render it useless. “At present, unfortunately, the symptoms for a speedy abandonment are multiplying,” said Col. Ulrich Kirsch, who heads an organization representing soldiers’ interests and who supports preserving the draft. “This is certainly due to the fact that the model which is practiced at present is hardly viable after the shortening of the national service.” Indeed, some young Germans who were entering the draft induction center this week said they had no idea why the draft was instituted in the first place, and knew that it meant only giving up their time for something they were not really interested in doing. “We are strongly in favor of an all-volunteer army,” said Dennis Josten, 23, as he escorted his younger brother to the center. “It’s just a waste of time.” Over the years, the size of the force was cut about in half, so that only 17 percent of those eligible were even drafted, and in recent years many more conscripts chose civil service over military service. In 2009, the most recent year for which final statistics are available, 68,304 young men went into military service, while 90,555 served in health care facilities. Starving the system ultimately helped fuel the argument for abandoning it all together. “To have an army integrated in the society is very, very important, very important for us as Greens the same way as for Conservatives,” said Winfried Nachtwei, a security expert with the opposition Green Party. “But today, conscription isn’t accomplishing that. We have to get it in other ways.”

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1.4.8 New york times article

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1.5.1 Mending Wall

by Robert Frost Something there is that doesn’t love a wall, That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it, And spills the upper boulders in the sun, And makes gaps even two can pass abreast. The work of hunters is another thing: I have come after them and made repair Where they have left not one stone on a stone, But they would have the rabbit out of hiding, To please the yelping dogs. The gaps I mean, No one has seen them made or heard them made, But at spring mending-time we find them there. I let my neighbor know beyond the hill; And on a day we meet to walk the line And set the wall between us once again. We keep the wall between us as we go. To each the boulders that have fallen to each. And some are loaves and some so nearly balls We have to use a spell to make them balance: ‘Stay where you are until our backs are turned!’ We wear our fingers rough with handling them. Oh, just another kind of out-door game, One on a side. It comes to little more: There where it is we do not need the wall: He is all pine and I am apple orchard. My apple trees will never get across And eat the cones under his pines, I tell him. He only says, ‘Good fences make good neighbors’. Spring is the mischief in me, and I wonder If I could put a notion in his head: ‘Why do they make good neighbors? Isn’t it Where there are cows? But here there are no cows. Before I built a wall I’d ask to know What I was walling in or walling out, And to whom I was like to give offence. Something there is that doesn’t love a wall, That wants it down.’ I could say ‘Elves’ to him, But it’s not elves exactly, and I’d rather He said it for himself. I see him there Bringing a stone grasped firmly by the top In each hand, like an old-stone savage armed. He moves in darkness as it seems to me~ Not of woods only and the shade of trees. He will not go behind his father’s saying, And he likes having thought of it so well He says again, “Good fences make good neighbors.” Frost, R. (n.d.). Mending Wall. Retrieved from Poetry Foundation: http://www.poetryfoundation.org

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1.5.1 Mending Wall

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1.5.2 Timeline

1.5.2 TIMELINE TIMELINE ON THE HISTORY OF BERLIN AND THE BERLIN WALL (1945-1990):

1945 May 1945

The Red Army captures Berlin and with the end of World War II, on May 8, 1945, Berlin is divided into four sectors: the American, British, and French the West; the Soviet in the East.

1946 October 29, 1946

A 30 day valid Interzonenpass or Inter-zone passport is required to travel between the sectors in Germany. It was still possible to cross between the two sectors, although it was becoming increasingly dangerous.

1948 June 23, 1948

Currency reform in Berlin, Berlin is divided into two different currency zones.

June 24, 1948

The Soviet Union begins the Berlin blockade.

June 25, 1948

The United States begins the Berlin Airlift to keep Berlin supplied with food and fuel.

1949 April 4, 1949

The United States, Canada and Western European countries sign the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Washington.

May 12, 1949

End of the Berlin blockade.

May 24, 1949:

Founding of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).

September 30, 1949

End of the Berlin Airlift.

October 7, 1949

The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is proclaimed in East Berlin.

1952 April 1, 1952,

East German leaders meet with Stalin in Moscow. At the meeting Stalin’s foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov proposes that the East Germans should “introduce a system of passes for visits of West Berlin residents to the territory of East Berlin [so as to stop] free movement of Western agents” in the GDR.

May 26, 1952

Border between East and West Germany and between East Germany and West Berlin is closed. Only the border between East and West Berlin is still opened.

1953 June 17, 1953

Riots by East Berlin building workers against the working conditions are suppressed by the Red Army.

November 14, 1953

The Western Powers waive the Interzonenpass, the Soviet Union follows but East German citizen need a permission to travel to the West.

1957 December 11, 1957

Leaving East Germany without permission is forbidden and violations are prosecuted with prison up to three years.

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1.5.2 Timeline

1960 November 30, 1960

Meeting between Nikita Khrushchev and Walter Ulbricht. “We must create the conditions so that the GDR economy will not be vulnerable to our enemies. We didn’t know that the GDR was so vulnerable to West Germany. This is not good; we must correct this now.” (W. Ulbricht).

1960-1989

The Schießbefehl (order to fire) is in place in various forms for all these years. It’s a standing order that instructs border patrols of East Germany to prevent border penetration by East German citizens by all means including killing the violators. Only in 1982 is this practice formally legalized by §27 of the border law.

1961 June 15, 1961

First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of the GDR and Staatsrat chairman Walter Ulbricht states at an international press conference: “Niemand hat die Absicht, eine Mauer zu errichten!” (No one has the intention to erect a wall). It was the first time the colloquial term Mauer (wall) was used in this context.

July 25, 1961

President John F. Kennedy gives a speech just days before the border between East and West Berlin is closed. He stresses the need for NATO countries to hold onto West Berlin and says any Soviet attack on Berlin would be equivalent to an attack on NATO. “Those who threaten to unleash the forces of war on a dispute over West Berlin should recall the words of the ancient philosopher: ‘A man who causes fear cannot be free from fear.” (John F. Kennedy)

August 4, 1961

Nikita Khrushchev reacts to President Kennedy’s speech to the leaders of the Warsaw Treaty Organization. Khrushchev was preparing to seal the borders of East Berlin with a concrete wall, but the plan was kept top secret. The speech betrays Khrushchev’s concern with the new Kennedy government and the possibility of a war beginning with confrontation in Berlin -- and possibly ending in nuclear destruction. “You convinced yourself that Khrushchev will never go to war ... so you scare us [expecting] us to retreat. True, we will not declare war, but we will not withdraw either...” (Nikita S. Khrushchev)

August 13, 1961

The Berlin border between East and West Berlin is closed. The zonal boundary is sealed in the morning by East German troops. “Shock workers” from East Germany and Russia seal off the border with a barrier of barbed wire and light fencing that eventually became a complex series of walls, fortified fences, gun positions and watchtowers heavily guarded and patrolled. In the end, the Berlin Wall was 96 miles (155 km) long and the average height of the concrete wall was 11.8 ft (3.60 m). Over the course of the Wall’s existence, 133 people were confirmed killed trying to cross into West Berlin according to official sources, while a victims’ group puts the number at over 200 dead. There were also some 5,000 successful escapes into West Berlin. The August 13 operation lasted 24 hours.

August 14, 1961

Brandenburg Gate is closed.

August 15, 1961

Conrad Schumann, the first East German border guard, escapes by jumping the barbed wire to West Berlin. The first concrete elements and large square blocks are used on this date. Within the next months the first generation of the Berlin Wall was build up: a wall consisting of concrete elements and square blocks.

August 16th, 1961

The barbed wire barrier is being removed and replaced with a wall of concrete blocks. This first Wall around Berlin was two meters high, made from different building materials assembled into a rough construction.

August 26, 1961

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All crossing points are closed for West Berlin citizens.

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1.5.2 Timeline

1962 June 1962

A second Wall is being built to prevent escapes to the West. The first Wall is improved over the next years and it becomes difficult to distinguish between the first and the second generations of the Wall.

August 17, 1962

Peter Fechter, 18, a bricklayer from East Berlin, is shot and left to bleed to death in full view of western media. Bystanders in the West tried to rescue him, but were prevented from it at gunpoint.

1963 June 26, 1963

President J. F. Kennedy visits Berlin and declares: “Ich bin ein Berliner.” (“I am a Berliner.“)

December 17, 1963

After 7 rounds of negotiations between the Senate of Berlin and the East German authorities, an administrative agreement is signed allowing West Berliners to visit their relatives in East Berlin on a limited basis.

1965 1965

A new Wall generation, the third, is introduced to replace the old construction. The new one consists of concrete slabs laid between H-shaped steel concrete supports. A round, 0.40 meter large concrete tube capped the wall making it more difficult to climb over.

1971 September 3, 1971

The Four Power Agreement over Berlin is reached. It charges the governments of West Berlin and the GDR with negotiating an accord that would regulate access to and from West Berlin from the FRG and secure the right of West Berliners to visit East Berlin and the GDR.

1972 May 1972

The Transit Agreement is reached that arranged the matters raised in the Four Power Agreement and also secured the rights of GDR citizens to visit the FRG, but only in cases of family emergency.

December 1972

The Basic Treaty is signed in which both German states committed themselves to developing normal relations on the basis of equality, guaranteeing their mutual territorial integrity as well as the border between them, and recognizing each other’s independence and sovereignty. They also agreed to the exchange of “permanent missions” in Bonn and East Berlin to further relations.

1973 May 1973

East and West Germany establish formal diplomatic ties.

October 1, 1973

An explicit firing order is issued to a special team of Stasi agents tasked with infiltrating regular units of border guards to prevent their colleagues from defecting. “It is your duty to use your combat … skills in such a way as to overcome the cunning of the border breacher, to challenge or liquidate him in order to thwart the planned border breach. … Don’t hesitate to use your weapon even when border breaches happen with women and children, which traitors have often exploited in the past.”

1975-76 1975-1976

Construction of the infamous ‘Stutzwandelement UL 12.11’, known also as Grenzmauer 75 (Border Wall ’75) begins. This new installation – a second wall – penetrated deeper into East German territory and included a touch-sensitive, self-firing fence. The product of a large-scale development and testing program, it was made of L-shaped sections of pre-cast concrete used by farmers to build open silos. Each section was 3.60 meters high and 1.20 meters wide and was topped off by a smooth asbestos-concrete pipe 40 centimeters in diameter. Consequently, the Wall becomes harder to penetrate. Yet this did not put an end to attempted escapes. As a result, East German authorities increase their control of the border structures.

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1.5.2 Timeline

1987 June 12, 1987

President Ronald Reagan visits Berlin and calls on Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall.

1989 February 6, 1989

Chris Gueffroy is the last person to be killed trying to cross the Wall.

August 23, 1989,

Communist Hungary removes its border restrictions with Austria.

September 10, 1989

The Hungarian government opens its border for East German Refugees. More than 13,000 East Germans escape into Austria.

November 4, 1989

An estimated one million people attend a pro-democracy demonstration in East Berlin’s main square. Within days, the East German Government resigns.

November 9, 1989

The East German government announces that visits in West Germany and West Berlin will be permitted. Thousands of East Berliners pass into West Berlin as border guards stand by. People begin tearing down the wall which is opened.

December 22, 1989

The Brandenburg Gate is opened.

1990 October 3, 1990

Germany is formally reunited.

Source: http://www.coldwar.org/articles/60s/BerlinWallTimeLine.asp

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Divided City of Berlin (1945-1989)

Berlin Wall (1961)

Source: en.wikipedia.org

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1.5.3 John F. Kennedy Speech

Focus 1 – Geography

1.5.3 John F. Kennedy SPeech President: John F. Kennedy Date: June 26, 1963 In 1961, the Soviets built the Berlin Wall in response to the large number of people who fled Soviet Bloc for the West through Berlin. An arms buildup in Cuba in 1962 (the Cuban Missile Crisis) nearly resulted in a nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union. But when President John F. Kennedy came to Berlin in 1963, the Cold War had entered a period of détente. His speech, delivered in front of the West Berlin city hall, is often considered a turning point in the Cold War because, for the first time, the United States implicitly recognized the separation between East and West Berlin. President Kennedy delivered this memorable speech above all the noise, concluding with the now famous ending. Two thousand years ago the proudest boast was “civis Romanus

their families and their nation in lasting peace, with good will to all

sum.” Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is “Ich bin

people. You live in a defended island of freedom, but your life is part

ein Berliner.”

of the main. So let me ask you as I close, to lift your eyes beyond the

I appreciate my interpreter translating my German!

dangers of today, to the hopes of tomorrow, beyond the freedom merely of this city of Berlin, or your country of Germany, to the ad-

There are many people in the world who really don’t understand,

vance of freedom everywhere, beyond the wall to the day of peace

or say they don’t, what is the great issue between the free world

with justice, beyond yourselves and ourselves to all mankind.

and the Communist world. Let them come to Berlin. There are some who say that communism is the wave of the future. Let them come to Berlin. And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the Communists. Let them come to Berlin. And there are even a few who say that it is true that communism is an evil system, but it permits us to make economic progress. Lass’ sie nach Berlin kommen. Let them come to Berlin. Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us. I want to say, on behalf of my countrymen,

Freedom is indivisible, and when one man is enslaved, all are not free. When all are free, then we can look forward to that day when this city will be joined as one and this country and this great Continent of Europe in a peaceful and hopeful globe. When that day finally comes, as it will, the people of West Berlin can take sober satisfaction in the fact that they were in the front lines for almost two decades. All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words “Ich bin ein Berliner.”

who live many miles away on the other side of the Atlantic, who

To read speech transcript:

are far distant from you, that they take the greatest pride that they

http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/oEX2uqSQGEGIdTYgd_

have been able to share with you, even from a distance, the story of

JL_Q.aspx

the last 18 years. I know of no town, no city, that has been besieged for 18 years that still lives with the vitality and the force, and the hope and the determination of the city of West Berlin. While the wall

Video of speech: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hH6nQhss4Yc

is the most obvious and vivid demonstration of the failures of the

Kennedy, John F. (1963, June 26). Speech: Ich bin ein Berliner. Berlin, Ger-

Communist system, for all the world to see, we take no satisfaction

many

in it, for it is, as your Mayor has said, an offense not only against history but an offense against humanity, separating families, dividing husbands and wives and brothers and sisters, and dividing a people who wish to be joined together. What is true of this city is true of Germany--real, lasting peace in Europe can never be assured as long as one German out of four is denied the elementary right of free men, and that is to make a free choice. In 18 years of peace and good faith, this generation of Germans has earned the right to be free, including the right to unite

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1.5.4 Ronald Reagan Speech

Focus 1 – Geography

1.5.4 Ronald Reagan SPeech President: Ronald Reagan Date: June 12, 1987 President Ronald Reagan delivered this speech for the 750th anniversary of Berlin, at a moment of thaw in the Cold War. Reagan chose the Brandenburg Gate as his backdrop not only because it was a symbol of Germany, but also because it was very close to the wall, which stood as a stark symbol of the decades-old Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union in which the two politically opposed superpowers continually wrestled for dominance, stopping just short of actual warfare. This speech contains one of the most memorable lines spoken during Reagan’s presidency. We come to Berlin, we American presidents, because it’s our duty

opera, countless theaters, and museums. Where there was want, to-

to speak, in this place, of freedom. But I must confess, we’re drawn

day there’s abundance--food, clothing, automobiles--the wonderful

here by other things as well: by the feeling of history in this city,

goods of the Ku’damm. From devastation, from utter ruin, you Ber-

more than 500 years older than our own nation; by the beauty of the

liners have, in freedom, rebuilt a city that once again ranks as one of

Grunewald and the Tiergarten; most of all, by your courage and de-

the greatest on earth. The Soviets may have had other plans. But my

termination. Perhaps the composer Paul Lincke understood some-

friends, there were a few things the Soviets didn’t count on--Berliner

thing about American presidents. You see, like so many presidents

Herz, Berliner Humor, ja, und Berliner Schnauze. [Berliner heart, Ber-

before me, I come here today because wherever I go, whatever I do:

liner humor, yes, and a Berliner Schnauze.]

Ich hab noch einen Koffer in Berlin. [I still have a suitcase in Berlin.]

In the 1950s, Khrushchev predicted: “We will bury you.” But in the

Our gathering today is being broadcast throughout Western Europe

West today, we see a free world that has achieved a level of prosper-

and North America. I understand that it is being seen and heard as

ity and well-being unprecedented in all human history. In the Com-

well in the East. To those listening throughout Eastern Europe, a spe-

munist world, we see failure, technological backwardness, declin-

cial word: Although I cannot be with you, I address my remarks to

ing standards of health, even want of the most basic kind--too little

you just as surely as to those standing here before me. For I join you,

food. Even today, the Soviet Union still cannot feed itself. After these

as I join your fellow countrymen in the West, in this firm, this unalter-

four decades, then, there stands before the entire world one great

able belief: Es gibt nur ein Berlin. [There is only one Berlin.]

and inescapable conclusion: Freedom leads to prosperity. Freedom

Behind me stands a wall that encircles the free sectors of this city,

peace. Freedom is the victor.

part of a vast system of barriers that divides the entire continent of Europe. From the Baltic, south, those barriers cut across Germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers. Farther south, there may be no visible, no obvious wall. But there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same--still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state. Yet it is here in Berlin where

replaces the ancient hatreds among the nations with comity and

And now the Soviets themselves may, in a limited way, be coming to understand the importance of freedom. We hear much from Moscow about a new policy of reform and openness. Some political prisoners have been released. Certain foreign news broadcasts are no longer being jammed. Some economic enterprises have been permitted to operate with greater freedom from state control.

the wall emerges most clearly; here, cutting across your city, where

Are these the beginnings of profound changes in the Soviet state?

the news photo and the television screen have imprinted this brutal

Or are they token gestures, intended to raise false hopes in the

division of a continent upon the mind of the world. Standing before

West, or to strengthen the Soviet system without changing it? We

the Brandenburg Gate, every man is a German, separated from his

welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and

fellow men. Every man is a Berliner, forced to look upon a scar. [...]

security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only

Where four decades ago there was rubble, today in West Berlin there is the greatest industrial output of any city in Germany--busy office blocks, fine homes and apartments, proud avenues, and the spread-

strengthen the cause of world peace. There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace.

ing lawns of parkland. Where a city’s culture seemed to have been

General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek pros-

destroyed, today there are two great universities, orchestras and an

perity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberal-

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ization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall! [...] Today thus represents a moment of hope. We in the West stand ready to cooperate with the East to promote true openness, to break down barriers that separate people, to create a safe, freer world. And surely there is no better place than Berlin, the meeting place of East and West, to make a start. Free people of Berlin: Today, as in the past, the United States stands for the strict observance and full implementation of all parts of the Four Power Agreement of 1971. Let us use this occasion, the 750th anniversary of this city, to usher in a new era, to seek a still fuller, richer life for the Berlin of the future. Together, let us maintain and develop the ties between the Federal Republic and the Western sectors of Berlin, which is permitted by the 1971 agreement. And I invite Mr. Gorbachev: Let us work to bring the Eastern and Western parts of the city closer together, so that all the inhabitants of all Berlin can enjoy the benefits that come with life in one of the great cities of the world. To open Berlin still further to all Europe, East and West, let us expand the vital air access to this city, finding ways of making commercial air service to Berlin more convenient, more comfortable, and more economical. We look to the day when West Berlin can become one of the chief aviation hubs in all central Europe. [...] As I looked out a moment ago from the Reichstag, that embodiment of German unity, I noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young Berliner: “This wall will fall. Beliefs become reality.” Yes, across Europe, this wall will fall. For it cannot withstand faith; it cannot withstand truth. The wall cannot withstand freedom. To read speech transcript: http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1987/061287d. htm Video of speech: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjWDrTXMgF8 Reagan, Ronald. (1987, June 12). Speech: Tear Down This Wall! Berlin, Germany.

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1.5.4 Ronald Reagan Speech

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1.5.5 Bill Clinton Speech

Focus 1 – Geography

1.5.5 Bill Clinton SPeech President: Bill Clinton Date: July 12, 1994 Although this wasn’t a particularly pivotal moment, President Bill Clinton’s address in front of the Brandenburg Gate broke new ground by focusing on European unity and promoting economic globalization and an increased partnership with the U.S. Citizens of free Berlin, citizens of united Germany, Chancellor Kohl,

to the young people of this nation; believe you can live in peace

Mayor Diepgen, Berliners the world over, thank you for this wonder-

with those who are different from you. Believe in your own future.

ful welcome to your magnificent city.

Believe you can make a difference and summon your own courage

We stand together where Europe’s heart was cut in half and we

to build, and you will.

celebrate unity. We stand where crude walls of concrete separat-

There is reason for you to believe. Already, the new future is taking

ed mother from child and we meet as one family. We stand where

shape in the growing chorus of voices that speak the common lan-

those who sought a new life instead found death. And we rejoice

guage of democracy; in the growing economies of Western Europe,

in renewal. Berliners, you have won your long struggle. You have

the United States, and our partners; in the progress of economic re-

proved that no wall can forever contain the mighty power of free-

form, democracy, and freedom in lands that were not free; in NATO’s

dom. Within a few years, an American President will visit a Berlin that

Partnership For Peace where 21 nations have joined in military co-

is again the seat of your government. And I pledge to you today a

operation and pledge to respect each other’s borders.

new American Embassy will also stand in Berlin.

It is to all of you in pursuit of that new future that I say in the name of

Half a century has passed since Berlin was first divided, 33 years

the pilots whose airlift kept Berlin alive, in the name of the sentries at

since the Wall went up. In that time, one-half of this city lived en-

Checkpoint Charlie who stood face-to-face with enemy tanks, in the

circled and the other half enslaved. But one force endured, your

name of every American President who has come to Berlin, in the

courage. Your courage has taken many forms: the bold courage of

name of the American forces who will stay in Europe to guard free-

June 17th, 1953, when those trapped in the East threw stones at the

dom’s future, in all of their names I say, Amerika steht an ihrer Seite,

tanks of tyranny; the quiet courage to lift children above the wall so

jetzt und fuer immer. America is on your side now and forever.

that their grandparents on the other side could see those they loved but could not touch; the inner courage to reach for the ideas that make you free; and the civil courage, civil courage of 5 years ago when, starting in the strong hearts and candlelit streets of Leipzig, you turned your dreams of a better life into the chisels of liberty.

Moments ago, with my friend Chancellor Kohl, I walked where my predecessors could not, through the Brandenburg Gate. For over two centuries in every age, that gate has been a symbol of the time. Sometimes it has been a monument to conquest and a tower of tyranny. But in our own time, you, courageous Berliners, have again

Now, you who found the courage to endure, to resist, to tear down

made the Brandenburg what its builders meant it to be, a gateway.

the Wall, must found a new civil courage, the courage to build. The

Now, together, we can walk through that gateway to our destiny,

Berlin Wall is gone. Now our generation must decide, what will we

to a Europe united, united in peace, united in freedom, united in

build in its place? Standing here today, we can see the answer: a

progress for the first time in history. Nothing will stop us. All things

Europe where all nations are independent and democratic; where

are possible. Nichts wird uns aufhalten. Alles ist moeglich. Berlin ist frei.

free markets and prosperity know no borders; where our security is

Berlin is free.

based on building bridges, not walls; where all our citizens can go as far as their God-given abilities will take them and raise their children in peace and hope. The work of freedom is not easy. It requires discipline, responsibility, and a faith strong enough to endure failure and criticism. And it requires vigilance. Here in Germany, in the United States, and through-

To read speech transcript: http://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/ga6-940712.htm Video of speech: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OsM37P2Lk8 Clinton, Bill. (1994 July 12). Speech: Berlin is Free! Berlin, Germany.

out the entire world, we must reject those who would divide us with scalding words about race, ethnicity, or religion. I appeal especially

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1.5.6 Barack Obama Speech

Focus 1 – Geography

1.5.6 Barack Obama SPeech Presidential Candidate: Barack Obama Date: July 24, 2008 Obama hadn’t even been elected when he went to Berlin during his 2008 Presidential campaign. As a result, the Germans did not allow him to speak at the Brandenburg Gate—they reserve it for presidential speeches. But his plea for the fall of all walls echoed every earlier presidential speech, and the crowd of 200,000 was more than four times the number that attended Reagan’s 1987 speech. …This city, of all cities, knows the dream of freedom. And you know that the only reason we stand here tonight is because men and women from both of our nations came together to work, and struggle, and sacrifice for that better life. Ours is a partnership that truly began sixty years ago this summer, on the day when the first American plane touched down at Templehof.

the world: now do your duty...People of the world, look at Berlin!” People of the world - look at Berlin! Look at Berlin, where Germans and Americans learned to work together and trust each other less than three years after facing each other on the field of battle. Look at Berlin, where the determination of a people met the gen-

On that day, much of this continent still lay in ruin. The rubble of this city had yet to be built into a wall. The Soviet shadow had

erosity of the Marshall Plan and created a German miracle; where a victory over tyranny gave rise to NATO, the greatest alliance ever

swept across Eastern Europe, while in the West, America, Britain,

formed to defend our common security.

and France took stock of their losses, and pondered how the world

Look at Berlin, where the bullet holes in the buildings and the som-

might be remade.

ber stones and pillars near the Brandenburg Gate insist that we

This is where the two sides met. And on the twenty-fourth of June, 1948, the Communists chose to blockade the western part of the city. They cut off food and supplies to more than two million Germans in an effort to extinguish the last flame of freedom in Berlin. The size of our forces was no match for the much larger Soviet Army. And yet retreat would have allowed Communism to march across Europe. Where the last war had ended, another World War could have easily begun. All that stood in the way was Berlin.

never forget our common humanity. People of the world - look at Berlin, where a wall came down, a continent came together, and history proved that there is no challenge too great for a world that stands as one. Sixty years after the airlift, we are called upon again. History has led us to a new crossroad, with new promise and new peril. When you, the German people, tore down that wall - a wall that divided East and West; freedom and tyranny; fear and hope - walls came

And that’s when the airlift began - when the largest and most un-

tumbling down around the world. From Kiev to Cape Town, prison

likely rescue in history brought food and hope to the people of this

camps were closed, and the doors of democracy were opened.

city.

Markets opened too, and the spread of information and technol-

The odds were stacked against success. In the winter, a heavy fog filled the sky above, and many planes were forced to turn back without dropping off the needed supplies. The streets where we stand were filled with hungry families who had no comfort from the cold. But in the darkest hours, the people of Berlin kept the flame of hope burning. The people of Berlin refused to give up. And on one fall day,

ogy reduced barriers to opportunity and prosperity. While the 20th century taught us that we share a common destiny, the 21st has revealed a world more intertwined than at any time in human history. The fall of the Berlin Wall brought new hope. But that very closeness has given rise to new dangers - dangers that cannot be contained within the borders of a country or by the distance of an ocean….

hundreds of thousands of Berliners came here, to the Tiergarten,

Yes, there have been differences between America and Europe. No

and heard the city’s mayor implore the world not to give up on free-

doubt, there will be differences in the future. But the burdens of

dom. “There is only one possibility,” he said. “For us to stand together

global citizenship continue to bind us together. A change of lead-

united until this battle is won...The people of Berlin have spoken. We

ership in Washington will not lift this burden. In this new century,

have done our duty, and we will keep on doing our duty. People of

Americans and Europeans alike will be required to do more - not

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1.5.6 Barack Obama Speech

Focus 1 – Geography

less. Partnership and cooperation among nations is not a choice; it

This is the moment when we must renew our resolve to rout the ter-

is the one way, the only way, to protect our common security and

rorists who threaten our security in Afghanistan, and the traffickers

advance our common humanity.

who sell drugs on your streets. No one welcomes war. I recognize

That is why the greatest danger of all is to allow new walls to divide us from one another. The walls between old allies on either side of the Atlantic cannot stand. The walls between the countries with the most and those with the least cannot stand. The walls between races and tribes; natives and immigrants; Christian and Muslim and Jew cannot stand. These now are the walls we must tear down. We know they have fallen before. After centuries of strife, the people of Europe have formed a Union of promise and prosperity. Here, at the base of a column built to mark victory in war, we meet in the center of a Europe at peace. Not only have walls come down in Berlin, but they have come down in Belfast, where Protestant and Catholic found a way to live together; in the Balkans, where our Atlantic alliance ended wars and brought savage war criminals to justice; and in South Africa, where the struggle of a courageous people defeated apartheid. So history reminds us that walls can be torn down. But the task is never easy. True partnership and true progress requires constant work and sustained sacrifice. They require sharing the burdens of development and diplomacy; of progress and peace. They require allies who will listen to each other, learn from each other and, most of all, trust each other. That is why America cannot turn inward. That is why Europe cannot

the enormous difficulties in Afghanistan. But my country and yours have a stake in seeing that NATO’s first mission beyond Europe’s borders is a success. For the people of Afghanistan, and for our shared security, the work must be done. America cannot do this alone. The Afghan people need our troops and your troops; our support and your support to defeat the Taliban and al Qaeda, to develop their economy, and to help them rebuild their nation. We have too much at stake to turn back now. This is the moment when we must renew the goal of a world without nuclear weapons. The two superpowers that faced each other across the wall of this city came too close too often to destroying all we have built and all that we love. With that wall gone, we need not stand idly by and watch the further spread of the deadly atom. It is time to secure all loose nuclear materials; to stop the spread of nuclear weapons; and to reduce the arsenals from another era. This is the moment to begin the work of seeking the peace of a world without nuclear weapons. … This is the moment when we must come together to save this planet. Let us resolve that we will not leave our children a world where the oceans rise and famine spreads and terrible storms devastate our lands. Let us resolve that all nations - including my own - will act with the same seriousness of purpose as has your nation, and reduce the carbon we send into our atmosphere. This is the moment to give our children back their future. This is the moment to stand as one.

turn inward. America has no better partner than Europe. Now is the

And this is the moment when we must give hope to those left be-

time to build new bridges across the globe as strong as the one

hind in a globalized world. We must remember that the Cold War

that bound us across the Atlantic. Now is the time to join together,

born in this city was not a battle for land or treasure. Sixty years ago,

through constant cooperation, strong institutions, shared sacrifice,

the planes that flew over Berlin did not drop bombs; instead they

and a global commitment to progress, to meet the challenges of

delivered food, and coal, and candy to grateful children. And in that

the 21st century. It was this spirit that led airlift planes to appear in

show of solidarity, those pilots won more than a military victory.

the sky above our heads, and people to assemble where we stand

They won hearts and minds; love and loyalty and trust - not just

today. And this is the moment when our nations - and all nations -

from the people in this city, but from all those who heard the story

must summon that spirit anew.

of what they did here….

This is the moment when we must defeat terror and dry up the

People of Berlin - people of the world - this is our moment. This is

well of extremism that supports it. This threat is real and we cannot

our time.

shrink from our responsibility to combat it. If we could create NATO to face down the Soviet Union, we can join in a new and global partnership to dismantle the networks that have struck in Madrid and Amman; in London and Bali; in Washington and New York. If we could win a battle of ideas against the communists, we can stand

I know my country has not perfected itself. At times, we’ve struggled to keep the promise of liberty and equality for all of our people. We’ve made our share of mistakes, and there are times when our actions around the world have not lived up to our best intentions.

with the vast majority of Muslims who reject the extremism that

But I also know how much I love America. I know that for more than

leads to hate instead of hope.

two centuries, we have strived - at great cost and great sacrifice -

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Focus 1 – Geography

to form a more perfect union; to seek, with other nations, a more hopeful world. Our allegiance has never been to any particular tribe or kingdom - indeed, every language is spoken in our country; every culture has left its imprint on ours; every point of view is expressed in our public squares. What has always united us - what has always driven our people; what drew my father to America’s shores - is a set of ideals that speak to aspirations shared by all people: that we can live free from fear and free from want; that we can speak our minds and assemble with whomever we choose and worship as we please. Those are the aspirations that joined the fates of all nations in this city. Those aspirations are bigger than anything that drives us apart. It is because of those aspirations that the airlift began. It is because of those aspirations that all free people - everywhere - became citizens of Berlin. It is in pursuit of those aspirations that a new generation - our generation - must make our mark on history. People of Berlin - and people of the world - the scale of our challenge is great. The road ahead will be long. But I come before you to say that we are heirs to a struggle for freedom. We are a people of improbable hope. Let us build on our common history, and seize our common destiny, and once again engage in that noble struggle to bring justice and peace to our world. To read speech transcript: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/07/24/obama-in-berlinvideo-of_n_114771.html Video of speech: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-9ry38AhbU Obama, Barack. (2008, July 24). Speech. Berlin, Germany.

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1.5.6 Barack Obama Speech

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Focus 1 – Geography

1.5.7 Speech Analysis Speech Analysis Worksheet (Adapted from the NARA Written Document Analysis Worksheet)

Date of Speech:

Orator:

For what audience was the speech given:

Where was the speech given? Why?

DOCUMENT INFORMATION A. List three things the orator said that you think are important:

B. Why do you think this speech was given?

C. What evidence in the document helps you know why it was presented? Quote from the document.

D. List two things the document tells you about major world events at the time it was spoken

E. Write a question to the orator that is left unanswered by the speech:

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/written_document_analysis_worksheet.pdf

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1.5.7 Speech Analysis

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1.5.8 Reagan Cartoon

1.5.8 reagan Cartoon

GLENN MCCOY © 2009 Belleville News-Democrat. Dist. By UNIVERSAL UCLICK. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.

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1.5.9 Cartoon Analysis Worksheet

1.5.9 Cartoon Analysis Worksheet Level 1 Visuals Words (not all cartoons include words) 1. List the objects or people you see in the cartoon. 2. Identify the cartoon caption and/or title. 3. Locate three words or phrases used by the cartoonist to identify objects or people within the cartoon. 4. Record any important dates or numbers that appear in the cartoon.

Level 2 Visuals Words 1. Which of the objects on your list are symbols? 2. What do you think each symbol means? 3. Which words or phrases in the cartoon appear to be the most significant? Why do you think so? 4. List adjectives that describe the emotions portrayed in the cartoon.

Level 3 1. Describe the action taking place in the cartoon. 2. Explain how the words in the cartoon clarify the symbols. 3. Explain the message of the cartoon. 4. What special interest groups would agree/disagree with the cartoon’s message? Why?

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1.5.10 Barack Obama Speech 2013

Focus 1 – Geography

1.5.10 Barack Obama SPeech 2013 President Barack Obama Date: June 19, 2013 Remarks by President Obama at the Brandenburg Gate - Berlin,

supported by an airlift of hope, and we are so honored to be joined

Germany

by Colonel Halvorsen, 92 years old -- the original “candy bomber.”

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Hello, Berlin! (Applause.) Thank you, Chancellor Merkel, for your leadership, your friendship, and the example of

We could not be prouder of him. (Applause.) I hope I look that good, by the way, when I’m 92. (Laughter.)

your life -- from a child of the East to the leader of a free and united

During that time, a Marshall Plan seeded a miracle, and a North At-

Germany.

lantic Alliance protected our people. And those in the neighbor-

As I’ve said, Angela and I don’t exactly look like previous German and American leaders. But the fact that we can stand here today, along the fault line where a city was divided, speaks to an eternal

hoods and nations to the East drew strength from the knowledge that freedom was possible here, in Berlin -- that the waves of crackdowns and suppressions might therefore someday be overcome.

truth: No wall can stand against the yearning of justice, the yearn-

Today, 60 years after they rose up against oppression, we remem-

ings for freedom, the yearnings for peace that burns in the human

ber the East German heroes of June 17th. When the wall finally

heart. (Applause.)

came down, it was their dreams that were fulfilled. Their strength

Mayor Wowereit, distinguished guests, and especially the people of Berlin and of Germany -- thank you for this extraordinarily warm welcome. In fact, it’s so warm and I feel so good that I’m actually going to take off my jacket, and anybody else who wants to, feel

and their passion, their enduring example remind us that for all the power of militaries, for all the authority of governments, it is citizens who choose whether to be defined by a wall, or whether to tear it down. (Applause.)

free to. (Applause.) We can be a little more informal among friends.

And we’re now surrounded by the symbols of a Germany reborn. A

(Applause.)

rebuilt Reichstag and its glistening glass dome. An American em-

As your Chancellor mentioned, five years ago I had the privilege to address this city as senator. Today, I’m proud to return as President

bassy back at its historic home on Pariser Platz. (Applause.) And this square itself, once a desolate no man’s land, is now open to all. So while I am not the first American President to come to this gate,

of the United States. (Applause.) And I bring with me the enduring

I am proud to stand on its Eastern side to pay tribute to the past.

friendship of the American people, as well as my wife, Michelle, and

(Applause.)

Malia and Sasha. (Applause.) You may notice that they’re not here. The last thing they want to do is to listen to another speech from me. (Laughter.) So they’re out experiencing the beauty and the history of Berlin. And this history speaks to us today. Here, for thousands of years, the people of this land have journeyed from tribe to principality to nation-state; through Reformation and Enlightenment, renowned as a “land of poets and thinkers,” among them Immanuel Kant, who taught us that freedom is the “unoriginated birthright of man, and it belongs to him by force of his humanity.”

For throughout all this history, the fate of this city came down to a simple question: Will we live free or in chains? Under governments that uphold our universal rights, or regimes that suppress them? In open societies that respect the sanctity of the individual and our free will, or in closed societies that suffocate the soul? As free peoples, we stated our convictions long ago. As Americans, we believe that “all men are created equal” with the right to life and liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. And as Germans, you declared in your Basic Law that “the dignity of man is inviolable.” (Applause.) Around the world, nations have pledged themselves to a Universal

Here, for two centuries, this gate stood tall as the world around it

Declaration of Human Rights, which recognizes the inherent dignity

convulsed -- through the rise and fall of empires; through revolu-

and rights of all members of our human family.

tions and republics; art and music and science that reflected the height of human endeavor, but also war and carnage that exposed the depths of man’s cruelty to man.

And this is what was at stake here in Berlin all those years. And because courageous crowds climbed atop that wall, because corrupt dictatorships gave way to new democracies, because millions

It was here that Berliners carved out an island of democracy against

across this continent now breathe the fresh air of freedom, we can

the greatest of odds. As has already been mentioned, they were

say, here in Berlin, here in Europe -- our values won. Openness won.

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1.5.10 Barack Obama Speech 2013

Focus 1 – Geography

Tolerance won. And freedom won here in Berlin. (Applause.) And yet, more than two decades after that triumph, we must ac-

the agony of an empty stomach or the anguish of unemployment, we’re not truly prosperous. (Applause.)

knowledge that there can, at times, be a complacency among our

I say all this here, in the heart of Europe, because our shared past

Western democracies. Today, people often come together in places

shows that none of these challenges can be met unless we see our-

like this to remember history -- not to make it. After all, we face no

selves as part of something bigger than our own experience. Our

concrete walls, no barbed wire. There are no tanks poised across

alliance is the foundation of global security. Our trade and our com-

a border. There are no visits to fallout shelters. And so sometimes

merce is the engine of our global economy. Our values call upon us

there can be a sense that the great challenges have somehow

to care about the lives of people we will never meet. When Europe

passed. And that brings with it a temptation to turn inward -- to

and America lead with our hopes instead of our fears, we do things

think of our own pursuits, and not the sweep of history; to believe

that no other nations can do, no other nations will do. So we have

that we’ve settled history’s accounts, that we can simply enjoy the

to lift up our eyes today and consider the day of peace with justice

fruits won by our forebears.

that our generation wants for this world.

But I come here today, Berlin, to say complacency is not the charac-

I’d suggest that peace with justice begins with the example we set

ter of great nations. Today’s threats are not as stark as they were half

here at home, for we know from our own histories that intolerance

a century ago, but the struggle for freedom and security and human

breeds injustice. Whether it’s based on race, or religion, gender or

dignity -- that struggle goes on. And I’ve come here, to this city of

sexual orientation, we are stronger when all our people -- no matter

hope, because the tests of our time demand the same fighting spirit

who they are or what they look like -- are granted opportunity, and

that defined Berlin a half-century ago.

when our wives and our daughters have the same opportunities as

Chancellor Merkel mentioned that we mark the anniversary of Presi-

our husbands and our sons. (Applause.)

dent John F. Kennedy’s stirring defense of freedom, embodied in the

When we respect the faiths practiced in our churches and syna-

people of this great city. His pledge of solidarity -- “Ich bin ein Ber-

gogues, our mosques and our temples, we’re more secure. When

liner” -- (applause) -- echoes through the ages. But that’s not all that

we welcome the immigrant with his talents or her dreams, we are

he said that day. Less remembered is the challenge that he issued

renewed. (Applause.) When we stand up for our gay and lesbian

to the crowd before him: “Let me ask you,” he said to those Berliners,

brothers and sisters and treat their love and their rights equally un-

“let me ask you to lift your eyes beyond the dangers of today” and

der the law, we defend our own liberty as well. We are more free

“beyond the freedom of merely this city.” Look, he said, “to the day of

when all people can pursue their own happiness. (Applause.) And

peace with justice, beyond yourselves and ourselves to all mankind.”

as long as walls exist in our hearts to separate us from those who

President Kennedy was taken from us less than six months after he spoke those words. And like so many who died in those decades of division, he did not live to see Berlin united and free. Instead,

don’t look like us, or think like us, or worship as we do, then we’re going to have to work harder, together, to bring those walls of division down.

he lives forever as a young man in our memory. But his words are

Peace with justice means free enterprise that unleashes the talents

timeless because they call upon us to care more about things than

and creativity that reside in each of us; in other models, direct eco-

just our own self-comfort, about our own city, about our own coun-

nomic growth from the top down or relies solely on the resources

try. They demand that we embrace the common endeavor of all

extracted from the earth. But we believe that real prosperity comes

humanity.

from our most precious resource -- our people. And that’s why we

And if we lift our eyes, as President Kennedy called us to do, then

choose to invest in education, and science and research. (Applause.)

we’ll recognize that our work is not yet done. For we are not only

And now, as we emerge from recession, we must not avert our eyes

citizens of America or Germany -- we are also citizens of the world.

from the insult of widening inequality, or the pain of youth who are

And our fates and fortunes are linked like never before.

unemployed. We have to build new ladders of opportunity in our

We may no longer live in fear of global annihilation, but so long as nuclear weapons exist, we are not truly safe. (Applause.) We may

own societies that -- even as we pursue new trade and investment that fuels growth across the Atlantic.

strike blows against terrorist networks, but if we ignore the insta-

America will stand with Europe as you strengthen your union. And

bility and intolerance that fuels extremism, our own freedom will

we want to work with you to make sure that every person can enjoy

eventually be endangered. We may enjoy a standard of living that

the dignity that comes from work -- whether they live in Chicago or

is the envy of the world, but so long as hundreds of millions endure

Cleveland or Belfast or Berlin, in Athens or Madrid, everybody de-

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1.5.10 Barack Obama Speech 2013

Focus 1 – Geography

serves opportunity. We have to have economies that are working

Peace with justice means refusing to condemn our children to a

for all people, not just those at the very top. (Applause.)

harsher, less hospitable planet. The effort to slow climate change

Peace with justice means extending a hand to those who reach for

requires bold action. And on this, Germany and Europe have led.

freedom, wherever they live. Different peoples and cultures will fol-

In the United States, we have recently doubled our renewable en-

low their own path, but we must reject the lie that those who live in

ergy from clean sources like wind and solar power. We’re doubling

distant places don’t yearn for freedom and self-determination just

fuel efficiency on our cars. Our dangerous carbon emissions have

like we do; that they don’t somehow yearn for dignity and rule of

come down. But we know we have to do more -- and we will do

law just like we do. We cannot dictate the pace of change in places

more. (Applause.)

like the Arab world, but we must reject the excuse that we can do nothing to support it. (Applause.)

With a global middle class consuming more energy every day, this must now be an effort of all nations, not just some. For the grim al-

We cannot shrink from our role of advancing the values we believe

ternative affects all nations -- more severe storms, more famine and

in -- whether it’s supporting Afghans as they take responsibility for

floods, new waves of refugees, coastlines that vanish, oceans that

their future, or working for an Israeli-Palestinian peace -- (applause)

rise. This is the future we must avert. This is the global threat of our

-- or engaging as we’ve done in Burma to help create space for

time. And for the sake of future generations, our generation must

brave people to emerge from decades of dictatorship. In this cen-

move toward a global compact to confront a changing climate be-

tury, these are the citizens who long to join the free world. They are

fore it is too late. That is our job. That is our task. We have to get to

who you were. They deserve our support, for they too, in their own

work. (Applause.)

way, are citizens of Berlin. And we have to help them every day. (Applause.)

Peace with justice means meeting our moral obligations. And we have a moral obligation and a profound interest in helping lift the

Peace with justice means pursuing the security of a world without

impoverished corners of the world. By promoting growth so we

nuclear weapons -- no matter how distant that dream may be. And

spare a child born today a lifetime of extreme poverty. By invest-

so, as President, I’ve strengthened our efforts to stop the spread of

ing in agriculture, so we aren’t just sending food, but also teach-

nuclear weapons, and reduced the number and role of America’s

ing farmers to grow food. By strengthening public health, so we’re

nuclear weapons. Because of the New START Treaty, we’re on track

not just sending medicine, but training doctors and nurses who will

to cut American and Russian deployed nuclear warheads to their

help end the outrage of children dying from preventable diseases.

lowest levels since the 1950s. (Applause.)

Making sure that we do everything we can to realize the promise

But we have more work to do. So today, I’m announcing additional steps forward. After a comprehensive review, I’ve determined that we can ensure the security of America and our allies, and main-

-- an achievable promise -- of the first AIDS-free generation. That is something that is possible if we feel a sufficient sense of urgency. (Applause.)

tain a strong and credible strategic deterrent, while reducing our

Our efforts have to be about more than just charity. They’re about

deployed strategic nuclear weapons by up to one-third. And I in-

new models of empowering people -- to build institutions; to aban-

tend to seek negotiated cuts with Russia to move beyond Cold War

don the rot of corruption; to create ties of trade, not just aid, both

nuclear postures. (Applause.)

with the West and among the nations they’re seeking to rise and in-

At the same time, we’ll work with our NATO allies to seek bold reductions in U.S. and Russian tactical weapons in Europe. And we can forge a new international framework for peaceful nuclear power,

crease their capacity. Because when they succeed, we will be more successful as well. Our fates are linked, and we cannot ignore those who are yearning not only for freedom but also prosperity.

and reject the nuclear weaponization that North Korea and Iran may

And finally, let’s remember that peace with justice depends on our

be seeking.

ability to sustain both the security of our societies and the openness

America will host a summit in 2016 to continue our efforts to secure nuclear materials around the world, and we will work to build support in the United States to ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test

that defines them. Threats to freedom don’t merely come from the outside. They can emerge from within -- from our own fears, from the disengagement of our citizens.

Ban Treaty, and call on all nations to begin negotiations on a treaty

For over a decade, America has been at war. Yet much has now

that ends the production of fissile materials for nuclear weapons.

changed over the five years since I last spoke here in Berlin. The Iraq

These are steps we can take to create a world of peace with justice.

war is now over. The Afghan war is coming to an end. Osama bin

(Applause.)

Laden is no more. Our efforts against al Qaeda are evolving.

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And given these changes, last month, I spoke about America’s efforts

This is the lesson of the ages. This is the spirit of Berlin. And the

against terrorism. And I drew inspiration from one of our founding

greatest tribute that we can pay to those who came before us is by

fathers, James Madison, who wrote, “No nation could preserve its

carrying on their work to pursue peace and justice not only in our

freedom in the midst of continual warfare.” James Madison is right

countries but for all mankind.

-- which is why, even as we remain vigilant about the threat of terrorism, we must move beyond a mindset of perpetual war. And in America, that means redoubling our efforts to close the prison at Guantanamo. (Applause.) It means tightly controlling our use of

Vielen Dank. (Applause.) God bless you. God bless the peoples of Germany. And God bless the United States of America. Thank you very much. (Applause.)

new technologies like drones. It means balancing the pursuit of se-

Use speech transcript found here for handout:

curity with the protection of privacy. (Applause.)

http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/19/remarks-

And I’m confident that that balance can be struck. I’m confident of that, and I’m confident that working with Germany, we can keep each other safe while at the same time maintaining those essential values for which we fought for.

president-obama-brandenburg-gate-berlin-germany Video of speech for handout: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qryJNyDV81U

Our current programs are bound by the rule of law, and they’re focused on threats to our security -- not the communications of ordinary persons. They help confront real dangers, and they keep people safe here in the United States and here in Europe. But we must accept the challenge that all of us in democratic governments face: to listen to the voices who disagree with us; to have an open debate about how we use our powers and how we must constrain them; and to always remember that government exists to serve the power of the individual, and not the other way around. That’s what makes us who we are, and that’s what makes us different from those on the other side of the wall. (Applause.) That is how we’ll stay true to our better history while reaching for the day of peace and justice that is to come. These are the beliefs that guide us, the values that inspire us, the principles that bind us together as free peoples who still believe the words of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. -- that “injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” (Applause.) And we should ask, should anyone ask if our generation has the courage to meet these tests? If anybody asks if President Kennedy’s words ring true today, let them come to Berlin, for here they will find the people who emerged from the ruins of war to reap the blessings of peace; from the pain of division to the joy of reunification. And here, they will recall how people trapped behind a wall braved bullets, and jumped barbed wire, and dashed across minefields, and dug through tunnels, and leapt from buildings, and swam across the Spree to claim their most basic right of freedom. (Applause.) The wall belongs to history. But we have history to make as well. And the heroes that came before us now call to us to live up to those highest ideals -- to care for the young people who can’t find a job in our own countries, and the girls who aren’t allowed to go to school overseas; to be vigilant in safeguarding our own freedoms, but also to extend a hand to those who are reaching for freedom abroad.

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2.1.1 Citizenship: The United States and Germany

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.1.1 Citizenship: The United States and Germany Document 1 United States Citizenship: To become a United States citizen at birth, you must: • Have been born in the United States or certain territories or outlying possessions of the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; OR • had a parent or parents who were citizens at the time of your birth (if you were born abroad) and meet other requirements. To become a citizen after birth, you must: • Apply for “derived” or “acquired” citizenship through parents, or • Apply for naturalization. If you are a “green card holder,” i.e., a lawful permanent resident, of at least 5 years, you must meet the following requirements in order to apply for naturalization: • Be 18 or older. • Have continuous residence in the United States as a green card holder for at least 5 years immediately preceding the date of the filing the application. • Be physically present in the United States for at least 30 months out of the 5 years immediately preceding the date of filing the application. • Reside continuously within the United States from the date of application for naturalization up to the time of naturalization. • Be able to read, write, and speak English and have knowledge and an understanding of U.S. history and government (civics). • Be a person of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well-disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States during all relevant periods under the law. There are some exceptions to these rules, for example, for persons with disabilities or who are unable to read, write, and speak English but have lived in the United States for many years. There are also special exceptions for persons who have served in the United States armed forces. Document 2 German Citizenship as decided in 1913: Requirements for claims to German Citizenship: • Be born and live in Germany of an ethnically German FATHER; • Have lived at one point in the area of Germany during periods when the borders of the country were different; • Have lived at one point in the area of Germany but were expelled by another nation; • Be an ethnic German living in another country seeking to return; • Be the spouse, child, grandchild, or any other descendent of an ethnic German MAN living in another country seeking to return to Germany.

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2.1.1 Citizenship: The United States and Germany

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Document 3 Requirements for becoming a German Citizen as of January 1, 2000: 1. Based on the principle of place of birth For the first time in the history of German law, the principle of citizenship through the parents (“jus sanguinis”) has been expanded with elements of the principle of citizenship through place of birth (“jus soli”). Citizenship via the parents means: A child receives German citizenship at birth if the child has a German father or a German mother – this remains in effect. The principle of citizenship through place of birth means: A child born in Germany of foreign parents automatically receives German citizenship in addition to the citizenship of the child’s parents. One of the conditions for this is that at least one of the parents has lived Germany legally for eight years at the time of the child’s birth with a residency permit or has had an unlimited residency permit for three years. A transitional procedure was built into the law to allow citizenship to children born in Germany and under ten years of age on 1 January 2000 and who fulfilled the conditions in the new law. Applications for citizenship by this procedure had to be received by 31 December 2000. In this manner, some 43,700 children were granted citizenship. 2. Requirement to choose citizenship Becoming a German citizen via the principle of place of birth was tied to a requirement to make a choice via procedures set up in paragraph 29 of the Citizenship Law. This requirement is that young people with a German passport and also one from their country of origin (dual citizens) must decide between the ages of 18 and 23 if they want to retain either German citizenship or that of their country of origin. When such young people become legally adults, they are informed by the civil authorities of the requirement to make a declaration. If they declare that they want to retain their foreign citizenship, they lose their German citizenship. This also applies if they fail to make a declaration before they turn 24. If they opt for German citizenship, they must prove before they turn 24 that they no longer have foreign citizenship; otherwise they lose their German passport. If they are unable to give up their foreign citizenship or it is too much to ask, then dual citizenship can be granted if permission to retain the second citizenship has been applied for by age 21. Regulations regarding the requirements of opting for citizenship are set by the individual German Länder (federal states). 3. Requirements for Naturalization Non-Germans who have resided legally in Germany for eight years have the right to naturalization. Until 1999, the residency requirement had been fifteen years. To claim citizenship by naturalization the following conditions must be met: • Sufficient knowledge of the German language; • No criminal record: the following are not taken into account – fines of up to a limited amount; probation of under six months (up to one year for youth); • Ability to cover one’s one living costs (unemployment insurance or welfare support is only problematic if it is excessive); the requirement does not apply to persons under 23 years of age; • Renunciation of citizenship in the country of origin (dual citizenship only possible in exceptional cases); • Public avowal of the free and democratic constitutional order, combined with a declaration that the applicant has not engaged in activities contrary to the constitution. The general conditions set out in the Citizenship Law are binding on the individual German federal Länder but give the states room to create state-based criteria, for example in how “sufficient knowledge” of German is to be demonstrated.

Sources: Storz, H. & Wilmes, B. (2007, May). “Die Reform Staatsangehörigkeitsrechts und das neue Einbürgerungsrecht,” published by the Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Bonn, translated by William Gilcher. http://www.bpb.de/gesellschaft/migration/dossier-migration/56483/einbuergerung?p=0 U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2011, June). Citizenship Through Naturalization. Retrieved from U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services: http://www uscis.gov

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2.1.2 Statistics Review

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Handout 2.1.2 Statistics Review Statistics Review How has immigration changed over time in the United States and Germany? The Challenge: Use statistics to get a “Big Picture” of how immigration into Germany and the United States has changed in recent times. The Ultimate Assignment: Draw Two “Big Pictures,” one that illustrates how immigration has changed over time in Germany, and one that captures the differences and similarities between immigration in the United States and Germany. The Steps along the Way: Look at different groups of statistics and answer Guided Questions to help you form your big pictures.

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2.1.2 Statistics Review

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Statistics Package 1: Coming to America, Coming to Germany • In the century between 1820-1920, more than 33.7 million immigrants entered the United States • In the same century between 1820-1920, approximately 5.5 million people of German background entered the United States. Date

From Germany

All Countries

1820

968

8,385

1821 – 30

6,761

143,439

1831 – 40

152,454

599,125

1841 – 50

434,626

1,713,251

1851 – 60

951,667

2,598,214

1861 – 70

787,468

2,314,824

1871 – 80

718,182

2,812,191

1881 – 90

1,452,970

5,246,613

1891-1900

505,152

3,687,564

1901-1910

341,498

8,795,386

1911-1920

143,945

5,735,811

1921-1930

412,202

4,107,209

1931-1940

114,058

528,431

1941-1950

226,578

1,035,039

1951-1960

477,765

2,515,479

1961-1970

190,796

3,321,677

1971-1980

74,414

4,493,314

1981-1990

91,961

7,338,062

1991-1994

42,667

4,509,852

Source: 1998 Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/yearbook/1998/1998yb.pdf

Immigration to Germany 1950-2010 Estimates of the net number of migrants, by five year intervals Five Year Interval

Number of migrants

1950-1955

275,000

1955-1960

720,000

1960-1965

900, 000

1965-1970

805,000

1970-1975

890, 000

1975-1980

330, 000

1980-1985

-110, 000

1985-1990

1, 955, 000

1990-1995

2, 690, 000

1995-2000

1, 135, 000

2000-2005

1, 000, 000

2005-2010

750, 000

Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects — The 2006 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision in http://www.migrationinformation.org/DataHub/countrydata/data.cfm

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2.1.2 Statistics Review

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Foreign born as a percentage of the total population, 1990 and 1994 to 2005 (Out of 100%) Date

Germany

United States

1990

8.4

7.9

1994

8.6

9.0

1995

8.8

9.3

1996

8.9

9.3

1997

9.0

9.7

1998

8.9

9.8

1999

8.9

9.7

2000

8.9

10.9

2001

8.9

11.4

2002

8.9

11.5

2003

8.9

11.7

2004

8.8

11.9

2005

8.8

12.1

Sources: Statistisches Bundesamt (Federal Statistical Office) http://www.migrationinformation.org/GlobalData/countrydata/data.cfm Migration Information Source http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/immigration/immigration-statistics-usa.html

Guided Questions 1.

What is the most significant difference between German immigration/emigration between (1850-1950) and (1950-2010)?

2.

How has German immigration become more like the United States immigration over time?

3.

In what ways does it remain different?

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2.1.2 Statistics Review

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Statistics Package 2: Turkish Immigration into Germany, Mexican Immigration in the United States • About 30 % of all immigrants into Germany are of Turkish descent, the largest national and cultural group entering the country. • About 25 % of all immigrants into the USA are of Mexican descent, the largest national and cultural group entering the country. Germany: Acquisition of citizenship by country of former nationality, 1995-2006 Region/Sub-region/Country of Birth

Turkey

All countries (total)

1995

31,578

313,606

1996

46,294

302,830

1997

40,396

271,773

1998

56,994

283,604

1999

100,324

241,972

2000

82,861

186,688

2001

76,573

178,098

2002

64,631

154,547

2003

56,244

140,731

2004

44,465

127,153

2005

32,661

117,241

2006

33,388

124,566

Note 1: Germany made it easier to become naturalized German citizen in 2000. Note 2: Notice, though, that the number of Turkish people being granted German citizenship did NOT go up in 2000. In fact, it has been dropping

since 1998.Why do you think this might be happening?

United States: Acquisition of citizenship by country of former nationality, 1995-2006 Region/Sub-region/Country of Birth

Mexico

All countries (total)

1995

79,614

488,088

1996

217,418

1,044,689

1997

134,494

598,225

1998

109,065

463,060

1999

193,709

839,944

2000

175,098

888,788

2001

102,736

606,259

2002

76,310

572,646

2003

55,946

462,435

2004

63,840

537,151

2005

77,089

604,280

Source: http://www.migrationinformation.org/GlobalData/countrydata/data.cfm

• Between 1995 and 2002, for every 10 new immigrants entering the United States of America, 8 people became new citizens of the United States. (Actual number 7.9) • Between 1995 and 2002, for every 10 new immigrants entering Germany, between 3 and 4 people became new citizens of the country. (Actual number: 3.3)

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2.1.2 Statistics Review

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Muslims in Germany About 4 million Muslims currently live in Germany; almost all of them are immigrants or come from immigrant families. Around 45 % of the Muslim immigrants have the German citizenship. Country or Region of Origin

In Percent

Turkey

63.2 %

Southeast Europe

13.6 %

Middle East

8.1 %

North Africa

6.9 %

South and Southeast Asia

4.6 %

Iran

1.7 %

Sub-Saharan Africa

1.5 %

Central Asia, CIS States

0.4 %

Source: http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,715876,00.html

Guided Questions 1.

In your opinion, is the following statement fair: “In the United States, the face of the newcomer looks Latino (possibly Mexican) and in Germany the face of the newcomer looks Turkish?” Support your answer with an explanation.

2.

Based on your study of immigration so far, why do you think a greater percentage of immigrants became naturalized citizens in the United States than in Germany?

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2.1.3 No Place to Call Home: Turkish Immigrants Search for Identity

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Handout 2.1.3 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

No Place to Call Home Turkish Immigrants Search for Identity By Katie Backman 2007 As the rain rhythmically pitter-patters on the white plastic tarps

the mid-1960s when unemployment had reached an unprecedent-

propped up over the fresh produce, Turkish vendors hold plates of

ed low. Of those who were unemployed, officials agreed many were

sliced clementines, tangerines and oranges and shout for people to

either physically incapable of working or in the process of moving

taste their fruits.

to new jobs. For all intents and purposes, everyone in Germany who

The rain pools on the tarps and men periodically reach for brooms

wanted a job had one.

to shove the water from the sagging canopies. Booths line the

So the Turks came. As did the Italians, Spanish, Dutch, Greeks and

city-block-sized plaza, leaving two aisles barely wide enough for

North Africans. But mostly Turks. They were supposed to stay only a

customers and their umbrellas to squeeze through. The customers

short while to help Germany – and other Western European coun-

quickly visit each booth to choose from this week’s offerings of food,

tries – get through an unemployment crisis, but they did not go

jewelry, linens and clothes.

home. They became part of what The New York Times, in 1965, called

But the weather doesn’t stop customers from their weekend shop-

“a great European migration.”

ping at this market or others like it in this old city district. Turkish

And yet, to a large extent, Germany denied they were there.

restaurants and shops selling döner kebabs — lamb or chicken in

“Germany always denied being an immigrant country,” said Aldo

a pita, and some say, the country’s best-selling fast food — share space on the neighborhood’s streets with internet cafes and thrift stores. This part of the city is home to some 200,000 Turks, and most of them have carved lives here where they rarely feel the need to travel beyond the boundaries of this district. But though they may act as if they are living in Istanbul, they are not. They are living in Kreuzberg, an eclectic collection of rundown buildings and luxury apartments, home to working-class families, affluent young professionals, gays and immigrants. Berlin’s southernmost district, it includes the historic site of Checkpoint Charlie on the north and old Tempelhof Airport on the south. More than 40 years after the first wave of Gastarbeiter – guest workers – arrived in the country, Turks are less integrated into Germany than ever before; the sheer numbers of them having created a parallel Turkish society within the German one. Many of these Turks were born here; in fact, many of them are second- or third-generation inhabitants of Germany, a country that has never considered itself a

Graziani, chairman of Berlin’s Community Foundation, “so there was never talk of creating a program to help with the flow of immigrants.” Graziani, whose organization serves as an outlet for Berlin’s citizens to discuss community problems and their solutions, said it was the guest worker program that changed Germany. “I always understood Germany’s history as being an immigrant country,” he said, “but that was denied for many decades by many politicians.” Ahmet Nazif Alpman, the Turkish consul general in Berlin, agreed that Germany has never thought of itself as a nation of immigrants, and that, he said, keeps Germany from recognizing the contributions the Turks have made. “There’s a tendency to underestimate this role, this positive and contributive role of migrants, who are not guest workers anymore,” Nazif Alpman said as he sat in an antique chair in his canary-yellow living room in Berlin. “People have to understand that we need to live together and not side by side.” Across Berlin, Karsten D. Voigt, coordinator of German-American Co-

nation of immigrants.

operation at the Federal Foreign Office, also agrees.

They may live and work in Germany. They may send their children to

“We have to accept that we are an immigration country,” he said.

German schools. But they are not – they and the Germans around

Nazif Alpman looks at the United States, which he believes has more

them will say – German.

seamlessly integrated immigrants, and wishes Germany could be

Turkish workers began coming to what was then West Germany in

more like America. But, he said, Germany has not yet reached immi-

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2.1.3 No Place to Call Home: Turkish Immigrants Search for Identity

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gration maturity because of its history of not accepting “the other.”

as a European nation. Furthermore, the article foresees a wave of

A simple question, he says, indicates whether Germans are ready to

Turkish immigrants to Europe if Turkey becomes part of the union.

accept Turks in their country: Do Germans see Turks simply as peo-

The influx of Turkish immigrants and the poor economy in Turkey

ple who moved to Germany, or do they still see them as foreigners?

itself could economically hurt the EU, the BBC article said. Also some

Nazif Alpman blames the lack of integration on the personal prefer-

think Turkey is too big and would try to have too much power with-

ences of both Germans and Turks and also on Germany’s immigra-

in the bloc.

tion policy.

Turkey’s struggle to enter the European Union is as difficult as the

Germany’s Immigration Act, which went into effect on Jan. 1, 2005,

Turkish immigrants’ struggle for acceptance in Germany.

is the nation’s first attempt to provide a legislative framework to

Turks are not the only immigrants in Germany. Berlin alone is home

manage immigration as a whole. It promotes the integration of

to people from about 190 different ethnic backgrounds, according

legal immigrants in Germany, in part by simplifying the residency

to Elke Pohl, public relations director for the state of Berlin’s Office

permit process – reducing the number of permits from five to two

of Integration and Migration. But the Turks have tended to live to-

– and in part by focusing on the purpose of residence instead of

gether, in the center of Berlin, where older, cheaper apartments can

residence titles, such as students or migrant workers. The act pro-

be found. Such highly concentrated areas, she said, can allow im-

vides for highly qualified or self-employed people to be granted a

migrants to think they are still in Turkey.

permanent residence, often referred to as a settlement permit.

“It’s not easy to go out and integrate,” Pohl said, “when 30 to 40 per-

Other provisions require new immigrants and foreigners who have

cent of your community are non-Germans.”

been living in Germany to take courses for integration. The courses

Because Turks and Germans tend to live, work and go to school sep-

cover German language skills, history and culture lessons. If immigrants and foreigners don’t attend the courses, they can be fined 1,000 Euros, currently about $1,300 USD.

arately, they don’t see much of each other. They are left to wonder what the other group is like. When the two groups do briefly come into contact, stereotypes can develop. Such stereotypes can lead to

But the law is ever changing to accommodate immigrants’ needs

discrimination and racism.

and abilities.

Annika Bischof, 23, of Beeskow, Germany, is a communications ma-

Chancellor Angela Merkel’s cabinet approved a reform of Germany’s

jor at Coventry University in England. She believes her generation is

immigration laws in March. Under the new laws, foreigners can

more accepting of different cultures than her parents’ generation.

obtain legal residence provided they find jobs by 2009 and have

But still, she said, cultural differences can lead to discomfort.

lived in Germany for at least eight years – six years for families with

German men and women, for example, act as equals in their roman-

children. The draft law stipulates that applicants are not allowed to place a burden on local authorities by seeking additional social service payments once they have found employment. The reform sets a minimum age of 18 years for foreign spouses to join their partners in Germany, provided the partner is also 18 or older. The newcomer is also required to have a basic knowledge of the German language. Officials said the move was intended to counter forced or arranged marriages. But some officials in Turkey say the reform violates human rights. Turkey’s Foreign Minister and Deputy Premier Abdullah Gul has criticized the law for requiring a level of language proficiency that could be difficult for some to achieve.

tic relationships, Bischof said, while in Turkish couples the men seem to have control. “Germans walk down the street side by side,” she said, “but when I see a Turkish man walking down the street, he is followed by his wife and children.” Bischof said she also has noticed that Turks often travel in larger groups, which makes some Germans feel uncomfortable; Germans, she said, usually walk alone or in small groups. For their part, some Turkish people say they have been victims of prejudice from Germans, said Kenan Kolat, president of the Turkish Union. Germans often don’t know what to think when they see Turkish women who wear headscarves and have three or more children in a nation with a declining birthrate, he said. Some think Turk-

Those laws may be beside the point if Turkey joins the European

ish women’s sole purpose is to bear children.

Union, which the country has sought to do since October 2005. If

“One part of discrimination is racism,” Kolat said. “I can’t explain feel-

the country is admitted, Turks can freely come and go from Germany whenever they want.

ing this look in people’s eyes. You can see it in the subway, on the street. The eyes say a lot of things, and we can feel this. German

They will no longer be illegal.

people cannot feel this.”

However, many Germans oppose Turkey’s admission to the EU. A

For Pohl, the root cause of any immigration “problem” is education:

BBC article published in 2006 said many Europeans don’t see Turkey

Turkish immigrants arrive in Germany with too little of it. Without

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2.1.3 No Place to Call Home: Turkish Immigrants Search for Identity

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basic education, she said, immigrants today can’t get jobs, contrib-

“The language barrier is not a problem for me,” he said.

uting to a nearly 40 percent unemployment rate among immigrants

One of Dimirkiran’s classmates, Damla Sarper, 16, said she, too, is

in Berlin.

comfortable speaking German because of school and the help of

“Some studies have proven that Germans just don’t like foreigners or

her German friends. Sarper, who wants someday to be a hairstylist,

‘the other’ cultures,” Pohl said. “But (according to the studies) if they

said she knows if she couldn’t speak German, she wouldn’t be able

earned money, Germans would be more able to tolerate them.”

to get a job.

Pohl believes Germans’ inability to accept “the other” may be caught

The 2005 Immigration Act also allocates funding for integration

up in the nation’s World War II history. But others think more recent

courses, which give participants a chance to have German conver-

history may also have had an impact.

sations and to learn about German culture and laws.

Gerrit Book, 35, a freelance tour guide with the Goethe-Institut in

These are just the latest programs that have been set up to educate

Berlin, said the terrorist attacks on the United States on Sept. 11,

the immigrants, said Voigt, of the Federal Foreign Office. Since the

2001, changed Germans’ attitudes toward Turks. Once Germans

1960s, laws have been revised to be more accommodating to the

would have said “hello” to Turks on the street just as they would to

workers who came to Germany when the Germans sought their

Germans, he said. That changed after the attacks.

help.

“Before, there were Turkish and Arabic,” he said. “But now there are

When Germany held the 2006 FIFA World Cup, much was made of

just Muslims. Now people start wondering what’s happening be-

how enthusiastically the German people flew their flag. But Ger-

hind closed doors of a Turkish home or mosque. Life for Turkish people got difficult after 9/11.” When it comes to hurdles, there is no barrier like language. Language, Book said, is an important step toward assimilation into a community. Now, Germany’s Immigration Act mandates that immigrants applying for residency must have “adequate knowledge of the German language.” If Turks don’t know German, said Graziani of Berlin’s Community Foundation, they will struggle getting jobs, and they won’t be able to intermingle with Germans. In other words, he said, they won’t be able to integrate. Graziani believes immigrants should prepare more before living in Germany or trying to become citizens, learning for example, how to have a conversation with someone in German. Kolat, of the Turkish Union, believes the perception that no Turk can

mans waved other flags during the World Cup games as well, not only banners that represented the teams they supported but also banners that celebrated their ethnic background. “It is time,” Voigt said, “for Germans to admit that their country is changing. Time to understand the myriad international connections shared by people living in Germany. Time to embrace the complex human mosaic that Germany has become.” “It would be silly to say that only Germans live in Germany,” Voigt said, “but the Turks and other immigrants living in Germany need to adjust to their new country.” “I think it should be a lesson for us that one should not reduce the complexity of human beings to one identity,” Voigt said, pointing out that he considers himself not only a German but also a European, an intellectual and a Protestant, and that’s just for starters. Still, as Ahmet Geredeli stands behind a fresh produce stand on a rainy, cold Saturday, he remembers the day in 1970 when he and his

speak German is a form of discrimination itself.

parents moved from Turkey to Berlin. His father was among the 2.1

He said that when Germans recognize him as Turkish they often

million guest workers who had come to Germany already by that

compliment his language skills. “They say, ‘You speak good German,’

year. Geredeli’s father, who, like most of the guest workers, didn’t

and I say, ‘You, too,’” Kolat said with a chuckle.

have much of an education, worked as a mechanic.

Burak Dimirkiran, 17, studies in a classroom where a majority of

Geredeli was just 14, and that day, for the first time, he came face to

the students are Turkish or otherwise non-German. His father lived

face with people who didn’t want him living in their country. Today,

in Syria, then moved to Turkey and then to Germany. His mother,

nearly 40 years later, Geredeli said he still feels some Germans don’t

though Turkish, was born in Germany.

want him here.

While Dimirkiran acknowledges that many Turks tend to keep to

“They will say things like, ‘Go back to your own country. Your par-

themselves because they haven’t learned German, he is not one of

ents are uninvited,’” he said. “But to me this is my home country. Why

them. He attends a school that teaches in German. And instead of

should I go away?”

going home and speaking Turkish for the rest of the day, Dimirkiran

Backman, Kate. (2007). No Place to Call Home. In Renovating the Re-

said he spends time with German friends and continues to speak

public: Unified Germany Confronts its History. University of Nebraska

German with them.

at Lincoln.

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2.1.3 No Place to Call Home: Turkish Immigrants Search for Identity

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University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Seeking Acceptance Turks Want to Gain Citizenship without Losing Culture By Katie Backman 2007 Imagine that you’ve lived in the same country your whole life.

“I work in a very conservative profession,” Can said in English, his

You’ve grown up in this country. You’ve gone to school here. You

third language. “When you look like me, with the long hair, and have

have found a job and even started your own family. But none of that matters to the locals. You, your parents, your grandparents weren’t supposed to stay. You were all supposed to finish your work and leave. But you did not go back. You stayed. You are a foreigner. And to many people here, you will always be one. Some of them even think you don’t belong just because of the color of your skin or your religion. It doesn’t matter if you speak their language because they pick up on your accent. You are not a citizen. And you are never supposed to seek citizenship. This is the scenario many Turks living in Germany struggle with every day.

a Turkish name, people think that perhaps I am not a good lawyer or speak good German because my name sounds strange. It’s not German. “Germans have an idea about Turkish immigrant people,” Can continued. “It’s that these are only workers, not professional type guys.” On Jan. 1, 2000, Germany reformed its citizenship laws to try to correct the problems that stemmed from the guest worker program. The families from the guest worker program pay their taxes and abide by the country’s laws. They’re no longer guests. The reformed laws are an attempt to show that foreigners are welcome if they seek citizenship. Germany has three ways for a person to become a citizen: by birth, by naturalization and by “right of return,” a route open only to ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and

And yet, to some Turks, like Burak Can, a lawyer in Berlin, Germany remains a country of possibilities. It is a country where people like Can have a chance to succeed. Many of the guest workers who came here more than four decades ago thought the same thing originally: They saw Germany as a chance to improve their lives.

the Soviet successor states. Formerly, immigrants couldn’t become citizens unless they were born in Germany and had a German parent – “citizenship by inheritance,” the law called it. As an alternative, the previous law also permitted a person to have residency for 15 years – though many say that is too long. Now the

In the mid-1960s, West Germany invited men from Turkey and other

laws say that children born to non-citizens in Germany have an au-

countries to come to work – guest workers. Germany had a short-

tomatic claim to German citizenship if at least one parent has lived

age of workers, and the country needed temporary help. It seemed

legally in Germany for at least eight years, rather than the previous

like a good short-term solution.

requirement of 15 years. Those children will be allowed to hold dual

But many of the guest workers didn’t leave. They had been trained

citizenship until they are 23 years old, at which time they will be

for the jobs, and the German employers didn’t want to retrain new

required to choose German or a foreign citizenship.

employees. So the workers stayed. And then their families came.

About 100,000 children have been born in Germany to non-citizens

Today, Turks in Germany are often men and women without a coun-

each year for the past 10 years.

try. They haven’t fully assimilated into Germany mainly because their

To be naturalized, foreigners must give up their native citizenship

culture is so different. They feel as if Germany doesn’t want them

at age 23, have a record clean of felonies and be able to support

because they are still perceived as foreigners. And Turkey doesn’t

themselves and their families. Applicants must also be able to speak

want them back because they are seen as having abandoned their

German and know the country’s basic laws.

home country.

Some exemptions exist for giving up dual citizenship, such as eco-

Such barriers prevent Turkish-Germans, such as Can, who has been

nomic loss of property rights in the former country or unreasonable

a German citizen for 15 years, from feeling welcome, respected and

fees for renouncing citizenship – costs for things like processing and

needed.

translating citizenship status, marriage licenses and other such legal

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2.1.3 No Place to Call Home: Turkish Immigrants Search for Identity

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paperwork into the new country’s language. In addition, the law is not retroactive. Those who had dual citizenship before the new laws passed are allowed to keep it.

Kolat said many Turks who moved to Germany still have love for and pride in Turkey, and they want to show those feelings by keeping a tie to the country: their citizenship. This was the case for Can, who had both German and Turkish citizenships before the reform law was passed.

In January 2000 when the new regulations took effect, approximately 3.6 million foreigners had lived in Germany for 10 years or more, which meant they had fulfilled the new eight-year residency requirement, according to the German Embassy.

“Having two citizenships is a privilege,” Can said, “and I guess no one wants to give it up.”

In 2000, 103,900 Turks obtained German citizenship. The number of Turks seeking citizenship has gradually declined since the new laws have passed.

Former Turkish citizens who move back can apply for a blue card, which gives them rights similar to citizenship, but they can’t vote or be elected to a political position in Turkey.

The reformed law has helped immigrants like Ahmet Geredeli adapt to their new country. Geredeli immigrated to Germany from Turkey in 1970 because his father was a member of the guest worker program.

Many Germans don’t know what to think about the Turkish culture, Can said. Because of fear of “the other,” he said, many Germans want Turks to give up their heritage as soon as they become citizens. They want them to act more German.

His father, like many of the other guest workers from Turkey, didn’t go back. Instead, he began calling Germany home. Geredeli is a German citizen, and so are his children. He said, through an interpreter, that he wanted his children to have German citizenship because he believed it would create an easier life for them.

But many Turks may see things differently.

“Turkey and Germany are both my countries,” he said. “Turkey is my country of origin, and Germany is my home.”

As Can said, “I have a culture, and this culture is not very bad. So why do I have to give up my culture? I am a part of this city. I am a part of this country.” Backman, Kate. (2007). Seeking Acceptance. In Renovating the Republic: Unified Germany Confronts its History. University of Nebraska at Lincoln.

Geredeli still returns to Turkey to see his family. But, like many other Turks who live in Germany, he has found that he isn’t always welcome in Turkey. To some, he is seen as a person who abandoned his native land. Geredeli said neither nation fully accepts the choices he has made. Kenan Kolat, president of the Turkish Union in Berlin, agreed. “When Turkish people are in Germany, they are foreigners,” Kolat said. “But those same Turkish people who live in Germany are also considered as foreigners to the people in Turkey because those people left their country.” Can believes it will take years for things to change. Turks living in Germany still want to feel Turkish, and some Germans still don’t accept members of a different culture. Can says he shouldn’t have to feel guilty about being Turkish. He said he knows the German language and history, sometimes better than natives, but he’s still not accepted. When Can meets new people, he said, they usually compliment his speaking skills and ask him why he’s in Germany. He feels as if he has to explain why he’s a Turk living in Germany and how he became a lawyer. Many Germans see immigrants, especially the Turkish ones, as not being able to learn the language properly or go to university, Can said. “Sometimes I think the German society will never accept us how we are and who we are, despite that we have been living here for about 40 years,” Can said.

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2.1.4 Has Germany Become A Genuine “Country of Immigration” for Turkish-Germans?

HANDOUT 2.1.4 HAS GERMANY BECOME A GENUINE “COUNTRY OF IMMIGRATION” FOR TURKISH-GERMANS DBQ? Background: Many of you are probably familiar with the poem The New Colossus, inscribed on a plaque at the base of the Statue of Liberty at the entrance to New York harbor.1

The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!” Written in 1883 at a time when then millions of people were immigrating to the United States, Lazarus’ poem captured the ideal that “America was an immigrant nation.” The term “Immigrant Nation” means more than foreigners coming to a country. It implies that newcomers will be able to make a home in their country. It suggests that natives will accept them, laws and officials will be fair and that talent and hard work will be rewarded. Nation of Immigrants DBQ: This question is based on the accompanying documents. It is designed to test your ability to work with documents. Some of the documents have been edited for the purposes of the question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Background: Today, encountering people of Turkish descent and aspects of German-Turkish culture is a daily experience for much of the German population. Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of contemporary Germany, write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion on the following topic: Has Germany become a genuine “Nation of Immigration” for its largest ethnic minority, the Turks?

1

Lazarus, E. (1883). The New Colossus. Retrieved from the Academy of American Poets, http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/16111

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2.1.4 Has Germany Become A Genuine “Country of Immigration” for Turkish-Germans?

Document 1: Excerpts from an edited interview by Barbara Weber with the politician sometimes called the German “Obama,” Cem Özdemir. Some reporters have called Mr. Özdemir the German “Obama” because he is the first person of Turkish descent to be elected to the German Bundestag (lower house of parliament). He was elected in 1994 as a member of the Green Party. On Immigration I think we are in a transition phase. For me it’s quite clear that the slogan that “Germany is not a Country of Immigration” (Einwanderungsland) has been revealed as the Lie of the Republic, but we have not yet formulated what should replace it. I feel very optimistic. I don’t want to make too much of an issue out of this, but look at me, I’m a representative in the German Parliament. I come from a working-class family. My father has very little schooling. My parents both came to Germany as guest workers. I did very poorly in school, but I worked hard to improve myself and went on to the university and got my degree. I firmly believe that change can happen. I did all this as a member of just the second generation of Turks in Germany. Some say, well, I’m just an exception to the rule. This is not true. When I say to those who doubt, “I am just like you, my parents didn’t have any better conditions than your parents did when they came over,” they understand me. Then they listen to what I have to say. Problems facing people of Turkish descent in Germany Many members of the Turkish community have used the previously unknown amount of freedom for their personal development. They have created individual identities that combine elements of both cultures and countries without having any loyalty problems…Unfortunately, the more isolated community members are, the less educated and less able to communicate successfully, the more likely they are to stick to pre-democratic behavior in families or society, and the more likely they are to turn to nationalist or fundamentalist Islamic ideologies. In fact, many of the Islamic fanatics – a small minority among Turkish Muslims – have had their religious born-again experience in Germany. Another problem group is the older immigrants. Little or nothing has been done to prepare German society for the needs of the elderly and the recently retired generation of immigrants. It cannot be denied anymore that a high proportion of them will spend their lives in Germany. Social services are not prepared to meet the special needs of Muslims. Are Turkish Germans Assimilating? It has taken almost thirty years, but Germany is finally coming to grips with the fact that it has become – or at least has been for many years – a melting pot or immigration country. Like other ethnic groups, the Turkish community – which totals 30 per cent of seven million immigrants in Germany – has undergone a process of amazing assimilation. According to recent studies, more than 60 per cent of all Turkish inhabitants in Germany would be willing to become German citizens if they were able to keep their Turkish passport too. Other social developments in the Turkish community of two million are quite amazing: there are over 40,000 Turkish companies in Germany that employ hundreds of thousands of people. There are more than 13,000 Turkish students at German universities. And more than 400,000 people of Turkish origin have German citizenship. (Berlin alone has a community of 150,000 Turks.) Contrary to what some populist ideologists preach, there is no going back to old and simple social formations and traditions.

Source: Weber, B. (2006). Interview with a Turkish member of the Bundestag. Retrieved from the Centre Interculturel euro-libanais at the Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth (Lebanon): http://www.ciel.usj.edu.lb/observatoire/docs_actus/ImmigrationandPoliticsinGermany.pdf

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2.1.4 Has Germany Become A Genuine “Country of Immigration” for Turkish-Germans?

Document 2: Turks as coal miners and steel workers in Germany This is an excerpt of a translation from a newspaper published in the Turkish language, but aimed at Germans. The paper is called The Hürriyet Daily and Economic Review; this article was published on 3 September 2009. “German shift from coal to culture leaves Turkish workers behind” As Germany’s former industrial backbone tries to transform itself from a coal-mining center into an enduring European culture capital, the residents of the Ruhr region, including many Turks, risk being left behind. “Many towns in this region are located right around the coal mines because the workers wanted to live close to their work. Yet, with the mines closing, there are no more jobs in these towns, especially for the Turks,” Haluk Köker, a former coal miner who is now a social worker in Hamm, one of the 53 cities or towns in the Ruhr area, told the Hürriyet Daily News & Economic Review. “The older generation was able to retire, but unemployment especially affects the young generation. They don’t know how or aren’t interested in moving into the creative jobs sector,” Köker said. Until the mid-20th century, the Ruhr region was the center of Germany’s coal and steel industry. At its peak, 600,000 people were employed in the area’s 200 mines. Today, just four are active, employing roughly 30,000 people, many of whom are of Turkish descent. Source: Eğrikavuk, I. (2010, September 3). German shift from coal to culture leaves Turkish workers behind. Retrieved from Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Review: http:// www.hurriyetdailynews.com/n.php?n=-2010-09-03

Document 3: Jobs and Businesses Created by Turkish Germans “In 2008 there were approximately 9,000 small and medium-sized enterprises of Turkish origin in Berlin. They employed about 29,000 employees and created a yearly turnover of about 3.5 billion euro.” Source: Turkish-German Employers Association (TDU) of Berlin and Brandenburg (Türkisch-Deutsche Unternehmervereinigung Berlin-Brandenburg) http://tdu2.rescue-it. de/de/startseite/81-tdu.html, retrieved September 2012.

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2.1.4 Has Germany Become A Genuine “Country of Immigration” for Turkish-Germans?

Document 4:

USA TODAY The Doner-Kebab: the German Taco? DONER KEBAB BECOMES GERMANY’S FAVORITE FAST FOOD By Kirsten Grieshaber 2010

City-Imbiss stand near West Berlin’s main Zoo train station.

BERLIN — Forget about bratwurst, currywurst and other kinds of

Since then, the snack has been exported around the globe, and

sausages — doner kebab, or shawarma, has overtaken traditional

even countries as far away as Vietnam, now sell doner pita as “typi-

German fast food as the country’s favorite snack on the go.

cal German students’ food,” as papers in Germany have repeatedly

First brought to Berlin by Turkish immigrants in the 1970s, the grilled

reported.

meat snack that comes wrapped in a pita bread with shredded let-

Germany is home to 2.7 million people of Turkish origin; an estimat-

tuce, tomatoes, onions and different dressings, is now being sold

ed 500,000 are German citizens.

everywhere in Germany from the Baltic Sea to the Bavarian Alps.

While the dish was first mainly sold in Berlin, outlets sprang up across

Students and late night revelers relish it as much as construction

the nation in the 1990s, when the second generation of immigrants

workers, children and foreign backpackers on a tight budget.

came of age and set up their own, family-run doner shops. Wholesale dealers who are offering meat already on the spit — between

“We assume that doner kebab is the Germans’ favorite fast food by

22 to 175 pounds (10 and 80 kilograms) — have also mushroomed.

now,” said Yunus Ulusoy, an expert from the Center for the Study of Turkey in Essen, who has done extensive research on how the eth-

In the last 40 years, doner vendors have refined the taste and assimi-

nic specialty conquered Germany’s culinary mainstream.

lated it to the gusto of German palates. Razor-thin slices of crispy chicken or veal are usually accompanied by chopped lettuce, toma-

The secret behind the doner’s success story is not only its satisfying

toes, cucumbers, cabbage and red onions. Customers can choose

grilled taste, Ulusoy said, but also the big portions and its affordabil-

between garlic, yoghurt and spicy dressing.

ity — a regular doner in a pita costs only between 2.50 euros and 5 euros ($3.30 to $6.70).

“In Turkey, the dish is served without dressing, but Germans just can’t eat any meat without sauce,” said Ulusoy, adding that the meat

The veal and chicken sandwiches are more popular than pizza, ham-

itself is also much more seasoned in Germany than in its country of

burgers, French fries and even classic German sausages, according

origin.

to a poll by German Men’s Health magazine from 2008. The recipes for the seasoning vary and are a well-kept secret. Often “We can actually no longer speak of Turkish food, because the Ger-

the meat is marinated in yogurt and flavored with bell pepper flakes,

mans like it even better than the Turks,” said Ulusoy.

salt and black pepper, cumin and pimento. Arabic shops who sell

Some 15,500 doner places in Germany sell about 400 tons of doner meat every day, according to ATDID, the Association of Turkish Do-

the so-called shawarma variety, sometimes add cinnamon, coriander seeds and pomegranate juice.

ner Producers in Europe. About 60,000 workers produce, cut and

Different from gyros, the Greek pork spit that contains a lot of oreg-

process the hearty delicacy with annual sales of 2.5 billion euros

ano and is served in bigger chunks, doner has to be cut very thinly.

($3.3 billion).

“You need to have a real feel for the meat when you slice it,” said

The word doner, comes from the Turkish verb donmek, or to turn,

Ismet Donmez, who runs Rosenthaler Grill- und Schlemmerbuffet in

because it is grilled for hours on a spit and cut off in razor-thin slices

Berlin. “The art is to cut thinly, but to avoid pressing the knife against

when the meat is crisp and brown.

the spit, otherwise all the fat will run out and the meat becomes dry.”

In Turkey, the dish was originally made of lamb and sold only on

Donmez, who immigrated from Turkey 20 years ago, sells chicken

a plate. According to the legend, it was Mahmut Aygun, a Turkish

and veal doner 24 hours a day on a busy square in the city’s Mitte

guest worker, who invented the first doner sandwich in 1971, when

neighborhood. He insists that his workers cut the meat by hand, us-

he sold the meat in a piece of pita bread with yoghurt dressing at

ing long knives with rounded tips.

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2.1.4 Has Germany Become A Genuine “Country of Immigration” for Turkish-Germans?

When asked about the so-called doner robot, an automatic doner cutting machine that was invented in Izmir, Turkey, and recently introduced at Germany’s first doner trade fair, Donmez only snubbed. “Ten years ago, they tried to introduce electronic knifes and that also didn’t work out,” he said. “We’re going to continue doing everything manually, that’s the best way.” The long line of customers forming in front of his store, seemed to prove him right. “I’ve come here every day for lunch since I arrived in Berlin,” said Ofir Steinberg, an Israeli tourist, who was visiting the city for a week. “It’s the best shawarma I’ve ever had. It tastes even better than at home.” Source: Grieshaber, K. (2010). Doner Kebab Becomes Germany’s Favorite Fast Food. Retrieved from USA Today: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/travel/ destinations/2010-04-11-germany-doner-kebab_N.htm

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2.1.4 Has Germany Become A Genuine “Country of Immigration” for Turkish-Germans?

Document 5: Xenophobia in Germany Racism and xenophobia are by no means extinct. A dossier of articles by the German magazine Der Spiegel provides students with an excellent and current overview of how German society deals with the problems of integration of its immigrant communities. The articles are available online at: http://www.spiegel.de/international/topic/integration_debate/ The Goethe-Institut also provides a rich variety of articles about integration and migration issues at http://www.goethe.de/lhr/prj/daz/enindex.htm

Document 6: Speeches by German Politicians 2002: German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder: ”We have created new citizenship laws [1999] and are in the process of creating immigration laws that make it clear that Germany sees itself as an open country, as a country that wants to be attractive to the world’s best minds, and wants to afford them opportunities to do research and to work as well as opportunities for investment. The so-called ’Green Card’ program we introduced is only one aspect of this necessary and important change.” [Note: Schroeder was the leader of the Social-Democrat Party (SPD) and Chancellor of Germany from 1998-2005 – in a coalition government with The Green Party.] Source: Speech by Chancellor Gerhard Schröder at the World Economic Forum 2002 in New York http://usa.usembassy.de/gemeinsam/ schroeder020102.htm August, 2009: Thilo Sarrazin, a one-time finance minister for Berlin and a member of the group running the German Central Bank, publishes a book called Germany Does Away With Itself, arguing that foreigners, particularly Muslim foreigners, are destroying Germany’s future. His argument is that Muslim culture produces less intelligent and less hard-working people than German culture and causing Germany’s economy to fail. “No other religion in Europe is so demanding and no other migration group depends so much on the social welfare state and is so much connected to criminality…We are not a migration country,” Sarrazin said. [Note: Sarrazin was forced to resign his position as a member of Germany’s Central Bank after his comments. Source: Slackman, M. (2010, September 2). Book Sets Off Immigration Debate in Germany. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www. nytimes.com/2010/09/03/world/europe/03germany.html October 2010: German Chancellor Angela Merkel addresses a conference of young members of her political party, The Christian Democratic Union, with a speech that emphasizes the need for citizens of Germany to accept a unified German culture. “This multicultural approach, saying that we simply live side by side and live happily with each other has failed. Utterly failed,” Merkel said. [Note: Merkel is the leader of the generally conservative Christian Democratic Union. Her party governs Germany today [2012] in a partnership with a centrist party, the Free Democratic Party.] Source: Johnson, B. (2010, October 17). Merkel: Multicultural approach has ‘utterly failed’. Retrieved from About.com World News: http://worldnews.about.com/b/2010/10/17/merkel-multicultural-approach-has-utterly-failed.htm

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2.1.4 Has Germany Become A Genuine “Country of Immigration” for Turkish-Germans?

Document 7: The Influence of Immigration on German Soccer Background: Soccer (or Football as it is known outside of the United States of America) is the world’s most popular sport. The Football World Cup, played every four years, is the most-watched televised event on the planet. The World Cup pits the national teams of almost 200 countries against each other. Over the 80 years of World Cup play, other nations have won more outright championships than Germany (e.g. Brazil), but no country has a better overall record, or reached semi-finals more often. In 2010, when the World Cup was played in South Africa, Germany was again one of the final four teams in the world left playing. 7A. June 2010: (the German public broadcaster aimed at foreign audiences) Of the 23 players representing Germany at the World Cup, 11 have foreign backgrounds. More than half of the outfield players selected by Joachim Loew were either born outside Germany themselves, or have a non-German parent. The squad has roots in eight different countries – nine when Germany’s included. The role of sport in incorporating ethnic minorities into society is one of the Olympic movement’s central leitmotifs. According to the most up-to-date figures from the Federal Statistics Office, one in five people living in Germany in 2008 was of foreign descent. From the total of 15.9 million with roots abroad, 2.9 million were from Turkey. Two likely starters for the national team at the World Cup – Serdar Tasci and Mesut Özil – both have Turkish parents. “A gift for German football,” was how German National Team coach Joachim Loew described Özil. Comments about Mesut Özil, the most prominent German Soccer player of Turkish descent. Background: Mesut Özil was born in Germany. So were his parents. His Turkish roots go back to his grandparents who immigrated to Germany in the 1950s as part of the Guest Worker program. Now 22 years old, Özil caught the attention of German soccer experts from a very early age. Yet, it was not until 2009 that he decided to play for the national team of Germany instead of the national team of Turkey in the World Cup. Source: Matic, S. (2011, May 7). Germany’s soccer squad boasts ethnic diversity. Retrieved from Deutsche Welle: http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,5678110,00.html

7B. June 2010; German National Team Manager Oliver Bierhof:

“Mesut Özil [is] a devout Muslim of Turkish origin [who, when he plays], hugs Cacau, a devout Christian with Brazilian roots. That is a symbol for integration, as it is lived by us.” Source: Ahrens, P. (2010, October 7). Football Clash Puts Özil in the Spotlight. Retrieved from Spiegel Online: http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/0,1518,721795,00.html

7C. June 2010; Turkish National Team Member Hamit Altintop. Like Özil, Altintop is a top international Soccer player born in Germany. However, he has chosen to play for Turkey’s national team. “I am a tolerant person and I respect Mesul’s path but I cannot support him.” Altintop argued that Özil had more sway as a German national player, a higher market value and earns more money. “That has nothing to do with integration,” he said. Source: Ahrens, P. (2010, October 7). Football Clash Puts Özil in the Spotlight. Retrieved from Spiegel Online: http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/0,1518,721795,00.html

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2.1.5 Extension Activity: Turkish-German Rappers

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Handout 2.1.5 Extension Activity: Turkish-German Rappers Cartel: the Gangsta Rappers of Germany Both famous and notorious, Cartel was group of Turkish-German rappers from Berlin, who became the city’s most popular hip-hop artists in the mid-1990s. Rapping in Turkish and a part-German, part-Turkish street slang called Kanak-Sprak, Cartel vented anger against what they saw as mainstream German prejudice against Turks. Their lyrics celebrated Turkish pride, and aggressively condemned neo-Nazism and anti-Turkish feelings. By not rapping in clear German, Cartel taunted Germans to try to understand what they were saying. In fact, “What are they saying? Didn’t Pay Attention in Turkish Class?” was a slogan that Cartel marketed on tee-shirts they sold. Cartel modeled their style and attitudes on American “Gangsta” rap. Their lyrics threatened to commit violence against neo-Nazis and other “enemies.” Not surprisingly, Cartel’s members also got into trouble with authorities, as many Gangsta Rappers did. When they got into a bloody brawl in 2001, some members were nearly killed. Several went to jail. Authorities banned the album from the airwaves until 2004, and members were prevented from performing as a group. Other Turkish-German Hip-Hop Performers • King Size Terror was the first group of artists to record an entire album of Hip Hop lyrics. It was called Bir Yabancının Hayatı (The Life of the Stranger) • Ceza (pronounced je-ZAH) is a well-selling rapper in both Turkey and Germany. Ceza was born in Germany in 1977 with the given name Bilgin Özçalkan. His stage name means “Punishment” in Turkish. • Islamic Force was, along with Cartel, one of early imitators of American Gangsta rap. Boe-B, a German of Turkish descent who was one of the band’s chief writers has gone onto a solo-career, where he raps about Turkish-German history. • Azize-A has been called the German Queen Latifah. Azize-A was born in Germany but raps and sings in Turkish. Her song, Bosphorus Bridge makes reference to the Bosphorus, a narrow strait of water that bisects the city of Istanbul and formally divides Europe from Asia. Lyrics from “Go-Go” by Cartel In these lyrics, Cartel demands that its audience recognize that Turkish-Germans are here to stay – and are neither like older generations of Turks or older generations of Germans. The first line is a reference to a stereotypical depictions of Turks. We’re not Ali or Ahmet / Look at the chess board / Whoever disrespects us now / is forced To make their play / You’ve made us sick long enough / with your swindling. Lyrics from Islamic Force They arrive in Istanbul from their villages / And got searched in the German customs / It is as if they got purchased / Germans thought they’d use and kick them off / But they failed to / Our people ruined their plans / Those peasants turned out to be clever / They worked hard / Opened a bakery or a doner kebab / on each corner / But they paid a lot for this success. Lyrics from Azize-A: We live together on planet earth / And if we want to grow in peace / We need to erase our borders, / Share our rich cultures. / Yes, connect and blend the West / West with the East.

Sources: Bennet, A. (1999). Hip Hop Am Main: the localization of rap music and hip hop culture. Media, Culture & Society, 21, 77-91. doi: 10.1177/016344399021001004 Diessel, C. (2001). Bridging east and west on the “Orient Express”: oriental hip hop in the Turkish diaspora of Berlin. Journal of Popular Music Studies 12, 165-187. doi:10.1080/152422201753331180 Kaya, A. (2001) Constructing Diasporas: Turkish Hip-Hop Youth in Berlin. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag.

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2.2.1 German Basic Law

HANDOUT 2.2.1 GERMAN BASIC LAW German Basic Law 1949 Article 4 [Freedom of faith and conscience] (1) Freedom of faith and of conscience, and freedom to profess a religious or philosophical creed, shall be inviolable. (2) The undisturbed practice of religion shall be guaranteed. (3) No person shall be compelled against his conscience to render military service involving the use of arms. Details shall be regulated by a federal law. Article 140 [Law of religious denominations] The provisions of Articles 136, 137, 138, 139 and 141 of the German Constitution of 11 August 1919 shall be an integral part of this Basic Law.

German Constitution of 11 August 1919

Article 136 Civil and civic rights and obligations are neither conditioned nor limited by the exercise of freedom of religion. The exercise of civil or civic rights, the admittance to public offices are independent of religious confession. Nobody is obliged to profess his religious confession publicly. Public authority may only ask for religious affiliation as far as rights and obligations derive or an officially decreed census requires. Nobody may be forced to participate in a religious act or festivity, to join in religious practices or to swear a religious oath formula. Article 137 There is no state church. Freedom to form religious communities is guaranteed. Regarding the unification of religious communities within the Reich territory there are no limitations. Every religious community administrates its own affairs without interference of state or community. Religious communities acquire legal capacity according to general specifications of civil law. Religious communities, as far as they have been, remain public corporations. Other religious societies have to be granted the same rights on application, if they, by the means of their number and constitution, indicate to be lasting. If several religious communities with the status of public corporations form a confederation, the status of public corporation is extended to this confederation. Religious communities with the status of public corporations are entitled to raise taxes based on fiscal records and in accordance with state regulations. Religious communities are given equal status with civic organizations which cultivate a philosophy of life. Inasmuch as the application of these regulations requires further details, these have to be established by state legislation.

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2.2.1 German Basic Law

Article 138 State contributions to religious communities, inasmuch they are based on law, treaty or specific legal claim, are to be handled by state legislation. The Reich provides the principles herefor. The religious communities’ and organization’s right to own institutions serving public welfare, education and religious service, to own respective endowments and other property are guaranteed. Article 139 Sunday and other state holidays are designated as days of rest from work and spiritual collection and are, as such, protected by law. Article 141 Insofar there is demand for religious service and ministerial work in the army, in hospitals, prisons or other public institutions, religious organizations have to be permitted to take care of these, and they have to be kept clear of any form of force.

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2.2.2 Religion in Germany: Information Packet

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HANDOUT 2.2.2 RELIGION IN GERMANY: INFORMATION PACKET Religion in Germany Denomination Breakdown Religion

of Nation %

Christianity: Evangelical Protestants

29.30 %

Christianity: Roman Catholics

29.20 %

Islam

4.88 %

Judaism

0.24 %

Other Religions (Christianity)

5.75 %

No Religion

31.00 %

Source: (2011). Religionen & Weltanschauungs-gemeinschaften in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen. REMID. Retrieved September 31, 2012, from http://www. remid.de/remid_info_zahlen.htm

Religious communities and the state in Germany Relations between religious organizations and the state are governed by constitutional law applicable to religious organizations.

Religion and the Basic Law The most important provisions governing the relations between church and state in Germany are found in Article 4 of Germany`s constitution, the Basic Law, and in the articles of the German Constitution of 11 August 1919 (Weimar Constitution), which are an integral part of the Basic Law under its Article 140. For historical reasons, the constitutional provisions governing the relations between church and state are

Religious instruction Under Article 7 (3) of the Basic Law, religious instruction shall form part of the regular curriculum in state schools. Such instruction is compulsory for members of the relevant religious organizations. However, children may be excused from religious instruction at their parents’ request; students over the age of 14 may also request to be excused. Under Article 141 of the Basic Law, the provision making religious instruction part of the regular curriculum in state schools shall not apply in any state in which state law provided otherwise on 1 January 1949; this was the case in the city-states of Bremen and Berlin. Religious instruction as part of the regular curriculum is intended to convey the values and doctrines of the relevant religious organization; religion classes intended only to provide neutral information about one or more religions is not the kind of instruction referred to by the Basic Law. Although the states are responsible for supervising school curriculum, the curriculum for religious instruction is to be set in cooperation with the religious organization and “in agreement with their principles”. Organizing religious instruction in schools is the responsibility of the states, as part of their responsibility for education. Under certain conditions, religious organizations are entitled to have religious instruction in their faith taught at public schools. Among these conditions are that their constitution and the number of their members give assurance of their permanency; the organization must also have a clearly defined membership so that it is possible to determine who is required to attend religious instruction. They must also have a designated representative to the government who is authorized to define the organization’s principles to be followed when giving religious instruction. Further, the religious organization must not threaten the fundamental constitutional principles, the basic rights of third parties protected by the state, or the basic principles of the liberal constitutional law on religious organizations. The religious organization does not have to be a corporation under public law.

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According to rulings by the Federal Administrative Court, schools may introduce non-confessional ethics curriculum for students not taking religious instruction. Public schools may offer classes on ethical issues. Church tax All religious and ideological communities with corporation status may levy taxes (Article 140 of the Basic Law in conjunction with Article 137 (6) of the Weimar Constitution). The church tax is not a state tax. Only members of the relevant religious or philosophical organization are subject to the tax. Organizations with the right to levy taxes may decide whether to do so. The states are responsible for the specific legislation on the church tax and determine the details in consultation with the religious and philosophical organizations entitled to levy taxes. Because this is a matter for the states, the law on church taxes varies from state to state, so only the general structures can be described here. In most cases, church tax takes the form of a surcharge on income and wage tax. This surcharge ranges from 8% to 9%, depending on the individual state. The church tax is subject to management by the church administration. However, the relevant legislation of all the states gives churches the option to delegate management to the state tax offices. If they choose this option, the churches pay the state tax offices a management fee amounting to between 2% and 4.5% of church tax revenues. Source: Bundesministerium des Innern. (n.d.). Religious Communities and the state in Germany. Retrieved July 2011, from Churches and Religious Communities: http:// www.bmi.bund.de/

Islam in Germany The Federal Government distinguishes between Islam, one of the three major monotheistic religions of the world, and Islamism, an extremist political ideology. The Federal Government considers the integration of Muslims in Germany and the promotion of peaceful co-existence with them as one of its most important policy tasks. Between 3.8 and 4.3 million Muslims of immigrant origin live in Germany, according to a study of Muslim life in Germany.  The Federal Ministry of the Interior also promotes inter-religious dialogue, which reinforces what all religions share and thus also public trust in social cohesion. In order to do justice to the significant socio-political task of Muslim integration, in September 2006 the Federal Ministry of the Interior initiated the German Islam Conference with the aim of improving religious and social integration of the Muslim population in Germany. The German Islam Conference is a long-term institution of dialogue between representatives of federal, state and local governments and of Muslims in Germany. Source: Bundesministerium des Innern. (n.d.). Islam in Germany. Retrieved July 2011, from Churches and Religious Communities: http://www.bmi.bund.de/

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2.2.2 Religion in Germany: Information Packet

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Jewish life in Germany Germany today is home to the third-largest Jewish community in Europe, numbering about 110,000 overall. Before the Nazis came to power in 1933, Germany’s Jewish congregations had around 560,000 members. After the Shoah, in 1950 only about 15,000 Jews were left in Germany. Until about 1985, Jewish congregations were threatening to disappear as their ageing members died. From 1991 to 2009, about 212,000 Jewish emigrants and their families from the countries of the former Soviet Union moved to Germany. Many of them were received by Jewish congregations here. The Central Council of Jews in Germany Founded in Frankfurt (Main) in 1950, the Central Council of Jews in Germany is the most important representative of the Jewish community in Germany. The Central Council sees itself as representing the political interests of all Jews in Germany and is open to all religious currents within Judaism. It is a corporation under public law which exclusively and directly pursues charitable aims. The Central Council currently has 108 member congregations with about 105,000 individual members. Berlin’s Jewish community is the largest in Germany, with about 11,000 members. Tasks of the Central Council In addition to representing Jewish interests to the Federal Government, one of the Central Council’s main tasks today is helping Jewish immigrants from the countries of the former Soviet Union become integrated in the Jewish congregations. To do so, the Central Council focuses on educational and training seminars, language courses, civic education seminars, religious instruction and other integration measures. The Central Council also plays an active part in the political and social life of the Federal Republic of Germany. One priority is promoting mutual understanding and respect between Jews and non-Jews. Progressive Judaism in Germany Apart from the Central Council, other congregations with a liberal-progressive orientation began forming in the mid-1990s and are now organized in the Union for Progressive Judaism in Germany registered society which currently has about 20 member congregations with roughly 4,800 individual members. The union’s regional associations in Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony have been members of the Central Council of Jews in Germany since 2005. The Federal Government and the Jewish community in Germany The Federal Government feels a special responsibility for the Jewish community and opposes all attempts to forget or deny the Nazi genocide of the Jews. The Federal Government takes action against antisemitic tendencies and works to assist those who have taken on the task of eradicating the roots of antisemitism and racism. This is why the Federal Government supports organizations which advocate understanding and cooperation between Christians and Jews, in particular the German Coordinating Council of Associations for Christian–Jewish Cooperation and the International Council of Christians and Jews. On 27 January 2003, the national Holocaust Memorial Day, the Federal Government and the Central Council of Jews in Germany signed a national agreement, placing their partnership on a long-term legal footing. Under the agreement, the Federal Government pledged annual funding for the Central Council to carry out its interregional tasks of preserving German-Jewish cultural heritage and building up the Jewish community, as well as its integration policy and social tasks. Because the Central Council declared in the agreement that it is open to all currents within Judaism, it is expected to use the government support for the benefit of the entire Jewish community. Funding since 2008 has amounted to €5 million. The following interregional Jewish institutions also receive federal funding: •

the College of Jewish Studies in Heidelberg, which was founded in 1979 to renew the research and study of Jewish culture, history and religion in Germany;

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the Central Archives for Research on the History of the Jews in Germany, located in Heidelberg;

the Abraham Geiger College at the University of Potsdam and its Jewish Institute of Cantorial Arts. The Abraham Geiger College was founded in 1999 as the first rabbinical seminar in Germany since the Shoah. The Leo Baeck Institut, founded in 1955 with centres in Jerusalem, London and New York and a branch of its archive at the Jewish Museum Berlin, is dedicated to researching the history and culture of German Jewry.

Federal funding for maintaining abandoned Jewish cemeteries in Germany: According to a 1957 agreement between the Länder and the Jewish community, federal funding pays half the expenses for the preservation and upkeep of abandoned cemeteries of the former Jewish congregations in Germany. Source: Bundesministerium des Innern. (n.d.). Jewish Life in Germany. Retrieved July 2011, from Churches and Religious Communities: http://www.bmi.bund.de/

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2.2.3 Socratic Seminar

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Handout 2.2.3 Socratic Seminar The purpose of a Socratic Seminar is to achieve a deeper understanding about the ideas and values in a text. In the Seminar, students systematically question and examine issues and principles related to a particular content and articulate different points-of-view. The group conversation assists students in constructing meaning through disciplined analysis, interpretation, listening, and participation. In a Socratic Seminar, the students carry the burden of responsibility for the quality of the discussion. Good discussions occur when students study the text closely in advance, listen actively, share their ideas and questions in response to the ideas and questions of others, and search for evidence in the text to support their ideas. The discussion is not about right answers; it is not a debate. Students are encouraged to think out loud and to exchange ideas openly while examining ideas in a rigorous, thoughtful, manner. The Seminar can be divided into three time periods: Before the Seminar • Introduce the seminar and its purpose (to facilitate a deeper understanding of the religious diversity in Germany today through shared discussion). • Have students read the text in advance and prepare some open-ended questions to be used as the ‘ticket’ to participate in the seminar. • The classroom should be arranged so that students can look at each other directly. A circle or square works well. Some teachers like to use desks and have students use name card tents; others prefer simply to use chairs without desks. • Prepare several questions in advance, in addition to questions that students may bring to class. Questions should lead participants into the core ideas of the article. Questions must be open-ended, reflect genuine curiosity, and have no ‘one right answer’! Choose one question as the key interpretive question of the seminar to focus on and begin discussion. • Review the Discussion Norms: °° Don’t raise hands °° Listen carefully °° Address one another respectfully °° Base any opinions on the text °° Address comments to the group (no side conversations) °° Use sensitivity to take turns and not interrupt others °° Be courageous in presenting your own thoughts and reasoning, but be flexible and willing to change your mind in the face of new and compelling evidence During the Seminar • Be seated at the level of the students and remind them to address each other and not you! • Pose the key question to focus on and begin discussion. • Ask students to relate their statements to particular passages, to clarify, and to elaborate. • Encourage students to “paraphrase” essential elements of another’s ideas before responding, either in support of or in disagreement. • If the conversation gets off track, refocus students on the opening question by restating it. • Use additional questions to move the discussion along. • Invite those who have not spoken into the conversation.

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2.2.3 Socratic Seminar

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• Summarize the main points made in the discussion, either at a quiet point or towards the end • Use closing questions that encourage participants to apply the ideas to their personal experiences and opinions. Answering these closing questions does not require use of the text but provides students with the chance to share their own perspectives. After the Seminar • Ask debriefing questions of the students. • Share your own experience with the seminar as a facilitator. Portions of this template have been adapted from Teacher Resource Documents from the Northwest Association for Biomedical Research. The original and complete pdf can be located at the following site: http://nwabr.org/teacher-center/ethics-primer#lessons

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2.2.4 Assesing Religion: Measures of Involvement Differ from those of US

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.2.4 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Assesing Religion: Measures of Involvement Differ from those of US by Joel Gehringer 2007 College of Journalism and Mass Communications

identity.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln

In addition, ways of measuring religious involvement differ between

Lincoln, Nebraska

Americans and Germans, who believe there are other ways to be

When Florian Leibert arrived in the United States for his semester as

faithful than showing up for service every Sunday morning – like

an exchange student at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, one of

paying church taxes, for starters.

the first things he noticed was the churches that seemed to be on every street corner.

Meanwhile, some Germans worry that the rise of ultra-conservative evangelism, an American import, will take advantage of a semi-re-

The 24-year-old student from rural Bavaria was raised Lutheran but

ligious government. At the same time, the churches are resisting

is not religious.

efforts by the non-religious to bring Germany into a world of post-

“While in Lincoln, I noticed a lot more Christians than I thought I

religious morals and ethics. Debates rage about which issues and

would,” he said, “and more people with obsolete opinions.”

policies churches should have influence over, and some worry the

Alex Ruthsatz, a student in Berlin, also noticed the difference when he visited. When asked how Germans perceive Americans, Ruthsatz’ response was quick: Americans are “very religious.” Meanwhile, many Americans’ perceptions of Germans would seem to cover much of modern Europe – secular, atheistic and immoral.

argument could lead to the kind of polarization currently seen in American politics. But overall, Germans believe religious influences in the government help more than they hurt. Their system demonstrates that a little church in state might not be such a bad idea after all.

After all, it was the famed German philosopher Freidrich Nietzsche

Religion looms large in the histories of both Germany and the Unit-

who declared, “God is dead.”

ed States.

“Some of them just don’t care about religion or beliefs,” said Tristan

The United States traces its roots to pilgrims seeking religious free-

Foy, a 22-year-old Nebraska Wesleyan University student who spent

dom, and the Constitution guarantees freedom of religion and ef-

his spring 2007 semester in Trier, the oldest city in Germany. “I live in

fectively separates church and state. The nation’s founders feared

a predominately Catholic area (in Germany), and a lot of people say

the type of government-church intertwining found in European

how they were raised Catholic, but they don’t really have much to

countries at the time.

do with the church nowadays.”

Germany’s constitution, on the other hand, includes the freedom to

These views seem strange when one considers that the “religious”

practice religion, but it doesn’t separate the churches from the gov-

United States promises freedom of religion and separation of church

ernment. The constitution, first adopted in West Germany in 1949,

and state while “secular” Germany still recognizes Christian churches

explicitly says that no state church shall exist, but it also establishes

as parallel governments intertwined with the state.

the explicit rights of churches to act as public corporations, give re-

The Christian Science Monitor reported in 2006 that “there are more theologians in the current German parliament than in any other Western parliament, including the U.S. Congress.” No one in Germany seems to be alarmed by this, as might be the case if it happened in America. Germans accept religion and reli-

ligious instruction in schools, administer hospitals and retirement centers and provide services in prisons and even legislative buildings. The government even protects Sundays and religious holidays as days of rest and spiritual improvement. Germany’s history as part of Europe’s Holy Roman Empire set this

gious leaders as part of their storied history and culture. To deny the

standard for government-church intermingling.

influence of religion would be to deny hundreds of years of German

Catholic and Protestant churches ruled much of Europe and con-

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2.2.4 Assesing Religion: Measures of Involvement Differ from those of US

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tributed to the development of its nations for centuries, but Ger-

But Germans often accuse Americans of immorality and misguid-

many stands out from the others because it never experienced

ance, too. Depending on how one understands religiosity and the

revolution and re-creation of the government. Germany’s citizens

role of churches in society, both Germans and Americans could be

never removed religious leaders and influences from the govern-

right. Even Foy, who said he once believed Europe to be “spiritually

ment, and today the churches maintain an authority that is not al-

dead,” now believes Germans maintain some sort of spirituality and

lowed in other countries.

moral code even if they don’t often talk about it.

“The separation of state and church never really came through,” said

“You measure religiosity in different ways in America than in Germa-

Hartmut Zinser, professor of religious studies at the Free University

ny,” said Uwe Siemon-Netto, a German and a Lutheran theologian.

of Berlin. “The churches still have privileges from the Middle Ages

“In America, 30 or 40 percent are going to church any given Sunday.

that have not been abolished.”

That is not the case in Germany, where it’s maybe four, five, six per-

These privileges include the right to levy taxes, participate in parliament and teach religion in public schools. German public school students are even required to take classes in ethics or religion. In addition, the Bundestag, Germany’s parliament, is currently controlled by the Christian Democratic Union, a political party created

cent. On the other hand, [Germans] do bother to pay their church tax, which is significant.” Siemon-Netto doubted any American would be willing to pay an additional 10 percent of their income in church taxes on top of all other taxes.

by Catholics and Protestants in 1949 to advocate for the churches

Even those who don’t believe that attending church or tithing

and their members.

equals righteousness can find measures of religiosity that show dif-

Nevertheless, Germans make a concerted effort to keep religious ideology out of government and politics. Stephen Burnett, an associate professor of classics and religious studies at UNL[University of Nebraska at Lincoln], said Germans use much less religious imagery in politics than Americans do – not because they’re all atheists but because they disagree with how American politicians often use fundamentalist and right-wing imagery to justify policies on topics such as war or environmentalism.

ferences between American and German culture. Siemon-Netto cited social statistics from the two countries. Between 1999 and 2004, Germans performed 15 abortions for every 100 live births, compared with an estimated 16 to 20 in the United States, according to the German Federal Statistics Office and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Germany also experiences only two divorces per 1,000 people annually, while the United States has 7.5, according to the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Some American states still use the death penalty; Germany abolished capital punish-

“They find such arguments profoundly unimpressive, and German

ment in its 1949 constitution. To some, statistics such as these make

Christians find them downright depressing,” Burnett said.

Germany the more pious nation.

Politicians use so little religious speech that Germans were shocked

Germans also don’t seem as tied to strict interpretation of scripture

when nearly all members of parliament opted to be sworn in under

as Americans and are more willing to discuss and debate doctrine

the religious oath instead of the standard oath of office after the

and theology. Siemon-Netto said German newspapers even run ar-

2006 elections.

ticles and opinion pieces on religious issues, a practice that he says

That “religious” version ends with the words “so God help me” and is

surpasses any kind of religious coverage and involvement by Ameri-

otherwise identical to the non-religious oath. According to a 2005 survey by Cambridge researchers, between 41 percent and 49 percent of Germans claimed to be agnostic or atheist, compared with a 2007 Cambridge survey reporting that 3 percent to 9 percent of Americans hold similar beliefs. Statistics like these often lead Americans to assume European society is much more secular and less influenced by religious faith or the church. “I think many of even the religious Germans probably have some relaxed values, perhaps more so than Americans, although it could just be the youth,” said Foy, the Nebraska Wesleyan student. “For example, they may have a belief system that they at least give thought to, but still it doesn’t bother them to cohabitate with a partner.”

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can media. At the same time, German theologians are less likely to participate in the kind of evangelism seen in some American religious circles. And church members are less likely to participate – or even listen. “Their relationship to the institutional church is different than in America,” Burnett said. “In America, if you are a member of a church body, you are expected to give voluntarily, to serve and to participate.” However, Germans who consider themselves members of a religion don’t necessarily get involved. Many retain religious identification out of tradition, and so even though few actually show up for service on Sunday, a majority still call themselves religious. “It’s perfectly normal to simply identify yourself that way,” Burnett said.

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2.2.4 Assesing Religion: Measures of Involvement Differ from those of US

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This phenomenon isn’t exclusive to Christians. Germany’s Jews and Muslims tend not to participate in religious practices, either. However, Germany’s Jewish organizations are not intertwined with the state in the same fashion as Christian churches (though they are allocated taxes in the same way), and the German government essentially ignores mosques and Muslim organizations.

retirement homes, orphanages and historical and modern churches

Many Germans associate with their church only by registering with

of state-administered systems. These ideas, strong in Britain and

the government and paying their taxes. The process is more structured and public than in America. “If you choose to identify, as an American, that’s the choice of you and your family,” Burnett said. “That’s nobody’s business. There’s no registration office in Washington, D.C. In Germany, it’s formal. It’s public record. Yet, there is no expectation that church membership requires church attendance.” Burnett, who has lived in Germany four times since 1984, said the churches he attended averaged anywhere from a dozen or fewer people every Sunday to full congregations. Involvement often depended on the region: Germany’s rural areas have higher rates of

as well as employing clergy and lay people to provide education, healthcare, religious sacraments and social work. As atheism and non-religious movements grow, some progressive Europeans want to reject this traditional church role in favor France, have more support in the former East Germany, where remnants of Communist suppression and right-wing extremism still dominate the religious landscape. But Germans seem to still want that social arrangement, especially in places like Saxony and Bavaria, where religious involvement remains relatively high and where the government enjoys having a “branch” that believes it exists solely to attend to these responsibilities. “The German churches are not branches of the civil service, per se,” Burnett said. “They are independent corporations that have special responsibilities and privileges within the German state. But they be-

religious involvement. Still, he said, nearly everyone seemed to iden-

lieve they have these civil service responsibilities to society.”

tify with one organization or another.

Even those who call themselves non-religious seem to believe the

Because Germans measure religious involvement differently, they

churches should take responsibility for Germany’s social welfare.

tend to assign churches different responsibilities than Americans might. With few people sitting in their pews to preach to and to educate about theology, church leaders have the time (and money, thanks to the church taxes) to promote welfare through social services, spearhead community programs and appeal to the government. Germans view churches less as institutions that exist to guide individuals to salvation and more as vehicles to maintain social or-

The struggle between religion and atheism is over ideology, not the churches’ right to exist. As long as influences of extremism don’t pollute politics and as long as churches continue to provide for society, Germans seem content. Their system represents an increasingly rare remnant of history and serves to remind Europe of its roots. Even now, as secular democracies continue to develop in Europe and elsewhere, the German system continues to demonstrate a unique

der and influence the government.

way that church and state can get along.

“The German churches have a tendency to speak out as a kind of liberal conscience of the state,” Burnett said. “They try to call the state to do things on a moral basis. Politicians often ignore them, but it is a way they can make their presence felt.”

Gehringer, Joel (2007). Assessing Religion: Measures of Involvement Differ from those of US. In Renovating the Republic: Unified Germany Confronts its History. University of Nebraska at Lincoln.

After failing to act effectively against the Holocaust and Communist rule, German churches might now feel compelled to speak out on social issues to prevent further failures. With churches lobbying, politicians can leave religion out of their debates and focus on the issues at hand. It’s a much different system than the one Americans know, but some experts argue it works just as well. Because of the German churches’ role in society, it seems many Germans want churches to stick around even if they don’t want theology in their lives. “The churches are organizations of social responsibility,” said Zinser, the Free University professor. “It’s a belief we have in Germany, and it’s what Germans say the churches should be doing.” In fact, some believe churches hold a monopoly on social services because of the sheer amount of work they do running infirmaries,

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2.2.4 Assesing Religion: Measures of Involvement Differ from those of US

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University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Living Side By Side by Joel Gehringer 2007 Harun Bulut feels comfortably at home and yet, at the same time,

So the mosque went up in spite of the objections of the non-Mus-

uneasily far away from it. In the basement of Berlin’s Sehitlik mosque

lims. After all, who cares what they think?

on this Sunday night, he and a dozen men, heads covered and shoes

In essence, that attitude prevails among all of Berlin’s major religious

removed, crowd in a corner, clutching prayer books and speaking in Turkish about the word of Allah before the day’s evening prayer.

groups, whether Muslim, Jewish, Catholic or Protestant. On the surface, each professes a politically correct willingness to

As imam of the mosque, Bulut leads the study group, teaching les-

work together and settle their differences. But while leaders talk of

sons and peppering the conversation with lighthearted words and

peace, youngsters attack each other in dark alleys, right-wing funda-

jokes.

mentalists terrorize homes and schools, religious leaders try to form

Bulut’s words and attitude make the session feel more like a casual

shady alliances and neighborhoods object to a new mosque that

get-together than a prayer meeting, and the men he leads feel at

might attract undesirables.

ease before the official prayers.

Even in a country where secularism reigns and nearly 58 percent of

Steadily, more members enter the mosque, and when the group

its citizens say they are uninterested in religion, Christians, Jews and

reaches about three dozen, evening prayer begins.

Muslims just will not cooperate.

Down here, in this sprawling room decorated with blue-green car-

It’s not only a German problem, though. The conflicts exist across

pet and mural-sized scripture passages, the men feel safe. Inside the

the globe, and they often cause much more dire situations else-

walls of Sehitlik, they can go about their sacred business without

where. Berlin has yet to see the type of violence exhibited in Pales-

worrying about who will object or disapprove.

tine or Northern Ireland.

In here, there are only brothers in faith; out there, everything else.

But as a newly reunified and freed city in a post-Sept. 11 world, Ber-

“The mosque is a very big and expansive building,” Bulut said. “The Turkish visit this mosque and feel something familiar. They feel like we are at home.” Built in 1999, the Sehitlik mosque stands on ground already connected with Turkish heritage. Outside the doors lies the oldest Turkish cemetery in Germany, a relic from the days of the Ottoman Empire. Turkish soldiers who died in World War I are buried here. When the mosque was planned, Berlin’s Muslim leaders thought no one would object be- cause the area was already inhabited by Turkish Muslim immigrants. But the non-Muslims did complain, saying the dome of the mosque and the two prominent minarets stood too high to meet building codes – a thinly veiled objection to the mosque’s placement in their backyard.

lin might represent Europe’s 21st century Petri dish of interfaith relations. As each religion attempts to expand in the city, it must also avoid bumping elbows with and igniting the ire of another. The traditions and beliefs of Christianity have slowly slipped out of Germany, the birthplace of Protestantism and homeland of the head of the Catholic Church. This decline has made Germany’s Christian leaders nervous, and they have begun new efforts to reinvigorate the church. Turkish immigrants are bringing Islam to Berlin in droves, with about 400,000 immigrants currently living in the city. Muslim organizations want to build mosques for these immigrants, and they want so-called German-Germans to coexist with Muslims without a fight. Berlin also hosts the fastest-growing Jewish community in the world, with nearly 12,000 Jews now living here – three times as many as 15 years ago. The number of synagogues, community cen-

The complaints from the community wouldn’t stop Muslim leaders

ters and kosher restaurants in Berlin has swelled. Currently, more

from building, however. Sehitlik was a necessity.

Jews are immigrating to Germany than to Israel or the United States,

“This mosque was built because there was a need for it,” Bulut said.

leading some to declare a Jewish Renaissance.

“There are a lot of Turkish Muslim people who want to pray here in a

With each community trying to survive and push its own agenda,

mosque, and it’s a cultural need to build this mosque.”

problems are inevitable. But if leaders and members of these faiths

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can find ways to settle their differences, the world could look to Ber-

When the Iron Curtain lifted in 1989, immigration came almost nat-

lin as a model for peaceful coexistence.

urally. Already, Jewish leaders in East Berlin had encouraged Soviet

Religious leaders and experts remain skeptical. Some believe the

Jews to move from Russia to escape outbursts of nationalistic vio-

key to cooperation lies not in reconciling religious doctrines but in

lence, and after the Soviet Union disintegrated, Jews from the East

getting drastically different cultures to live peacefully side by side.

flooded Germany looking for relatives, jobs and a new way of life. In

Bulut says he wants Muslims to get along with others. But he knows

about 10 years, the Jewish population rose to 100,000.

some outside the walls of the Sehitlik mosque don’t like him or his

Not all of the Jews were devoutly religious, of course. Community-

people, and while he invites Christian and Jewish leaders to visit

building became a matter of preserving the Jewish culture and reli-

the mosque and gain some understanding, he’s not going to jump

gion was only one aspect of that. Many of the Jews who immigrated

through any hoops to make it happen.

weren’t really Jewish at all, having a distant Jewish heritage or only

Stephan Kramer is tired of the questions. Every day, someone asks, “What can we do for you?” or “How can we help you?” or “We feel so guilty. What can we do to make it better?”

a Jewish father, not a Jewish mother as required under Judaic law. Some did not practice Judaism and knew very little about their religion, but they came anyway – as an ethnic group. Christians also experienced problems during this period. The Chris-

It makes him sick. As secretary general of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, the country’s largest Jewish advocacy group, he constantly encounters German citizens wishing to make up for the crimes of the Holocaust.

tian churches of Germany, both Catholic and Protestant, are pseudo-governmental institutions. Germany’s government recognizes the churches as it would any corporation, and in return, Germany’s churches sanction the government, an acknowledgement of Chris-

“Everywhere I go, and I find this astonishing,” Kramer said about run-

tianity’s historical impact on the country. Members of these church-

ning up against the German feeling of guilt. “I say to young Ger-

es – mainly Catholic and Evangelical Protestant – pay a special

mans, ‘You are not guilty. There is no such thing as a citizen guilt. But

church tax to fund the church as a governing body. The tax wavers

you are responsible for the present and future.’”

between 8 percent and 10 percent of one’s income.

In response to those questions of guilt and repentance, Kramer asks

After the war, the numbers of practicing Catholics and Protestants

people to speak against discrimination and persecution, but he

in West Germany dropped, with the sharpest decreases occurring in

knows few actually will. Kramer himself struggles to do so. A racist

the late 1960s and 1970s.

joke here, a stereotype there – everyone hears them. Some laugh. Few object.

In the East, Communist leaders effectively purged religious organizations by denying practicing Christians jobs and education. Active

If progress is being made at all, it’s a slow and painstaking process.

Christians dropped to less than 5 percent of the population. Secular-

The council exists for progress, not only among Jews but among

ism began to dominate the previously Judeo-Christian Europe as a

Germans in general. Formed in 1950, the organization played a key

tide of atheism and moral relativism rose.

role in the fate of Jews in Germany after World War II.

By the end of the 1990s, Jews and Christians found themselves

Kramer said the council was formed with one goal in mind: Get all

moving in opposite directions – the former gaining members and

Jews out of Germany and leave the country to its Christian roots

influence and the latter declining and struggling to make up lost

– mostly Lutherans and other Protestants in the north and mostly

income. But on a religious and cultural basis, the two managed to

Catholics in the south – the way the Germans seemingly wanted it.

get along. Christian attitudes toward Jews shifted thanks to soften-

“[The council] was built to close down, switch off the lights, say bye-

ing language from the Vatican, and the two cultures realized their

bye and get the last one out,” Kramer said.

shared history and heritage.

Largely, the efforts worked. Roughly 200,000 to 300,000 Jews lived

But another large religious population quietly existed in Berlin,

in Germany in 1945, but in about a decade, only 25,000 to 27,000 re-

and neither Christian nor Jew seemed to notice or care until those

mained, and most weren’t happy living in the “house of the butcher.”

planes hit the towers across the Atlantic.

Those numbers stayed steady for the next 30 years.

Muslims had lived in Germany for decades by 2001, the first large

But in 1989, as communism fell and reunification of East and West

groups coming from Turkey as part of Germany’s post-war guest

Germany loomed, Jewish leaders decided to save what small reli-

worker program. Few immigrants actually practiced Islam, and few

gious communities were left in Germany. They looked for ways to

Christian or Jewish leaders and scholars took notice of or interest

encourage immigration, to be sure Jews in Germany would not die

in the burgeoning population. Only after the terrorist attacks in the

out and inadvertently realize Hitler’s goal of a Jew-free country.

United States did many of the secular Turkish, Arab and Kurdish peo-

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FOCUS 2 – Society

ple living in Germany rediscover their Muslim roots.

Hartmut Zinser has gained a reputation as a man of science.

Suddenly, the Muslims were everywhere, and now Jews and Chris-

A wall-sized bookshelf with textbooks and journals and piles of writ-

tians believed they had to pay attention.

ings and research materials fill his office. Some of the works are ones

“Dealing with them was the only way to get out of trouble,” Kramer

he has written, like his research book on new religious movements

said of the popular perception. “I mean, who wants 9/11 in Germa-

or his surveys of Berlin’s religious landscape.

ny?”

Over his 20-plus years of studying religion in Germany, Zinser has

Kramer admitted that Muslims were included in religious dialogue

developed relationships with each of the city’s religious communi-

only after 9/11 – and not so that Jews and Christians could stage

ties and now is frequently invited to be a scientific participant in

theological debates or find common causes with Muslims. The tra-

Germany’s interfaith dialogue meetings.

ditional religious cultures of Germany now had no choice but to

No one is more disheartened by these talks than he is.

recognize Islam as both a growing social and political power and a

“I have, from all these inter-religious discussions, the impression that

cultural and ideological threat.

one goes there because one has to,” he said. “One speaks and does

As Germans began to see a minority culture they previously had

not hear what the other says and waits for the moment to speak and

chosen to ignore, Turks and Arabs were no longer Turks and Arabs:

then leaves afterwards.”

Everyone who fit the profile became a Muslim, no matter how little

The modern era of interfaith dialogue in Germany originated with

he or she actually associated with the faith. Now, immigrants from the Middle East felt pressure to represent Islam. At the very least, it made Germany stop ignoring them.

American occupation in the 1950s. Authorities from the United States thought it important to force Germans and Jews to educate each other about their respective religions and cultures in order to

“Many people started considering themselves Muslim after 9/11,”

prevent further violence against religious minorities.

said Paul Räther, of the Werkstatt der Kulturen, a community center

For more than 40 years, those talks remained healthy and beneficial.

for cultural minorities in Berlin. “They didn’t think about it before. They would never call themselves Muslim, but then they were forced to do so.” At first, Germans expressed sympathy toward Muslims, Räther said. But as political rhetoric made “Islam” synonymous with “extremism,” attitudes changed. Suddenly, Muslims had to prove their innocence in the public arena. “They needed to present themselves as just people,” Räther said.

After reunification, though, relationships began to crumble. Now, despite the effort each religious group puts into organizing talks and promoting cooperation among religions, very little gets done in areas where understanding matters most. In recent years, religious talks have struggled from misunderstanding and relentless positioning for power in Berlin. Largely, the conflicts erupt between Christians and Muslims, who both want full rights and freedom to practice and spread their religions while not

And so, Muslim organizations built mosques that actually looked

necessarily recognizing the rights and freedoms of the other. Mean-

like mosques, where the practices of Islam were put on display. Pre-

while, the Jews participate while maintaining a calculated distance.

viously, all but a few of Berlin’s 80 mosques were simply gathering

Zinser said talks get even more complicated when groups within re-

rooms in the back of homes, shops or restaurants. Because these places weren’t obvious places of prayer, Germans got nervous when a dozen Turks would gather in a back room at night and do whoknows-what. The mosques, like the newfound Muslim spirituality, were meant to present Islam to Berlin as non-threatening.

ligions disagree. Certainly Christianity is divided – not only between Catholics and Protestants, but among Lutherans, Reform, Free Christians and others. Because the church is a quasi-governmental organization, plenty of bureaucracy surrounds even the simplest decision. Churches inadvertently drove away members tired of slow

But non-Muslims often ignore those efforts, characterizing the Is-

responses and meaningless declarations that never truly addressed

lamic culture of Berlin as a monolithic, alien force trying to take over

important issues.

the world, ignoring the fact that Turkish Shiites, Turkish Alevis, Arabs

Räther, who often works with minority Muslim populations to get

and Kurds all fought among themselves. Of Germany’s 80 or 90 Muslim groups, not one could be designated as a leader or representative, because each group stood for something different.

them political attention, gets the same impression about today’s interfaith relationships. With Christian leaders often dominating the conversation, nothing meaningful gets said by or about Muslim or

Nevertheless, Christians and Jews knew that Muslims, even without

Jewish issues. Therefore, non-Christians often choose not to partici-

a central leader, had to be included in the religious discussion.

pate.

As a professor of religious studies at the Free University of Berlin,

But some Christians argue that Muslims’ actions don’t necessar-

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ily deserve support from Christian churches. Uwe Siemon-Netto, a

egates who go occasionally. We’re there and everything, but ….”

German and a Lutheran theologian now living in St. Louis, formerly

Zinser said these petty issues of politics and semantics often get

covered religion for German newspapers and said he has seen Muslims walk around spitting on meat in sausage stands and butcher shops. He’s also aware of imams who freely pass out Korans to Christian leaders but reject Bibles given in return. Now, more than ever, Siemon-Netto argues, Christians should not relinquish their beliefs.

in the way of real progress, such as addressing discrimination and religious violence or deciding how to educate the public and introduce religion in schools. From the confusion and animosity come objections to new mosques in Berlin or accusations by right-wing neo-Nazis that Jews get special treatment. Religious ignorance con-

“The Muslim attitude toward Christianity is exceedingly arrogant,” he

tinues, and common people suffer in the name of Jehovah, Jesus

said. “I have come to the conclusion that most Muslims do not really

or Allah.

want to cooperate. They are determined to take over, and if Chris-

But talk continues anyway. Not talking would surely mean political

tians are weak, if their practice is weak and they behave like idiots, then they are only pouring oil on the fire of the Muslims.” Meanwhile, Jewish talks with Muslims are often political peacemaking gestures, not serious discussions about solving the issues of religious discrimination or interfaith education. The Jewish and Muslim faiths have much in common to fight for, including rights for circumcision and kosher food. The two groups have talked about cooperating to push agendas, but talk is cheap: It sounds great on the evening news whether or not genuine intentions support it. For many Muslims, these attitudes discourage future talks. Bulut, the Sehitlik imam, said his experiences with non-Muslim leaders rarely produce results, leading him and others to ignore non-Muslims completely. “There is good acceptance from some German people, but you cannot generalize it,” he said. “We get some positive energy from the other sides, but we don’t really expect anything from them. That’s why we just do what we should do and don’t look to the other ones.” Islamic leaders aren’t the only ones with communication issues. Christians and Jews have their problems with sincerity, too. Zinser said Christians will often simply accept whatever Jewish leaders want because they don’t want to seem anti-Semitic. “Christians and Jews have to get along well. Every Christian has to be pro-Jewish,” Räther said. “There is no possibility for anything else.

suicide. “It’s good behavior to talk to other people,” Zinser says sarcastically. “Everyone pretends to be open for talks, but that’s not true. They’re ambivalent.” From his experiences with inter-religious dialogue, Zinser knows the problems between Muslims, Jews and Christians go deeper than religious belief. Zinser estimated from his studies that, across all religions, more than half of Germans are completely uninterested in religion, even if they identify with an organized religion. Another fifth participate in religion out of habit or family tradition, and only a tenth show genuine religious interest. Considering that most Berliners who identify with one of the three main faiths don’t actively practice, some factors other than religion must drive violence and hate-filled rhetoric from even moderate Germans. In these conditions, the implications of cultural peculiarities cannot be overlooked. But it’s important to understand that religion cannot be viewed simply as a byproduct of culture. On the contrary, religion sometimes is culture, as in the case of Islam. For most Germans, and most of the Western world, religion is no longer the driving force behind one’s culture, but it is often the historical basis. One can’t deny that Christianity and Judaism shaped modern Europe’s social and moral values.

So whenever the church officials say anything, it must be pro-Jew-

Despite secularism and the idea of a post-God world, Western ethics

ish. It doesn’t have to be pro-Muslim.”

all have roots in the Old and New Testaments.

Nothing infuriates Kramer more.

Today, however, religious belief may be less responsible for conflict

Instead of just going along with what he says, Kramer wishes those

than socio-economic factors and cultural identity.

in the community would discuss issues with him. Just because he’s

“It’s a difference of social class and nationality,” Zinser said.

Jewish and his people have suffered doesn’t mean he’s automati-

Räther seemed to agree, saying that tensions stem from national

cally right. But, more often than not, that’s how other religious leaders treat his opinions. Kramer knows the talks go nowhere, and he grows tired of them. Instead of starting any real discussion, he just tries to keep things civil.

origin and ignorance of “the other” and citing culture clashes even within Berlin’s Muslim communities. “There’s lots of problems between even Turkish and Kurdish people,” he said. “They just project their local troubles from Turkey into exile

“We have a frozen peace in those groups,” he said. “I refuse to attend

in Berlin. And there’s trouble between right-wing Germans and all

anymore because I’m getting into fights unnecessarily. We have del-

kinds of groups, which is particularly strong in East Berlin. But it’s

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2.2.4 Assesing Religion: Measures of Involvement Differ from those of US

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coming into the West as well.”

lim backgrounds are fundamentalists.

Viewed in this light, Berlin’s religious conflicts and, for that matter,

But arguments and violence persist, and, some say, still worsen.

religious conflicts around the world seem a bit more understand-

Shortly after creating her organization, Ahadi received dozens of

able. Hating people for their beliefs might not make much sense,

death threats and was assigned a police bodyguard. In May 2006,

but hating them because their way of life disrupts one’s native way

a neighborhood organization in East Berlin objected to yet another

of life, though not excusable, makes more rational sense and might

proposed mosque, saying the building would increase traffic and

be a better starting point for solving conflicts.

lower property values. In December 2006, Jewish leaders in Berlin

Perhaps Christians don’t have as many problems with Muslims as

reported that violence against young Jews had become a daily oc-

Germans do with Turks and Arabs and vice versa. Perhaps Jews receive better treatment than members of other faiths not because

currence in the streets of the city. A few months later, a neo-Nazi group attacked a Jewish school with gas and graffiti, raising fears

their religion is now accepted but because people of other faiths

and concerns of growing extremism.

still feel the guilt of the Holocaust. Perhaps Jews abstain from dis-

In addition, Deutsche Welle reported in April 2007 that four major

cussion not because they disagree with Christianity and Islam but

Muslim organizations in Germany will organize into one large advo-

because they are weary of dealing with two cultures who share

cacy group, the Muslim Coordination Council. The group hopes to

equally anti-Semitic histories.

increase the German Muslim political and social presence. It’s con-

Räther thinks this might be the case, and he offered no real solution

sidered an accomplishment by Islamic leaders but a threat by many

to the conflicts – yet. But education, he said, is the first step.

other Germans.

For Muslims, specifically immigrant Muslims, the key lies not only

Religious leaders and experts hold out hope that the people of Ber-

in teaching Germans about Islam but also in teaching Turks about Germany. “We are all of the opinion that if you live in a different country, you have to learn their culture and learn their language without giving up your own culture and your own language,” Bulut said. “We want to integrate but not assimilate, because the world is for all of us. The sun shines on all of us. We breathe the same oxygen.” Kramer, too, knows reaching out to mainstream Germans will bolster community relations more than any religious talks ever will. The fight is against extremism, racism and bigotry, not against Christians

lin will eventually accept their differences, but if education is the key to this acceptance, then the religious communities of the city still have a long road ahead. Back in the Sehitlik mosque, evening prayer is over. As he leaves the building, Bulut locks the gate behind him, securing the mosque and cemetery behind a 12-foot wall. Across town at the New Synagogue, armed guards stand outside to deter would-be attackers, just as they do at every Jewish or pro-Israel institution in Berlin. Religiously, the city might be at peace for now, but culturally, it’s on edge.

and Muslims.

Bulut said he still holds out hope that cultural groups in Berlin can

“It starts with the evening dinner table with Mommy and Daddy

work out differences. They don’t have to agree, he said, but they do

making a discriminatory joke,” he said. “After the joke comes the

need to live without fear of one another.

whole process that goes on and goes on and maybe ends with,

“There will always be some trouble-makers or some fights, but our

‘Hey, why don’t we put them all in prison and after that burn them

aim is to reduce it to a minimum,” Bulut said. “Both countries [Ger-

all up?’ ”

many and Turkey] have to do a lot of work to live here friendly and

Some people have already reached out to educate, like Aycan

to solve these problems. I am of the opinion that not all of the prob-

Demirel, a resident of Berlin’s largely Turkish Kreuzberg neighborhood, and Rabbi Henry Brandt. A Muslim himself, Demirel started

lems will get solved, but it’s getting them on the minimum so we can live here, without fighting, with peace, so we can respect each

a campaign in November 2006 to fight anti-Semitic rhetoric from

other and all live here.”

Turks and Arabs in Berlin. In 2005, Germany’s Central Islamic Council

Kramer is less optimistic about the future of relationships between

honored Brandt with an award for promoting religious understand-

religious groups, but, like Bulut, he said he will continue to do what

ing – the first award from a German Islamic group given to a Jewish

he can to keep conflict to a minimum.

theologian.

“My problems are not with those 10 or 15 percent anti-Semites,”

German media outlet Deutsche Welle reported in March 2007 that

Kramer said. “I will not convince them, not even if I take my whole

Mina Ahadi, an Iranian-born Muslim now in Cologne, established

life sitting in front of them. [My problem] is with the majority that

the National Council of Ex-Muslims, an organization meant to com-

is silently standing aside listening. If we do not oppose those Nazis

bat Middle Eastern stereotypes and prove not all people from Mus-

openly on stage and de-mask them with arguments – clear, under-

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2.2.4 Assesing Religion: Measures of Involvement Differ from those of US

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standable arguments – at least one out of three of these silent bystanders will think, ‘Maybe he’s right. Maybe these Nazis are right,’ and that’s dangerous.” As Berliners still struggle with the political and social turmoil of the last 60 years, Germans feel most comfortable with Germans, Turks with Turks, Jews with Jews, Russians with Russians and Arabs with Arabs. Often, the people in one of these groups know only one or two things about the people in the others: the religion they follow and the problems it seems to cause. Until social and political understanding expands, Berlin could continue to face these religious and cultural problems. But if Berliners can work out their differences, then maybe hope exists for Mexican and American, Shiite and Sunni, Israeli and Palestinian. In fact, some say that of all cultural elements, religions could have the most in common. Faith in a higher power and belief in a set of morals are universal human qualities, and though the faiths and morals differ, they commonly exist to achieve the same ends – peace, love and understanding. “There is no strong tension between the religions as religions,” Räther said. “There are tensions among people as people, and that’s where we have problems.” Gehringer, Joel (2007). Living Side by Side. In Renovating the Republic: Unified Germany Confronts its History. University of Nebraska at Lincoln.

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2.2.5 Religions in Germany Cube Project

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.2.5 Religions in Germany Cube Project INTRODUCTION: The German Basic Law guarantees freedom of religious practice. The increased pluralism of German society is matched by the growth of religious diversity with the growth of Islam (the religion of most of Germany’s Turks) and the revitalization of Judaism (since the fall of the Soviet Union). TASK: Create your own Religions in Germany Cube. This 6 sided cube will include 6 different ideas of your choosing on the general topic, which you will be required to research independently. CONDITIONS: Your cube must be between 64 cubic inches and 1000 cubic inches. In other words, the sides of your cube must measure somewhere between 4 and 10 inches. Each side can include text and/or visuals in order to represent a different aspect of religion in Germany (For example: German Basic Law regarding religion, Catholicism, Protestantism (Evangelical Churches), Islam, Judaism, atheism, to name a few topics).

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2.2.6 Germans wary as mosque rises in Cologne

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.2.6 Christian Science Monitor

Germans wary as mosque rises in Cologne Plans to build the largest mosque in the country highlight a fundamental demographic change that some fear poses a threat to Europe’s Christian culture. By Isabelle de Pommereau August 10, 2009 In the Middle Ages, Cologne, in the heartland of German Catholi-

lished in the hearts of residential communities. “If we pray in hiding,

cism, set out to build the biggest cathedral in the world. In 2010, the

then people are afraid,” says Deniz Demirci, an Ehrenfeld Turkish-

city’s Gothic masterpiece will have a new rival on the skyline: The

German translator.

soaring minarets of Germany’s largest mosque.

“Mosques demonstrate the presence and self-confidence of Muslim

The mosque has been a controversial topic in the country since it

immigration in Europe – the attitude is now, ‘We’re building because

was first discussed in 2001 and only won construction approval last

we want to stay here,’ “ says Mr. Leggewie, a social scientist at the

year. Cloaked within complaints about noise, parking, and its pos-

University of Giessen. “At stake is the place Muslims occupy in Ger-

sible impact on property values was the unease of a Germany that

man society and the place that the German majority are willing to

is coming to grips with a fundamental demographic change – the

carve out for them.”

rise of its Muslim minority – and worried that it might pose a threat

Last year, most of Cologne’s political parties approved the $40 mil-

to Europe’s Christian culture.

lion structure, but that didn’t come easily.

Cologne’s 120,000 Muslims are the most in any German city. By

The mosque’s location, in the middle of a bustling neighborhood,

2020, two-thirds of Cologne’s residents are expected to have for-

angered residents. So did its size and minarets, which will be as tall

eign – mostly Turkish – roots. Designed for 2,000 worshipers, the

as an 18-story office tower.

mosque’s completion will be something of a coming-out party for a booming minority that has long lived in society’s shadows.

Opposition crystallized in Pro-Cologne, a far-right group opposed to “the Islamization of the Cathedral City.” It won five local council

And it’s not just here. A handful of mosques 10 years ago have swol-

seats in recent elections. Berlin, Lauingen, and Hanover have all had

len to 164, and close to 200 more are under construction across

anti-mosque incidents.

Germany, says Claus Leggewie, co-author of “Mosques in Germany – religious home and societal challenge.”

Yet some see signs of political maturity emerging. When about 100 Pro-Cologne members tried to hold an antimosque rally this past

“[It’s] like a dream come true,” says Nalan Cinar of Ehrenfeld, the mul-

fall, thousands more rallied against them. “A multicultural society is

tiethnic neighborhood that’s home to the new mosque. Ms. Cinar,

a conflict-filled society,” says Navid Kermani, a Cologne playwright

like most of Germany’s Muslims, doesn’t wear a head scarf or con-

of Iranian descent. “The question is: Are the conflicts played out vio-

sider herself to be particularly devout. But she says “the feeling of

lently, or are they discussed out in the open?”

something beautiful being ours is invaluable.” Mosques leave the shadows

In Cologne and other German towns, dialogue has led to the downsizing of planned mosques and promises to not broadcast the muezzin’s call to prayer.

Germany’s Muslim population is largely Turkish and arrived in the late 1960s as “guest workers” in Germany’s postwar construction

Engaging society to lessen conflict

boom. Many of them stayed. They set up community organizations,

Necla Kelek, a prominent feminist and social scientist of Turkish de-

moved up the economic ladder, and eventually decided that hum-

scent, says mosques are different from churches and synagogues.

ble back-street prayer rooms weren’t enough. Domed mosques

Their use as community centers make them “obstacle to integration”

with minarets were the natural next step. At first, mosques tended

she says, pointing out that original plans for the Cologne mosque

to settle in peripheral industrial centers. Now they are being estab-

designated only one-fifth of its space for prayer: The rest was for

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2.2.6 Germans wary as mosque rises in Cologne

FOCUS 2 – Society

a doctor’s office, a bakery, a hairdresser, a law office, and a bank, among other things. “The [mosque’s] architects delivered what their conservative clients wanted,” Ms. Kelek says: “a political statement from Islam in concrete.” German law, she adds, is ill-equipped to deal with the issue. But Leggewie says German Muslims are now engaging broader society when they solicit plans for their houses of worship, creating more understanding and lessening resentment – and the occasional conflicts that came with it. “Overall, mosques are being accepted as part of Germany’s normality,” says Dieter Oberndoerfer, a University of Freiburg expert on Germany’s Muslim population. “You can’t say, on the one hand, ‘we grant you freedom of religion,’ and, on the other, we’re telling one community ‘you can’t have places of worship.’ “

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2.3.1 Changing Lives of Women Charts

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.3.1 Changing Lives of Women Charts Part 1- United States Changing Lives of Women-US Factors

Pre-1945

Late 1960’s-1970’s

Today

Birthrate

Social Norms

Child Care Support

Government Policies (Parental Leave) Women in the Workforce/ Job Opportunities

Part 2- Germany Changing Lives of Women-GERMANY Factors

Pre-1945

Late 1960’s-1970’s

Birthrate

Social Norms

Child Care Support

Government Policies (Parental Leave) Women in the Workforce/ Job Opportunities

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Today

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2.3.1 Changing Lives of Women Charts

FOCUS 2 – Society

Part 3- Suggested Answers and Resources Changing Lives of Women-US Factors

Pre-1945

Late 1960’s-1970’s

Today

Birthrate

20 births for every 1,000

17 births for every 1,000

13.5 births for every 1,000 people/ 1-2

people/3 children per woman

people/ 2 children per woman

children per woman

Women work at home, or for

Women employed outside the

Women are more likely to go into previ-

the war effort

home- work in gendered jobs,

ously male dominated fields

Most women stay at home

30% of children are enrolled in

Child care is a major expense for Ameri-

with children

Social Norms

e.g., secretary, nurse, teacher Child Care Support

child care centers ; Child care

can families. ½ of working families with

centers doubled from 25,000

children under 13 pay almost $1 out of

in 1977

every $10 they earn for that care.4

2

3

Government Policies

Little maternity leave, few

In the early 1970s, only 25%

Varies among employers. Typically the

(Parental Leave)

women return to work

of women were working 6

mother may receive 12 weeks of unpaid

months after childbirth. Only

maternity leave once the child is born.

1/3 had leave time.5 Women in the Workforce/ Job Opportunities

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Wage gap between women and men

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2.3.1 Changing Lives of Women Charts

FOCUS 2 – Society

Changing Lives of Women-GERMANY Factors

Pre-1945

Late 1960’s-1970’s

Birthrate

Post-Unification (Today) 1.3 children per woman

Social Norms

Kinder, Küche, Kirche (Children, West: many women retained Kitchen, Church) – traditionally defined role of women in German society

their roles as homemakers East: women were encouraged by the government to join the workforce

Child Care Support

• social pressure to be a stay at home mother, e.g., Rabenmutter – mothers labeled as ravens – a woman who flies away from home and hearth, neglecting her children. • social pressure to continue career

mothers expected to stay

West: most women retained

• most schools end at 1:30pm6

home and raise next genera-

their roles as homemakers

• weak day care system (fewer than 10%

tion

East: building and supporting a strong, high-capacity day care network across their part of the country

of slots are for children under 3)7 • government is promoting higher capacity day care slots • Eastern part of Germany still has a stronger day care system.8 • increasing number of full day schools

Government Policies

Nazi leaders discouraged

East: to boost productivity,

• women – 3 yrs maternity leave9

(Parental Leave)

women from working outside

the government encouraged

• No guarantee that a woman returning

the home by creating financial

women to work outside the

to work after three year maternity leave

incentives and health care

home

will get as desirable a position

benefits for staying home,

• providing “parents’ money” for women

deflating the feminist cause

to stay home with their newborns for a year. After the mother returns to work, the father can stay home for another two months and continue to receive the monthly benefit10

Women in the Work-

women were expected to stay West: women were expected • wage gap between women and men11

force/ Job Opportuni-

at home

ties

to stay at home

• glass ceiling

12 East: women were encour- • 24% senior management

aged to work outside the home • 41% middle management13 • 50% university graduates14 but 10% tenured professors • paid 23% less than men15 • one-third of all employed women work part time16 • 60% increase of self-employed women • 9.2% of professional military17

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2.3.1 Changing Lives of Women Charts

FOCUS 2 – Society

Additional Sources: Germany Average Salaries & Expenditures. (2008). Retrieved from International Average Salary Income Database: http://www.worldsalaries.org/germany.shtml German Women Earn a Fifth Less Than Men. (2008, June 9). Retrieved from Spiegel Online: http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,558526,00.html Endnotes 1 Haines, M. (2010, February 4). Fertility and Mortality in the United States. Retrieved from Economic History Association: http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/haines.demography 2 United States Breastfeeding Committee. Breastfeeding and child care [issue paper]. Raleigh, NC: United States Breastfeeding Committee; 2002. 3 Child Care. (2000). Retrieved from Almanac of Policy Issues: http://www.policyalmanac.org/social_welfare/archive/child_care.shtml 4 Barsimantov, J., & Giannarelli, L. (2000, December). Child Care Expenses of America’s Families. Retrieved from Urban Institute: http://www.urban.org/publications/310028.html 5 Brown, H. (2009, May 4). U.S. Maternity Leave Benefits Are Still Dismal. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/2009/05/04/maternity-leave-laws-forbes-woman-wellbeing-pregnancy.html 6 Arens, S. (n.d.). Comparison of the German and the Scottish School Systems. Retrieved from http://www.fb3.uni-siegen.de/anglistik/Scotland/excursion/comparison.htm 7 Wrohlich, K. (2006, February 1). Labor Supply and Child Care Choices when Subsidized Child Care is Rationed. Retrieved from University of Verona Department of Economics: http://dse.univr.it/espe/documents/Papers/C/4/C4_2.pdf 8 Kreyenfeld, M. (n.d.). Women’s Education and the Transition to the First Child. Retrieved from University of Amsterdam: http://www1.fee.uva.nl/scholar/seminars/maternity/papers/kreyenfeld.pdf 9 von Bröckel, J. (n.d.). 2007: Germany’s New System of Parental Leave. Retrieved July 2011, from Homepage: http://www.janvonbroeckel.de/english/parental_leave.html 10 Dempsey, J. (2006, December 29). Germany to offer working mothers maternity benefits. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/29/world/europe/29iht-babies.4051221.html 11 Universities Rewarded for Hiring Women Professors. (2008, September 4). Retrieved from Spiegel Online: http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,576238,00.html 12 Vogel, S. (2006, February 10). Women slow to reach senior management positions. Retrieved from Cologne Institute for Economic Research: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2006/07/articles/de0607029i.htm 13 Falling Behind: Working Women in Germany Grapple with Limited Child-Care Options. (2007, March 28). Retrieved from University of Pennsylvania, Knowledge@Wharton: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1694 14 Clark, N. (2011, January 26). For Women in the Workplace, an ‘Upgrade Problem’. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/27/world/europe/27iht-women27.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=Avivah&st=cse 15 German Women Struggle for Equal Pay. (2010, October 25). Retrieved from Spiegel Online: http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,725189,00.html 16 Women Work More, But Are Still Paid Less. (1995, August 25). Retrieved from International Labour Organization: http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/press-and-media-centre/press-releases/WCMS_008091/lang--en/index.htm 17 Women have strengthened army, says military association. (2011, January 2). Retrieved from The Local: http://www.thelocal.de/society/20110102-32169.html

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Handout 2.3.2 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Redefining Their Roles: Women Work to Balance Demands of Jobs, Family By Tiffany Lee 2007 At 7 p.m., Dr. Nicola Dankelmann’s day is coming to a close. Sitting

age 3, leaving many women with no other choice than to stay at

down in her second-floor private practice in the southwest section

home; few men do so because of the social stigma against full-time

of Germany’s capital city, the 45-year-old gynecologist has had a

fatherhood.

long day. On top of seeing her patients, Dankelmann spent extra time catching up on paperwork, now strewn across her desk in uneven stacks. Her voice, though pleasant, hints at fatigue. Dankelmann, however, cannot call it a day just yet. After all, not everyone in the room is tired. For Paulie, it’s as if the day is just beginning. Dankelmann’s 5-year-old son gleefully bounds around the homey, yellow-and-white office, jabbering continuous streams of mono-

In addition, poor female representation in the business and academic worlds as well as a wage gap between men and women reflect discrimination against females in the workforce. Gradually, though, Chancellor Angela Merkel and Family Minister Ursula von der Leyen are leading the way toward new family policies in Germany, making it increasingly possible for women to have

logue, eager to make himself the center of attention. As Paulie be-

it all.

gins to perform his signature antic of the night – cracking imaginary

Part of the government’s motive is economics: Germany’s slumping

eggs over his mother’s head – the doctor snaps into mommy mode:

birthrate – about 1.3 children per woman – is one of the lowest in

Gamely playing along, Dankelmann crinkles her face in disgust as

Europe, and citizens are feeling the burn. Germany’s dilemma is that

she pulls the gooey “yolk” out of her hair. For her, making the transi-

it needs a higher birthrate – these children will replenish the work-

tion from the world of reproductive health to a 5-year-old’s fantasyl-

force years down the road – but many women are reluctant to have

and is all in a day’s work. But Dankelmann is something of an anom-

children because they want to work themselves.

aly in contemporary Germany – a land where walking the tightrope between motherhood and employment is made especially perilous by a legacy of fascist sexism, social pressure to be a stay-at-home mother and, most importantly, a dangerously weak day care system. For many women the challenge of juggling childrearing and employment is almost impossible. Anna Held, a single, 31-year-old who works as executive manager of the Leo Baeck Summer University in Jewish Studies, said, “There is some sort of legacy that is hard to overcome, in terms of how people think that women should raise their children or how much time they should stay at home.” For women, the struggle to overcome such a deeply ingrained legacy is exacerbated by the confusing, multifaceted debate in Germany about the female role. Balancing work and family is extremely difficult because government policies encourage women to choose one or the other. Although women can take three years of maternity

Germany has an aging population and a deficit of young people, which is causing a sluggish economy and promises future cuts in social benefits. This gloomy prospect is generating support for working mothers because they are necessary to bolster Germany’s economy. Right or wrong, then, support for improved day cares and family policies is fueled more by economic woes than a spirit of gender equality. “We need children,” Dankelmann said. “That’s a fact. And we need children in good families, so we have to do something.” Held said that although women are increasingly taking on the dual role of mother and careerist, the prevailing German attitude toward these do-it-all females is tepid approval at best and downright rejection at worst. Germans even developed a unique, derogatory word to hurl at working mothers: Rabenmutter – raven mother – a woman who flies away from home and hearth, neglecting her children.

leave, they often get bumped out of good positions and shuffled

“I get enraged when I even hear that term,” Karoline Beck told Spie-

into less desirable jobs when they return. Germany’s ailing day care

gel Online, a German news magazine, in September 2005. Beck, a

system has slots for fewer than 10 percent of the children under

39-year-old single mother and self-made businesswoman, contin-

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ued: “It shows me we really haven’t emancipated ourselves from the

policies. “And, I think, it is a message for the whole society that we

Third Reich mentality where mothers were expected to stay home

have a female chancellor.”

and bear the next generation. These days, no one has to stay home

Von der Leyen told The New York Times in 2006 that her experience at

to do the wash. There are machines for that.”

Stanford University in Palo Alto, Calif., in the 1990s sparked her desire

Statistically speaking, though, it’s clear that washing machines are

to improve Germany’s treatment of women. In California, she said,

not doing the trick for most German women.

her colleagues didn’t blink an eye when they learned of her multiple

Particularly revealing are numbers from the business world, espe-

children. But back in Germany, when her boss heard she was ex-

cially the top tiers of large companies. According to a report re-

pecting a third child, he told her she would be too drained to work.

leased in 2006 by the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citi-

Her experience reflects the difference between the two cultures’

zens, Women and Youth, women occupy just 24 percent of senior

treatment of women. Although the situation is far from perfect in

management positions in the private sector. Although the statistics

the United States, to some German women, it looks like American

from middle-management positions are more heartening – females

females have it easy.

hold 41 percent of those jobs – an undeniable glass ceiling exists for

“It’s definitely harder in Germany than in the U.S.,” Walther said.

German women working in large companies.

The two sides of Germany’s governing Grand Coalition have different

“They’re not very strong in the business community,” said Michael

takes on the role of women in society. While Germany’s Social Dem-

Cullen, a German historian and regular contributor to Germany’s

ocrats are fairly receptive to policies that make it easier for women

Der Tagesspiegel, a liberal newspaper based in Berlin.

to be part of the workforce, von der Leyen’s agenda has drawn criti-

The ceiling also extends into academia: Although 50 percent of

cism from her party, the conservative Christian Democratic Union,

university graduates are female, fewer than 10 percent of tenured

which historically promoted a “traditional” family structure with a

professors are women. Such lopsided numbers do not reflect a lack

breadwinner father, a homemaker mother and well-groomed chil-

of motivation, though. The German government’s most recent sta-

dren. But no longer can Germany afford to virtually force women to

tistics show that just 5 percent of women want to be housewives.

choose between children and work, a situation that is one cause of

Despite the dismal figures, however, it’s not all gloom and doom for Germany’s women. Today, they are increasingly able to balance

the low birthrate. For this reason, policies that integrate women into the workforce are crucial.

work and children. In large part, the country’s heightened focus on

The roots of gender inequality in Germany stretch back to the be-

gender equity comes from the very top tier of leadership. Chancel-

ginning of Adolf Hitler’s reign in the 1930s. After gaining the right

lor Merkel, the first woman to head the German government, has

to vote in 1919, women flourished in the Weimar Republic, making

subtly pushed women’s issues up the political agenda.

advancements in the arts, education and politics during Germany’s

“I think she’s changed family politics,” Held said. “That’s something I really give her credit for.” Although Merkel rarely deals directly with women’s issues, her pick for family minister, von der Leyen, certainly does. Von der Leyen, a mother of seven, is driving efforts to create a family-friendly Germany by promoting higher capacity day care centers and providing “parents’ money” for Germans, which since Jan. 1 grants women up to 1,800 Euros, or about $2,400, per month to stay home with their newborns for a year. After the mother returns to work, the father can stay home for another two months and continue to receive

experiment with democracy. But as Hitler gradually consolidated power and eventually became chancellor and then Führer in 1933, German women saw their rights slowly contract. Bit by bit, women were put in their place. Hitler’s government tightened abortion laws, which had been liberalized during the Weimar Republic. Nazi leaders discouraged women from working outside the home by creating financial incentives and health care benefits for staying home. They deflated the feminist cause, calling for women to serve only as loving mothers and wives. “During fascism, women were not allowed to work and had to be

the monthly benefit. In theory, the program will prod women to

mothers,” Walther said. “This was their achievement in life. Still now

return to work faster than they would under Germany’s generous

we try to overcome this, but it’s still there.”

maternity leave policy. Finally, some Germans say, the government

Aware that such policies might anger the sophisticated Weimar

is showing support for working mothers.

women, Hitler and his aides sought to glorify the so-called female

“This is a big, big step, which is definitely different from the Social

role. In a 1933 speech, Joseph Goebbels, Nazi propaganda minister,

Democratic government that we had before,” said Katherine Wal-

said, “The first, best and most suitable place for the woman is in the

ther, the deputy managing director of the European Academy for

family, and her most glorious duty is to give children to her people

Women in Politics and Business, which promotes family-friendly

and nation, children who can continue the line of generations and

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who guarantee the immortality of the nation.”

than 10 percent of the children up to age 3, compared to 64 per-

Always eager to promote a master race, Nazi leaders claimed that

cent in Denmark, 34 percent in Britain and 29 percent in France. Re-

by choosing “pure” German husbands, women were serving their country. In 1933, Hitler launched the Law for the Encouragement of Marriage, which allowed newly married couples to obtain a government loan of 1,000 marks. For each child they had, the couple’s loan debt decreased by 25 percent. That meant if a couple had four

sponding to the deficiency, the German government in April said it plans to triple the number of day care slots for children under 3 to 750,000 by 2013. Although the boost would be a massive improvement for Germany, it would only bring the country up to Europe’s average child care capacity, which provides slots for 35 percent of

children, their debt to the government disappeared.

young children.

In 1949, four years after Germany’s crushing defeat in World War II,

The day care problem does not plague Germany evenly. In the

the mounting Cold War split the country by ideology. Along with different economic theories came different ideas about the role of German women: In the democratic West, where capitalism flour-

former East and in urban areas such as Berlin, the problem is less pronounced. Dankelmann, the gynecologist, said Berlin’s child care system is strong compared to what exists in Germany’s less popu-

ished with the help of Marshall Plan money, many women retained

lous areas.

their roles as homemakers. In the East, however, communist leaders

“In big cities, it’s quite normal that women always work,” she said.

tried to boost productivity by encouraging women to work outside

“And in other regions or smaller cities, many of the women stay at

the home. And it wasn’t just empty talk – Eastern leaders followed

home.”

through by building and supporting a strong, high-capacity day

The day care problem is compounded by the structure of Germany’s

care network across their half of the country. Although many of these child care centers closed their doors after the Berlin Wall fell in November 1989, the eastern part of Germany still has a better day care system.

half-day school system. Although the popularity of full-day schools is rising – partly because studies have shown that all-day schooling leads to higher test scores – school days ending at noon or 1 p.m. still dominate in Germany. Such scheduling complicates things

In East Germany even women with children commonly worked,

for German parents, many of whom cannot afford a nanny and lack

Walther said. “That is still kind of a structure left from that time. There

child care options. In many cases, a stay-at-home parent is a neces-

is still child care. Not enough, but still, there is this history.”

sity.

After East and West united, the Eastern side’s support for working

Almost every time, it is the mother who takes on that role because

mothers was eclipsed by a resurgent belief in stay-at-home moth-

a stigma exists against stay-at-home dads. Although von der Leyen

ers, and German women were left with little governmental or so-

has tirelessly pushed for fathers to become more involved in house-

cietal support. Even now, Walther said, the shadow of Nazi sexism

work and childrearing, most German men cringe at the thought of

looms large.

domestication because they fear they will lose credibility at their

“It’s a long way to change the mindset, of course.”

jobs. Held, director of the Leo Baeck University, said society does not

In addition, many young Germans embrace traditional gender values. Rather than rebelling against stereotypes, up-and-coming Germans seem determined to follow conservative rules, experts say. Ulla Bock, a sociologist at the Free University in Berlin, told Time Europe magazine in March 2006, “There are these weird breaks in the

yet accept men as full-time fathers. “Here, you would really be looked down upon,” she said. “Someone would say, ‘Oh, that’s probably someone who’s not really too interested in his career. He just wants to spend more time at home and reading.’ They don’t really see how much work it is to stay at home

emancipatory progress, and we are in one. There are more and more

and take care of your children.”

young people who want to live according to the old values.”

Marcia Moser, a graduate student in women’s studies at the Free

A recent study commissioned by Germany’s family ministry con-

University of Berlin, agreed that German men are far from being in-

firmed the conservative revolution: It found that even couples who

tegrated into childrearing.

believe in gender equality are likely to take on traditional gender

“It’s a problem of social respect,” she said. “Many men who want to

roles when their first child is born. With this attitude prevailing, the

stay at home say they are not taken seriously from their colleagues.”

road ahead for aspiring working mothers looks even rougher.

Also controversial is Germany’s maternity leave policy, which allows

Many German women believe that it’s the country’s weak day care

women to take three years of unpaid leave after having a child with

system that cripples their efforts to become working mothers. The

the guarantee that they can return to work for the same employer.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development report-

On its surface, the plan seems to offer women flexibility without the

ed in 2001 that Germany’s day cares have enough slots for fewer

risk of losing their jobs. Dig deeper, though, and the plan’s faults are

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glaringly obvious. As Walther of the European Academy for Women

In some ways, Merkel’s position as chancellor reflects how deeply

put it, the policy is misleading: Although mothers are guaranteed a

conflicted Germans are about the role of women in society. Al-

job when they return, they are not necessarily guaranteed the same

though Merkel is a shrewd politician, the media coverage early in

job they left behind.

her term centered on her clothes, makeup and haircut.

“Of course, no company can hold the position free for three years,”

“There was, of course, that unpleasant debate in the press about

Walther said, noting that women often do not realize they might be

Angela Merkel’s personal appearance,” said Geertje Huendorf, a pub-

demoted as a result of taking maternity leave. “They are not aware

lic affairs representative at the U.S. Embassy in Berlin. “However, it

that it is a total break for their careers.”

seems like this is not an issue the press plays with any longer.”

Not only do many women lose high-status positions when they

Why the change? Reportedly, Merkel spruced up her haircut and

have children, they also lose respect. Before they have children, few

freshened her makeup to blunt the criticism. That her appearance

German women report overt discrimination at work. After women

was even an issue, though, shows that some Germans still do not

start a family, it’s a different story. Walther said women with children

take working women seriously, just as some Americans prefer to

have to work twice as hard to prove themselves

chat about U.S. Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi’s designer clothes

They have to emphasize that they’re still interested and ambitious,”

rather than her policies.

she said.

“That’s a sign of macho society,” Held said. “It’s totally ridiculous.”

The German workforce is treacherous even for women without any

Merkel even struggles to gain the support of her fellow German

children. For starters, the wage gap between men and women is

women. For her, there has never been such a thing as female soli-

one of the biggest in Europe. On average, German women work-

darity. During Merkel’s run for the chancellery, Alice Schwarzer,

ing full time are paid 23 percent less than their male counterparts.

Germany’s most prominent contemporary feminist, gave Merkel a

Among European countries, only Germany, Britain, Slovakia and Es-

warning face-to-face: “Dear Ms. Merkel, show us women that you

tonia have wage disparities greater than 20 percent. In the United

too are a woman. Of course, you’re welcome to wear pantsuits and

States, the difference is about 23.5 percent.

play the male lead in the party. But please don’t forget about our

To offset corporate discrimination, German women are formulating alternative plans for making money while raising children, the

concerns.” One way Merkel responded to this was by appointing five women to her 15-person cabinet.

most popular of which is part-time work. Women hold 85 percent

Schwarzer’s concerns mirrored those of many German women

of all part-time jobs, and one-third of all employed women work

who wondered if Merkel, a childless former scientist, could really

part time. Walther said research done by the European Academy in-

empathize with the struggle to balance work and family. One of

dicates that both women and men who have young children prefer

Merkel’s biggest critics was Doris Schröder-Kopf, the wife of her rival

that the woman work part time, the man full time.

for the chancellery, incumbent Gerhard Schröder. Before the elec-

“The majority of people, and men, do want women who have a profession and work,” she said. “But a lot of them think that it’s better that she does this only part time. The (number) of men who say,

tion, Schröder-Kopf griped that “Frau Merkel doesn’t represent most women’s experiences.” To some German women, this observation rings true.

‘No, I want my wife to stay at home when we’re having children’ is

“I do not relate to her,” said Cordula Von Hinuber, a 28-year-old event

declining.”

planner in Berlin, commenting that as a woman who hopes to mar-

Another option is self-employment, which has increased among German women by 60 percent over the past decade, twice the rate of European women as a whole. One such self-employed woman is Dankelmann, the gynecologist in Berlin. In some ways, her experience showcases the benefits of self-employment. She has no male

ry and raise children someday, she doesn’t see Merkel as the ideal female leader. On the flip side, though, many German women credit Merkel with putting the debate out into the open. Moser, the graduate student, said the Schröder-Merkel race thrust family politics into the spot-

boss to answer to and no colleagues to compete with. Through

light.

medical school and years of private practice, she said, she has never

“I think the fact that it’s discussed so much shows how much the

felt slighted because of her gender. Had she chosen a different path,

people need to reflect on that,” she said.

though, she said the situation may have been different.

Gender politics seep into other facets of German life, includ-

“I never felt any discrimination,” Dankelmann said. “But I was never

ing military policy, which holds that all men are required to serve

thinking about getting a chief position in the hospital. In other areas,

while women are not. Even though the rule is a holdover from

it’s harder.”

the Nazi era, officials from the Center for the Transformation of the

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Bundeswehr said that women are excused from service because it is

is ever to join the union, it must improve its treatment of women.

the “gentlemanly” thing to do. Capt. Friedhelm Stappen, the center’s

Cullen, the historian, said he believes such political pressure will im-

commander, said that women make up just 5 percent of the pro-

prove day-to-day life for Turkish women in Germany.

fessional military, and most of them work in medical services. Even

“They’ll have to come up to snuff,” he said. “The Turkish men are very

Germany’s strongest feminists, though, aren’t fighting tooth and nail for the chance to serve in the military. Moser said, “My opinion is this regulation is a clear (positive) privilege for women.” She added that instead of discussing whether women should be required to serve, the national debate centers around whether the army should become volunteer-only. Old ideas about marriage linger as well, said Marcus Heithecker of Germany’s Die Welt, a moderately conservative newspaper. Just as an American woman is said to have “married up” if she exchanges vows with a man from a higher socioeconomic class, German women from the East “marry up” if they marry men from the West, Heithecker said. Ideas like these perpetuate the notion that women acquire social mobility through men rather than through their careers, whereas men generally gain status through their jobs. One of the ugliest gender issues involves Germany’s 2.2 million Turkish immigrants. The role of women in the tight, insular Turkish communities differs significantly from the role of so-called “German-German” women. Even more than non-Turkish German women, Turkish women are expected to stay home and care for the children. Some say the sexism is worse among Turks; others believe that Turkish

macho, and women are kept very, well, in the dark.” Walther, of the European Academy, isn’t so quick to point fingers. True, she said, some Turkish women are treated poorly, but German women don’t escape these problems, either. “We also have a lot of German women who are treated badly by their men,” she said. Because Germany’s aging population has led to a demand for young workers, the integration of women into the workforce is no longer a question of “if,” it’s a matter of “how.” Without a doubt, the biggest question is how Germans will overcome the old adage of the “three K’s” – Kinder, Küche, Kirche (children, kitchen, church) – that traditionally defined the role of women. Academics and everyday women alike want to see family politics taken more seriously. In addition to taking gender inequity more seriously, Cullen suggests there is more than one way to look at the issue. Although it’s nearly universally agreed upon that working women in Germany face a bumpy road, the situation is not wholly the result of sexism, he said. Perhaps women don’t want to spend their lives climbing the corporate ladder.

women are more honored and revered for their domestic role than

“In Germany, it’s a middle-of-the-road kind of thing,” Cullen said.

are German women.

“Maybe they don’t want to be the chairman of the board or chief ex-

Recent violence against Turkish women, however, has raised concerns that the rules for Turkish women are too rigid. During a span of

ecutive officer. Maybe they don’t strive for that kind of job because you never have the chance to breathe, or read, or go for a walk.”

four months in 2005, six Muslim women from Berlin were murdered

True, not every woman wants to be a CEO, but many German wom-

in “honor killings” carried out by family members to restore the fam-

en do hope for the chance to be like Dankelmann, who maintains

ily’s honor, which these women allegedly tainted by adapting life-

a successful career and a strong bond with her son. With the new

styles too Western.

“parents’ money” policy, Dankelmann said, more German women

One of the victims was Hatin Surucu, a 23-year-old Turkish mother

will be able to have it all.

who abandoned her Islamic head scarf and took classes at a techni-

“I think with this new regulation more and more women may think

cal school. After she began dating German men, her family decided

about having a child” – even if the balancing act between career

that her way of life was simply too corrupt, and police believe that

and motherhood could be a challenge.

her three brothers shot her to death at a bus stop in Berlin. Papatya,

Lee, Tiffany. (2007). Redefining Their Roles: Women work to balance

a Turkish women’s group in Berlin, has on record 40 similar “honor

demands of Jobs, family. In Renovating the Republic: Unified Germany

killings” in Germany since 1996.

Confronts its History. University of Nebraska at Lincoln.

Officials and citizens remain concerned that these murders represent an out-of-control, abusive patriarchal outlook that goes unquestioned in the Turkish community. Spiegel Online reported that a 14-year-old Turkish boy responded to the killing of Surucu by saying, “She deserved what she got. The whore lived like a German.” Frightened that such comments reflect the broader mentality of Turkish men, European Union officials have mandated that if Turkey

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2.3.2 Redefining Their Roles: Women Work to Balance Demands of Jobs, Family

QUESTIONS Directions: Answer the questions after reading the article above. Be prepared to share your findings in class.

1. Why is “walking the tightrope between motherhood and employment” so perilous?

2. List the details of child care support including day care.

3. Why is a birthrate of 1.3 children per woman a serious concern for the country?

4. Explain the use of the derogatory term, Rabenmutter.

5. List the statistics for women in the business and academic world.

6. What effort is the government putting forth to deal directly with women’s issues?

7. Discuss a woman’s role during the Nazi period.

8. After 1945 how did a woman’s role compare between East and West Germany?

9. What are the values prevailing among young Germans?

10. How do stay-at-home fathers factor in?

11. How is the role of a female German Turk similar and/or different?

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Handout 2.3.3 THE new york times

In Germany, a Tradition Falls, and Women Rise By Katrin Bennhold January 17, 2010 NEUÖTTING, Germany — Manuela Maier was branded a bad moth-

Now, in the face of economic necessity, it is crumbling: one of the

er. A Rabenmutter, or raven mother, after the black bird that pushes

lowest birthrates in the world, the specter of labor shortages and

chicks out of the nest. She was ostracized by other mothers, berated

slipping education standards have prompted a rethink. Since 2003,

by neighbors and family, and screamed at in a local store.

nearly a fifth of Germany’s 40,000 schools have phased in afternoon

Her crime? Signing up her 9-year-old son when the local primary

programs, and more plan to follow suit.

school first offered lunch and afternoon classes last autumn — and

“This is a taboo we just can’t afford anymore; the country needs

returning to work.

women to be able to both work and have children,” said Ursula von

“I was told: ‘Why do you have children if you can’t take care of them?”’ said Ms. Maier, 47. By comparison, having a first son out of wedlock 21 years ago raised few eyebrows in this traditional Bavarian town, she said. Ten years into the 21st century, most schools in Germany still end at lunchtime, a tradition that dates back nearly 250 years. That has powerfully sustained the housewife/mother image of German lore

der Leyen, the German labor minister. A mother of seven and doctor-turned-politician, she baffles housewives and childless career women alike, not to mention many men in her Christian Democratic Union. The spread of all-day schooling in Germany, a trend she considers “irreversible,” is a sign of the times, Ms. von der Leyen said in an interview. “The 21st century belongs to women.”

and was long credited with producing well-bred, well-read bur-

Women already form the majority of university graduates in the

ghers.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which

Modern Germany may be run by a woman — Chancellor Angela Merkel, routinely called the world’s most powerful female politician — but it seems no coincidence that she is childless. Across the developed world, a combination of the effects of birth control, social change, political progress and economic necessity has produced a tipping point: numerically, women now match or overtake men in the work force and in education. In the developing world, too, the striving of women and girls for schooling, small loans and status is part of another immense upheaval: the rise of nations in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

groups 30 nations from Europe to the United States to Turkey and South Korea; this year, women will become the majority of the American work force. Add to that an economic crisis that has hurt traditional male jobs in manufacturing harder than female ones in services — in Germany, only 10,000 of the 230,000 who have lost jobs in the slump were women — and the female factor emerges as stark. Everywhere, women still earn less, are more likely to work part time and less likely to hold top jobs. But young female doctors, for instance, are rising in numbers, and women dominate middle management in major consumer companies. They could run the

In both these worlds, women can remain trapped by tradition. Now,

hospitals and corporations of tomorrow. Many will be family bread-

a social revolution — peaceful, but profound — is driving a search

winners; in Germany, every fifth household is already sustained by

for new ways of combining family life and motherhood with a more

female income.

powerful role for women.

Working women seek not just a paycheck, but also fulfillment of

Westerners are quick to denounce customs in, say, the Muslim world

ambitions, both personal and professional. “I love my son, and I love

that they perceive as limiting women. But in Germany, despite its

my work,” said Manuela Schwesig, 35, the new deputy leader of the

vaunted modernity, a traditional perception of motherhood lingers.

opposition Social Democrats, who is the mother of a 3-year-old. “I

The half-day school system survived feudalism, the rise and demise

am a more fulfilled mother for working and a more motivated politi-

of Hitler’s mother cult, the women’s movement of the 1970s and

cian for having a child.”

reunification with East Germany.

This trend turns the question of child care into one of economic

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competitiveness, notes Karen Hagemann, professor of European

In the rectory next to Neuötting’s 15th-century St. Nicolas Roman

and gender history at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Catholic Church, the priest, Florian Wöss, reluctantly accepts the

“High birthrates and female employment rates tend to move to-

change. His parish runs two kindergartens for children over 3. More

gether,” said Ms. Hagemann, an expert on the German care system.

mothers have asked him to accept younger children. “I don’t like the

“Child care and a school system that covers the working day is key.”

fact that more mothers feel they have to hand over their children

Why Germany is special In 1763, Prussia was ahead of its time, the first country to make education compulsory for its lower classes. The half-day system evolved in a family economy that depended on child labor. By the time

and go to work,” he said. “But it is a reality.” Local clergy debated whether to stall the trend by simply refusing, he said. “We came to the conclusion that the pressure is so overwhelming and so multilayered that we can’t stop it.”

France and Britain set up all-day systems a century later, the German

Wolfgang Gruber of the Bavarian education authority concurs. He

way — which survives in Austria and parts of Switzerland — had

uses words like “flood” and “avalanche” to describe the demand for

already grown deep roots.

afternoon schooling. From 2006 to 2009, only 40 primary schools in

Staunch defenders are not just socially conservative politicians or clerics. Germany’s middle classes long believed that they, not the state, should round out children’s general culture. No school, the thinking went, could improve on a mother. Edith Brunner, 41, is that German model mother. A qualified tax adviser and who has four children, she went part time after her first child and then gave up work altogether. She spends afternoons checking schoolwork and shuttling from flute and piano lessons to soccer training and gymnastics tournaments. Her husband is a wellpaid physicist. Ms. Brunner’s example provides a strong argument for those opposing all-day school. But her type is increasingly rare. Today, highly qualified women — and there are more of them than ever — tend to want to work, even if that means forgoing children; by their mid-40s, one in three German women live in childless households, the highest proportion in Europe along with Austria. At the same time, more and more women need to work, either as single mothers or because their partner cannot support a family alone. Now, said Ms. Schwesig, who is also family minister in MecklenburgVorpommern, a northeastern state, the mothers who stay at home are increasingly those with less education and sometimes an immigrant background, those whose children would, in her view, “benefit the most from visiting a childcare facility all day.” In late 2001, an O.E.C.D. study of literacy skills of 15-year-olds stunned Germany by ranking it 21st out of 27 and among the last in terms of social mobility, even though it has Europe’s largest economy. Two years later, the government, Social Democratic at the time, made

Bavaria converted. This school year, the number of all-day programs shot to 150. The aim is to introduce afternoon classes in 540 of the 2,300 primary schools, Mr. Gruber said. Even five years ago, all-day schooling in Neuötting seemed unthinkable, Mayor Peter Haugeneder said. There is a crucifix in his office, in every classroom of the Max Fellermeier school and even in the Spanish-themed restaurant run by the gay butcher. For several mothers, their great-grandmothers’ maxim, “Kinder, Küche, Kirche” — children, kitchen, church — holds true, even if, as Mr. Haugeneder says, “increasingly it is a way of life people can’t afford.” A caregiver for the elderly, Ms. Maier works in a female-dominated growth sector in aging Germany. Without the €800 she contributes to the family income of €2,400 every month, the Maiers could not run the two cars they depend on in the countryside. She jumped at the chance of afternoon school. Ms. Maier still frowns when recalling the day last October when she was choosing a new washing machine. The mother of one of her son’s friends appeared from nowhere, shouting insults. Soon, however, sneers turned to sheepish questions about her son’s exciting afternoon activities. Several parents tried to sign up midterm — but the program was already oversubscribed. The school plans one extra all-day class a year through 2012, according to the deputy headmaster, Anton Schatz. Even the angry mother from the store has become quite friendly, Ms. Maier says: “I wouldn’t be surprised if she enrolls her own son next year.”

available €4 billion, or $5.7 billion, to introduce all-day programs at

An East-West divide

10,000 schools by 2009. In the end, some 7,200 schools took part,

For four decades after World War II, Germany was divided into East

joining a small existing stock.

and West, now rendering it a social laboratory to study how basics,

Intentionally or not, the mostly male establishment unleashed a

like school hours, can help shape attitudes.

long-incipient power: mothers chafing to work who needed longer

In the East, a Communist leadership losing male labor to the West

school hours.

set up free day care centers and all-day schools. Women drove

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cranes and studied physics. Western wives, by contrast, until 1977

American mothers do not have the same subsidized child care op-

officially needed husbands’ permission to work. By then, their East-

tions, and must cope with the long U.S. summer school break. But

ern peers had a year of paid maternity leave and shorter work hours

they face less discrimination at work and more pressure to earn

if they nursed.

money to finance private health care and education for their off-

When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, female employment in the East

spring.

was near 90 percent, in the West 55 percent.

As family minister in Ms. Merkel’s first term, Ms. von der Leyen intro-

Today, 66 percent of German women work. But for those with chil-

duced tax credits for private child care, more nursery places and her

dren under 3, that figure plunges to 32 percent. Only 14 percent of

signature measure, “parent money.” Mothers and fathers can share

women with one child resume full-time work and only 6 percent of

up to 14 months of generously paid parental leave. If the father does

those with two. One result: a birthrate of 1.38 children per woman.

not take at least two months, the government pays for only 12.

Jana Seipold was an 18-year-old East Berliner when the wall fell. Her

Her aim was to give incentive to women to forgo part of the permit-

mother always worked and put her into day care at eight weeks.

ted, barely paid three-year maternity leave, often seen as an impedi-

When Ms. Seipold’s company was swallowed by a Western rival,

ment to a career, and to encourage men to share in child care.

she met West German women for the first time. “When they had

Before the parent money was introduced in 2007, only about 3 per-

children, they would just disappear,” Ms. Seipold, a 38-year-old com-

cent of fathers took parental leave. By last year, that had surged to

puter technician, recalls.

21 percent — although some 60 percent took only the minimum

Her daughters, Nele, 6, and Ella, 9, attend the Sonnenblumen Gr-

two months.

undschule in Treptow, a district in eastern Berlin. Beyond school

What business can do

hours, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., the school offers child care from 6 a.m. until 6 p.m. Monday to Friday and care during school holidays. Berlin is the only city in Germany where every primary school offers afternoon schooling.

At Siemens, the 163-year-old industrial symbol of Germany Inc., it was long unknown for a man to take time off for children. Then in 2008, 638 employees took the “father months.” Last year, 964 followed suit.

In general, the child care infrastructure remains much more developed in the former East: 37 percent of under-3-year-olds have nursery places, compared with 3 percent in the former West. Such amenities lure Western families like Urte Dally and her husband, Ortwin, who moved to eastern Berlin in 1994 and found it “liberating.” Their daughters also attend the Treptow school.

Jill Lee, the company’s first chief diversity officer, cares about fathers. She thinks if career breaks become less of a female exception, it helps women. Ms. Lee, 46, grew up in Singapore and has worked with American, Chinese and Japanese companies. She has never seen anything like what German mothers face. “Some of the same parents who en-

Ms. Dally could afford not to work. Her husband is general secretary

courage their daughters to go to university then expect them to

of the German Archaeological Institute. But like him, she has a Ph.D.

leave work to care for her child,” she said.

and loves her job at a museum in Saxony. When they travel or work late, they have a nanny, Günther.

Having women — now more than half of German university graduates — out of the work force is beginning to hurt. By 2017, demog-

“When the girls come home the homework is done, they’ve had

raphers predict a shortfall of 200,000 engineers in Germany, Ms. Lee

their music lessons and they’ve done their practice,” Ms. Dally said.

says.

“That leaves quality time for the family.” What policy can fashion

So Siemens is courting women, and mothers. It has 400 places for employees’ children in day care centers near production sites and

For too long, says Ms. von der Leyen, social policy in West Germany

plans to double that figure by next year. It has a high school sci-

was hampered by ideology. “Day care and all-day schools were long

ence camp for bright female mathematics and physics students

synonymous with communism,” she said. “But other countries tell

and mentors female undergraduates. In Germany, 21 percent of Sie-

the same story.”

mens’s staff is female; among new recruits, 34 percent.

In Europe, Nordic countries have the biggest share of women in the

What remains hazy is how many women will make it to the top ech-

labor market and also, with France, high birthrates. All offer a con-

elons, and how fast. In Germany, only 13 percent of university pro-

tinuum of support for parents with young children from subsidized

fessors are women. Siemens is the only one of the top 30 German

care and paid parental leave to all-day schools with off-hour pro-

companies with a woman on its eight-person management board:

grams, Willem Adema of the O.E.C.D. said.

Barbara Kux, 55, who is unmarried and childless. Only 2 percent of

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those running Fortune 500 companies are women. And, if women’s advancement to date has been accepted by men, might conflict loom as calls for next steps — boardroom quotas or mandatory paternity leave — grow louder? “Many obstacles remain, and a backlash is always possible,” said Ms. Hagemann, the history professor in North Carolina. But, in Germany and elsewhere, once unthinkable notions are now being entertained. “All change,” she said, requires “a change in the head.” Source: Bennhold, Katrin (2010, January 17). In Germany, a Tradition Falls, and Women Rise. Retrieved from The New York Times. © 2010 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission in prohibited.

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2.3.4 The Losers of Unification: In Some Cases Maybe Communism Was Not Such A Bad Idea

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.3.4 The Losers of Unification In Some Cases Maybe Communism Was Not Such A Bad Idea By Henry Rehn 2004 On October 3, 1990, the five former East German states formally

While a job is something that can eventually be acquired through

joined the eleven states of the FRG, forever changing the lives of

economic growth or retraining, losing government granted free-

women in Germany. From a western viewpoint changing from a

dom without consent, like the right to abortion, can be heartbreak-

communist dictatorship to a republic form of government should

ing. In East Germany, women were given by the government the

bring greater freedom and economic opportunity. In reality, East

right to decide on an abortion and made abortion free on demand

German women became the greatest losers in the transformation

within the first twelve weeks of pregnancy. Other liberal provisions

process. Not only would most of them lose their jobs, but they

included no required counseling and a little later, free birth control

would also lose the freedom they personally had over abortion and

pills. The allowance of abortion by the East German government

the relative free day care option they possessed for their families.

was used as an incentive to get more women to work. These wom-

Prior to unification GDR state records revealed that there was zero

en would keep this right until 1990.

percent unemployment among women. Integrating women into

In West Germany, abortion was illegal until 1974, when, reacting to

the labor force in the GDR fit the government’s socialist ideology.

public pressure, the Bundestag legalized abortion for the first time

It also eased the chronic labor shortage in a country struggling to

under the stipulation that each procedure be performed only after

rebuild in the aftermath of World War II. And the money women

a physician was consulted. After some court intervention this law

earned helped families get by in a low-wage socialist state.

was amended to state that abortions could be granted only if one of four specific criteria (such as rape/incest, danger to the mother’s

At the same time, West German women accepted a more sub-

life, severe deformities of the fetus, or social hardship) were met. This

missive role in society. Traditionally, they had a strong orientation

amended act would have stayed in effect until 1993.

toward traditional family relations. West German society generally frowned upon women (especially married women with children)

Reunification changed abortion policy throughout all of Germany.

who chose to work full time. West German women generally be-

In 1991 calls for change in the total policy were supported by the

came homemakers and mothers and stayed out of the male bread-

fact that 57 percent of West Germany and 69 percent of East Ger-

winner workplace. Only 55 percent of Western German women

man women thought that abortions should have been legalized

were in the workplace in 1988. The unemployment rate was 12.3

altogether or at least within the first three months of pregnancy.

percent for women at this time.

Many in government saw the right to abortion as a potential stumbling block to unification. Only by coming up with a compromise

Once unification occurred, East German women were the first to

could all roles be content with unification. Section 4, Article 31 of

lose their jobs in record numbers. By 1991, 60 percent of the un-

the Unity Treaty became the temporary fix to the abortion battle.

employed East Germans were women. Women were less likely than

The article introduced regulation that would ensure better protec-

men to be retained on short-time working arrangements. Women

tion for unborn life and provide a better solution in conformity with

have clearly had worse chances than men of finding employment in

the constitution of conflict situations forced by pregnant women.

a new field of expertise. Things have gotten better with time. Since

The new German government was also supposed to set up a

1991, unemployment for women in the former is down to 9 per-

network of advice centers run by various agencies. East German

cent. This statistic can be attributed to women taking over many of

women were now starting to feel abandoned by the false prom-

the new services oriented jobs that have come to the new eastern

ises of the Bonn government. Coupled with the dramatic rise in un-

states. As a whole these jobs pay far less than manufacturing jobs

employment, East German women were feeling like scapegoats in

and are less secure. With the ongoing rebuilding of the former East

this whole process. Anger could be heard far and wide. “I don’t see

Germany it still may be a long time before East German women see

one single instance where unification benefited women. Not one.

near 100 percent employment.

It’s only been negative,” declared Alliance 90 Party member Chris-

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tina Schenk. Berlin teacher Katrin Fleischer agreed: “As East German

the eve of unification, 95 percent of all preschool children between

women, we simply had more rights.”

the ages of three and 6 attended a kindergarten; in 1960, 46 percent

Over the next two years the various political parties attempted to propose legislation that would allow women the right to choose whether or not to have a child, and decided when abortion should be permitted. SPD, FDP, and the liberal wing of the CDU supported this vision. The conservative CDU actually wanted to toughen the existing law on abortion even further but had to wait for the SPD/

had done so. In 1989, 81 percent of school children between the ages of six and ten received all-day care after school. The GDR government further alleviated burdens on working mothers and fathers by providing hot meals to their children and by running servicehouses where dirty laundry could be dropped off in the morning and clean laundry could be picked up at the end of the day.

FDP plan to become law before they could challenge it. The CDU

In contrast, West German society provided little in day care options

challenge was heard in mid 1993 by the German Constitutional

for the families. The general rule until unification was that the moth-

Court. The Court decided against this new law. The court ruled that a

er of the children or selected grandparents of the children would

woman seeking abortion must receive counseling that is not merely

provide the needed day care. If a child became sick during the year,

an informational recital of available options, but an active effort to

West German regulations only allowed parental leave for that child

dismay her. Stephen Kinzer tells us what became of abortion for East

(up to eight years old) for five days. After the birth of a child, parents

German women: “In practice women who can afford an abortion

(mother or father) would get a subsidy of 600 DM per month for

will continue to do so, and neither they nor their doctors will be

one and a half years. This means-tested procedure forced one of the

punished if the abortion is performed in the first three months of

parents to stop working, or at least reduce their working hours to

pregnancy and if they have gone through the required counseling.”

below half their weekly average.

Representing the losing side of the decision were many East Ger-

The kindergartens were run by public authorities, the churches, or

man women who for the first time in over 21 years had to answer

private groups, and rarely by companies. When reunification arrived,

to a restrictive abortion law. Regine Hildebrandt, Minister for Social

West German women were in a quandary over the childcare ques-

Affairs in the state of Brandenburg, called the ruling “a return to the

tion. Other more liberal women envied the East German system and

middle ages” and felt that “this (decision) is just impossible at the

demanded improvements. Experts foresaw East German women

end of the 20th century.”

becoming unemployed in record numbers due to the shrinkage

In comparison to abortion, day care is one area where East German women lost nearly as much because of reunification. As early as 1950, East German law promoted the care of children for working mothers through legislation. With the start of the 1970s, the East German government created initiatives for women in order to expand their place in the workforce. Besides a shorter work week, East German women acquired paid leave for their private housework, family illness, and extended leave depending on the amount of children in the family. The GDR government allowed parents four weeks of time off for one child, six weeks of time off for two children, eight weeks for three, ten weeks for four, and thirteen weeks off for five or more children per year. Additionally, given the low income levels of many jobs, most East Germans realized that in order to make ends meet, both parents of the household had to work full time jobs. The crèche or kindergarten became a necessity to the parents and the government. Eva Kolinsky tells us this: “The employer, not the women, was obligated to provide child care facilities throughout the year. Fees were normal, and care provision was on a daily basis from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm for mothers, and the use of public childcare facilities became the rule rather than the exception.” In 1960, 14 percent of children up to the age of three were looked after in a crèche; in 1989, 80 percent. On

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of the economy. Because of this unemployment record and a lack of government funds, day care facilities in both private and public enterprises were being forced to close. Some kindergartens began to charge a monthly fee of $17, plus lunch money to stay open. Ilka Gatke of Potsdam, 36, states “If the one in our neighborhood closes, then my opportunities will be deeply limited ... I can’t burden them with that. It creates this existential worry that I won’t be able to climb back in (to society).” East German women who were seeking to reenter this new German labor market now had to deal with finding a way to pay for and provide day care for their children if they wanted to see employment. This new German economy considered single mothers to be a great risk. Abine Nopens, a single mother from the East, complains that she is “asked all the time if I have children” when she applies for a job. With the problems of unemployment and having to now pay for childcare, many East German women are now being forced economically to accept the old way of staying at home with their children and accepting total financial support from husbands, fathers, or grandfathers. Reunification, instead of bringing promised prosperity, only presented immediate hardships to most East German women. Things have changed relatively slowly. Today, in eastern Germany, 36 percent of the children under the age of three have a daycare spot, while in the west, the percentage drops to a meager

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2.3.4 The Losers of Unification: In Some Cases Maybe Communism Was Not Such A Bad Idea

2.7 percent. This lack of day care may be one reason why German couples are having fewer and fewer children every year. Only by witnessing firsthand what was happening to individual families did the German government realize that their child care system based on individual families paying for their own child care expenses needed revamping. It took nearly five years to get the German Bundestag to agree on a legislative promise guaranteeing a kindergarten spot for all children between the ages of three and six by 1996. All parties in the Bundestag, regardless of their abortion stance, now realize that day care is a necessity in both East and West Germany. Recently, the German government passed a bill that allocated 1.5 billion Euros to create more than 200,000 additional full-day care spots for young children by 2010. Some say this bill has not gone far enough. Many in Germany want a law guaranteeing parents the right to day care for children of all ages, regardless of socio-economic background. This prospect will be difficult to finance as long as the eleven western states continue to pay for the rebuilding of the five eastern states and the German economy continues to sputter along.

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2.3.5

FOCUS 2 – Society

FOCUS 2 – Society

AN EVERYDAY STORY CHRISTOPH WETZEL, 1988

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2.3.5

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2.3.6

FOCUS 2 – Society

2.3.6

FOCUS 2 – Women in Society

WOMEN IN GERMAN SOCIETY

WHO THEY WERE… WHO THEY ARE… WHO THEY’ll BE…

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2.3.7 Roleplaying Tickets

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.3.7 Roleplaying Tickets

German Turk

Former East German

Former East German

Former West German

Chancellor

Former West German

Elected Official from Social Democratic Party (SPD)

Elected Official from Christian Democratic Party (CDU)

Elected Official from The Green Party (Die GrĂźnen)

Elected Official from The Left (Die Linke)

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2.4.1 Model Time Tables

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.4.1 Model Time Tables Students have approximately 30-40 periods of 45 minutes each week, but secondary schools use 90-minute-long lessons (Block), which count as two ‘traditional’ lessons or periods. To manage classes that are taught with three lessons per week there is still one 45 minute lesson each day, mostly between the first two blocks. There are approximately 12 compulsory subjects: two or three foreign languages (one to be taken for 9 years, another for at least 3 years), physics, biology, chemistry and usually civics/social studies (for at least 5, 7, 3, and 2 years, respectively), and mathematics, music, art, history, German, geography, PE and religious education/ethics for 9 years. A few afternoon activities are offered at German schools – mainly choir or orchestra, sometimes sports, drama or languages. Many of these are offered as semi-scholastic AG’s (Arbeitsgemeinschaften – literally “working groups”), which are mentioned, but not officially graded in students’ report cards. Other common extracurricular activities are organized as private clubs, which are very popular in Germany. It is important to note that German secondary schools do not offer competitive sports programs that are comparable to those found in the United States. To play competitively, students typically join a local or community-based club. The following are examples of School Time Tables or Schedules in the cities of Berlin, Schwerin and Freiburg: 9th Grade Berlin Gymnasium Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Biology

Phys. Ed.

Biology

Latin

Latin

Ethics

Elective

Math

German

Latin

Ethics

Elective

Math

German

German

Math

Chemistry

English

Phys. Ed.

German

Math

Chemistry

English

Phys. Ed.

Physics

English

Geography

Music

History

Physics

Elective

Geography

Music

History

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

10th Grade Berlin Gymnasium Monday

Tuesday

Latin

Physics

Math

History

German

Ethics

Physics

Math

Ethics

English

English

Latin

Music

English

Fine Arts

Math

Biology

Music

German

Fine Arts

Geography

Elective

Chemistry

Chemistry

Elective

History

Phys. Ed.

German

Latin

Elective

Phys. Ed.

German

Biology

Math

Almost all of the students are taking French as first elective; four students are taking ancient Greek. Normally the second elective is fine arts or drama. In the afternoon students can participate in different clubs like orchestra, big band, or student newspaper.

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2.4.1 Model Time Tables

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8th Grade Schwerin Gymnasium (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Period 1

Phys. Ed.

Biology

Fine Arts

Computer Sc.

Math

Period 2

Phys. Ed.

Biology

Math

Physics

German

Period 3

Religion

French

English

German

Math

Period 4

Social St.

French

German

German

English

Period 5

Music

Work –Economy –

History

Geography

Chemistry

English

Math

Chemistry

Technology Period 6

Music

Work –Economy – Technology

Lunch Period 7

English

French

Period 8

French

9th Grade Schwerin Gymnasium (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Period 1

German

Physics

Chemistry

Math

Math

Period 2

Philosophy

Physics

Social St.

Math

Music

Period 3

Math

Biology

Computer Sc.

Geography

French

Period 4

French

German

Computer Sc.

Fine Arts

French

Period 5

English

Astronomy

Phys. Ed.

Fine Arts

German

Period 6

English

English

Phys. Ed.

Work –Economy –

Math

Technology Lunch Period 7

First Aid

History

Period 8

Orientation Future

History

Education/ Carrier 10th Grade Schwerin Gymnasium (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Period 1

History

German

English

Music

Physics

Period 2

History

German

English

English

Physics

Period 3

Math

Geography

German

Computer Sc.

Biology

Period 4

Philosophy

Geography

Math

Computer Sc.

Elective Fine Arts

Period 5

Chemistry

French

French

Math

Work –Economy –

Period 6

Chemistry

French

Fine Arts

Math

Technology Work –Economy – Technology Lunch Period 7

Social St.

Period 8

English

Tutoring for a

Phys. Ed.

Semester Project Tutoring for a Semester Project

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Phys Ed.

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2.4.1 Model Time Tables

FOCUS 2 – Society

10th Grade Freiburg Gymnasium (Baden-Württemberg) Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Period 1

Math

English

Chemistry

Spanish

Math

Period 2

French

History

Religious Education

Spanish

Math

Period 3

French

Physics

French

Math

French

Period 4

German

Social Sci-

History

Physics

German

Sports

Geography

Religious Educa-

ences Period 5

German

Music

tion Period 6

Geography

Spanish

Sports

English

Period 7

Biology or Spanish

Choir

Art or English

German or Social

Period 8

Biology or Spanish

Choir

Art or English

Lunch Sciences German or Social Sciences

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2.4.2

FOCUS 2 – Society

2.4.2

FOCUS 2 – Society

THE GERMAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

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2.4.3 Teacher PowerPoint Resource: The German Education System

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.4.3 Teacher PowerPoint Resource: The German Education System Slide 3: Cathedral, convent and monastery-schools were mostly established to educate students in order to become priests and monks. The name Latin school derives from the fact that Latin was the major language in class. The task of the schools was education to work in clergy and/or to study at university. The education system of the knights mainly provided education in the field of war craft and management of manors. Knight-academies: Because of the growing education of the townsmen and the increasing competition between the townsmen and the nobility, the nobility saw the need to educate their children better. This lead to the founding of the so called knight-academies. They had a practical orientation and can be seen as the very early predecessors of the modern Realschule. The name Deutsche Schule (German school) derives from the fact that the major language in class was German. They could mostly be found in cities and larger economic centers, and tuition had to be paid in cash or with natural produce. Most of the time the teacher had neither subject nor pedagogical knowledge. So only very basic education took place. Slide 4: Volksschule (people’s school): Was an 8-year-long school, which included four years of elementary school and provided basic education. Realschule (intermediate school): From Latin res = thing, practical school. “The goal of those promoting the Realschule was to focus on technical education.” Vorschule (pre-school): Was a 3-year-long, normally private elementary school to prepare for Gymnasium (high school). Humanistisches Gymnasium (humanistic high school): Nowadays mostly called classical language high school, which means Latin and classic Greek are taught. Another focus was on philosophy and the ancient world. With a degree from this high school, students had unlimited access to university. Realgymnasium: Was a high school stressing modern languages. Oberrealschule: Was a high school with emphasis on mathematics and science. Slide 5: Bürgerschule (citizen school) or städische Schule (city schools): They were similar to the Realschulen and were introduced as complements and because of a high demand. Abitur: final high school degree. It’s the only school degree in Germany which enables direct access to university. Slide 6: Nationalpolitische Erziehungsanstalten (officially: NPEA or commonly: Napola – Nationalpolitische Lehranstalt): Type of boarding high school that focused on raising the future national socialist leading elite of the country. Adolf-Hitler-Schulen: Also a type of boarding high school, meant to be the “pre-school” before the students would enter into the Ordensburgen, the educational institutions to educate the cadres or leading personnel of the NSDAP SS-Junkerschulen: A type of military academy to educate future officers of the Waffen-SS. The major admission criteria for all three types of schools were: • Racial pureness • The correct character and a strong physical constitution • Intellect

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2.4.3 Teacher PowerPoint Resource: The German Education System

Slide 7: Hauptschule (secondary general school): They provide a general education as basis for practical vocational training. Gesamtschule (comprehensive school): They combine the different types of secondary school in various organizational and curricular forms. They offer the possibility to achieve a high school certificate (Abitur) after class 13. Slide 8: Polytechnische Oberschule (general educational polytechnic secondary school): It was the standard type of school in the school system of East Germany. The school structure was a ten-grade comprehensive school without any internal or external differentiation. Erweiterte Oberschule – EOS (extended secondary school): It was the standard institution of higher education in the education system of East Germany. The final examination at the end of the 12th grade provided entrance to university.

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2.4.4 German Education Instructional Resources

HANDOUT 2.4.4 GERMAN EDUCATION INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES Specific Characteristics of the German Educational System Who is responsible for education in Germany? Education is under the responsibility of the 16 Länder (states), so Germany has 16 different, but similar school systems. The conference of the education ministers of the Länder (KMK) cares for coordination and agreement on certain standards and developments. In school education, the Länder have an almost absolute say. In the area of Kindergarten (Day Care) and in the area of higher education the Federal Government has some say too. Tuition Fee: Generally education in Germany is free, but there are exceptions. In most of the Länder parents have to pay for Kindergarten. The fee differs from Land (state) to Land and even among municipalities within one Land. Depending on the income of the parents tuition can be from zero up to approximately 4,500 €. Some Länder introduced tuition fees for university a couple of years ago, but they are normally not more than 1000.00 € per year. Kindergarten: Normally Kindergarten is available for children between the age of three and six. It’s still not too common for parents to send younger children to Kindergarten. If parents want to or have to send their younger children to a Kindergarten, they quite often have to start looking for a spot and apply for it with the birth of the child or even earlier. Primary Education: In elementary school the children have one or two class teachers who teach all of the core classes. Teacher and students have their own classroom. These are German, math and Sachkunde which includes basics of biology, geography, history, and civic education. In addition, kids take arts and crafts, music, and physical education. Depending on the grade level and the Land students have between 20 and 27 class periods per week. Secondary Education: In all types of secondary schools the students have their classroom and the teachers have to move around. The teachers have a more or less spacious teacher’s lounge where they normally have a mailbox and some limited space to store material, but generally, teachers in Germany have an office at home and carry things back and forth. Only for subjects where special equipment is needed does the teacher have his or her own classroom. These subjects include arts and crafts, music, biology, chemistry, physics, and geography. Germany has a continuous teaching approach. That is to say, students have almost all subjects for the entirety of their school life. Certain subjects are introduced at different grade levels only and in order to keep the absolute number of classes on a decisive level. The subjects can have a changing number of hours per week over the different grade levels. There are mandatory subjects and electives. Students have approximately between 27 and 39 periods per week depending on grade level, the school type and the Land they live in. School day: School is Monday till Friday, five days a week. Traditionally most schools start class at 08:00 AM and end around 01:30 PM. One period is typically 45 minutes long. In the upper grades students frequently have two periods joined together for one subject (a type of block schedule). Between period one and two is a five minute break, afterwards a 20 minute break. Then again two periods with a five minute break followed by a 15 minute break and again two periods with a five minute break in between. With the change from half day school to full day school, schedules change because a lunch break has to be included. So-called core classes like German, math or history are mostly taught in the morning, some electives and generally additional workshops are taught in the afternoon.

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2.4.4 German Education Instructional Resources

How to become a teacher? Since the German university system was changed to the bachelor/master structure, the bachelor must be studied in the form of a 2-subject degree, because in Germany, teachers must have at least two subjects. Essentially, the university student has to choose the subjects he or she wants to teach later. During the bachelor program, the student mostly gets a technical overview. Upon completion of the bachelor’s degree, he can theoretically leave the university and work, for instance, for a textbook publisher. Or he may continue a Master’s of Education. The pedagogical education and first professional teacher training is normally only part of the master’s program, even if there might be possibilities for internships at schools during the bachelor’s portion. But there are models, such as in Bielefeld, where the students are able to study pedagogy during their bachelor’s program, and then begin to study the second subject during the master’s program. With the completion of the Masters of Education, or the Erstes Staatsexamen (first state examination), a student is not yet a teacher. First is two years of student teaching (Referendariat). Afterwards, the student has to pass the Zweites Staatsexamen (second state examination) in order to become a fully certified teacher. During the Referendariat, the future teacher will earn a salary. Many student teachers regard the period of student teaching as very stressful, because in addition to the work at school, they must attend more events, in particular the accompanying Lehrerseminar (college of teacher training). The first year the student teacher will mostly be a spectator and observe his or her colleagues at school, and teach only a few hours by himself. The second year, he or she teaches almost full time, but is still often accompanied by subject teachers. In some Länder (states) it is possible to study purely to become an elementary school teacher. But in others, however, study for teaching in elementary schools is connected with study for Hauptschule and/or Realschule (both secondary schools). Most of the time, the student still has the option to choose elementary school as a focus. To become a Gymnasium teacher is another choice at university. This is followed by a Referendariat at a Gymnasium. One more option is to become a teacher at a vocational school. The “standard subjects” (German, mathematics, English, etc.) can be studied at many universities with the goal of becoming a teacher at a vocational school, but there are also specific courses taught at vocational schools (e.g. metalworking, electronics, etc.). Sometimes, depending on the subject, there can be a lack of vocational school teachers, so it is also possible to change careers, for instance as a graduate electrical engineer, and start with the Referendariat as student teacher, or perhaps even begin teaching immediately at a vocational school as a teacher. Workload and salary: With a full-time position, a teacher has to teach between 25.5 and 28 periods per week, depending on the school type and the Land. This does not include any prep-time. For a full-time position, salary differs between the different Länder, the school types, and whether a person becomes a civil servant or is considered an ordinary employee. Civil servants get a higher income. It also depends on the educational level and work experience of the teacher. Salaries range from about 2,500 € to 4,500 € per month before tax and insurances.

The Different Institutions within the German Educational System Kindergartens Mostly between the age of three and enrollment in primary school, children attend kindergarten. In some Länder, mostly in East Germany, kindergartens enroll children even younger than three. They spend all day or part of the day at the kindergarten. Attendance is voluntary. Kindergartens are to provide care for children, educate them and foster their development into responsible individuals with good communication skills. In some Länder, there are also other institutions such as pre-school classes or school kindergartens which prepare children for transition to primary school. Elementary Schools /Grundschulen Elementary schools cover the first four years of schooling. In Berlin and Brandenburg, they cover six years. All children attend elementary school and are provided with a basic education that prepares them for secondary schooling. The subjects taught include German, mathematics, arts and crafts, music, physical education and the basics of biology, physics, chemistry, social studies, history and geography. Foreign language instruction is offered in all Länder.

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Orientation Stage /Orientierungsstufe This covers grades 5 and 6, which either form part of the various secondary schools or are separated from them. The aim is to promote pupils and to enable parents to decide what type of secondary education they wish to choose for their child. Secondary General Schools /Hauptschulen Attendance at secondary general school is compulsory for all pupils who, having finished primary school, decide not to attend any of the other types of secondary school. Secondary general school covers classes 5 to 9 and in some Länder includes class 10. In most Länder, voluntary participation in class 10 at secondary general school is possible. Approximately 30% of secondary general school pupils stay on for a tenth year. Secondary general schools provide general education as a basis for practical vocational training. Secondary Intermediate Schools /Realschulen Intermediate schools are secondary schools normally covering classes 5 to 10. The final certificate awarded by these schools in general provides the basis for training in all types of medium level occupations. It qualifies holders for attendance at Fachoberschulen (see below), specialized high schools or high schools with classes 11 to 13 only (Gymnasien in Aufbauform). Intermediate schools provide extended general education. Secondary High Schools /Gymnasien High schools are secondary schools which, most of the time, cover 8 or 9 years (grades 5 to 12 or grades 5 to 13). Schools in Saxony and Thuringia consist of only 12 grades. Nearly all Länder meanwhile offer or plan to offer the possibility of acquiring the final certificate (Abitur) after 12 years of schooling. There are also high schools with grades 11 to 13 only, which as a rule are open to pupils with a final certificate from intermediate schools. The final certificate awarded by high schools (Abitur) qualifies its holder for studies at all institutions of higher education. Comprehensive Schools /Gesamtschulen Comprehensive schools combine the different types of secondary school in various organizational and curricular forms. There are integrated comprehensive schools (joint classes for all pupils) as well as additive and cooperative comprehensive schools. They offer the possibility to achieve a high school certificate (Abitur) after class 13. Secondary Schools /Sekundarschulen Secondary schools are a newly introduced type of school joining together the secondary general schools (Hauptschule) and the intermediate schools (Realschule). They offer the possibility to leave school after grade 10 with an intermediate school certificate (Realschulabschluss) or to continue for three more years (grades 10 – 13) and acquire a high school certificate (Abitur). Introduction of this type of school was planned and has started so far only in the Land of Berlin. Collective Schools /Gemeinschaftsschulen Collective schools are also a newly introduced type of school joining together elementary school, the secondary general school (Hauptschule) and the intermediate school (Realschule), so children learn at least from Grade 1 – 10. They offer the possibility to leave school after grade 10 with an intermediate school certificate (Realschulabschluss) or to continue for three more years (grades 10 – 13) and acquire a high school certificate (Abitur). Introduction of the latter two new types of school was planned and has started so far only in the Land of Berlin. High schools (Gymnasium) will further exist besides the secondary schools and the collective schools and offer the Abitur in 12 years of schooling. There are thoughts in other Länder to introduce this or a similar system too. Specialized High Schools /Fachgymnasien Specialized High schools are oriented towards occupations. They accept pupils who have earned an intermediate school certificate or equivalent. The final certificate (Abitur) awarded after three years (classes 11 to 13) qualifies its holder for studies at all institutions of higher education.

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Special Ed. Schools /Sonderschulen Special schools apply special teaching concepts which meet the special needs of children and adolescents with handicaps. There are different schools for the different kinds of handicap. Special schools provide not only teaching at the primary and secondary levels, both stage I and stage II, (sometimes organized as boarding schools), but also practical advice for everyday life and support for social integration. Corresponding institutions are also available at the level of intermediate schools, high schools and vocational schools. This type of school will most likely be phased out as recent United Nations so-called Inclusion Rules are adopted to better integrate children with special needs. Evening Classes and Full-Time Adult Education Colleges /Abendschulen und Kollegs These are institutions offering second-chance programs for adults enabling them to acquire the secondary general school certificate (Hauptschulabschluss), the intermediate school certificate (Realschulabschluss) or the high school certificate (Abitur), the higher education entrance qualification. There are evening classes at secondary general school level, at intermediate school level and at high school level. Participants are working during the first few years. The full-time adult education college (Kolleg) gives an opportunity to acquire the Abitur; it offers full-time schooling while participants are not working. Basic Vocational Training Year /Berufsgrundbildungsjahr Full-time or part-time classes provide basic general knowledge or basic vocational knowledge relating to a certain occupational field. Dual Vocational Training /Duale Berufsausbildung The system is called dual because education and training are provided at two places of learning: In companies and in part-time vocational schools. This is the main type of vocational training in Germany; more than 60% of an age-group is involved in dual vocational training. Training in individual occupations is governed by training directives (taking the form of Federal Government ordinances). At present there are about 350 recognized occupations for which the Federal Government has issued training directives. Specialized Secondary Schools /Fachoberschulen An intermediate school certificate or a recognized equivalent is required for entry to this type of school. Full-time attendance is for at least one year and part-time attendance for up to three years. The certificate, awarded upon successful completion, qualifies its holder for studies at Fachhochschulen (Universities of Applied Sciences). Full-Time Vocational Schools /Berufsfachschulen Full-time vocational schools offer courses of at least one year’s duration. In general, attendance is voluntary. These schools can be entered after completion of compulsory full-time schooling. They prepare for an occupation or provide full vocational training for those who have previously not participated in practical vocational training. Participants who have passed their final examination are awarded a certificate; the certificate awarded to those who have completed a two-year course is equivalent to the intermediate school certificate and qualifies its holder for entrance to trade and technical school. Those who complete full-time vocational school can acquire the qualifications for a recognized occupation. Vocational Extension Schools /Berufsaufbauschulen Vocational extension schools are attended by young people who are undergoing vocational training or who are employed. They can be attended after completion of compulsory part-time vocational schooling or in addition to such schooling after at least 6 months’ attendance at part-time vocational school. Most vocational extension schools specialize in certain subjects. The duration of full-time courses is 12 to18 months and that of part-time courses 3 to 3 1/2 years. On successful completion, participants are awarded certificates which are equivalent to intermediate school certificates and qualify them for entrance to trade and technical school. Schools for Nurses, Midwives, etc./Schulen des Gesundheitswesens These schools provide training for non-academic healthcare occupations, for example for nurses and children’s nurses, midwives (male and female), masseurs, occupational therapists and physiotherapists. Many of these schools are integrated with hospitals on whose premises they are located and where theoretical instruction and practical training take place. Trade and Technical Schools /Fachschulen Trade and technical schools are attended voluntarily after vocational training has been completed and practical work experience gained, in some cases even after many years of practical work, or on proof of special ability. These schools provide advanced vocational training (leading for example to masters’ or technicians’ qualifications). Full-time attendance is for between 6 months and 3 years and part-time attendance normally for 6 to 8 half-year periods. GERMANY IN FOCUS

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Universities (Including Technical Universities) /Universitäten (inclusive Technischer Universitäten) Universities are the traditional type of higher education institution in Germany. They provide courses for a broad range of study subjects. The traditional degree awarded at a university was the Magister or the Diplom (both were equal to a master’s degree). Actual coursework generally totaled nine semesters (four and a half years) of full-time study with various options for specialization. Universities combine teaching and research and have the right to award doctorate degrees. In an effort to make educational degrees more compatible within Europe, the traditional German university degrees were phased out and replaced by the European bachelor’s and master’s degree by the end of 2010. While attempts were made to phase-in moderate tuition fees, most public German universities are tuition-free. University of Applied Sciences and Arts /Fachhochschule Universities of Applied Sciences and Arts differ from the traditional university mainly through their more application or practical orientation. This includes research and vocational aspects. Subjects taught at a Fachhochschule include engineering, computer science, business & management, arts & design, communication studies, social service and other professional fields. The traditional degree awarded at a Fachhochschule was the Diplom (FH). Actual coursework generally totaled eight semesters (four years) of full-time study with various options for specialization. In addition, there are one or two practical training semesters to provide hands-on experience in a real working environment. Today the Fachhochschulen are also conducting research. The research projects are usually sponsored by industry. The German universities of applied sciences enjoy a high importance for the German industry and they normally have several partnerships with the local industry. Nevertheless, in Germany the right to confer doctoral degrees is still reserved to the universities. The Fachochschule degree was also phased out and replaced by the European bachelor’s and master’s degree by the end of 2010. Colleges of Art and Music, Colleges of Theology and Colleges of Education /Kunst-, Musik-, Theologische und Pädagogische Hochschulen Colleges of art and music (Kunst- und Musikhochschulen) offer study courses in the fine arts. Colleges of theology (Theologische Hochschulen) provide training for theologians. Colleges of education (Pädagogische Hochschulen), which have survived only in Baden-Wurttemberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein and Thuringia, provide training for teachers at the primary, secondary general and intermediate school levels and sometimes also for special school teachers. In the other Länder, teachers are trained at universities, technical universities, comprehensive universities and colleges of art and music. Comprehensive Universities /Gesamthochschulen Comprehensive universities, existing only in Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia, combine research and teaching functions of the universities, the colleges of education, the Fachhochschulen and to some extent also of the colleges of art and music. Typical of them are the integrated study courses they offer. Colleges of Public Administration /Verwaltungsfachhochschulen The colleges of public administration (Fachhochschulen für Öffentliche Verwaltung) are run by the Federal Government and the Länder governments provide training for those wishing to carve out an executive career in the civil service. Continuing Education Continuing education means continuing or resuming any form of learning (including informal learning) after completion of an educational phase, which may vary in duration, during childhood and adolescence. Continuing education includes two main areas, namely general and vocational continuing education. Most political and cultural courses are considered to be part of general continuing education. Higher education institutions and voluntary providers offer courses for further scientific training and distant education courses for both these areas. Continuing education is characterized by voluntary participation, a great variety of courses, a plurality of providers and the subsidiary role of government. Source: The German Educational System is the Best in the World: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (n.d.). Germany: Once Weak International Standing Prompts Strong Nationwide Reforms for Rapid Improvement. Retrieved from Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for the United States: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/52/32/46581323.pdf Special Characteristics of the German Educational System (2004). Basic and Structural Data 2003/2004. Retrieved from Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung: http://www.bmbf.de/pub/gus_2004_ges_engl.pdf

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The German Educational System is the Best in the World For centuries Germans thought their educational system was the best or at least one of the best in world. In fact Germany has 16 different educational systems because education is under the responsibility of the 16 Länder (Federal States), but they are all very similar. In a more simplified way you can say children attend Kindergarten, named day care in the US, from the age of three until six. Afterwards they attend elementary school for four years. At the end of grade four the children are split between the three different types of secondary school. The selection happens based on the average marks of grade three and four and the recommendation of the elementary teacher. In some Länder the recommendation of the elementary school is mandatory- in other Länder the parents have the last say. The lowest pillar of the tripartite system is the Hauptschule (Secondary General School). The students receive a general, practical oriented education and leave school with a Hauptschulabschluss (Hauptschule Degree) after grade nine or ten. The middle pillar is the Realschule (Intermediate School). The students receive an extended general education which is still relatively practical oriented and they leave school after ten years with the Realschulabschluss (Realschule Degree). In both types of schools the students learn one foreign language, mostly English. The degrees of these two types of school don’t allow the students to attend university, so traditionally they look for an apprenticeship program, mostly in the so called Duales System (Dual System). The third and most advanced pillar is the Gymnasium (High School). It offers the broadest, deepest and most theoretical education. Students generally learn two foreign languages, in a lot of cases even three. They leave school nowadays after 12 years of school with the Abitur (High School Degree) which enables them to choose any kind of higher education including university. In the year 2000 the first PISA-Study (Program for International Student Assessment) organized by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) took place 1 and Germans’ view that their educational system was superior collapsed. When the final evaluation of the test was released in 2001 Germany was shocked about the results because it ranked only 21st in reading, 20th in math, and 20th in natural sciences among the 29 OECD countries. The term PISA-Shock became part of the German language. In the following evaluation and comparison of the results certain areas were identified to be the weak points among the students and in the German system: language difficulties among migrant families and also partly among German non-academic families, the early separation of the students after fourth grade, half day schooling, lack of personal manpower in the schools, relatively large student numbers in class, a lack of quality control and common national standards. As a result, different measures were taken and first reforms were implemented. Since education is under the responsibility of the different Länder approaches were different. But you can find certain trends or sometimes even common agreements between all of the Länder. In 2003 all ministers of education agreed on early childhood language support. If language shortages are identified, children are eligible for special language training in Kindergarten. Within this framework Kindergartens underwent reform overall and became more like playful early childhood learning centers instead of holding institutions. In the matter of the early separation, discussions came up to prolong elementary school from four to six years or to found new collective schools where the children study together at least from grade one until grade ten. Elementary school is traditionally six years in Berlin and Brandenburg, an attempt in Hamburg to prolong it failed recently because of a negative referendum. Starting 2011/12 in the Saarland, elementary school will be five years. In many Länder the schools have more autonomy to decide about necessary teachers or social workers. More effort is put in further education of teachers. There are approaches to reducing student numbers in class, but normally numbers between 20 and 30 students in class is still high but common. More and more Länder change from half day schooling to full day schooling. This does not necessarily mean the kids have more school sub1

What is PISA? •

A three-yearly survey, starting in 2000, of knowledge, skills and other characteristics of 15-yearolds.In the first survey, around 315,000 students in 43 countries took part in pencil and paper tests and additionally filled out questionnaires about themselves. Their schools also provided background information. Since then the number of participating countries increased.

A specific assessment of reading, mathematical and scientific literacies in a way that looks at the capacity of students to address real-life challenges. Every time the focus area is different. 2000 the focus was on reading performance, 2003 the focus was on math, 2006 on natural sciences, and 2009 again on reading performance.

A unique collaboration among governments to monitor educational outcomes, coordinated through the OECD.

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2.4.4 German Education Instructional Resources

jects and classes. More often the time is used for special language or other training, help with homework and electives such as drama, arts, music, or sports. The Länder agreed on certain common standards and further assessment tests to assure and improve the quality of education within the country. Meanwhile, 15 of the 16 Länder introduced the centralized Abitur. This means the tests are made by a central authority, which is usually the Kultusministerium (ministry for education) of each Land. The deepest change in the system is a real school reform which has taken or is taking place in most of the Länder. Because of the PISA result highlighting lower results in Haupt- and Realschule, changing requirements in the working environment and less acceptance of the Hauptschule among parents led to a wide debate to get rid of the Hauptschule mostly by joining Haupt- and Realschule together to form new types of secondary school. In 14 of the 16 Länder a bipartite system is nowadays on the way or already implemented. The different types of secondary schools include middle schools where students learn together grade five until seven and are separated with grade eight, or students learn together at least until grade 10 with the option to continue to the Abitur within 13 years of school if they have good marks. (The Abitur can be acquired after 12 years in the Gymnasium.) Furthermore, there are pilot projects with so called Gemeinschaftsschulen (Collective Schools) where the children learn at least together from grade one until grade 10. Over the last years Germany has improved in the follow up PISA surveys. In the latest study from 2009, Germany reached rank 17 in reading performance, rank 10 in math, and rank 9 in natural sciences within the participating 33 OECD countries. “Germany got promoted – promoted from the second league into the first league. But Germany is still far away from the Champions League“, said the director of the OECD in Berlin, Heino von Meyer on December7, 2010 when he introduced the results of the 2009 study to the public. Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (n.d.). Germany: Once Weak International Standing Prompts Strong Nationwide Reforms for Rapid Improvement. Retrieved from Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for the United States: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/52/32/46581323.pdf

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2.4.5 Failing Grade: Three-tiered system hinders Turks’ success

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.4.5 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Failing Grade: Three-tiered system hinders Turks’ success By Kateylyn Kerkhove 2007 Bullet shell casings rest on the cracked sidewalks outside Friedrich

United States’ birth. A land that helped develop the university sys-

Ludwig Jahn Hauptschule, a public school in the Kreuzberg district

tem and opened its first kindergarten in 1840 also produced some

of Berlin. Tucked between graffiti-splattered brick buildings in this

of the most famous musicians, poets and philosophers in the world.

Turkish neighborhood, the aging campus is bordered by a brick

But as of May 2006, Germans awoke to an astounding reality. Con-

fence on three sides. At the front entrance, an iron gate, though securely locked, shakes as teenagers pound its bars and yell. They shout, they taunt, they laugh. The students’ brown and black clothing accentuates their dark hair and eyes. Upstairs, in one of several four-story buildings, students run and shove their way through the light gray hallways. The reflection of two laughing boys is caught by the shattered glass of a stairwell door behind them. Their conversation soon blends in with the many echoing howls of their classmates. Minutes after the bell sounds, the students finally stumble

trary to assumptions, in recent years their system had not been producing the world’s top students. In fact, according to a report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, a well-regarded, worldwide study, Germany had fewer students who achieved top scores than 12 other European Union member states. Using the European standard of free education, which it helped foster, Germany provides three levels of secondary schools for academic or apprentice instruction.

into their classrooms, doors banging shut and chairs screeching

Unlike the educational system in the United States, Germany’s sys-

across the floor. Once inside, they clamber into their seats. They are

tem tests students between the fourth and sixth grades, depending

rarely quiet. Burak Demirkiran, 17, wipes the board for his teacher.

on the policies of each of its states, and uses the results to place stu-

In a school where Turkish can be heard in the hallways but German

dents into one of three tracks: Gymnasium, the university track; Re-

resounds in the classrooms, Burak, a second-generation Turkish and

alschule, the apprenticeship track; or Hauptschule, the lowest track.

Arab immigrant, erases the English words: “Turkey 4 Ever. *** of(f )

It is this system that has bound Germany to its current fate.

the Rest.” He finishes his task and takes a seat at a desk two rows back among his Turkish and Arab classmates. The small chair barely holds him. Burak is perfectly hefty and well-proportioned for a young man recently recruited to play American-style football. A right guard, he is still learning his position because he has played for only a few months. But, in those short months, he has spent many hours plotting to escape the classroom’s walls. He would rather be on a football field somewhere – anywhere – in the United States. He looks up college teams on the Internet. He doesn’t have a favorite university, but he wants to attend one – whichever one would take him. His eyes sparkle when he thinks about it, talks about it, dreams about it. But Burak will not play football in America. He will not go to university. And, in Germany, he probably will not find a job. The German school system took shape hundreds of years before the

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Education is so decentralized that students in various parts of the country take the test at different times, start secondary education at different grade levels and go through assorted curricula. The system has no home base and no way to identify itself nationally, making country-wide reform next to impossible. Many, however, believe such reform is necessary. The German system, purposely or not, seems to assign students to educational tracks based not only on intelligence and skill but also on race. The 2006 report, which used the 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment results – known as the PISA study – indicated upper level high schools accept proportionately more German students than Turkish students, giving activists for immigrant education the fuel they needed to spring into action. Within the German high school system, immigrants make up 60 percent of students in the Hauptschule while they constitute only 10 percent of the students in the Gymnasium, the university-bound track. Academically, most students with a foreign background are

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2.4.5 Failing Grade: Three-tiered system hinders Turks’ success

FOCUS 2 – Society

almost a year behind native German students. Germany had never

Groth, Burak’s teacher. “Even those students who finish Hauptschule

prepared to educate children from a different culture, especially one

and finish with a good GPA are not guaranteed an apprenticeship.

with a different educational philosophy and language. And, despite

But we have to fight this fight ... to give these students a future.”

recent programs designed to bridge the gap, the current genera-

Kenan Kolat, secretary general of the Turkish Union in Berlin, said 60

tion of immigrant students may be left behind.

percent of Kreuzberg’s population is not of German descent. Kolat’s

Aldo Graziani, chairman of Berlin’s Community Foundation, said

non-governmental organization strives to represent the immigrant

Germany was not quick to recognize literacy problems because im-

population in Berlin without political bias. If immigrant students are

migration was not understood as a problem requiring work from

to find success in Germany, he said, they must be educated with

both sides.

their native-born peers for a minimum of 10 years. At this point, “the

“We woke up too late,” he said.

system is built on German students,” he said.

Heading to Germany in the 1960s as a part of the guest worker

Immigrants in Germany are three times more likely than German

program, these “migrants,” as Germans call them, were supposed to

students to drop out of school. In Berlin, the dropout rate for mi-

leave when their two-year timecard expired. But when businesses

grant children reached 30 percent last year.

decided it was more beneficial to keep their guest employees than

Marianne Demmer has worked in German education for 40 years, 25

to train new ones, women and children began joining their spouses

of them in the classroom. Though she now represents the Gewerk-

and fathers in Germany, mostly in Berlin.

schaft Erziehung und Wissenschaft, a teachers’ union in the state of

In 2005, according to the Federal Statistics Office of Germany, 7.3

Berlin, Demmer directs her efforts to the needs of small children in

percent of Germany’s 82 million people came from foreign countries

the German school system.

or were born to immigrants. In 2001 Germany had the fourth-largest

The PISA study, which examined the education systems of 41 indus-

immigrant population in Europe. Currently, more than 400,000 of

trialized nations in 2003, offered Demmer useful evidence for her

Berlin’s 3.4 million people are of Turkish descent.

cause.

Now, decades after the guest workers first arrived, their third- to

“They showed that school systems that are not selective can get

fifth-generation descendants – mostly Turkish – are still considered

good results and are much better in social equity and in the support

“migrants.”

of immigrant students,” Demmer said. “(It was) the first time we had

During the past 40 years, as the number of those with foreign ances-

an argument to say, ‘Come on. It’s illogical to say the system is the

try increased, the cultures began to separate. With their own doc-

best in the world.’ It’s really not true.”

tors, lawyers and barbers, Turks no longer needed to integrate, and

The results also negated any arguments that immigrant students

they created an almost parallel society within Germany’s borders.

were less motivated than their “German-German,” or native, coun-

Without a forced integration of language and culture, Germany and

terparts. Instead, they indicated that immigrant students were just

its Turkish population must now work together to find a compro-

as eager to learn – if not more so.

mise between necessary integration and complete assimilation.

Burak Can, 27, is a second-generation immigrant who grew up in

Graziani said immigrants were never told what they should learn,

Berlin. He attended Sophie-Charlotte-Oberschule, a Gymnasium and,

and they never asked to be taught. And, at this point, it may be too

after graduating from Free University in 2003, earned a law degree

late to help the current population of thousands of students of Turk-

in 2006. Now a lawyer for a Turkish-German law firm, Can plans to do

ish descent.

further study at a law school in the United States.

“We need to take care of the second wave of kids so that it doesn’t

Can’s success proves that those students considered “Turkish-Ger-

happen again,” Graziani said. “The problem has such dimension that

man” because of their foreign descent can defy the odds, but it does

it is overwhelming to tackle it. Even with the growing initiatives it is

not make Can any less passionate about the school system’s integra-

not possible. The schools are overstretched.”

tion troubles as a whole.

In Burak Demirkiran’s math class, he and his 11 peers are oblivious to

“This problem started about 30 years ago, but in only the last part of

the realities the 2006 study presented. They raise their hands eagerly

10 years the German government said, ‘OK, we’ll have to do some-

to answer their teacher’s questions about the addition and subtrac-

thing against (it),’ ” he said.

tion of fractions and are occasionally scolded for answering out of

Fourth-grade immigrant students who lack the German language

turn.

skills or the parental involvement that are vital for success in the Ger-

“The biggest problem is that for students who graduate from

man schools often are academically deprived because of Germany’s

Hauptschules, there are virtually no apprenticeships,” said Klaus

three-track system. But one group, the Turkish Parents Association,

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2.4.5 Failing Grade: Three-tiered system hinders Turks’ success

FOCUS 2 – Society

is trying to change that.

Carius may be right, but that’s because the societal change hap-

Every day from noon until 6 p.m., the Parents Association devotes

pened after the initial influx of immigrants.

itself to the education of immigrant students in Brandenburg, a dis-

Although the first generation of Turks had to learn German quickly

trict of Berlin, by offering a place for students to study after school.

in order to go about their daily business at the bank or in the super-

On Friday evenings, they meet to discuss the most pressing topics

market, Carius said the situation is different now; immigrants have

affecting their children and their children’s education.

their own bankers and their own supermarkets today.

They pack into the meeting room as Turgut Hüner, project coordina-

“It’s a big problem,” he said. “I see foreign families who aren’t forced

tor, steps to the front.

to speak German. Kids speak their mother language except when

The goal of the group, founded in 1985, is to speak for both Turkish and native German parents – though no native Germans are in

they are in school here. Public institutions never forced them to speak German (anymore, which) helped cause the huge problem.”

attendance. The organization discusses the challenges immigrant

This “huge problem” is what many Germans call “the language prob-

parents face in their teenagers’ education and pushes for a better

lem.” Without proper instruction, immigrant students sneak by in el-

education standard for immigrants.

ementary school until they are tested and dropped into Hauptschul-

For many of the Turkish parents, leaving their homes to support their children’s education is a new idea. In fact, it’s one they have adopted from the German society that surrounds them. With the school day ending at noon or 1 p.m. in most German

es. And once they are there, it is next to impossible to move up to the Realschule or Gymnasium level. Quickly, what started as a language issue turned into much more in many Hauptschules.

states, teachers expect parents to help their children with their stud-

“In a lot of schools (Hauptschules) it’s a climate of depression, no mo-

ies. While tutors are useful, few Turkish families can afford to hire

tivation, sometimes violence,” said Demmer, a teachers’ union vice

them. For these same parents, the idea that their children’s educa-

president. “The main problem is that students in Hauptschule think,

tion shouldn’t end when the school day ends is a new concept. In

‘We are the losers; we won’t find a job after school,’ and so on.”

most Turkish schools, it is teachers – not parents – who are responsible for educating the next generation.

To deal with the language problem, Turkish groups have clustered together, creating separate lives, separate communities and a sepa-

Monika Rebitzki worked as a parent educator in Berlin for 23 years

rate society away from German culture and the German language.

before retiring in 2002. In her position, Rebitzki rallied parents be-

Their need to speak German is becoming less important outside the

hind particular issues in hopes of reforming certain aspects of an

schools, making it more difficult within them.

unchanging, and formally unchallenged, school system. She said her biggest challenge is immigrant education, and a lot of the trouble comes down to cultural variances. “There is another understanding of school, the role of teachers and their role in education,” Rebitzki said. “You can’t say this for the whole Turkish population because a lot of them have integrated and go in this system very well, but traditionally, parents don’t know their role in (educating their children). … They don’t know why they have to come to school to talk with the teacher and help their children get along in school.” Jórg Carius’s booming voice reaches beyond his doors and into the

To Graziani, the Berlin Community Foundation chairman, it all goes back to a lack of recognition of the problem by the government and German and Turkish citizens alike. “The challenge and the requirement to learn the language is diminishing,” Graziani said. “Because of the lack of speaking the language, many (immigrants) have the greatest difficulty finding a job. There is a huge share of young people … who left school and wouldn’t find a job for different reasons, but one of the reasons is the lack of language knowledge.” In the end, teachers are the ones shouldering most of the blame.

entryway of the Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Hauptschule administrative

In general their numbers are dwindling quickly, and as Germany at-

office. He is a native Berliner who grew up in Kreuzberg, attended

tempts to educate the next batch, it seems they should be reaching

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and has refused to leave. Though the last thing

out to Turks as well as Germans.

he wanted to do was teach, he found his way to the front of a class-

For Rebitzki, a parent educator, the answer to many issues, and par-

room in 1969 and, 38 years later, has earned the title of principal.

ticularly to the language issue, is to have both German and Turkish

In his time here, Carius has seen a shift in culture, but he won’t admit

teachers present in the schools. However, finding Turkish teachers

to anything more than a different demographic.

is a chore in itself.

“The Germans moved out, and the Turkish moved in,” he said. “Other

Because so many Turkish students are shuffled into Hauptschules,

than that, nothing has changed.”

few of them qualify to attend university and earn teaching degrees.

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2.4.5 Failing Grade: Three-tiered system hinders Turks’ success

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This cycle will continue until some sort of compromise is reached,

What do you want here?’ and, ‘Get out!’”

somewhere – anywhere.

In both cultures, misconceptions are rampant. People form opinions

Damla Sarper, 16, a classmate of Burak Demirkiran’s wants to be-

on whim and rumor and jump to unwarranted conclusions. If the

come a hairdresser.

two groups are to cooperate, both sides need to be better educated.

Her mother, an active member of the parent association, said she

Acknowledging their many problems, Germans and Turks alike

wants more German-Turkish student interaction for her daughter.

seem ready for some sort of compromise. Germany may need to

“There are no native Germans,” she said through an interpreter. “This is a problem because native Germans in Kreuzberg do not want to

restructure its education system, but Turks and other immigrants may have to improve their German language skills to find success.

send their children to such a school. So the question is: Why can’t

Yet Can, the Turkish-German lawyer, still questions where to begin.

native-born Germans and foreigners go to the same school?”

The social problem has become political, and the stubbornness of

For Damla’s mother and numerous other Turkish parents and families, the problem is not that they don’t want to penetrate the German social wall. It’s that they can’t. A lot of the problems are rooted in stereotypes. Stories of violence in Turkish schools, particularly among the teenage boys, get amplified by media coverage.

both sides will make quick change a challenge. To Can, it looks as if the Germans are demanding that the Turks assimilate while the Turks are asking why such drastic actions are necessary. “This is an issue because it is very hard and very strange to accept for Turkish people,” Can said. “They think, ‘I have a culture, and this culture is not very bad so why do I have to give up my culture? I am a part of this city. I am a part of this country. Why do I have to

The Rülti Hauptschule in Berlin has a student population that is 83.2

assimilate?’”

percent non-German. Teachers went on strike in March 2006 to pro-

In a small Turkish market at the heart of Berlin, Ahmet Geredeli

test violent and uncontrollable students in their classrooms. Stories like that can lead to widespread false impressions. Alex Ruthstaz graduated from Rheingau Oberschule, a Berlin Gymnasium, in 2006. One night his friend Lucas was walking home from

shouts in both Turkish and German for customers to purchase his produce. From the look of his dirty clothes and wet brow and the sound of his constant bellows, Geredeli is a typical Turkish market salesman.

a party when a Turkish boy approached him. At first Lucas thought

That is, until he begins listing his life’s accomplishments. There are

nothing of it, Ruthstaz said, since it seemed the boy only wanted

four of them, all boys.

to talk. But when they had walked a few feet, more teenagers appeared. Somewhat uncertainly, Lucas continued to walk with the boy toward his friends, but when they reached the group, the Turkish teenagers attacked Lucas, Ruthstaz said. This story, combined with others like it, has given Ruthstaz a generally negative impression of immigrants in Berlin. “Almost any time you get in trouble, it is with immigrants,” Ruthstaz said. “They don’t really have to go to school, and they hang around all day bored, so

Kenan is a 26-year-old engineer, Kerim a 25-year-old accountant and Kadar a 22-year-old university student. Kubra, the 13-year-old baby of the family, is attempting to live up to his brothers’ academic and professional achievements. Geredeli glows with pride as he talks about each of his sons, smiling broadly from behind the yellow and orange fruit that surrounds him on this rainy January day.

they’re searching for some action. … It’s not that we hate immi-

But Geredeli is not the only Turk in Berlin who can cite triumphs like

grants or something like that, but too many of them make trouble,

these.

and one day I think this will be a reason that no one wants to live

Since the release of the 2006 report, it seems only the negative

here anymore or come for a visit.”

aspects of immigrants in Germany’s education system have been

Yet the problems go both ways.

published. Success stories like the Geredelis’ largely go untold.

Nuri Erberger moved from Turkey to Germany with his parents in

While obvious problems still exist and direct causes are difficult to

1973 when he was 5 years old. He was fully educated in the German school system. Erberger’s children are as afraid of German teenagers

pin down, German and Turkish citizens have begun admitting their weaknesses and, though a little late, have begun to address the

as Ruthsatz and his friends are of Turkish kids.

causes.

“My second child right now also has problems,” Erberger said

They have realized a little give and take from both sides is in order.

through a translator. “He was on a field trip with his class with a lot

Thomas Isenee, a school teacher for 36 years, said Germany must

of Turkish kids in West Germany. People walked by and threw rocks

first revamp its system. Forget the three tiers, he said. Group the

through the windows and screamed slurs like, ‘You shitty Turks!

students together and make a more cooperative learning environ-

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2.4.5 Failing Grade: Three-tiered system hinders Turks’ success

FOCUS 2 – Society

ment.

Source:

Isenee taught at Martin Buber Comprehensive School in Berlin,

Kerkhove, Kateylyn. (2007). Failing Grade: Three-tiered system hinders

which included grades seven through 13. A comprehensive school

Turks’ Success. Renovating the Republic: Unified Germany Confronts

is based more on the American style of education, allowing interac-

its History. University of Nebraska at Lincoln.

tion among students at all skill levels. Isenee argues that keeping students together and creating a more supportive atmosphere is vital to their educational achievements down the road. “In my personal opinion, this is a process that Germany has to change in all aspects,” Isenee said. “The most important thing is to reduce the selection system because it doesn’t support creative teachers. You can get rid of the ‘bad boy.’ You don’t have to think about those who don’t achieve in the academic sense. “As long as they have a chance to get rid of the problem, you can’t solve it.” Erberger, who has lived in Germany since he was 5, said he and his wife have taken the next step with their children. Opting out of the monoculture school system, they send their children to a doubleculture school. “The school our children go to is really a new thing,” Nur Erberger, Erberger’s wife, said through an interpreter. “It is school for Turkish children, adapted to the German education system.” With two teachers in the classroom, one Turkish and one German, the curriculum is based on both cultures and both languages, giving the students an opportunity for growth in both arenas. Nur Erberger said her children feel more comfortable and are more willing to go to school with both teachers present. And, most importantly, they are learning both languages. “We noticed that Turkish children here tend to speak either German or Turkish,” she added. “We felt our children should speak both.” Back at the market, Geredeli shares his favorite story about Kenan, his oldest son, for whom he first battled for his family’s educational right. “The director of the high school told him he should go to another school because of his (intelligence) level, but I said, ‘No. I want him to stay and go to university,’ ” Geredeli said. “My son graduated with high notes, and the director said he didn’t know Turkish students could do that.” As for Burak Demirkiran, that stereotype could be right. Maybe Burak, a student of Turkish and Arab descent, won’t ever play American football. Maybe he won’t attend university and maybe he won’t find a job in Germany. But maybe his children will.

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2.5.1 German Students’ Responses

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Handout 2.5.1 German Students’ Responses What does it mean to be German? What is Germany? Whom do you admire in Germany today? (Note: minor additions/deletions have been made to help with translation) Student A Grade 8b Gymnasium in Berlin Because many foreigners are living in Germany, there are many different cultures. In some Federal States are areas, e.g. Berlin, where parts consist only out of foreign inhabitants. Turkish-Arabic or people from other countries can connect their cultures with the German ones. Religions can be practiced freely. Politics is valued highly. In Germany democracy prevails. But besides the overall well good structured infrastructure, we still have relatively many unemployed and people who are living out on the streets. But everything gets done to stop this. Germany has many different landscapes, starting from the lowlands till the mountains, e.g. the Alps, you can find everything. Besides the fact that I’m not a big fan of the Alps, it can really be recommended to go there for vacation to ski or do winter sports in general. But although on the countryside, where you can endless long walk through the fields and look over the landscape, you can relax very well and spent your holidays. In my opinion, Germany is the most beautiful country existing and I’m very happy to live here. Student B Grade 8b Gymnasium in Berlin Germany is one of those countries that represent cultures form all over the world. People are coming from different countries, have different religions and still have the right here in Germany to represent their culture. The majority of the German inhabitants don’t have a problem to live “door to door” with foreigners. But Germany had a time when you couldn’t speak about living peacefully together; the time of National Socialism, the time when Hitler was in power and foreigners, mostly Jews got killed. The National Socialism made many people think different; their antipathy against foreigners increased or was only born. After this time there was the Wall in Berlin which separated East and West. The reason why many foreigners, especially Turks or Arabs, move to Germany or Berlin is that they don’t have a job in their home countries or have other money problems. And in Germany the situation seems to be better. Because of the influx of people to Germany, the habitat for wildlife gets destroyed in order to build cities, villages, and industrial areas. Many people are living from farming, but in comparison with the ones working in the cities they are relatively few. Student C Grade 8b Gymnasium in Berlin In Germany there are many beautiful landscapes. There are many lushes and flowers. The Germans like beer a lot. I think in Germany are the most breweries. Germans are known to be fat. The capital of Germany is Berlin; there you find many districts. Among them some are very dangerous. But other districts are very pretty. The Germans love soccer. Germany is very good at the World Cup. Student D Grade 10C Gymnasium in Berlin It’s not possible to characterize a typical German because you may use clichés if you try to characterize a nation. Many clichés date back to the old fashioned attitude of the Germans around the time of the Second World War. It’s true about the beer because German beer is best. Student E Grade 12 Gymnasium in Berlin It is difficult to describe the German country because of the horrible things which happened in the past. As German you can not be proud of your country without feeling bad, but it is getting better. I think you have to separate the generations. The younger generation of Germany begins to forget the horrible things their grand- or great-grand-parents did in the Second World War. That is why they begin to feel connected to their country and begin to get back the nationalistic feelings what countries like France or Great Britain already have for a long time. The Germans are famous for their correctness and for that they’re constraint. As a German I can say that it is the case with a lot of us. For example it is difficult to talk to foreign people because the Germans worry too much about how correct their foreign language has to be. They want to speak perfect, although it is clear that you can not speak perfectly if you have never been in the country of the language for a

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2.5.1 German Students’ Responses

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long time. It would be easier for the Germans if they would take things less seriously. But there are also positive things about the Germans. It is very important for them that everybody has a good education. That is quite good because in all countries a German education is a good base to get work. I also think the younger German generations are very open-minded. To conclude, there are a lot of different people in Germany. Those who are embarrassed of their country, those who forget what happened in the past and look at the future, those who are constrained and the young people who are very open-minded and interested in other cultures. All in all Germany begins to be like any other country – a lot of different people, who are proud of their nation. Student F Grade 6 Realschule in Bosel I love to live in Germany, because there is the sea as well as there are mountains. There are many interesting places and landscapes. Germany is not a paradise, of course, now which country is a paradise? I do not know any. Many people from foreign countries come to Germany for a visit or they come to live here. Mostly, the living together of all the different people is not always easy, but it is often ok. Different people from different nations can learn a lot from each other. There are no natural disasters in Germany and every child can go to school, that is not something you can take for granted in every country. In Germany no child has to work or to live on the street. The persons I respect most are the people who look after other people without being paid for it. One can not change the world alone, but everybody can help a little bit. Student G Grade 9 Gymnasium in Bosel To be German means to me, that I have a lot of possibilities to develop my abilities to the full. I can learn whatever I want to and whatever I am interested in. The opportunity to develop one’s abilities to the full is possible for every person in Germany. To be German also means that I, as a young person, cannot change the German history, but I can work against negative trends. To be German also means to live in a state which offers a lot of social welfare for its inhabitants. And many German citizens work on a voluntary basis to help other people. So in Germany you can be sure that you will be helped, if you are in a difficult situation. Another point to feel safe in Germany is the geographic situation here, there are seldom natural disasters. Because every person is equal in our country nobody has to feel excluded or unimportant. Every human being can feel important and precious. The German I respect most is a good friend of mine. On the one hand I admire how well she can work with horses, because riding and horses are my favourite hobby. On the other hand it is admirable how she has dealt with many strokes of fate. Today she has overcome it all and gets on with her life. She seems to be happy now again and does not let herself go. Her positive attitude towards life gives me and other people hope to look forward, to think positive even in times of distress. She has shown us, that a human being can learn to overcome personal disasters. Student H Grade 9 Realschule in Bosel It is great to be German because in Germany you can really enjoy the nature. Well, in big cities like Berlin, Hamburg or Munich you can enjoy the nature only in the parks, of course. But where I live, in the country here in the northern part of Germany, you do not have to have parks, the whole country is like a park. When I look out of the window I can see the wide moor where there are a lot of different plants and animals. When I go along the street I can have a look at horses, cows, sheep, dogs and cats. I have got a horse and I do not think that it is possible in many other countries to have a horse or to be so close to the nature like here in Germany. Of course we have big cities too, with shopping malls and where one fast food restaurant advertising screams louder than the other. But I feel the most comfortable here in the country. When I think about people I respect most, my mother comes to my mind. She has raised my elder brother and me all by herself without a husband. She has worked hard in a factory and has missed a lot because of us in the past. But now we have got a house of our own and I have got a horse. My brother has become a respected soldier in the German army, while I am still at school. I think my mom did everything right and that is why I respect her most. Student I Grade 12 Gymnasium in Bosel When you go on holiday, especially in the countries east of Germany, it is often not easy to tell the people, that you are German. Even after a period of sixty years many foreign people think of the Holocaust when they think of Germany. It is understandable that this terrible time is not so easy to forget and that prejudices are still there. But these days are long gone. Germany has learned from the mistakes of the past and has become one of the most important and social states in the world. Therefore I think that people from other countries should acknowledge

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2.5.1 German Students’ Responses

FOCUS 2 – Society

the change of the German nation. I, as a German, am very proud of my country that has achieved to overcome the ruins of the war, the National Socialism and now is a democratic state. At the moment I am proud that Germany won the Eurovision Song Contest and that the national soccer team promised a good start for the Soccer World championship in South Africa. The German I respect most is definitely my grandmother. When her husband died many years ago, she continued his work as the manager of a big company. With strength, perseverance, and with devotion for all her employees she led the company to success. It is now a leading company in the plastics processing industry. Despite her wealth she always lived a very modest life. Her family and her employees were the most important people for her. She experienced many hard strokes of fate, but she never gave up. She found a lot of strength in her Christian faith. I was always very proud when I saw how she treated all the people she had to deal with, family, friends, neighbours or employees. She helped them where she could. She died last year and I will never forget her, neither will my family nor her employees. Student J Gymnasium in Gundelfingen I’m proud to be a German. We have a high living standard, we all have the chance to go to school and live a long and happy life. And I’m mostly proud of Germany too. We have an efficient democracy, a good economy, the products made in Germany stand for best quality and a good technology, we have an interesting and lively culture and we call our country “Das Land der Dichter und Denker”. But as a German you have to deal with many prejudices. Most of them are kind of funny. So some people think all Germans are running around in lederhosen and dirndl, eating sauerkraut or sausages and drinking bear. But actually you only see lederhosen at the Oktoberfest in Munich or deep in Bavaria. And we eat more pizza and doner kebab than the “famous German” Sauerkraut. But there are other prejudices, which aren’t so funny, for example that all the Germans are Nazis. That’s definitely not true and it’s difficult to live with the German past even if you are young and had nothing to do with all of that. In 9th grade we visited Stutthof, a concentration camp of the Third Reich. There were students from other countries too and it was a weird situation and feeling. But we recognized that it’s important to learn something about the past of your own country. But overall it’s cool to be a German. Is there a German you respect? I don’t know whom I respect. I think respect is the wrong word. But I was very proud of the German National Soccer Team when they played in the World Cup (like the rest of Germany, too). And I respect my parents, but I think that’s another thing. Student K Gymnasium in Gundelfingen I am glad that I live in Germany, because I am allowed to live in a democracy. All children are allowed to go at school and everyone has the right to education. The whole population of Germany enjoys the right of political and religious freedom. Furthermore most of the people are largely secured both socially and financially. Due to the fact that Germany belongs to the most important industrial nations, it has to assume responsibility in the world. Our politicians should take care of the protection of the environment and the climate and fight against the poverty in the poor countries of the world. The Germans should not make politics as loner but should stand up for a joint Europe and above all for a peaceful and democratic Europe. We Germans have a problematic and difficult history namely the two world wars and the dreadful persecution of Jews. That is why the reconciliation between neighbor states is very important. Although the younger generation has not experienced the aftermath of the two wars I feel it is important that we strive towards reconciliation. In my opinion the pupils should take part in exchange programs with other countries to know the foreign cultures. I admire the well-known doctor Albert Schweitzer, who lived in the border area between Germany and France and stood up for a better world exceedingly. He won the Nobel Price for Peace and my school is named after him. I believe that also many German musicians and composers e.g. J.S. Bach and L. van Beethoven shaped the German culture. Unfortunately German is not spoken by many people in the world. For me it means that I have to learn foreign languages to be able to communicate. I am studying English and French at school. Student L Gymnasium in Gundelfingen I’m proud to be a German and I’m glad to live in Germany. For me personally the orderly processes and the reliability in Germany are really important as well as the many educational opportunities with good perspectives for the future and the protection of a good social security system in case of sickness, pension, or unemployment for individual persons. It’s also one of the most important things in Germany to keep and respect the human rights and the democracy.

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2.5.1 German Students’ Responses

FOCUS 2 – Society

Because of the central position of Germany, there are many fantastic opportunities to travel and to get to know different countries and cultures. My personal impression is that as a German you always get confronted with the topic “National Socialism”. The huge development since this time is always underestimated. Germany has become a successful industrial nation. Although it’s important to keep this terrible crime in mind, to learn out of it, people should be much more informed about Germany the Germany of today. The imagination of Germany from other cultures or countries can be changed for example through an exchange or conversations with German people. Student M Gymnasium in Gundelfingen Being German means living in the middle of Europe, in one of the richest countries in the world. We move across borders from one county to another without problems and share one currency. We live in a democracy where everyone can say his or her own opinion. Although our economy is not the best at the moment, we still export a lot of goods. “Made in Germany” stands for quality products and we are respected for our skills and know-how. Many companies from abroad are interested in cooperating with German companies in their home country. We live in a welfare state and prosperity; nobody has to suffer, even if you lose the job. Customs and traditions play an important role in many parts of Germany; as far as I know, especially in the southern federal states (Bundesländer) like Bavaria or Baden-Württemberg. The “Oktoberfest” in Munich or the “Wasn” in Stuttgart attract people from all over the world. Germans travel a lot and see a lot of the world, but due to our history we are not always heartily welcome, especially not by people who suffered under the “Third Reich”. At high school we all learn at least one foreign language, many of us two or even three, because international relations are getting more and more important. Languages and computer skills are essential in our modern world. High school and education play an important role in our lives and although we spend only two or three afternoons at school, we learn a lot. This is due to the fact that we get so much homework, too. In our free time we attend music schools or are active in sports clubs, things that other European students are offered at school. In Germany there is Kindergarten and Elementary School for all of us, but then we are sent to three different types of school: Haupt – or Werkrealschule, Realschule and Gymnasium. Many European countries do not select that early and their students share more years of common education. Family life is important to Germans, although the number of divorced parents has increased over the years. We try to have lunch or at least a meal a day together. Is there a German who you respect? Why? Do you know “Keinohrhasen” or “Zweiohrküken”? Both films were directed by Til Schweiger. He was born on 19th December 1963 in Freiburg and he is a German actor, director, producer and scriptwriter. He worked with many international stars like Emma Thompson, Nick Nolte or Angelina Jolie. I like his films, because of their humor and characters. Til is clever and very successful, but still appears to be a modest and nice guy. Student N Gymnasium in Schwerin Germany has changed very often in the past. Our country has a long and varied history which wasn’t always good. It goes up and down in a very short period of time. While it was hard to be German in former times it became easier step by step. Now it means something different to be a German girl or boy. We think that to be German means that you have responsibility for yourself, your fellow human beings and your future. It starts at school when you are part of a class. Everybody takes care for the other members. But you also can get special jobs e.g. class president, school president or as a person who helps others when they are in trouble. As a German girl or boy you will be protected by the government with the help of laws e.g. no alcohol before you are 18 and you needn’t be scared of wars because Germany cares about its relationships with other countries through foreign affairs. But the government is not only protecting us it is also a support. In everything we do we can be sure that if we need help we get it. An example for it is the fact that if we haven’t enough money to study at university it will be paid for us by the state. In Germany you also have a wide variety of chances to work in a job of your choosing. Every boy and girl has the chance or the duty to go to school. It is not important how much money you or your parents have. As a German person everybody is equal. There are no differences between boy and girl or rich and poor. Only the education level is important for your future. If you are clever enough to use your chance you can decide what kind of job you want to work in. In our free time we have a lot of things we can do. Sometimes we travel with the bus or train to go shopping, visit a library or swim in a swimming pool. To pass the time we just hang out in youth centres. Also being a member of an association is a kind of free time activity. Because of a great infrastructure it is easy to travel from place to place. We really enjoy the variety we have. A free development of our personality is another good aspect of being German. Nobody say what we have to do or to leave or what we have to think like it was some years ago in the

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2.5.1 German Students’ Responses

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1930s. To have your own opinion and say what it is like is accepted by everybody. It does not try to force an opinion to us. We decide on our own. All in all it can be said that being a German girl or boy means to be free in your thinking and acting. Student O Grade 9 Gymnasium in Vechta I have the feeling that the Germans are often heavily criticised abroad because of their past and that the Germans get labelled with prejudices. I personally don’t dare to be proud or show an extreme national consciousness. For me the past is indeed terrible, but it can’t be supported to blame the people for it still today. It doesn’t matter what Germany is doing today – the past gets related to the present. I find the division of the world in different countries and languages not very beneficial. With togetherness I associate one nation which sticks together and forgives. And this should go beyond borders. Further I don’t find it useful to show a flag! Great personalities emphasize that you don’t have to be ashamed for the country, but I for me it’s exaggerated to show the world how “great” the county is. It doesn’t mean anything to me to be a German. For me it only means something to be a person. You shouldn’t see differences between the people because every person has the same value. A role model for me is Mahatma Gandhi because he preached internationally not to repress any people and to esteem yourself. Humans became inspired with life to cultivate and save the earth TOGETHER. Student P Grade 9 Gymnasium in Vechta Yes, all in all I’m proud to live in Germany and to belong to the German Nation. Many, who don’t know anything about our current situation and always just look at the dark events of the German past, get easily a wrong picture of us. Furthermore we get labelled as “Nazis” or even as foreigners in foreign countries, but so they behave the same as the National Socialist behaved in the past. Also other countries made mistakes in the past and try to correct them as we do. Although many people of other countries associate Germany or the Germans right away as National Socialists, short Nazis, I’m proud to be German. Our country has done many things we can be proud of. On one hand Germany was for a long time Export World Champion and delivered goods to many other countries. On the other hand we are an important and deeply anchored member of the European Union that occupies a highlighted leading position. Further we can be proud of our sport, especially of our soccer. The team has internationally already delivered great performances like the victories of the world cups in 1954, 1974, and 1990 or the achievement of the semi final 2006 in our country. Although Germany didn’t win this year, we were all thrilled by our team. It means to me to be a German not to forget about the mistakes of the past and to live in a way you can be proud of it in the end. Student Q Grade 9 Gymnasium in Vechta I’m 15 years old and I’m living since my birth in Germany. It’s very beautiful here because here in Germany we have beautiful forests and I can communicate with the people very well. Many Germans are proud of our nation because we have a lot we can be proud of e.g. our three soccer world championship titles or that we were still export world champion a short time ago. Further our groceries are partly the best in the world. Great too is the fact that Germany’s citizens are protected by law against discrimination and even unemployed have a basis for life and perspectives because of social welfare like Hartz IV and children’s benefits. In addition there are many well equipped universities which give us great chances to get a job in international businesses. A good role model is Lena Meyer Landrut. She did not only master her A-levels in Hannover, but was also successful at the European Song Contest in Oslo. She worked always hard, and so we should work hard too in order be successful like her. All in all I’m proud to be a German citizen and to be able to live here. Student R Grade 9 Gymnasium in Vechta It’s difficult to proud to be German. Germany started and lost two world wars. Especially during Hitler’s time there were many cruel and unnecessary murders. I think though that this is part of the past. It was very bad and it can’t be excused and it can’t be changed either. Meanwhile Germany became a very beloved and successful country. It has a good infrastructure, many companies, a good economy, and a good basis of life. In Germany everybody is entitled to have health insurance and gets pension or Hartz IV (in case he becomes unemployed). Germany is also known for its good cars. In my opinion we can be proud of this. But often I have the impression people think in a wrong way about Germany. They think Germany is hostile to foreigners or Germans are Nazis. This was probably the case 70 years ago, but not today. I’m not ashamed to be a German. Additionally Germany has laws that it doesn’t start a war again. Further the pope in Rome is German. My role model is my dad. Student S Grade 9 Gymnasium in Vechta If you ask people in other nations about their country, many are proud of their nation. I can speak for myself; I’m proud to be German. Yes, I’m allowed and I can be proud. Therefore I like to consider the following aspects:

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2.5.1 German Students’ Responses

FOCUS 2 – Society

Something about myself: I’m 15 years old and I’m living in my birthplace Vechta, close to Bremen. So far I never thought about what it means to me to be a German. But the longer I think about it the more comes to my mind. Sport: Sport connects many people and nations. Especially now during the time of the soccer world championship many people watch together the games and cheer for the German team. Many are talking often about the feeling of unity or togetherness because especially during this time the feeling to one nation gets strengthened. We could also be proud of the Formula 1 when Michael Schumacher was still driving. Music: Held your breath, vote, and tremble; this was the case just a short time ago in Germany. And it was successful. Germany won after almost 20 years the European Song Contest again! This is one more reason to be proud. Economy: With its impressive economy Germany convince for a long time. Also the title “Export World Champion” went to Germany for a long time. Environment and climate are also very important for our country. We care for this very often. All in all I can really say, I’m proud of my country. But sadly there is a negative past laying over Germany too. As a matter of course we are not allowed to forget this. But this should not influence the image of Germany too much.

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A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

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2.5.2 German Students’ Responses: What do I do in my free time?

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.5.2 German Students’ Responses: What do I do in my free time? Grade 10 students from Gymnasium in Gundelfingen, Germany (Note: minor additions/deletions have been made to help with translation) Student Konstantin: Three times in the week I have classes in the afternoons. After school I like to meet friends and do some exciting things, like cinema or relax. At the weekend I hang out and listen to music. If I don’t feel too bad I invest my time in homework. In the summer, my friends and I refresh ourselves in the swimming pool. On Sunday, usually I make a tour with my family. Sometimes we walk sometimes we make a tour by bike. Every Thursday, I practice playing the piano. I play pieces of Gershwin, Mendelssohn, or Bach. I have played since I was 6 years old. Student Benedikt: In my free time I do a lot of things. Every Monday after school I have a guitar lesson at 5pm. On Tuesday I play soccer from 5pm to 7pm. Tuesdays and Fridays I have no afternoon classes, but on the other days in the week, I have school until 4pm. Wednesday is the only day when I have no free time activities after school. Every Thursday I play soccer again. I like my soccer team, but we are not very good. On Fridays I have KjG, which is an organization from the church in Gundelfingen. On the weekends I like meeting my friends, playing soccer, going to the cinema, going swimming and doing a lot of other fun things, but I also help at home. Student Frederieke: In my free time I like to meet my friends and have fun by baking cakes and cooking lunch, going jogging, and talking about topics we are interested in. Also, I like to read books, especially historic books or thrillers. I also like the books of Dan Brown. In the summer I love to go to the swimming pool with my friends, because I also meet others. Also, I love to go biking with my brother. Sometimes I am so tired of being in school that I fall asleep 10 minutes after coming home. Student Robin: My school starts at 7:50 am but I have to get up earlier because I go to school from another village by bus. That’s the reason why I get up every morning at 6:30 am. Three times a week I come home at 4pm. Especially on those days there is not much time for free time activities. Nevertheless, two times a week I do archery for one hour. Time for friends? That’s difficult during the school week so I only can meet my friends at the weekend. Sometimes school is really awful, for example, you’re sitting at school, it’s 3pm, the sun is shining and the only thing you want to do is go out, have fun, or eat ice cream, but in a way you accept it. Life is not only fun, is it? There is sometimes a lot of work at school. Maybe sometimes a little bit too much, but it’s not that much that you feel like a prisoner. There is also time for free time activities and also enough time to meet friends. The most important thing is to find a middle way between having fun and learning for school. Student Kristina: I have enough free time every day to do all the things I like. I even have a lot of school every week. I think my life in 10th grade is great and mostly easy. I make a lot of music in my free time. I play an instrument and every Tuesday I go in an orchestra. For me it’s a lot of fun. I spend a lot of time with my boyfriend and other friends on the weekend. I love to go out at night with my friends and my boyfriend. We go to the cinema and we always have a lot of fun. We enjoy the time we have together because from school we have a lot of homework too. In the summer I like it very much just to relax in the summer in the garden or the swimming pool or to eat ice with friends. Sometimes my school life isn’t very easy if we have a lot of homework and many tests. One or two times in the week I work in a restaurant. It’s a lot of fun because the people are very friendly, and I get a lot of money too. I meet my friends every day in school so it doesn’t matter that we all haven’t got that much time.

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2.5.3 Youth Today: Comparison/Contrast Chart

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.5.3 Youth Today: Comparison/Contrast Chart What makes up Youth Culture?

Germany

Foods

Music

Toys, Electronics, Games etc.

Fashion/ Clothing, Hair Styles

Politics

Religion

Sports

Language

Age

GERMANY IN FOCUS

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United States

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2.5.3 Youth Today: Comparison/Contrast Chart

FOCUS 2 – Society

What influences youth?

Germany

United States

Germany

United States

Media

Music

Internet

Peers

Role Models

What are fear/ dangers? Drugs/Alcohol

Crime

Low Self-Esteem

School Violence

Family Life

Bullying

Discrimination

Xenophobia

Future Aspirations

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A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

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2.5.4 Music Lyrics and Links

FOCUS 2 – Society

Handout 2.5.4 Music Lyrics and Links #1 Artist: Die Prinzen Song: Deutschland (Germany) Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9EKAjMS5WU Die Prinzen began in 1987 in Leipzig, East Germany. The lyrics of their songs are often humorous, tongue-in-cheek critiques of German government or society. DEUTSCHLAND German, German, German... Of course a German invented “Wetten, dass”* Many thanks for the enjoyable hours We’re the friendliest customers in this world We’re modest – we have money The very best in any sport The taxes here set a world record Visit Germany and stay here It’s this kind of visitor we wait for Anyone who likes it can live here We’re the friendliest people in this world German, German... Just one little thing is out of whack And that is, Schumacher** doesn’t drive a Mercedes Refrain: All that is Germany – all that is us You won’t find that anywhere else – only here only here All that is Germany – all that is us We live and die here German, German... Many people are arrogant about Germany And some think it’s cool to be an a--hole There are some who like to complain about Kanaken [foreigners] And travel to Thailand every year to f--We love our cars more than our women Because we can trust German cars God kissed the earth just once

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2.5.4 Music Lyrics and Links

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Right on the spot where Germany is now We’re the best everywhere – naturally also in bed And we’re especially nice to dogs and cats All that is Germany... We’re really good at busting someone in the chops We can also be relied on for starting fires We like order and cleanliness We’re always ready for a war Friendly greetings to the world, understand We can be proud of Germany... SWINE! Swine, swine... All that is Germany... * “Wetten, dass” (“Wanna bet?”) is a popular German TV quiz show. ** Michael Schumacher is a famous Formula 1 race driver and also the highest paid sports figure in the world. English lyrics: http://german.about.com/library/blmus_prinzen01.htm

#2 Artist: Peter Fox Song: Alles Neu (Everything New) Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DD0A2plMSVA Peter Fox, born in Berlin and sings all his songs in German. His music is included in the reggae and hip-hop genre. Everything New I burn my studio, snort ash like coke I slay my goldfish, burry him on the courtyard I’ll blast my house, I let go of everything I have My old life tastes like an old toast Fry myself a fine steak, Peter cooks finest meat now I am the update, Peter Fox 1.1 I want to dance, celebrate, but my pond is too small A new set of teeth is growing in my mouth like these of a white shark Waxed, doped, polished, new teeth I am eager and have expensive plans I buy building machines, dredgers and wheeling machines and cranes Dart at Berlin and push on the siren I build beautiful box towers, beats massage your souls I am the demolition ball for the German scene Hey, everything shines, so new Hey, if I don’t like it, I’ll start anew The world cover with dust, but I want to see where it’s leading to Climb on the mountain of dirt, because up there a fresh wind blows

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2.5.4 Music Lyrics and Links

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Hey, everything shines, so new I’m sick of my old stuff, and let them rot in a bag Mothball my clothes and then go shopping naked I am completely refurbished, girls have something to look at Healthy, well-conditioned, world champion in chess and boxing Just need to talk correctly, give me a yes or no Rubbish is over, I’ll let go of the old ways Should I ever smoke pot again, I’ll throw an ax in my leg I never want to lie again, I want to mean every sentence I say My head is bursting, I want to change everything I search for the button, hit the mighty men Force the land into happiness, buy banks and stations Everything goes crazy, shaking sheep and lambs I look better than Bono, I am the man of the masses Ready to save the world, even if that might be too much There’s no more air here, breathing is hard for me Bye bye I have to get out of here, the walls are coming nearer English Lyrics: http://lyricstranslate.com/en/node/67710

#3 Artist: Marteria (Marten Laciny) Song: Endboss (Final Boss) Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6PtiiXkTT8 Marteria (Marten Laciny) is a German rapper born in Rostock, East Germany. Final Boss Console on, the game is ready to start Thick red cheeks what a cute child I am still attached closely to the navel of time The perfect child that is always sleeping, never bawling I need more milk Mum, gimme some mo Begin to talk my first word is yo Grown up in the GDR Break down the walls with my transmforma I’m a kid that hardly meets his dad Quite smart and a sucker for mathematics Will Hansa Rostock* accept me? 2 days later I’m the team captain already Like everything my brother does Hate everything my sister does Pause pressed quickly and prepared something to eat Then finished the next level easily I jump from level to level until the final boss comes

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2.5.4 Music Lyrics and Links

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I’m not getting along with all the birds I don’t go to the training anymore I’m not getting along with the birds I’ve got a bad report I’m not getting along with the birds I’m in love but my very best friend hooks her up She calls me secretly Asks whether she can drop in My first time is going to happen in a little while The doorbell rings and she’s brought her friend I split and go to Manhattan when I’m 18 Just wanna party and jump off the roof when I’m on tablets Think I’m a star everything is about me Hang out at the bar and everything is rotating around me Come back and move to Berlin What do you do without A-Levels? You study drama Nearly choked on the filth of this city But the mission is fulfilled, the level is done I jump from level to level until the final boss comes Everything is perfect in the future But I spent nearly all my lives Nothing worked neither rapping nor athlete Well, at least I’ve got a flying Nova I’m the last lemming that didn’t fall That is sitting at the pond with 5 slices of bread Feeding robot ducks, I’m an old man And suddenly he stands there Takes a seat beside me at the bar at 2 o’clock in the night There’s no chance to him The game is over the last drink is for free “But there’s a trick I’m gonna tell it to you Become a Buddhist then you can restart it” I jump from level to level until the final boss comes English Lyrics: http://lyricstranslate.com/en/endboss-final-boss.html

#4 Artist: Juli Song: Zerrissen (Torn) Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQYPSIYMJg0 Juli is a singer in an alternative rock/pop band from Giessen, Germany. Torn Why does it feel so empty when you speak to me? Why does it feel so empty when you’re by my side? Why does it seem so complicated even though we’re not saying anything more? Why can’t we communicate after so many years? Why does it feel so empty when you speak to me?

GERMANY IN FOCUS

A Transatlantic Outreach Program instructional text for secondary educators

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2.5.4 Music Lyrics and Links

FOCUS 2 – Society

Why does it feel so empty when you’re by my side? Why does it seem so distant although we’re so close? What’s the point of my life if you’re not part of it? Your skin’s getting cold You get an empty gaze Your breath’s getting silent And you get a heavy head feeling What tore you apart like this? What hurt you like this? What ripped you and your life and your heart like this? What’s the point of my words if you don’t hear them? What’s the point of my love if you don’t sense it? Why can none of us just face the truth? Why can’t I fill up this hole in your heart? What tore you apart like that...? ...that you no longer cry, ...that you no longer scream, ...that you no longer realize that your life is breaking into pieces? Whatever you’ll do, Whatever you’ll say, I’ll take care of you, I’ll stay awake for you English Lyrics: http://lyricstranslate.com/en/zerrissen-torn-apart.html

#5 Artist: Paul van Dyke and Peter Heppner Song: Wir Sind Wir (We’re Ourselves) Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V66cr41DNnM Paul van Dyk & Peter Heppner, We’re Ourselves: Paul van Dyk is from the former East Germany and is a top 10 world DJ known for his electronic dance music. Peter Heppner from Hamburg, Germany, is singer known for collaborating with electronic pop bands and music acts. We’re ourselves Day by day, year by year When I walk through the streets I see the ruins of this city Arise to houses again But many windows stay empty For many there’s no return And about the things that have just been One does rather not talk about today anymore But I ask, I ask myself who we are We are ourselves! We stand here!

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2.5.4 Music Lyrics and Links

FOCUS 2 – Society

Divided, defeated and still We are yet alive We are ourselves! We stand here! That could not yet be everything No time to be sad We are ourselves! We stand here! We are ourselves! Arisen from ruins we thought We had made a dream come true 40 years we pulled together Out of ashes we’ve made gold Now everything is different once again And what existed before, is not worth anything today Now we can have what we want But didn’t we actually want more? We are ourselves! We stand here! Again united in one country Superrich and completely broke We are ourselves! We stand here! So fast nobody can defeat us No time to feel bitter We are ourselves Divided, defeated and still We exist We are ourselves And we’ll survive it Because life has to go on We are ourselves That’s just some kind of back luck So fast we’ll not give up now English Lyrics: http://lyricstranslate.com/en/Wir-Sind-Wir-Were-ourselves.html

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2.6.1 Germanisms

FOCUS 2 – Society

2.6.1 Germanisms German loanwords or eponyms that appear in the English language English Word

German Word

Definition

Angst

Angst

(N) A feeling of anxiety, apprehension or insecurity

Blitz

Blitz

(N) 1 An intensive aerial military campaign 2 Air Raid

Blitzkrieg

Blitzkrieg

(N) war conducted with great speed and force; specifically : a violent surprise offensive by massed air forces and mechanized ground forces in close coordination

Dachshund

Dachshund

(N) any of a breed of long-bodied, short-legged dogs of German origin that occur in shorthaired, long-haired, and wirehaired varieties

Doppelgänger

Doppelgänger

(N) 1 a ghostly counterpart of a living person 2 a person who has the same name as another

Fest

Fest

(N) a gathering, event, or show having a specified focus <a music fest>

Gestalt

Gestalt

(N) a structure, configuration, or pattern of physical, biological, or psychological phenomena so integrated as to constitute a functional unit with properties not derivable by summation of its parts

Gesundheit

Gesundheit

(Interj) used to wish good health especially to one who has just sneezed

Glitch

Glitschig

(N) 1 a usually minor malfunction 2 a minor problem that causes a temporary setback 3 a false or spurious electronic signal

Kaput

Kaputt

(Adj) 1 utterly finished, defeated, or destroyed 2 unable to function

Kindergarten

Kindergarten

(N) a school or class for children usually from four to six years old

Kitsch

Kitsch

(N) something that appeals to popular or lowbrow taste and is often of poor quality (Adj) a tacky or lowbrow quality or condition

Leitmotif

Leitmotiv

(N) 1 an associated melodic phrase or figure that accompanies the reappearance of an idea, person, or situation especially in a Wagnerian music drama 2 a dominant recurring theme

Neanderthal

Neanderthaler

(N) a hominid (Homo neanderthalensis syn H. sapiens neanderthalensis) known from skeletal remains in Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia that lived from about 30,000 to 200,000 years ago

Poltergeist

Poltergeist

(N) a noisy usually mischievous ghost held to be responsible for unexplained noises (as rappings)

Rucksack

Rucksack

(N) a bag (as of canvas or nylon) strapped on the back and used for carrying supplies or personal belongings

Schadenfreude

Schadenfreude

(N) enjoyment obtained from the troubles of others

Über

Über

(Pre) 1 being a superlative example of its kind or class 2 to an extreme or excessive degree

Verboten

Verboten

(Adj) Forbidden; especially : prohibited by dictate

Waltz

Walzer

(N) a ballroom dance in 3⁄4 time with strong accent on the first beat and a basic pattern of step-step-close

Wanderlust

Wanderlust

(N) strong longing for or impulse toward wandering

Wunderbar

Wunderbar

(Adj) Wonderful

Zeitgeist

Zeitgeist

(N) the general intellectual, moral, and cultural climate of an era

Zeppelin

Zeppelin

(N) a rigid airship consisting of a cylindrical trussed and covered frame supported by internal gas cells

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2.6.1 Germanisms

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What German loanword is described in each sentence? 1. The student had a burning desire to travel throughout Europe.

2. The Goodyear blimp equipped with a camera circles above many sporting venues and allows us to get an aerial view of the event.

3. This early man takes its name from the German valley where the third fossil specimen was discovered.

4. Composer John Williams composed recurrent Wagnerian-like themes for Luke, Princess Leia, Darth Vader, Yoda and even the Jawas in his score for Star Wars.

5. Children learn “not to hit other children,” to “wait your turn,” to “raise your hand when you need to be excused to go to the bathroom.”

6. In the Harry Potter books, Peeves is this type of supernatural creature.

7. Placing garden gnomes and pink flamingoes on one’s lawn are often regarded as examples of this low-brow art form.

8. The failure of a computing device to complete its functions or to perform them properly.

9. The waiter drops a tray with food to be served and the people in the restaurant begin to laugh at his clumsiness.

10. During the Presidential election season, an intense media campaign was focused on young voters.

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2.6.1 Germanisms

FOCUS 2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Society

Answer Key: 1. Wanderlust 2. Zeppelin 3. Neanderthal 4. Leitmotif 5. Kindergarten 6. Poltergeist 7. Kitsch 8. Glitch 9. Schadenfreude 10. Blitz

Source: 2011. In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary

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3.1.1

FOCUS 3 – History

3.1.1

FOCUS 3 – History

THE BRANDENBURG GATE AS A WITNESS TO HISTORY

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3.2.1 Call for Submissions: The Fall of the Wall Memorial Project

FOCUS 3 – History

Handout 3.2.1 Call for Submissions: The Fall of the Wall Memorial Project Imagine the German government has decided to construct a new memorial in Berlin to commemorate the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989. Since the government has decided to hold an international design competition, your group would like to submit a proposal. Directions • Research the Berlin Wall (1961-1989). Be sure to include a timeline of the events related to the Wall in both German history and the history of the Cold War. What did the Berlin Wall symbolize and how did its collapse affect the history of both Germany and the world? • Design a memorial for the fall of the Berlin Wall and construct a model. As you develop your design, reflect on the following: °° How big will it be and what will it be made out of? °° What will be the best location for it? °° What would you like people to feel or think about when they visit the memorial you are designing? °° Who is it built for? What will be the audience? °° What is the message it will convey? • Present the model of your memorial design to the selection committee of the Reichstag (your classmates). In your presentation, you should do the following: °° Explain why the fall of the Wall should be memorialized. °° Identify the intended audience. °° Provide the reasons behind the design. Why does it look like it does?

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3.2.2

FOCUS 3 – History

3.2.2

FOCUS 3 – History

COLLECTIVE MEMORY: MEMORIALS AND MONUMENTS

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3.3.1 Viewing Activity Worksheet

FOCUS 3 – History

Handout 3.3.1 Viewing Activity Worksheet People

Adjectives to describe them

Motorcyclist

Adolescent girls

Adolescent Turkish boys

Young boy

Young boy’s mother

Black man

Elderly man

Elderly woman

Adolescent with radio

Woman with large earrings

Others

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3.3.2 Transcript of the film Schwarzfahrer

HANDOUT 3.3.2 TRANSCRIPT OF THE FILM SCHWARZFAHRER Monologue of the elderly woman: Sie, Flegel, warum setzen Sie sich nicht woanders hin [sic]? Es gibt doch genug Plätze hier. Jetzt kann man schon nicht mehr Straßenbahn fahren, ohne belästigt zu werden. Wer von unseren Steuern profitiert, könnte sich wenigstens anständig benehmen... als ob man sich nicht an unsere Sitten anpassen könnte. Warum kommt Ihr überhaupt alle hierher? Hat Euch denn jemand eingeladen? Wir haben es alleine geschaft [sic], wir brauchen keine Hottentotten, die uns nur auf der Tasche herumliegen... jetzt, wo wir selber so viele Arbeitslose haben...dann arbeiten die alle noch schwarz, als ob das jemand kontrollieren könnte... wo von denen einer aussieht, wie der andere. Man müßte wenigstens verlangen können, daß sie den Namen ändern, bevor sie zu uns kommen. Sonst hat man ja gar keinen Anhaltspunkt. Im übrigen riechen sie penetrant, aber das kann manja [sic] schließlich nicht verbieten. Als ob nicht die Italiener und Türken schon genug waren. Jetzt kommt auch noch halb Afrika. Das ware früher nicht passiert, daß alle rein dürfen zu uns. Mein Hans sagte immer: Lassen wir einen rein, dann kommen sie alle... die ganze Sippschaft... die vermehren sich ja wie die Karnickel da unten, alle quer durcheinander. Kein Wunder, daß die da alle Aids haben. Die kriegen wir nie wieder los. Wenn das jetzt so weitergeht bei uns, gibt es bald nur noch Türken, Polen und Neger hier. Man weiß ja schon bald nicht mehr, in welchem Land man lebt. Ich trau mich ja schon nicht mehr auf die Straße, wenn es dunkel wird. Man liest ja soviel in der Zeitung. Naja, wir haben uns jedenfalls einen Hund angeschafft, als man den Türken die Wohnung unter uns gegeben hat. Man kannja [sic] nie wissen! Sozialfall! Von wegen, die wollen alle nicht arbeiten! Source Mills, M., & Loentz, E. (1998). Advocacy for a multicultural curriculum in German: Model lesson plans for upper middle, secondary, post-secondary German classrooms. Retrieved from http://aatg.org/files/ald/Schwarzfahrer.pdf Translation of the elderly woman’s monologue: You lout, why don’t you sit somewhere else? There are enough empty seats here. One can’t even ride the tram anymore without getting pestered! If you live off our taxes, you should at least behave properly. It’s not as if it were so difficult to adapt to our customs! Why do you all come here anyway? Did anyone invite you? We’ve managed by ourselves. We don’t need all these savages living off us! We’ve got enough unemployed of our own... And then they all work illegally. It’s impossible to control them since they all look the same! We should at least make them change their names before they arrive here. How else are we supposed to tell them apart? What’s more, you smell awful. But of course, there’s no law against that. As if the Italians and Turks weren’t enough! Now half of Africa is coming too! In the past, we wouldn’t have allowed them all in! My Hans always said if you let one in, they’ll all come, the whole tribe of them… They breed like rabbits over there, all mixed up together... It’s no wonder they’ve all got AIDS! We’ll never get rid of them. If it carries on like this, there will soon be nothing but Turks, Poles and [N-word] here. We won’t be able to tell what country we’re living in. I’m scared to go out when it’s dark these days. The things you see in the paper! At any rate, we bought a dog when those Turks moved into the apartment below us. You can’t be too careful! Welfare cases! What a joke! It’s just that they don’t want to work! Source PineTreePictures. (2007, February 21). Schwarzfahrer (with English Subtitles). [Video file with English subtitles]. Retrieved from http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=XFQXcv1k9OM

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3.3.3 Post-Viewing Questions

FOCUS 3 – History

Handout 3.3.3 Post-Viewing Questions 1. In what city does the action take place? 2. In what decade does the film take place? How do we know? 3. Do any of the other passengers agree with what the elderly woman says? How can we tell? 4. Why don’t the other passengers do and/or say anything in response to the elderly woman’s comments? 5. Which nationalities does the woman mention when talking about foreigners? 6. The only person who responds to the elderly woman is a Turkish teen speaking Turkish. There is no translation. What do you think he might have said to her? 7. What kind of feelings and thoughts does the main character express toward foreigners? Give examples. 8. In your opinion, how do the other passengers on the tram feel toward foreigners? Give reasons. 9. Who is the real “black rider”? 10. What does the title of the film communicate? 11. What do you think of the film’s ending? 12. What stereotypes are presented in the film? 13. Could something like this happen on a bus, tram or subway in your community? Why or why not? How would things play out the same? What would be different? 14. What would you do if you were a passenger on that tram?

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3.3.4 ‘An Imaginary Foreigner Strike in Berlin,’

HANDOUT 3.3.4 ‘AN IMAGINARY FOREIGNER STRIKE IN BERLIN’ (Ein imaginärer Ausländer-Generalstreik in Berlin) A poem by Aras Ören The lady in the café wants her Regular afternoon coffee and cake But the cups are not washed, And the waitress has disappeared. Where is my delicious ethnic food? Well spiced and a little change of pace The Dönerkebab1 spit is not turning And the colorful vegetable booth around the corner Has been shut for days. The patient is waiting for naught for the friendly doctor. No one nurses the old man in the sick ward Not even the soup in the kitchen gets made The garbage pickup is not quite right And the metro stops reek. Berlin’s export trade is shrinking Conference participants from all over the world Are fed up Their beds are not made The quick service forgotten. The housing shortage deepens Promises are great, but where are the construction workers Pension plans need urgent subsidies Fewer people paying, red ink everywhere The last foreigner in Berlin turns off the lights and goes home. The industrial sector hangs out a sign: We need workers! Every idiot welcome. The man on the street is still screaming: Ausländer raus! Foreigners out! Author−Poet Aras Ören was born November 1, 1939 in Istanbul and belongs to the first generation of Turkish immigrants to Germany. Ören writes in Turkish, though his works are typically published simultaneously in German translation. His home and workplace since 1969 has been Berlin. Source Ören, A. (n.d.). An Imaginary Foreigner Strike in Berlin (Ein imaginärer Ausländer-Generalstreik in Berlin). Retrieved from http://cies.einaudi. cornell.edu/system/files/An Imaginary Foreigner Strike in Berlin.pdf 1

Dönerkebab is a Turkish dish made of lamb meat cooked on a vertical spit and sliced off to order.

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3.4.1 Germany - Holocaust Education Report

HANDOUT 3.4.1 GERMANY - HOLOCAUST EDUCATION REPORT Country Report on Holocaust Education in Task Force Member Countries Germany 1. What official directives from government ministries and/or local authorities regarding the teaching of the Holocaust exist in your country? Please attach these directives to your answer. Education, culture, research, schooling, universities etc. are the responsibility of each the so-called 16 Länder [federal states] (Bayern, Baden-Württemberg, Hessen, Sachsen, etc.). Through curricula, the corresponding ministries arrange at what age, in which context, and to what extent the Holocaust is taught. They do not establish lesson plans. The students are taught about this complex topic in line with the teaching profiles of the respective school types and with due regard to the stage of their psychological development. In all 16 Länder (states) the Holocaust is a mandatory, binding subject. To coordinate and to standardize this field of education in a certain way among the 16 states there exists a “Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs.” This Standing Conference in different declarations and resolutions emphasized repeatedly the importance of the topic and reaffirmed the need to communicate a fundamental knowledge and insights on the National Socialist reign of violence generally and the Shoah in particular (see On the Treatment of the Holocaust at School). 2. If the Holocaust is not a mandatory subject, what percentage of schools chooses to teach about the Holocaust? The Holocaust is a mandatory subject in all the 16 Länder of the Federal Republic of Germany. 3. How is the Holocaust defined? There is no official definition, no general consensus about the use of the term “Holocaust”. This term has been known in Germany since 1980 and quite frequently used, meaning the Nazi murder of the European Jews. The central “Monument for the Murdered Jews of Europe” – this is (literally translated) the official name – is for example often called “Holocaust monument” in the public. Others, however, avoid the term because of its religious connotations. They feel that the terms “National Socialist murder of the European Jews” or “genocide against the European Jews” is more precise when speaking about a crime without any religious sense. Some people think that “Holocaust” should be used for all mass crimes committed by the Nazis on the basis of their racist ideology. Curricula, textbooks, etc. use different terms, among them “mass murder of Jews”, “genocide”, annihilation”, “extermination of the European Jews”. 4. Is the Holocaust taught as a subject in its own right, or as part of a broader topic? Explain the reasoning behind the decision. The Holocaust is taught as a part of the subject “History”. It is dealt with as a major topic of German and European history in the twentieth century. This is done in a way which clarifies the historical context: rise of the National Socialist movement in a specific historic situation, establishment of a dictatorship in Germany and the abolition of the rule of law, Nazi ideology, antisemitism in Germany, Nazi crimes against other groups, and the Nazi criminal war of aggression. It is taught not only in history lessons but also in other subject matters, in particular civics, German literature, religious instruction (both Catholic and Protestant), and others make an important contribution to teaching the topic (see 7). 5. At what age(s) do young people learn about the Holocaust at schools? Do students encounter the Holocaust in schools more than once? Please give details. The Nazi persecution of the Jews can be studied first at the age of 12 (6th graders), but it is not a mandatory topic yet at this age. At the age of about 14/15 years all students study and learn the history of the twentieth century and the period of National Socialism. The Holocaust is taught in this context. The topic is taught and studied again on the upper level (18 years) with students who pass the Abitur exam (prerequisite for university).

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3.4.1 Germany - Holocaust Education Report

6. How many hours are allocated to teaching and learning about the Holocaust? Altogether about 16 – 20 lessons are scheduled for the period of National Socialism. It is the responsibility of the individual teacher to decide how many lessons to allocate to the Holocaust. It is taught again on the upper school level with about the same number of lessons. 7. In what areas of study (history, literature, sociology, theology) is the Holocaust taught? In each case, briefly outline the rationale for teaching the Holocaust in this particular subject area. The Holocaust is a mandatory part of history lessons and civics. It is frequently taught in classes on (German) literature and religion, or ethics. Aspects of Holocaust history might also occur in classes on biology (racism), art (pieces of art produced during the Holocaust period or by artists dealing with this topic afterwards), and music (e.g., music composed in Theresienstadt). Diverse approaches are integrated in long-term educational projects. (Some of these projects are presented on the multilingual Website, http://www.holocaust-education.de). In history lessons the Holocaust is dealt with as a major topic of German and European history in the twentieth century. In civics, students study the political, ideological, and psycho-social conditions which made the Holocaust possible and the planning and organization of the genocide. Another important topic is the way Germany dealt and deals with this part of its history. Since the Holocaust is a major topic in postwar German literature (novels, plays, poems, essays), it is addressed in classes on contemporary literature, starting in 6th grade. This can also include literature translated from other languages (e.g., writings by Primo Levi, Imre Kertesz). It can be combined with media studies dealing with feature films. Classes on religion deal with the attitudes of the churches towards the Nazi persecution of the Jews, the theological efforts to create a new Christian approach to Judaism, and the ethical challenges for every human being which are involved in the history of the Holocaust. 8. (a) What historical, pedagogical, and didactic training is provided to teachers of the Holocaust at either the university level or the professional development level in your country? (b) How many teacher-training sessions are held each year, and how many teachers are involved? (c) What funding is available for training in the teaching of the Holocaust in your country? a) Courses on the Holocaust or courses which include Holocaust history are offered at German universities (most frequently at departments for history, political science, pedagogy, literature). As with any other topic, the students are free to choose these courses or others. The post-university training of young teachers can include programs on how to deal with the Holocaust in diverse subjects. b) The amount of teacher-training sessions differs from federal state to federal state. Courses on the Holocaust and study trips for teachers to historical sites are offered by teacher-training centers, state agencies for political education, associations (e.g. the trade-union for teachers, foundations of political parties), and by memorials. Teachers are entitled to take part in such courses as part of an in-service training, but they can also choose other topics. c) Most of the institutions mentioned under (b) get funds from the federal government or a federal state. They can apply to foundations for additional funds if they plan major projects like international seminars or study trips abroad. 9. Has your country instituted a national Holocaust Memorial Day? If so, in which ways is this day marked and commemorated? What difficulties have you encountered in establishing this day of remembrance in the national consciousness? January 27 is the national Memorial Day for the Victims of the Nazi Crimes. It is marked by special parliamentary sessions, also in the federal states. Some states prepare for this event by competitions for young people to develop commemorative projects. There was no opposition to the introduction of the Memorial Day. But not every citizen is aware of its existence. It should be mentioned here that many groups, including school groups, commemorate the victims of the Holocaust by diverse ceremonies on 9 November, the anniversary of the so-called Reichskristallnacht (November Pogrom) 1938. 10. Has your country established a national Holocaust memorial and/or museum? What numbers of students visit this memorial/ museum each year? In Germany there exist just under 100 memorial museums for victims of the Nazi regime. They are connected to “authentic” sites and deal with the victims, the perpetrators, and the site of the crime. These memorial museums explain the history of concentration camps, gas chambers used for “Euthanasia”, prisoner-of-war camps, and Gestapo and other prisons, etc. The memorial museums in Germany work

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3.4.1 Germany - Holocaust Education Report

very closely together and consider themselves as a network. Whereas the individual memorial museum may address the history of only one crime complex of the Nazi regime – depending on the history of the site where it is located – the memorial museums together cover all parts of the crime complex committed by Nazi Germany. The task of the memorial museums is to explain the history of Nazi persecution and to describe the treatment of the different groups that were persecuted in a manner expressing sympathy for the victims. Memorial museums also engage in social tasks toward the survivors and their relatives and friends. Memorial museums in Germany serve as evidence of the crimes committed and work to provide information about who was responsible for these atrocities. Hence, memorial museums are also places of critical self-reflection in German society. For research on the Nazi past, educational work, and gaining public attention it is very helpful not to have one large Holocaust museum which dominates the whole subject. The different approaches that memorial museums take to address the same subject and the friendly competition over the best methods of addressing Nazi crimes have led to a very thorough knowledge and wide range of experience in the development of memorial museums in Germany during the last two decades. Memorial museums are financially supported and run by different state agencies. The large memorial museums on the site of former concentration camps are paid for by the federal government and/or the states, some are run by cities, some by counties, others by private action groups – with the support of public finances. All memorial museums have different advisory boards. Associations of survivors also serve as members on these bodies as public official representatives of national agencies and delegates from different groups which are important in civil society. The structure of these different advisory committees provides a platform on which the survivor groups, civil action groups, and the public agencies can to work together toward the common goal of dealing with the various expectations placed on memorial museums. The Memorial for the Murdered Jews of Europe was inaugurated in May 2005. In addition to the huge monument in the center of Berlin, a “Site of Information” in the basement of the memorial provides information about the Holocaust by documentation and also about the broad network of memorial museums. It is not a German Holocaust Museum. The House of the Wannsee Conference shows a new permanent exhibition about the Holocaust, opened in January 2006, and provides seminars on diverse Holocaust-related topics for students and adults. Museums of contemporary history also show temporary exhibits about the Holocaust and the Nazi period. The German Historical Museum in Berlin presented such an exhibition in 2002, which was the most successful of all its displays; the Holocaust is also part of its permanent exhibition which has been open to the public since June 2006. 11. Please estimate the percentage of students in your country who visit authentic sites, and list three primary sources of funding available in your country for visits to authentic sites. Over the last decade each year at least three million people have visited the nearly 100 memorial museums in Germany. There is a wide range of visitors to the diverse memorial museums. Institutions known worldwide, such as Dachau, Bergen-Belsen, Buchenwald, or Sachsenhausen, have several hundred thousand visitors each year. Smaller institutions of regional importance have 5,000 or more visitors a year. These smaller institutions are of special importance for the local city or state because they show in detail how close the history is to the lives of the visitors today. The average age of the visitors differs from memorial museum to memorial museum and it is impossible to give an exact account. Generally, school classes make up the majority of visitors, in particular of guided groups. But adult visitors are by no means overlooked in the educational work. Most important for the visits of school groups are the teachers. In Germany the 16 states have different curricula. More or less all of them recommend a visit to a memorial museum. The teachers are responsible for suggesting and preparing such a visit. Many teachers take this very seriously. The Nazi dictatorship is an important issue in German society today. Visits to a memorial museum are often motivated by discussions in society. There are many guides published in German which give overviews of memorial museums on different levels: particular institutions, memorials in a certain region, or a nationwide overview. For younger visitors and for the organization of a tour to a memorial museum it is also important that basic information be available on the Internet – also in foreign languages, e.g. http://www.gedenkstaettenforum.de.

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3.4.1 Germany - Holocaust Education Report

12. What are the three major textbooks used in teaching the Holocaust in your country? How many pages do your school text books allocate to the Holocaust, and on which aspects do they focus? Due to its federal structure, Germany has a large and diverse textbook market. The following list consists only of textbooks which were approved for the lower level of secondary schools, and which are used in more than one federal state. The list does not include textbooks which are used singularly by only one German state, or only in a particular type of school. It is therefore impossible to determine with precision how many pages are dedicated to the issue of the Holocaust. However, it can be stated that the space allocated to the presentation of National Socialism and the Holocaust has steadily increased during the last two decades. Furthermore, German teachers use not only history textbooks, but also additional teaching materials dealing with the issue of National Socialism and the Holocaust, e.g., CD-ROMs and other media. Free offers of media information (films and other media) by local and regional media services on this subject, embracing well over a hundred different titles, are to be mentioned as well. Source Germany: Holocaust education report. (2006). Retrieved from http://holocaustremembrance.com/sites/default/files/holocaust_education_ report-germany.pdf

Holocaust Education in Germany Outbreaks of xenophobic violence in Germany, arson attacks on Holocaust memorials, the desecration of Jewish cemeteries, and, above all, the sight of “skinhead” youths bedecked with rightwing insignia have caused some observers to question whether the Holocaust is studied in Germany after all. On the other hand, the many candlelight vigils and demonstrations against neo-Nazism in December 1992 and in January 1993, many of them attended by hundreds of thousands of German citizens, show that the German people, and not just their political leaders, are aware of the past. It is estimated that a total of more than three million people took to the streets in protests against xenophobia and neo-Nazism. World War II and Hitler’s dictatorship have, in fact, figured prominently in the curriculum of (West) German schools since the early 195Os. From the 1960s onwards, special emphasis has been placed upon conveying the horrors of the Holocaust. Outside the school curriculum, World War II, the Holocaust, and Jewish issues are often featured in the print media, on television, and in the world of the arts. This Focus looks at how the Holocaust is taught in schools in Germany. What follows is a presentation of the basic principles of Holocaust teaching in West Germany. They were also introduced in Eastern Germany following unification in 1990. The German Education System Education in Germany is the responsibility of the federal states (Länder). Education policy is coordinated on a national level by a standing conference of state (Land) ministers of education and cultural affairs. It is this body that has issued specific guidelines for teaching about the Holocaust which have been in force in the western German states since 1960. What is taught in classrooms in Germany is determined by (a) state government syllabus directives issued in accordance with the national guidelines mentioned above and (b) by state government-approved textbooks that are produced by independent textbook publishers. The syllabus directives do not establish lesson plans. Instead, they determine the topics to be covered for every given grade and subject, and the teaching objectives to be achieved. The Continuing Relevance of the Holocaust For Germans, the Holocaust is not an event that happened in a faraway place in some distant past, but is part and parcel of their recent history. The memory of the Nazi dictatorship -- of which the Holocaust is an integral part -- and its traumatic legacies have been shaping German policies since the end of World War II. The rebuilding of political institutions in western Germany and postwar political education were largely determined by a serious effort to try to understand the horrors of the Nazi dictatorship and by searching for safeguards in order to prevent history from repeating itself. Consequently, teaching about Nazi dictatorship and the Holocaust at schools is not limited to a niche in the history syllabus like the “French and the Indian Wars.” Instead, it is discussed again and again in different ways, in a number of subjects, and at different points in time. The treatment of the Nazi period in all its aspects -- Hitler’s rise to power; his establishment of a dictatorship in Germany; the abolition of the rule of law; the persecution of all kinds of political opponents; the racially motivated persecution of the Jews, culminating in the Holocaust; the reticence and opposition of German citizens; and, Germany’s instigation of World War II -- is compulsory teaching matter at all types of

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FOCUS 3 – History

3.4.1 Germany - Holocaust Education Report

schools in Germany and at all levels of education. The Holocaust is treated as the most important aspect of the period of Nazi rule. The Principles of Holocaust Teaching The Holocaust is treated in various school subjects in different ways. In history classes, the Nazi period is dealt with in the context of twentieth-century German, or world, history. Students who pass the Abitur exam, the prerequisite for university study at the age of eighteen or nineteen, receive a formal historical presentation of German history in the twentieth century twice -- during their final two years before graduation and at ninth or tenth grade level. In civic studies and current affairs classes, the lessons from the Holocaust are related to the teaching about Germany’s political institutions and about the values that govern political life in a democratic society. When current affairs are discussed -- such as anti-Semitic incidents and rightwing extremism in Germany and elsewhere; ethnic cleansing in Bosnia; and, the Middle East conflict -- teachers will emphasize the importance of tolerance and the rule of law as lessons to be learned from the Holocaust. In religion or ethics classes, the Holocaust is discussed with reference to the guilt and responsibility of those Germans who did not risk their lives to fight National Socialism or to protect Jews. Since the notion of interreligious tolerance and the knowledge of other world religions are subjects of religious studies courses at German public schools, the teacher will often arrange a meeting with members of the organized Jewish community, a visit to the local synagogue, or to a Holocaust memorial or museum. Postwar German literature, above all in the 1950s and 1960s, is preoccupied with coming to terms with the Nazi era and the Holocaust. The fate of the Holocaust victims and what Germans did or did not do during the Third Reich often become subjects of German literature classes, when the works, novels, short stories, and plays of authors such as Alfred Andersch, Ilse Aichinger, Heinrich Böll, Günter Grass, Rolf Hochhuth, Marie-Luise Kaschnitz, Siegfried Lenz, and others are discussed in the context of teaching about contemporary German literature. A visit to a Holocaust memorial or a Holocaust museum at the site of a former concentration camp is a standard feature of school excursions. In fact, the largest category of visitors at former concentration camps is often German high-school students led by their teachers. The objective of teaching about the Holocaust is not limited to educating students about historical facts. Instead, the primary political and educational objective for confronting young Germans with their country’s darkest past and their ancestors’ guilt is, above all, to make them understand the consequences of Hitler’s dictatorship, the uniqueness of the Holocaust, and to make them appreciate the values and institutions that protect freedom and democracy. The following quotations from government education documents serve as illustrations of the philosophy of Holocaust education in Germany today. The syllabus directive issued by the education ministry of the Land North Rhine-Westfalia for the treatment of the Holocaust in ninth grade Realschule history classes emphasizes the importance of democratic institutions and ideas. The directive entitled, “From Anti-human Ideas to the Extermination of Human Lives,” reads in part as follows: Students should learn to recognize: •

the destruction of a democratic government based upon the rule of law.

the enforcement of the Führer’s principles.

total regimentation of the population through propaganda.

discrimination and terror, and the anti-human ideas of the prerogative of an Aryan race form the basis from which Hitler could unleash a world war and embark upon the systematic destruction of human lives.

According to a document prepared by the North Rhine-Westfalia ministry of education, directives for Holocaust teaching in Hauptschulen stipulate among other things that: Teaching must seek to counter obliviousness to the past and critically examine tendencies toward a “normalization” of German historical awareness. The examination of the causes of the success of National Socialism in Germany must therefore be a focal point in teaching. Teaching is to be devised in such a way that students realize the present and future significance of remembering National Socialism. Therefore, teaching of these topics had to address the questions associated with the responsibility of later generations, and the present manifestations of neo-Fascism and neo-antisemitism. Teaching must, in particular, convey the perspective of the victims and give students the opportunity to learn about everyday life under National Socialism in a vivid and tangible way.

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FOCUS 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; History

3.4.1 Germany - Holocaust Education Report

Evaluating Holocaust Education The German government has in the past established bilateral textbook commissions in cooperation with education specialists from a number of foreign countries (including the U.S. and Israel). These joint commissions examine the school textbooks of both countries with reference to the treatment of the other country, and issue recommendations. The German-Israeli textbook commission, whose findings were published in 1985, has had a considerable influence on the treatment of Jewish life and Jewish history, including the Holocaust, in school textbooks in Germany. Recently, the Israeli education expert, Chaim Schatzker, who has examined German textbooks since the early 1960s, stated that although he was not entirely satisfied with everything he had read, the treatment of antisemitism as part of German history was adequate in general, and exemplary in some textbooks. He also noted that the Holocaust is treated extensively and in an uncompromising way in all textbooks. He added that the large majority of textbooks addressed the issue of responsibility and co-responsibility of German citizens during the Third Reich seriously and in detail. Teaching social values and imparting the knowledge of the achievements and crimes that human beings are capable of are essential for nourishing a commitment to tolerance and democracy in young people. Holocaust education alone, however, like any ethics teaching, is not enough to eliminate the crime and intolerance that are bred by social dislocation. If the teaching of ethics were a panacea, there would be no thefts, no homicides, and no bias-related crimes -- because all perpetrators were once taught not to steal, not to kill, and not to hate a fellow citizen of a different color or creed. Source: Wehrmann, G. (n.d.). Holocaust education in Germany. Retrieved from http://www.iearn.org/hgp/aeti/aeti-1998-no-frames/holocaust-ed-ingermany.htm

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3.4.2 PRESIDENT OBAMA, CHANCELLOR MERKEL, AND ELIE WIESEL AT BUCHENWALD

FOCUS 3 – History

Handout 3.4.2 THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary ____________________________________________________ For Immediate Release June 5, 2009 REMARKS BY PRESIDENT OBAMA, GERMAN CHANCELLOR MERKEL, AND ELIE WIESEL AT BUCHENWALD CONCENTRATION CAMP Weimar, Germany 3:58 P.M. (Local)

human gift of remembrance and commemoration into the future.

CHANCELLOR MERKEL: (As translated.) Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen. Here in this place a concentration camp was established in 1937. Not far from here lies Weimar, a place where Germans created

We ask young people to carry on our struggle against Nazi ideology, and for a just, peaceful and tolerant world; a world that has no place for anti-Semitism, racism, xenophobia, and right-wing extremism.“

wonderful works of art, thereby contributing to European culture

This appeal of the survivors clearly defines the very special responsi-

and civilization. Not far from that place where once artists, poets,

bility we Germans have to shoulder with regard to our history. And

and great minds met, terror, violence, and tyranny reigned over this

for me, therefore, there are three messages that are important today.

camp.

First, let me emphasize, we Germans see it as part of our country‘s

At the beginning of our joint visit to the Buchenwald memorial the American President and I stood in front of a plaque commemorating all the victims. When you put your hand on the memorial you

raison d‘être to keep the everlasting memory alive of the break with civilization that was the Shoah. Only in this way will we be able to shape our future.

can feel that it has warmed up -- it is kept at a temperature of 37 de-

I am therefore very grateful that the Buchenwald memorial has

grees, the body temperature of a living human being. This, however,

always placed great emphasis on the dialogue with younger peo-

was not a place for living, but a place for dying.

ple, to conversations with eyewitnesses, to documentation, and a

Unimaginable horror, shock -- there are no words to adequately

broad-based educational program.

describe what we feel when we look at the suffering inflicted so

Second, it is most important to keep the memory of the great sacri-

cruelly upon so many people here and in other concentration and

fices alive that had to be made to put an end to the terror of National

extermination camps under National Socialist terror. I bow my head

Socialism and to liberate its victims and to rid all people of its yoke.

before the victims.

This is why I want to say a particular word of gratitude to the Presi-

We, the Germans, are faced with the agonizing question how and

dent of the United States of America, Barack Obama, for visiting this

why -- how could this happen? How could Germany wreak such

particular memorial. It gives me an opportunity to align yet again

havoc in Europe and the world? It is therefore incumbent upon us

that we Germans shall never forget, and we owe the fact that we

Germans to show an unshakeable resolve to do everything we can

were given the opportunity after the war to start anew, to enjoy

so that something like this never happens again.

peace and freedom to the resolve, the strenuous efforts, and indeed

On the 25th of January, the presidents of the associations of former inmates at the concentration camps presented their request to the

to a sacrifice made in blood of the United States of America and of all those who stood by your side as allies or fighters in the resistance.

public, and this request closes with the following words: „The last

We were able to find our place again as members of the interna-

eyewitness appeal to Germany, to all European states, and to the

tional community through a forward-looking partnership. And this

international community to continue preserving and honoring the

partnership was finally key to enabling us to overcome the painful

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3.4.2 PRESIDENT OBAMA, CHANCELLOR MERKEL, AND ELIE WIESEL AT BUCHENWALD

FOCUS 3 – History

division of our country in 1989, and the division also of our conti-

saying little and isolating himself for months on end from family and

nent. Today we remember the victims of this place. This includes re-

friends, alone with the painful memories that would not leave his

membering the victims of the so-called Special Camp 2, a detention

head. And as we see -- as we saw some of the images here, it‘s un-

camp run by the Soviet military administration from 1945 to 1950.

derstandable that someone who witnessed what had taken place

Thousands of people perished due to the inhumane conditions of

here would be in a state of shock.

their detention.

My great uncle‘s commander, General Eisenhower, understood this

Third, here in Buchenwald I would like to highlight an obligation

impulse to silence. He had seen the piles of bodies and starving sur-

placed on us Germans as a consequence of our past: to stand up

vivors and deplorable conditions that the American soldiers found

for human rights, to stand up for rule of law, and for democracy. We

when they arrived, and he knew that those who witnessed these

shall fight against terror, extremism, and anti-Semitism. And in the

things might be too stunned to speak about them or be able -- be

awareness of our responsibility we shall strive for peace and free-

unable to find the words to describe them; that they might be ren-

dom, together with our friends and partners in the United States

dered mute in the way my great uncle had. And he knew that what

and all over the world.

had happened here was so unthinkable that after the bodies had been taken away, that perhaps no one would believe it.

Thank you. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Chancellor Merkel and I have just finished our tour here at Buchenwald. I want to thank Dr. Volkhard Knigge, who gave an outstanding account of what we were witnessing. I am particularly grateful to be accompanied by my friend Elie Wiesel, as well as Mr. Bertrand Herz, both of whom are survivors of this place. We saw the area known as Little Camp where Elie and Bertrand were sent as boys. In fact, at the place that commemorates this camp, there is a photograph in which we can see a 16-year-old Elie in one of the bunks along with the others. We saw the ovens of the crematorium, the guard towers, the barbed wire fences, the foundations of barracks that once held people in the most unimaginable conditions.

And that‘s why he ordered American troops and Germans from the nearby town to tour the camp. He invited congressmen and journalists to bear witness and ordered photographs and films to be made. And he insisted on viewing every corner of these camps so that -and I quote -- he could „be in a position to give first-hand evidence of these things if ever in the future there develops a tendency to charge these allegations merely to propaganda.“ We are here today because we know this work is not yet finished. To this day, there are those who insist that the Holocaust never happened -- a denial of fact and truth that is baseless and ignorant and hateful. This place is the ultimate rebuke to such thoughts; a reminder of our duty to confront those who would tell lies about our history.

We saw the memorial to all the survivors -- a steel plate, as Chancellor Merkel said, that is heated to 37 degrees Celsius, the temperature of the human body; a reminder -- where people were deemed inhuman because of their differences -- of the mark that we all share.

Also to this day, there are those who perpetuate every form of intolerance -- racism, anti-Semitism, homophobia, xenophobia, sexism, and more -- hatred that degrades its victims and diminishes us all. In this century, we‘ve seen genocide. We‘ve seen mass graves and the

Now these sights have not lost their horror with the passage of

ashes of villages burned to the ground; children used as soldiers and

time. As we were walking up, Elie said, „if these trees could talk.“ And

rape used as a weapon of war. This places teaches us that we must

there‘s a certain irony about the beauty of the landscape and the

be ever vigilant about the spread of evil in our own time, that we

horror that took place here.

must reject the false comfort that others‘ suffering is not our prob-

More than half a century later, our grief and our outrage over what happened have not diminished. I will not forget what I‘ve seen here today.

others to serve their own interests. But as we reflect today on the human capacity for evil and our

I‘ve known about this place since I was a boy, hearing stories about my great uncle, who was a very young man serving in World War II. He was part of the 89th Infantry Division, the first Americans to reach a concentration camp. They liberated Ohrdruf, one of Buchenwald‘s sub-camps.

shared obligation to defy it, we‘re also reminded of the human capacity for good. For amidst the countless acts of cruelty that took place here, we know that there were many acts of courage and kindness, as well. The Jews who insisted on fasting on Yom Kippur. The camp cook who hid potatoes in the lining of his prison uniform and distributed them to his fellow inmates, risking his own life to

And I told this story, he returned from his service in a state of shock

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lem and commit ourselves to resisting those who would subjugate

help save theirs. The prisoners who organized a special effort to pro-

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3.4.2 PRESIDENT OBAMA, CHANCELLOR MERKEL, AND ELIE WIESEL AT BUCHENWALD

FOCUS 3 – History

tect the children here, sheltering them from work and giving them

German people, because it‘s not easy to look into the past in this

extra food. They set up secret classrooms, some of the inmates, and

way and acknowledge it and make something of it, make a deter-

taught history and math and urged the children to think about their

mination that they will stand guard against acts like this happening

future professions. And we were just hearing about the resistance

again.

that formed and the irony that the base for the resistance was in the latrine areas because the guards found it so offensive that they wouldn‘t go there. And so out of the filth, that became a space in which small freedoms could thrive. When the American GIs arrived they were astonished to find more than 900 children still alive, and the youngest was just three years old. And I‘m told that a couple of the prisoners even wrote a Buchenwald song that many here sang. Among the lyrics were these: „... whatever our fate, we will say yes to life, for the day will come when we are free...in our blood we carry the will to live and in our hearts,

Rather than have me end with my remarks I thought it was appropriate to have Elie Wiesel provide some reflection and some thought as he returns here so many years later to the place where his father died. MR. WIESEL: Mr. President, Chancellor Merkel, Bertrand, ladies and gentlemen. As I came here today it was actually a way of coming and visit my father‘s grave -- but he had no grave. His grave is somewhere in the sky. This has become in those years the largest cemetery of the Jewish people. The day he died was one of the darkest in my life. He became sick,

in our hearts -- faith.“ These individuals never could have known the world would one day speak of this place. They could not have known that some of them would live to have children and grandchildren who would grow up hearing their stories and would return here so many years later to find a museum and memorials and the clock tower set permanently

weak, and I was there. I was there when he suffered. I was there when he asked for help, for water. I was there to receive his last words. But I was not there when he called for me, although we were in the same block; he on the upper bed and I on the lower bed. He called my name, and I was too afraid to move. All of us were. And then he died. I was there, but I was not there.

to 3:15, the moment of liberation. And I thought one day I will come back and speak to him, and tell They could not have known how the nation of Israel would rise out

him of the world that has become mine. I speak to him of times

of the destruction of the Holocaust and the strong, enduring bonds

in which memory has become a sacred duty of all people of good

between that great nation and my own. And they could not have

will -- in America, where I live, or in Europe or in Germany, where

known that one day an American President would visit this place

you, Chancellor Merkel, are a leader with great courage and moral

and speak of them and that he would do so standing side by side

aspirations.

with the German Chancellor in a Germany that is now a vibrant democracy and a valued American ally.

What can I tell him that the world has learned? I am not so sure.

They could not have known these things. But still surrounded by

your moral vision of history, will be able and compelled to change

death they willed themselves to hold fast to life. In their hearts they

this world into a better place, where people will stop waging war

still had faith that evil would not triumph in the end, that while his-

-- every war is absurd and meaningless; where people will stop hat-

tory is unknowable it arches towards progress, and that the world

ing one another; where people will hate the otherness of the other

would one day remember them. And it is now up to us, the living,

rather than respect it.

in our work, wherever we are, to resist injustice and intolerance and indifference in whatever forms they may take, and ensure that those who were lost here did not go in vain. It is up to us to redeem that faith. It is up to us to bear witness; to ensure that the world continues to note what happened here; to remember all those who survived and all those who perished, and to remember them not just as victims, but also as individuals who hoped and loved and dreamed just like us.

But the world hasn‘t learned. When I was liberated in 1945, April 11, by the American army, somehow many of us were convinced that at least one lesson will have been learned -- that never again will there be war; that hatred is not an option, that racism is stupid; and the will to conquer other people‘s minds or territories or aspirations, that will is meaningless. I was so hopeful. Paradoxically, I was so hopeful then. Many of us

And just as we identify with the victims, it‘s also important for us I think to remember that the perpetrators of such evil were human, as well, and that we have to guard against cruelty in ourselves. And I want to express particular thanks to Chancellor Merkel and the

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Mr. President, we have such high hopes for you because you, with

were, although we had the right to give up on humanity, to give up on culture, to give up on education, to give up on the possibility of living one‘s life with dignity in a world that has no place for dignity. We rejected that possibility and we said, no, we must continue be-

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3.4.2 PRESIDENT OBAMA, CHANCELLOR MERKEL, AND ELIE WIESEL AT BUCHENWALD

FOCUS 3 – History

lieving in a future, because the world has learned. But again, the world hasn‘t. Had the world learned, there would have been no Cambodia and no Rwanda and no Darfur and no Bosnia. Will the world ever learn? I think that is why Buchenwald is so important -- as important, of course, but differently as Auschwitz. It‘s important because here the large -- the big camp was a kind of international community. People came there from all horizons -- political, economic, culture. The first globalization essay, experiment, were made in Buchenwald. And all that was meant to diminish the humanity of human beings. You spoke of humanity, Mr. President. Though unto us, in those times, it was human to be inhuman. And now the world has learned, I hope. And of course this hope includes so many of what now would be your vision for the future, Mr. President. A sense of security for Israel, a sense of security for its neighbors, to bring peace in that place. The time must come. It‘s enough -- enough to go to cemeteries, enough to weep for oceans. It‘s enough. There must come a moment -- a moment of bringing people together. And therefore we say anyone who comes here should go back with that resolution. Memory must bring people together rather than set them apart. Memories here not to sow anger in our hearts, but on the contrary, a sense of solidarity that all those who need us. What else can we do except invoke that memory so that people everywhere who say the 21st century is a century of new beginnings, filled with promise and infinite hope, and at times profound gratitude to all those who believe in our task, which is to improve the human condition. A great man, Camus, wrote at the end of his marvelous novel, The Plague: „After all,“ he said, „after the tragedy, never the rest...there is more in the human being to celebrate than to denigrate.“ Even that can be found as truth -- painful as it is -- in Buchenwald. Thank you, Mr. President, for allowing me to come back to my father‘s grave, which is still in my heart. END 4:25 P.M. (Local) Source: Remarks by President Obama, German Chancellor Merkel, and Elie Wiesel at Buchenwald Concentration Camp. (2009, June 5). Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-President-Obama-German-Chancellor-Merkel-and-ElieWiesel-at-Buchenwald-Concentration-Camp-6-5-09/

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3.4.3 Teaching the Holocaust at Buchenwald

FOCUS 3 – Legacy of the Holocaust

Handout 3.4.3 Teaching the Holocaust at Buchenwald An Interview with Education Director Daniel Gaede Interview and translation from the original German by Gerrit Book (2011) In 1937, the National Socialists set up a forced labor camp in Bu-

they can determine their own lifestyle and development, not at the

chenwald, Germany at which more than 250,000 people would be

cost of other people, neither physically nor materially.” So this is the

detained by the end of the World War II. Targeted groups included

great schism between the Nazi ideology—which stated, “We are the

Jews, Sinti, Roma, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Polish nationals, convicts, ho-

ones who have the right to decide about life and death”—and what

mosexuals, and political dissidents. According to Daniel Gaede, di-

we want to offer.

rector of the education department at Buchenwald and MittelbauDora Memorials Foundation, the camp claimed the lives of 56,000 people. The following conversation with Gaede explores the interplay of past, present, and future in the effort to achieve tolerance.

This is not linked to German history alone, but it is the foundation, the starting point. I say that because we also have a lot of visitors from other countries or people living in Germany with different backgrounds—coming from other states or countries as refugees,

Can you give a quick overview of your background? How and

for example. And the issues they bring up—the issues of equality,

why did you get involved in human rights and Holocaust edu-

respect, and dignity—are somehow the bridge to talk about the

cation?

fate of people in the Nazi period in Germany and in the occupied

I was born in 1956. This was the time when the West German army

countries and also about the fate of people who are persecuted to-

was established. I was raised beside a military barracks, became a

day for different reasons.

conscientious objector, and as a leftist person in West Germany, I

I’m not saying they are like the Nazis—whomever you want to fill in

was always told to go over to the East.

for [“they”]—but the question of how people are still discriminated

Now I have been living in the East, in Weimar, since 1995, and that

against today because their dignity is not accepted is unfortunately

which was called “the East” doesn’t exist anymore. There is a uni-

not only an issue in Germany.

fied Germany today and based on work opportunities, I decided to move over here and work at a memorial site that deals with the history of the concentration camps, especially Buchenwald, but also linked with other historical sites.

It doesn’t matter if I deal with teachers from Chile, for example, or with human rights activists from Central America, or with students living here in Weimar, all these same issues come up. And it’s not my task to say look at your country, at how your government is behav-

The question of how we should teach what happened here and

ing in a terrible way. That’s not my job, but if I talk about mecha-

why leads directly to the question of human rights. One major dif-

nisms and how and why in the Nazi period concentration camps

ference between the time of the Nazis and today is that human

became an integral part of that type of society, it also becomes pos-

rights are accepted. The Nazi ideology was mainly based on racism

sible to talk about other social situations of exclusion. So that’s just

and the idea of inequality of people. This difference is essential still

the bridge. I’m not other people’s teacher, but somehow this place

today because if rightwing people come to us, they will not refer to

works as a catalyst for talking about topics that are essential for all of

the human rights issue, they will say there are people’s rights, and

us. That’s somehow the connection.

if Turkish people want to live like Turkish people they should leave Germany and do it in their own country. But it is not a question of

Please briefly describe your work at Buchenwald.

the past, it is not a question of German history alone, but specifically

I’m responsible for the educational work. That includes all programs

to deal with the history of a site like Buchenwald, where more than

dealing with visitors—starting with school classes, age 15 and old-

56,000 people were killed. It gives us a chance to refer in detail to

er, with students, with handicapped people, etc. So if I look back

the biographies, to the fate of people, and also to find out what it

at recent days, I had one program with blind and sight-impaired

means if inequality is accepted as a state policy. So human rights

students. Tomorrow I will work with students from the University of

issues, Holocaust education, and dealing with Nazism are somehow

Jena and the day after that with young boys who are living in special

linked. And if somebody would ask me what the foundation of my

homes with social workers because they have great difficulties in

educational work is, I would say: “We want to strengthen people, so

completing their terms in school.

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3.4.3 Teaching the Holocaust at Buchenwald

FOCUS 3 – Legacy of the Holocaust

This means I am always adapting the programs. I have to make sure

people who are discriminated against themselves about the Holo-

that everyone who’s coming to us gets a program that fits first to

caust in order to make them sensitive to these issues.

him or to her and then refers to this place, not vice versa. I say that

The history of human rights education, of basic rights, etc., has had

very clearly because some people believe that there is a clear message from the Holocaust or the Nazi period, like, “never again.” But what does it mean for different people with different responsibilities? So if I want to answer this question, I need to refer to the area where a person is living and to his or her responsibilities, and then I can think about the connection to the past that is established through our work. The aim in the end is to be careful about actual discrimination and also to engage and help people to work against discrimination. So dealing with the past only makes sense if you have your eye on the future. Can you briefly describe the development of human rights and Holocaust education in Germany? What have been the major changes over time?

a different path in Germany. Especially in West Germany, people would say, “I don’t need to think about this—we have these rights.” And a lot of people don’t know exactly what those 30 articles [in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights] are all about. This was different in East Germany because a lot of people only had limited access to their rights. And so again: Human rights issues do not necessarily need to refer to the Nazi period, even if there are direct connections. One of the survivors of Buchenwald, Stephan Wiesel, now living in Paris, later became a French diplomat and was in the group with Eleanor Roosevelt that wrote the 30 articles of the United Nations Human Rights Declaration. As a prisoner at Buchenwald, he never could say, “I was arrested for the wrong reasons. I will call a lawyer and he will get me out.” No such chance for him. So human rights

For a long time, especially in East Germany, it was clear that talk-

are an argument to protect individuals even against the state and

ing about the Nazi period meant telling young people about the

its abuse of power. When people argue that this is another subject,

legacy of the communist resistance movement against the Nazis

that we are dealing with the past and the question of human rights

and about the legacy of fighting imperialism, fascism, and capital-

is a business for someone else, it’s hard for me to understand that

ism. For this reason, Buchenwald was set up as a huge memorial

argument.

with lots of exhibits to educate young people in exactly this way.

So far you have mostly described the East German approach

In 1989-1990, it was clear that this couldn’t be continued for various

to Holocaust remembrance and education, but how did these

reasons and also that the educational work had to find a new path.

things develop in West Germany beyond memorial sites—

So it became clear that it was necessary to refer to the visitors and

more generally and in the school context?

to their backgrounds. This was the first important change we made, and it also influenced the ways in which memorial sites work in West Germany.

First there was the question of different generations. Persons who would refer to the Nazi period in a critical way and who would not say, “That’s the past, and let’s forget about it and establish a new

So there is not a single message to be transmitted to everyone. It’s a dialogue, and it is necessary to have historians around to be specific about who causes the consequences and the facts. Holocaust education came more into focus during the huge conference in Stockholm.1 There’s now a whole framework of institutions that are working together in Europe, also including institutions from the United States, to spread knowledge, to develop methods, and to refer to the Holocaust as one resource to think about extinction, discrimination, and all these issues.

country” were always a minority. Some would try to find out how old Nazis made new careers in West German society, in business and also in political parties. This is one reason why at the end of the 60s there was so much protest against the generation of the parents and the teachers and the professors who would silently or even obviously refer to the Nazi period and say that there were some good aspects to it, too—law and order, and things like that. Protest and reference to the Nazi period were also part of a generational question. Several initiatives to find out

Some people believe that it is necessary to talk about that, to find

what happened in our city or our village were started during that

out about human rights. Well, we don’t need a holocaust to know

time because the people who knew what happened normally

that human rights are important. If you talk about the Nazi period,

wouldn’t talk about it.

you need to refer to human rights; that’s my position. There might be other orientations such as religion or political ideologies as well, but as far as I see it human rights are a good measure to test different types of societies in terms of discrimination and so on. So it’s a more open-minded approach than referring to one ideology as the communist party did. On the other hand, we don’t need to tell 1 The Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust, a conference on education, remembrance, and research held January 26-28, 2000.

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For example, I received the first information about my own town and the Jewish community there when I was working at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. I didn’t hear it from my teachers in school. The elders would refer to the wartime and say it was terrible, or they would tell anecdotes, but they wouldn’t offer any systematic reflections. The younger ones would refer to a theoretical level of fascism and imperialism and power and violence, but they would, of course, not

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3.4.3 Teaching the Holocaust at Buchenwald

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refer to personal experience. There was a big gap between these

but there were also times when prisoners would say to each other,

different positions, and none of these teachers would refer to the

‘If you want to get out of Buchenwald you need to be dead or Jew-

local history—that was totally left out.

ish.’” When that happened it was during the weeks after the pogrom

So in West Germany we have a development of general protest—I

of November 1938. In Buchenwald there were about 9,000 men ar-

described that—local research, and also the establishment of new memorial sites at places where concentration camps existed. Some of them had been known since the 50s and 60s. Others were rediscovered many years later, depending on actions taken by individuals on a local level. After 1989, the state-run memorial policy in East Germany and the more civically based activities in West Germany were linked. Since that time the national government has also given money to different memorial sites to support research and education programs. This is something new. It is also connected to the federal system,

rested as Jews. They were labeled as Jews by the Nazis according to the Nazi ideology. Many of them would say, “Why do you call me a Jew? I never go to synagogue, I fought as a German soldier in the First World War, and I do belong to this society. Why do you exclude me?” They could not understand what had happened to them. And they were told: “If you give up your property”—and they especially arrested people who had property—“and if you leave the country, you can get out of here.” So out of 9,000 about 8,000 had the chance to escape—not to be free again in Germany, but to escape to China and to other countries that would accept them as refugees.

which is normally described as a system where education and cul-

This is somehow surprising that Jews were able to leave the camp

ture are the responsibility of the different states and not of the na-

and others had no chance. So therefore we need to refer to the

tional government. So Dachau, for instance, never received money

knowledge about the Jewish fate and then add the information

from the federal government of West Germany and even had diffi-

about other groups.

culties in getting money from the state of Bavaria. That was changed

I will give another example. I was asked to guide a group of people

after 1989, and therefore nowadays Buchenwald and other institu-

from Northern Ireland, Egypt, Israel, and Germany in English. I was

tions receive half of their budgets from the national government.

wondering, “Why they would come in this combination? What did

This makes it even more important for us to offer good educational

they have in common?” And it came out that they were running a

programs.

program on the situation of political and religious minorities in dif-

How would you describe Holocaust education today? You said

ferent countries. So all of the persons from Northern Ireland actually

that in the past, the older generation would often only relate

had Dutch passports. They were working at that time in a reconcilia-

personal stories, and that the younger generations were very

tion program between Protestants and Catholics. None of the Egyp-

theoretical. Are these two approaches somehow linked to-

tian participants were Muslim; they all belonged to the Coptic Chris-

gether nowadays?

tian group. One of the nuns was blind, so I couldn’t just say, “Look

There is much more linkage today and there is also much more information. It’s actually hard to find a day when you won’t find a reference to the Nazi period in newspapers or books or in TV programs. So it is really present. And as a consequence some younger people say, “It’s overwhelming—we are fed up with it.” However, my impression is they are not fed up with the topic, but with the way it is presented to them. So if we find a good way to say, “Look, there’s an essential question and you can deal with it,” they will be very interested. One difficulty for me is that Holocaust education often gives the impression that the Nazi period is only important with the respect to the fate of the Jews. But we know that there were many more people persecuted in the Nazi period and the first “enemies” of the Nazis were communists, social democrats, later for social reasons, homosexuals and so on. So racism is just one part of this ideology. When, for example, Israeli groups come to Buchenwald, they are

here, look there.” I had to find another way to explain. And some of the Israelis were conscientious objectors. So the common point was looking for minorities who also suffered in the Nazi period. So I did not only speak about Jews and homosexuals, but also about Jehovah’s Witnesses who were arrested because they would not serve in the army. And in fact they were the only ones who could theoretically leave any day. They “only” had to sign a paper saying, “Now I’m ready to serve in the army.” But according to their beliefs they wouldn’t do that. This was important for that specific group. It’s not necessarily important for another group. So again, there are different approaches for different groups and different stories to tell. And only referring to the Holocaust alone would minimize the dimension of the crimes of the Nazis and also minimize the opportunities to find access to the different aspects of that time. Do the Holocaust and the Nazi period continue to impact

surprised to hear that Jewish prisoners were just the minority within

young Germans?

the whole society of the prisons. So we try to refer to the background

Yes, of course, in many different ways. This is something they need

of the Israeli groups and tell them: “Yes, there were Jewish prisoners,

to refer to if they live in this society. This also includes people from

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other countries, immigrants, because it’s still so present in argu-

tion is how we refer to that. I understand that story from the Bible

ments and visible in the cities in the form of memorial sites, for ex-

as a suggestion that the capacity for brutality is in everyone. That

ample. And it also includes language; there are some words that you

was also how Barack Obama referred to it during his visit to Buch-

should not use.

enwald—that it’s not the wrongdoing of THE Germans and we, the

Therefore it is enriching to refer to that time. It sounds very strange

others, are incapable of those eventualities. It’s also possible that we

to say “enriching,” but I say it because we are not living under a dicta-

are moving into similar positions.

torship anymore. We can refer to that time and the mechanisms of

So, therefore, a stigma is a chance to refer to your own history and

discrimination without suffering from them. So we can refer to them

to reflect on it carefully. This can open up a lot of talks with other

and we can think about what it means for the present. And this is

people from other societies. That’s also my experience from my time

important because one of the pillars of dictatorships is fear, and if

in Israel. If I would have tried to say, “I’m from Europe, but don’t ask

people are fearful of whatever it is, they are easily subject to panic

me specifically for the country,” or if I tried to avoid a German ac-

and abuse …. There are many conflicts between different cultures,

cent in my speech, it would have forced me to hide all the time and

it is true, but fear is a very bad way to cope with it. Knowledge can

people would have become suspicious: “What does he try to hide?

help a little bit with it, but it’s not enough. Compassion and empa-

What is he trying to cover up?” And exactly the opposite happens if

thy are other tools to get access to other cultures that are some-

I say, “Yes, I understand that when they hear German words, all the

times strange.

people will automatically have their bad memories from the Holo-

Would you agree that the stigma of 1933–1945 is still attached

caust in their minds again.” If I accept that, then we are both free

to Germany and the Germans?

to move on and are able to speak about difficult things. And so it

Whether you want it or not, people have different conceptions

makes sense to look deeper for the meaning of the stigma.

about that time. And it is quite helpful to know as much as possible

Based on what you’ve just said, I would conclude that you think

and then to answer these issues. As I said before, it is also enrich-

it is necessary or even good to continue to deal with this past

ing. If it felt like a heavy burden on the shoulders of young people,

in the future?

of course they would try to get rid of it and I would totally accept

Yes. And then it comes to a crucial, a difficult point. What does that

that reaction. And therefore I try to say, “Thank God it’s over.” When

mean: “the past”? That’s a lot, a lot of stories. If you, for example, refer

we have a tour with young students I don’t place blame on them. I

to the question of how people at the end of 1920s and the begin-

do not speak about THE Germans who did this and that. I do speak about the SS.2 I do speak about the different groups of prisoners, also because the Germans were the first prisoners. Everyone in the camp in 1937 had a German passport. So it was a fight among the German people, it was not Germans against others. Only later did it become a camp with 90% prisoners from other countries. But in the beginning, it was an internal issue concerning German people. And so therefore it is also not enough to speak about Germans and others. It’s about people living in a society where one group decides who is accepted and who will be excluded. Do you think that the stigma—the black mark—will ever fully disappear?

ning of the 1930s in Germany would have realized that there was a danger approaching—I mean the Nazi movement—and what they would have done against it, and which signs would have been important to them, that’s a question that is very relevant for us today, too. So living in Weimar today, what shall I use my energy for? For ecological questions, against racism, or working against those small groups of Neo-Nazi youngsters, which we also have here, or something else? So there are many, many developments that came up after 1945 that are very dangerous for this planet and that were not part of the Nazi program …. There are many other questions coming up, and I would not agree if people said, “Let’s join Greenpeace

I’m not sure if it would be good to get away from the stigma. The

and Amnesty International and whatever other organization is

question is how that sign is read. If you go back into the old part

around today and not think about the past anymore.” Because then

of the Bible, there’s the first story about murder between brothers.

we give up a very important resource for speaking about existential

It’s the story about Cain and Abel. And the interesting thing is that

questions.

after the killing of his brother, Cain was not executed. There was no death penalty for him. He received a sign, a mark on his forehead that this act was not forgotten, but that he shall live in that society. So a stigma is not necessarily something completely bad. The ques2 Abbreviation of the German word Schutzstaffel, which translates literally as “protection echelon.” This unit of the National Socialist army was originally created to protect Hitler’s person. Eventually, the SS composed the police, intelligence and security forces. It was also responsible for the systematic extermination of people who had been singled out by Nazi ideology.

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But on the other hand, there is the danger that people only refer to the past and that we miss the point of action today. And somehow the Nazis make it easy for us because they never promised the Jewish people anything good. They never said, “We are the masters who will save the whole of humanity.” They would say, “Only for our Aryan”—whatever that is—“people.” So it is obvious that they did

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3.4.3 Teaching the Holocaust at Buchenwald

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not accept equality. So, yes, this makes it easier to choose the right

The memorial site in Buchenwald has a youth meeting center,

side. If people refer to the Nazi period, I sometimes have the impres-

a place where groups can stay overnight, and there are so many

sion they are afraid of making the wrong choice today and of being

teachers who will say after a guided tour, “Ah, there are more op-

blamed for decisions years later.

portunities. Next time we will stay a full day.” And then they come

To make it very specific, I don’t know what my kids, three of them, will say to me in 10, 15 years. It might be the case that they say, “With all your energy, why didn’t you stay with Greenpeace? Why did you refer to the Nazi past all the time? It would have been much better for us if you would have taken all your energy for issues and topics that are influencing our life now.”

for three days. It’s one of the institutions for political and historical education that we do not have to make any advertisements for. The two buildings with the 70 beds are booked out for the whole year in advance. So that’s also one indication that these types of educational topics do function, including also programs for volunteers. We have volunteers from the United States working with us and from other countries, too, like Chile and even Japan. Two women from

If you can make that clear and understandable and say it is not a

Japan came to me and said, “How is it possible in your society to

reason to be fearful—it is worthwhile to take a risk, then hopefully

speak about crimes and not to describe yourself only as a victim,

people are so strong that they can even take the risk that they might

like we experience in Japan? It is easy to talk about Hiroshima and

make a mistake.

Nagasaki, but it is very difficult to speak about the Japanese occupa-

How do you view the future development of Holocaust and hu-

tion in Korea and China. How do you do that?” Well, they stayed with

man rights education in Germany?

us for one year.

Here in Germany, for example, we have a German institute for hu-

There are no easy answers. That is also an issue: The question of how

man rights education that also observes the conditions of human

to deal with crimes of the past will be discussed on a global level.

rights in this country. You might think everyone can enjoy his rights,

The access and the techniques for that exist.

but they said, for example, that people who are living in homes for

I never thought that I would go to Central America and to Chile, and

the elderly are often woken up at 4:30 in the morning because there

to Lithuania, and to the States, and to Israel for this program, but

is only one person to wash them all. Their dignity is not respected.

that has all happened. And we also have in our international work

And they report about things like this.

camps, at the same work camp, people from Taiwan, Korea, Japan,

We have a collaborative program in which institutions and several memorial sites, including us, also offer programs to people in different foreign countries, including Russia, Poland, etc., for setting up

and the People’s Republic of China and they had to deal with each other and they were able to. That’s also a very important point. It shows that places like a memorial site can be a good catalyst.

projects where these questions about how the past is described, and how we live today, and what is the perspective for the future are all linked together. So I hope that more and more we have people who, in a very pragmatic way, connect that and say, “Human rights are a good test for societies and are also a good test of how we deal with the past.” If the fate of some groups is covered with silence, something is wrong, and that still happens in many societies today. So on the one hand, memorial sites have much more money than they did 10, 15 years ago, but politicians also have an interest in using it for their own purpose. And additionally, there’s also the danger that new generations will say, “We have no connection to that time.” It is not important how big of a mistake it is—it’s a question of how we develop our educational program to make it visible and clear that this it not just pushing people back to things they don’t want to talk about, but that it is a tool for our present and future questions. That’s also the task on our site. I do not blame society for not referring to the Nazi period more deeply. I think it’s a question of how we develop methods to increase the interest in it.

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FOCUS 3 – Legacy of the Holocaust

3.4.4 German Secondary Students’ Reflections on a School Visit to Auschwitz

Handout 3.4.4 German Secondary Students’ Reflections on a School Visit to Auschwitz Students in Marlise Kasper’s English class at the Albert-Schweitzer-Gymnasium in Gundelfingen, Germany reflect on their visit to Auschwitz. These essays were a class assignment completed by German secondary students learning English. A Visit to the Museum Auschwitz In Museum Auschwitz I felt terrible and was really ashamed to be a German. It was much crueler than I had ever expected. It was a scary place because it isn’t a museum; it is an authentic place and I couldn’t understand what happened there. When we walked into the room with thousands of hairs I got tears in my eyes. The worst was the smell in it, I was overwhelmed. I think it was a good experience for me, because we are Germans and we must live with our past, even when we all weren’t born in this time. September 29, 2010 Frederieke, 15

Day in Auschwitz This year we went with an exchange to Poland, Bierun. Our experiences about this week there were very good. One day we went to Auschwitz. I always knew something about the time in this century and I’m interested to know more. Only the German pupils went there by bus because the Polish pupils had already seen it and didn’t want to go there another time. When we were there we had seen a little film about Auschwitz. After this film we went with a woman who’s telling us about this place in front of a gate. When I read the words “Arbeit macht frei” it was depressing. We had seen the whole arrangement and it was terrible to know what’s happened in there. In the rooms there were many real old things of those people were left there introduced. We had seen old kids’ shoes and when we think about that those little children also come there like their parents and they don’t know what’s happening with them it was really frightening. There also were many suitcases with names and the birth date from these people, toothbrushes and old pots. On the walls of the corridors hang pictures of men and women. Some people died 6 days after they came to Auschwitz. It was difficult and sad to see what the German men those who were officers there had done and sometimes I was ashamed that I’m German and go those terrible arrangements. But we have to know all and we don’t have to be ashamed. There I still ask myself the question: “Why nobody had done something against these terrible events!” October 27, 2010 Lara, 15

A Visit to the Museum in Auschwitz On our way to the museum in Auschwitz the group was good-humored yet. When we arrived suddenly everybody was quiet. We all listened interested to the woman who showed us the museum. Everything was so terrible and expressive. The most upsetting thing was the hair from the women and from the little girls. Also the shoes, first of all the shoes from the babies were very upsetting. It was so sad to see what the people did with the Jews. You have a completely different view if you were there than if you just heard about it. It was a very good experience to have been there. Because before I was there, I couldn’t imagine what happened in the Holocaust. September 29, 2010 Julia, 15

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3.4.4 German Secondary Students’ Reflections on a School Visit to Auschwitz

Day in Auschwitz A few days before we went to Auschwitz, I was scared because I didn’t know how I will handle this extreme situation. It was hard to see all the suffering. It was so real; there were suitcases, toothbrushes and even real hair of the victims. Although I know I’m not guilty, I felt ashamed. I felt ashamed, that Germany did something that was so inhuman and cruel. We should never forget it and think about the victims. October 27, 2010 Anne, 15

Our Visit in Auschwitz During the Poland Exchange Program 2010 When we arrived at the museum I was interested to learn, but at the same time I felt uncomfortable to go there as a German student, especially when we met a group of Israelis who wore their flag around their neck and shoulders. I found it strange that they were so proud of their country and I couldn’t imagine doing something like that. I thought it was very amazing that the prisoners had such a strong will to survive, although their situation was so horrible. Some people even smiled on photos taken before they were brought to Auschwitz. Very touching and sad was a little girl’s doll with a broken face. Next to it the little girl’s clothes were shown. I wondered if this little girl would have wanted her doll to stay at that place forever which was so horrible for her and where she died. But, at last, I wasn’t ashamed to be German because I thought it was better to deal with our own history and learn from it than just ignore it. October 27, 2010 Lea and Isabel, 16

Auschwitz “I wouldn’t even have related Berlin to the Holocaust” was the answer a friend of mine recently got from an Israeli when apologizing for her German nationality. This is an experience I have often had since graduating from high school. Several times, I have even found myself being the only one in an international group of people not being able to laugh about a joke about Jews. We were confronted with our legacy from World War II very early in school and the Holocaust came up again every year in every subject – often we felt it was too much. The setting in which we discussed these matters was always purely German. All of us knew that we were not guilty but still had to assume a special kind of responsibility. Our visit to Auschwitz was the culmination of this: I can’t even describe the feeling of being in a foreign country, benefiting from the outstanding Polish hospitality, with a group representing the country that brought so much horror to others. Spending some time as exchange students in a small Polish town not far from Krakow was a turning point in the sense that my 22 classmates and I also exchanged views with non-Germans on the matter for the first time. We came to realize that people do not judge us according to our past, but according to what we are now. Sometimes, people from other countries ask you “do they teach you that in school at all?” and then I am very thankful for the way the Holocaust is mediated. German students know all about the matter and the international community respects that. I still become uneasy when the subject comes up although meanwhile, I have come to understand that the issue is one of international importance and will be increasingly regarded as that. It took me a while to realize that other countries have difficult histories as well and that a lot of them do not deal with them as responsibly as Germany does. It is essential that Germany does not forget. Others, however, do. As the Israeli told my friend: “We don’t talk about Germany anymore; we have other enemies now.” October 27, 2010 Julia, 15

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3.4.5

FOCUS 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; History

GERMANY AND THE HOLOCAUST

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3.5.1 November 9 in German History

FOCUS 3 – History

HANDOUT 3.5.1 NOVEMBER 9 IN GERMAN HISTORY November 9, 1918 On November 9, 1918, the German monarchy of Kaiser Wilhelm II, often referred to as the Second Reich, ended with the abdication (or resignation) of the Kaiser and his flight to the Netherlands. This shift was triggered by a mutiny staged a few days earlier by sailors of the German Imperial Navy who were weary of battle. By this time, the German army had all but lost World War I. Within hours of the Kaiser’s abdication, the SPD (or Social Democrat) politician Philipp Scheidemann stepped out onto a balcony of the Reichstag building in Berlin and proclaimed a republic. Scheidemann, however, wasn’t the only one to proclaim a republic that day; later in the afternoon, the communist politician Karl Liebknecht attempted to establish a Free Socialist Republic of Germany. Ultimately, it was the Weimar Republic that won favor, and Germany signed a ceasefire agreement with the Allied powers on November 11.

November 9, 1923 From its creation, Germany’s Weimar Republic, which was established at the close of World War I, suffered. The new government’s inexperience with democracy coupled with its consent to the Treaty of Versailles left the new republic unpopular. Germany had been forced by the Allied forces to accept Article 231 (the so-called “War Guilt Clause”) that in turn demanded massive reparations. The Weimar government’s efforts to comply with the treaty crippled the German economy and led to severe inflation. Between 1914 and 1923, the worth of the American dollar went from 4.20 marks to 4.2 trillion marks.1 Radical groups from both the left (i.e., communists) and the right (i.e., National Socialists, called “Nazis”) blamed the Weimar Republic for the country’s political and economic upheaval. On November 9, 1923, Adolf Hitler, leader of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, staged an unsuccessful coup d’état against the Bavarian government. Hitler’s plan was to take over the southern state, draw the German army to his side, and then overthrow the government in Weimar.2 Instead, Hitler was arrested, convicted of treason, and sentenced to five years in prison. (His sentence was later commuted to 9 months). In prison, Hitler composed Mein Kampf (My Struggle), which describes his youth and his work for the Nazi party as well as his views on politics, race, and the future of Germany.

November 9, 1938 The chain of events leading up to an organized destruction of Jewish homes and businesses on this day was unknowingly set off by the 17-year-old Jew Herschel Grynszpan. After learning that the Nazis had deported his family to Poland, Grynszpan, who had been living in France, went to the German embassy in Paris and fatally shot the civil servant Ernst vom Rath. Nazi leaders exploited this act of personal revenge to launch a nationwide attack against Jews and their property. By the time the violence ended, 7,500 Jewish businesses had been vandalized and almost all Jewish houses of worship had been burned down or otherwise demolished. Hundreds of Jews died, and an estimated 30,000 Jewish men were transferred to concentration camps.3 After November 9, 1938, Nazi persecution of the Jews intensified, and the National Socialists no longer made an effort to give their acts of discrimination a legal facade. This event in German history came to be known as Kristallnacht, or the Night of Broken Glass, which evokes the broken windows of synagogues, homes, and Jewish-owned businesses.

1 Jung, A. (2008, August 14). Millions, billions, trillions: Germany in the era of hyperinflation. Spiegel Online International. Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/international/ germany/0,1518,641758,00.html 2 History Place. (1996). The Beer Hall Putsch. The rise of Adolf Hitler. Retrieved from http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/putsch.htm 3 Benz, W. (1997). Der Holocaust. Munich: Beck.

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3.5.1 November 9 in German History

FOCUS 3 – History

November 9, 1989 This day in German history marks the fall of the Berlin Wall, an event that precipitated the reunification of Germany and the end of the Cold War. For several months prior, tens of thousands of East Germans had been holding public demonstrations for political reform. Fueling their hope was a series of changes that General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev had made in the Soviet Union starting in 1985. Erich Honecker, head of the East German state, remained committed to upholding the status quo, however. The people continued to protest. Five days before the Wall fell, half a million citizens repeated their demand for reform at Berlin’s Alexanderplatz.4 Yielding to pressure, the East German government sent GDR central committee spokesman Günter Schabowski to an international press conference. Caught off guard by a question as to when East Germans would be allowed to travel freely between the East and West, Schabowski announced that the border was open, effective immediately. This news sent thousands of people to the Wall. For the first time since 1961, East Germans enjoyed the freedom of movement.

4 von Hellfeld, M. (2009, August 11). November 9, 1989: The day that changed European history. Retrieved from http://dw.de/November-9-1989-the-day-that-changed-europeanhistory/a-4867139

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3.5.2 Treaty on the Establishment of German Unity

FOCUS 3 – History

Handout 3.5.2 Treaty on the Establishment of German Unity- August 31, 1990 The Unification Treaty was the result of intense negotiations between the GDR1 and the FRG2. It provided for the reorganization of the GDR’s administrative districts [Bezirke] into five federal states [Bundesländer] that would accede to the Federal Republic of Germany under the terms of Article 23 of the Basic Law. The treaty also addressed a myriad of legal and financial issues entailed in the introduction of the Federal Republic’s political, economic, and social structures in the new eastern states. The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, Resolved to achieve in free self-determination the unity of Germany in peace and freedom as an equal partner in the community of nations, Mindful of the desire of the people in both parts of Germany to live together in peace and freedom in a democratic and social federal state governed by the rule of law, In grateful respect to those who peacefully helped freedom prevail and who have unswervingly adhered to the task of establishing German unity and are achieving it, Aware of the continuity of German history and bearing in mind the special responsibility arising from our past for a democratic development in Germany committed to respect for human rights and to peace, Seeking through German unity to contribute to the unification of Europe and to the building of a peaceful European order in which borders no longer divide and which ensures that all European nations can live together in a spirit of mutual trust, Aware that the inviolability of frontiers and of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of all states in Europe within their frontiers constitutes a fundamental condition for peace, Have agreed to conclude a Treaty on the Establishment of German Unity, containing the following provisions: Chapter I Effect of Accession …. Article 2 Capital City, Day of Germany Unity (1) The capital of Germany shall be Berlin. The seat of the parliament and government shall be decided after the establishment of German unity. (2) 3 October shall be a public holiday known as the Day of German Unity.

Source: Treaty on the Establishment of German Unity, Federal Republic of Germany-German Democratic Republic, August 31, 1990. Retrieved from http://www.dipublico.com.ar/english/treaties/frg-gdr-treaty-on-the-establishment-of-german-unity-unification-treaty 1 2

German Democratic Republic Federal Republic of Germany

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3.6.1 Famous Germans Throughout History

FOCUS 3 – History

Handout 3.6.1 Famous Germans Throughout History Artists

Philosophers

Albrecht Dürer

Friedrich Engels

Max Ernst

Georg Hegel

Caspar David Friedrich

Jürgen Habermas

Walter Gropius

Immanuel Kant

Käthe Kollwitz

Karl Marx Friedrich Nietzsche Martin Luther

Composers

Writers

Johann Sebastian Bach

Heinrich Böll

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy

Bertolt Brecht

Ludwig van Beethoven

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johannes Brahms

Günter Grass

Franz Liszt

Jakob and Wilhelm Karl Grimm

Clara Schumann

Heinrich Heine

Robert Schumann

Hermann Hesse

Richard Wagner

Thomas Mann Herta Müller Erich Maria Remarque Friedrich Schiller Christa Wolf

Scientists

Political Figures

Karl Benz

Konrad Adenauer

Rudolf Diesel

Otto von Bismarck

Albert Einstein

Willy Brandt

Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich II of Prussia

Johannes Kepler

Helmut Kohl

Robert Koch

Angela Merkel

Max Planck Wilhelm Röntgen

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3.6.2 Zeitgeist: Germans in World Civilization Trading Card Template

FOCUS 3 – History

Handout 3.6.2 Zeitgeist: Germans in World Civilization Trading Card Template You have been commissioned to create a set of trading cards of three significant individuals in one of the major fields of endeavor. For each individual selected, you must create a trading card. Use the provided template. (The size should be 5½” x 8½”). Each card should include: • the name of the series (the field of endeavor) • an image of the individual • details about the person’s biography and accomplishments In class, you will be asked to write an essay in which you will contrast and compare the contributions of the three individuals whom you have selected for your trading card series. In what ways do these individuals reflect their respective zeitgeist? Your essay should consist of an introduction (including a thesis statement), several body paragraphs, and a conclusion. You will be able to use your trading cards as notes for your essay. You should include a bibliography in correct MLA format that lists the sources you used to gather your information.

Trading Card Template

Name of Series (Card #) Image

Date of Birth: Birthplace: Date of Death: Occupation: Accomplishments (at least 3):

Famous Quote:

Fun Fact: Name

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FOCUS 4 – Reunification

4.1.1 Churchill, Stalin, & the Iron Curtain Between Them

4.1.1 CHURCHILL, STALIN, & THE IRON CURTAIN BETWEEN THEM WINSTON CHURCHILL’S FAMOUS “IRON CURTAIN” SPEECH Below are excerpts from Winston Churchill’s famous “Iron Curtain” speech and the response Joseph Stalin gave to it. After each speech is a series of questions for you to reflect upon: On March 5, 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill gave his now-famous “Iron Curtain” speech to a crowd of 40, 000, including US President Harry Truman. (Ryan, 1979). The following are excerpts from his speech: “I have a strong admiration and regard for the valiant Russian people and for my wartime comrade, Marshal Stalin. There is deep sympathy and goodwill in Britain -- and I doubt not here [i.e. the United States] also -- towards the peoples of all the Russias and a resolve to persevere through many differences and rebuffs in establishing lasting friendships” (Churchill, 2003, p. 220). “It is my duty however, […] to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow” (Churchill, 2003, p. 420). “The safety of the world requires a unity in Europe, from which no nation should be permanently outcast. It is from the quarrels of the strong parent races in Europe that the world wars we have witnessed, or which occurred in former times, have sprung” (Churchill, 2003, p. 421). “[…] in a great number of countries, far from the Russian frontiers and throughout the world, Communist fifth columns [i.e. groups working to bring communism to democratic countries] are established and work in complete unity and absolute obedience to the directions they receive from the Communist center [i.e. Moscow]. Except in the British Commonwealth and in the United States where Communism is in its infancy, the Communist parties or fifth columns constitute a growing challenge and peril to Christian civilization” (Churchill, 2003, p. 422). “[…] I repulse the idea that a new war is inevitable; still more that it is imminent. It is because I am sure that our fortunes are still in our own hands and that we hold the power to save the future, that I feel the duty to speak out now that I have the occasion and the opportunity to do so” (Churchill, 2003, p. 422). “I do not believe that Soviet Russia desires war. What they desire is the fruits of war and the indefinite expansion of their power and doctrines” (Churchill, 2003, p. 422). “But what we have to consider here today while time remains, is the

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permanent prevention of war and the establishment of conditions of freedom and democracy as rapidly as possible in all countries. Our difficulties and dangers will not be removed by closing our eyes to them. They will not be removed by mere waiting to see what happens; nor will they be removed by a policy of appeasement. What is needed is a settlement, and the longer this is delayed, the more difficult it will be and the greater our dangers will become” (Churchill, 2003, 422). “From what I have seen of our Russian friends and allies during the war, I am convinced that there is nothing they admire so much as strength, and there is nothing for which they have less respect than for weakness, especially military weakness. […] Last time I saw it all coming and cried aloud to my own fellow countrymen and to the world, but no one paid any attention. Up till the year 1933 or even 1935, Germany might have been saved from the awful fate which has overtaken her and we might all have been spared the miseries Hitler let loose upon mankind” (Churchill, 2003, p. 423). “There never was a war in all history easier to prevent by timely action than the one which has just desolated such great areas of the globe. It could have been prevented in my belief without the firing of a single shot, and Germany might be powerful, prosperous and honored today; but no one would listen and one by one we were all sucked into the awful whirlpool. We surely must not let that happen again. This can only be achieved by reaching now, in 1946, a good understanding on all points with Russia under the general authority of the United Nations Organization and by the maintenance of that good understanding through many peaceful years, […] supported by the whole strength of the English-speaking world and all its connections. […] If the population of the English-speaking Commonwealths be added to that of the United States with all that such cooperation implies in the air, on the sea, all over the globe, and in science and in industry, and in moral force, there will be no quivering, precarious balance of power to offer its temptation to ambition or adventure. On the contrary, there will be an overwhelming assurance of security” (Churchill, 2003, p. 423-424). “If we adhere faithfully to the Charter of the United Nations and walk forward in sedate and sober strength, seeking no one’s land or treasure, seeking to lay no arbitrary control upon the thoughts of men, if all British moral and material forces and convictions are joined with your own in fraternal association, the highroads of the future will be clear, not only for us but for all, not only for our time, but for a century to come” (Churchill, 2003, p. 424).

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4.1.1 Churchill, Stalin, & the Iron Curtain Between Them

1. Who does Churchill mention at the start of his speech? Why do you think he does that?

2. Why would Churchill bring up the “unity of Europe” right after the paragraph about the “iron curtain”? What point is he trying to make?

3. Churchill doesn’t think the Russians want war – what does he think they want?

4. What does Churchill believe the Russians admire? What do the Russians not respect?

5. Why do you think Churchill brings up the subject of Germany in World War II in his speech?

6. What are the reasons Churchill wants the “English-speaking Commonwealth” – including the United States – to cooperate with one another?

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4.1.1 Churchill, Stalin, & the Iron Curtain Between Them

Joseph Stalin responded to Churchill’s speech in an interview with the leading newspaper of the former Soviet Union Pravda on March 14, 1946. The following are excerpts of his interview:

rope from the Hitlerite yoke” (Stalin, 1946).

“[...] In substance, Mr. Churchill now stands in the position of a firebrand of war. And Mr. Churchill is not alone here. He has friends not only in England but also in the United States of America. In this respect, one is reminded remarkably of Hitler and his friends. Hitler began to set war loose by announcing his racial theory, declaring that only people speaking the German language represent a fully valuable nation. Mr. Churchill begins to set war loose also by a racial theory, maintaining that only nations speaking the English language are fully valuable nations, called upon to decide the destinies of the entire world. The German racial theory brought Hitler and his friends to the conclusion that the Germans, as the only fully valuable nation, must rule over other nations. The English racial theory brings Mr. Churchill and his friends to the conclusion that nations speaking the English language, being the only fully valuable nations, should rule over the remaining nations of the world” (Stalin, 1946). “As a result of the German invasion, the Soviet Union has irrevocably lost in battles with the Germans, and also during the German occupation and through the expulsion of Soviet citizens to German slave labor camps, about seven million people. In other words, the Soviet Union has lost in men several times more than Britain and the United States together” (Stalin, 1946).

to ensure its security for the future, tries to achieve that these coun-

“It may be that some quarters are trying to push into oblivion these sacrifices of the Soviet people which insured the liberation of Eu-

people, who isolated reactionaries in Europe, collaborators with fas-

“But the Soviet Union cannot forget them. One can ask therefore, what can be surprising in the fact that the Soviet Union, in a desire tries should have governments whose relations to the Soviet Union are loyal? How can one, without having lost one’s reason, qualify these peaceful aspirations of the Soviet Union as “expansionist tendencies” of our Government” (Stalin, 1946)?“Mr. Churchill wanders around the truth when he speaks of the growth of the influence of the Communist parties in Eastern Europe.[...] The growth of the influence of communism cannot be considered accidental. It is a normal function. The influence of the Communists grew because during the hard years of the mastery of fascism in Europe, Communists showed themselves to be reliable, daring and self-sacrificing fighters against fascist regimes for the liberty of peoples” (Stalin, 1946). “Mr. Churchill sometimes recalls in his speeches the common people from small houses, patting them on the shoulder in a lordly manner and pretending to be their friend. But these people are not so simpleminded as it might appear at first sight. Common people, too, have their opinions and their own politics. And they know how to stand up for themselves. It is they, millions of these common people, who voted Mr. Churchill and his party out in England, giving their votes to the Labor party. It is they, millions of these common cism, and gave preference to Left democratic parties” (Stalin, 1946).

1. To whom does Stalin compare Churchill and his “friends”? How does Stalin justify the comparison? 2. According to Stalin, what is it that the Soviet Union “cannot forget”? Why do you think Stalin feels that way? 3. Why does Stalin believe – in contrast to Churchill – that communism is spreading in Europe? 4. At the end of his speech, Stalin makes the point that “common people, too, have their opinions and their own politics. And they know how to stand up for themselves.” Based on what Churchill said in his speech about the spread of communism, what do you think Stalin is trying to say here to contradict that? 5. Is there a middle ground between these two viewpoints ? Find a quote from each speech to support your point of view.

Sources: Churchill, W. S. (2003). Never Give In!: The Best of Winston Churchill’s Speeches. New York: Hyperion. Gorbachev, M. (6 May 1992). The River of Time and the Imperative. (Speech presented at Westminster College. Fulton, Missouri) Retrieved from (1992, July/ August).The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, pp. 22-27. Ryan, H. B. (1979). A New Look at Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ Speech. The Historical Journal, 22 , pp 895-920 doi:10.1017/S0018246X00017179 Stalin’s Reply to Churchill. (interview with Pravda) (1946, March 14). The New York Times, p. 4.

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4.1.2 Gorbachev Speech

4.1.2 GORBACHEV SPEECH “THE RIVER OF TIME AND THE IMPERATIVE OF ACTION” 1992 Speech by Mikhail Gorbachev On May 6, 1992 Mikhail Gorbachev, President of the former Soviet

tes and peoples, the planet today would be a much more suitable

Union (1988-91) spoke at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri.

and favorable place for human life I have more than once criticized

The following are excerpts from his “The River of Time and the Impe-

the foreign policy of the Stalinist leadership in those years. Not only

rative of Action” speech:

was it incapable of reevaluating the historical logic of the interwar

“Here we stand, before a sculpture in which the sculptor’s imagination and fantasy, with remarkable expressiveness and laconism, convey the drama of the “Cold War,” the irrepressible human striving to penetrate the barriers of alienation and confrontation. It is symbolic that this artist was the granddaughter of Winston Churchill and that this sculpture should be in Fulton. More than 46 years ago Winston Churchill spoke in Fulton and in my country this speech was interpreted as the formal declaration of the “Cold War.” This was indeed the first time the words, “Iron Curtain,” were pronounced, and the whole Western world was challenged to close ranks against the threat of tyranny in the form of the Soviet Union and Communist expansion. Everything else in this speech, including Churchill’s analysis of the postwar situation in the world, his thoughts about the possibility of preventing a third world war, the

period, taking into account the experience and results of the war, and following a course which corresponded to the changed reality, it committed a major error in equating the victory of democracy over fascism with the victory of socialism and aiming to spread socialism throughout the world. But the West, and the United States in particular, also committed an error. Its conclusion about the probability of open Soviet military aggression was unrealistic and dangerous. This could never have happened, not only because Stalin, as in 1939-1941, was afraid of war, did not want war, and never would have engaged in a major war. But primarily because the country was exhausted and destroyed; it had lost tens of millions of people, and the public hated war. Having won a victory, the army and the soldiers were dying to get home and get back to a normal life. […]

prospects for progress, and methods of reconstructing the postwar

So I would be so bold as to affirm that the governing circles of the

world, remained unknown to the Soviet people.

victorious powers lacked an adequate strategic vision of the possi-

Today, in paying tribute to this eminent statesman, we can evaluate more quietly and objectively both the merits of his speech and the limitations of the analysis which it included, his ideas and predictions, and his strategic principles. Since that time the world in which we live has undergone tremendous changes. Even so, however paradoxical it may sound, there is a certain similarity between the situation then and today. Then, the prewar structure of international relations had virtually collapsed; a new pattern of forces had emerged along with a new set of interests and claims. […]

bilities for world development as they emerged after the war -- and, consequently, a true understanding of their own countries’ national interests. Hiding behind slogans of “striving for peace” and defense of their people’s interests on both sides, decisions were taken which split asunder the world which had just succeeded in overcoming fascism because it was united. And on both sides this was justified ideologically. The conflict was presented as the inevitable opposition between good and evil -- all the evil, of course, being attributed to the opponent. This continued for decades until it became evident that we were approaching the abyss. I am stating this because the world community has paid dear-

So I would like to commence my remarks by noting that the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. missed that chance -- the chance to establish their relationship on a new basis of principle and thereby to initiate a world order different from that which existed before the war. I think it is clear that I am not suggesting that they should have established a sort of condominium over the rest of the world. The opportunity was on a different plane altogether.

ly for the errors committed at this turning-point in world history. In the major centers of world politics the choice, it would seem, has today been made in favor of peace, cooperation, interaction, and common security. And in pushing forward to a new civilization we should under no circumstances again make the intellectual, and consequently political, error of interpreting victory in the “Cold War” narrowly as a victory for oneself, one’s own way of life, for one’s own

If the United States and the Soviet Union had been capable of un-

values and merits. This was a victory over a scheme for the deve-

derstanding their responsibility and sensibly correlating their natio-

lopment of humanity which was becoming slowly congealed and

nal interests and strivings with the rights and interests of other sta-

leading us to destruction. It was a shattering of the vicious circle

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into which we had driven ourselves. This was altogether a victory for common sense, reason, democracy, and common human values. Churchill urged us to think “superstrategically,” meaning by this the capacity to rise above the petty problems and particularities of current realities, focusing on the major trends and being guided by them. What are the characteristics of the world situation today? In thinking over the processes which we ourselves have witnessed, we are forced to conclude that humanity is at a major turning-point. Not only the peoples of the former USSR, but the whole world is living through this watershed situation. This is not just some ordinary stage of development, like many others in world history. This is a turning-point on a historic and worldwide scale and signifies the incipient substitution of one paradigm of civilization by another. […] First and foremost, it signifies the possibility of creating a global international security system, thus preventing large-scale military conflicts like the world wars of the 20th century and facilitating a radical reduction in levels of armaments and reducing the burden of military expenditures. This signifies that the attention, and the resources, of the world community can be focused on solving problems in non-military areas: population, environment, food production, energy sources, and the like. This means new opportunities for economic progress, ensuring normal conditions of life for the Earth’s growing population and improved living conditions. […] The ending of the global confrontation of nuclear superpowers, and of the ideological opposition between the two world systems, has rendered even more visible today’s major contradiction -- between the rich and poor countries, between “North” and “South”, even though these terms today are merely conventional. […] Turning now to the world economy, the increasingly close links between national economies and markets is accompanied by intensified international competition, leading to de facto trade wars and a threatened revival of protectionism. One of the worst of the new dangers is ecological. When Winston Churchill gave his speech here, most people on this planet did not even suspect a mortal threat from that direction. […]If they do not understand the transitional character of the present international system, with all its inherent contradictions and conflicts, politicians again risk committing errors which would have the most baneful consequences for all. The prospect of catastrophic climatic changes, more frequent droughts, floods, hunger, epidemics, national-ethnic conflicts, and other similar catastrophes compels governments to adopt a world perspective and seek generally applicable solutions. The only alternative would be an intensification of conflicts throughout the world, instability of political systems, civil wars, i.e., ultimately, a threat to world peace. […] No, the idea that certain states or groups of states could monopolize the international arena is no longer valid. What is emerging is a more

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4.1.2 Gorbachev Speech

complex global structure of international relations. An awareness of the need for some kind of global government is gaining ground, one in which all members of the world community would take part. Events should not be allowed to develop spontaneously. There must be an adequate response to global changes and challenges. If we are to eliminate force and prevent conflicts from developing into a worldwide conflagration, we must seek means of collective action by the world community. There are chances for peace. This is confirmed by what has happened to the political views of the leaders of the Great Powers in the past few years. What is needed are principles and mechanisms for converting possibility into reality. The principles are generally known. I spoke of them in New York at the United Nations General Assembly in the end of 1988. What has to be done is to create the necessary mechanisms? In my position it is not very appropriate to name them. It is important that they should be authorized by the world community to deal with problems. Without that there is no point in talking about a new era or a new civilization. I will limit myself to designating the lines of activity and the competence of such mechanisms. […] Here the decisive role may and must be played by the United Nations. Of course, it must be restructured, together with its component bodies, in order to be capable of confronting the new tasks. These ideas have long been under discussion, and many proposals have been put forward. I myself have no plan of my own for reorganizing the United Nations. I will just address the basic parameters of the changes which are ready for solution. The United Nations, which emerged from the results and the lessons of the Second World War, is still marked by the period of its creation. This is true both with respect to the makeup of its subsidiary bodies and auxiliary institutions and with respect to its functioning. Nothing, for instance, other than the division into victors and vanquished, explains why such countries as Germany and Japan do not figure among the permanent members of the Security Council. […] Of course, the UN’s contemporary role, and, first and foremost, an expanded and strengthened Security Council, will require substantial funding. The method adopted for financing at the founding of the United Nations revealed its weaknesses just as soon as, some years later, it became more active and came closer to actually carrying out the tasks assigned by its founders. This method must be supplemented by some mechanism tying the UN to the world economy. My thoughts may, at first glance, appear somewhat unrealistic. But we will count on the fact that business is becoming more humane, that a powerful process of technical and political internationalization is taking place, and that business is achieving an increasingly organic relationship with contemporary world politics into which the seeds of the “new thinking” have been cast. Today democracy must prove that it can exist not only as the antithesis of totalitaria-

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nism. This means that it must move from the national arena to the international. On today’s agenda is not just a union of democratic states, but also a democratically organized world community. Thus, we live today in a watershed era. One epoch has ended, and another is commencing. No one yet knows what it will be like. Having long been orthodox Marxists, we were sure we knew. But life once again has refuted those who claimed to be know-it-alls and messiahs. […]In concluding I would like to return to my starting-point. From this tribune Churchill appealed to the United Nations to rescue peace and progress, but he appealed primarily to Anglo-Saxon unity as the nucleus to which others could adhere. In the achievement of this goal the decisive role, in his view, was to be played by force, above all, by armed force. He even entitled his speech “The Sinews of Peace.” The goal today has not changed: peace and progress for all. But now we have the capacity to approach it without paying the heavy price we have been paying these past 50 years or so, without having to resort to means which put the very goal itself in doubt, which even constitute a threat to civilization. And while continuing to recognize the outstanding role of the United States of America, and today of other rich and highly developed countries, we must not limit our appeal to the elect, but call upon the whole world community. In a qualitatively new and different world situation the overwhelming majority of the United Nations will, I hope, be capable of organizing themselves and acting in concert on the principles of democracy, equality of rights, balance of interests, common sense, freedom of choice, and willingness to cooperate. Made wise by bitter experience, they will, I think, be capable of dispensing, when necessary, with egoistic considerations in order to arrive at the exalted goal which is man’s destiny on earth” (Gorbachev, 1992). Source: Gorbachev, M. (6 May 1992). The River of Time and the Imperative. (Speech presented at Westminster College. Fulton, Missouri ) Retrieved from The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, (1992, July/ August), pp. 22-27.

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4.1.2 Gorbachev Speech

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4.1.2 Gorbachev Speech

THE NEW YORK TIMES

At Site of ‘Iron Curtain’ Speech GORBACHEV BURIES THE COLD WAR By Francis X. Clines May 07, 1992 History came full cycle today as Mikhail S. Gorbachev added a postscript of global reconciliation to the “Iron Curtain” speech by Winston Churchill here 46 years ago, but pointedly contended that the United States wsas the “initiator” of the nuclear arms race. Speaking at Westminster College, the scene of Churchill’s warning in 1946 about Soviet imperialism, the former Soviet leader conceded that the Kremlin made a “major error” in assuming that the defeat of fascism in World War II would produce an inevitable triumph of Communism. But he argued that the United States and other Western nations erred grievously in failing to realize that Stalin and the Soviet people were too exhausted from the war to indulge in military aggression against the West. “By including the ‘nuclear component’ in world politics, and on this basis unleashing a monstrous arms race -- and here the initiator was the United States, the West – ‘defense sufficiency was exceeded,’ as the lawyers say,” Mr. Gorbachev declared. “This was a fateful error.”

engaged in a major war,” he contended. “but primarily because the country was exhausted and destroyed.” Visiting, like Churchill, as a politician rebuffed at home yet outspoken in retirement -- the British leader was ousted in the 1945 election by Clement Attlee and the Labor Party -- Mr. Gorbachev spoke to an outdoor gathering and offered a range of proposals for strengthening the United Nations. These included the enlargement of the Security Council and the application of stronger sanctions and military force against wayward members. But the audience, watching him on a sunny day in a simple American heartland setting, was clearly more interested in his pronouncements on the end of the cold war. In this, Mr. Gorbachev was reflective and recanted a bit on his own views. “Having long been orthodox Marxists, we were sure we knew,” he said. “But life once again refuted those who claimed to be know-italls and messiahs.” A ‘Watershed’ Moment.

Speaking as the last President of the now-defunct Soviet Union and the Kremlin chief who led the world back from nuclear confrontation, Mr. Gorbachev spent much of his speech looking ahead to a better world strengthened through his prescriptions for a stronger United Nations.

Mr. Gorbachev’s speech was titled “The River of Time and the Imperative of Action,” an allusion to his sense that a “watershed” moment had arrived, comparable in its way to the 1946 moment and its need for concerted action. He was repeatedly applauded, particularly in hailing the world’s retreat from the abyss, urging global efforts to protect the environment and warning against triumphalist claims of cold war victory.

But he also presented a blunt critique of some cherished American underpinnings of the cold war and warned against “the intellectual, and consequently political error, of interpreting victory in the cold war narrowly as a victory for oneself.”Rather than a lopsided victory, Mr. Gorbachev described the end of the cold war as “a shattering of the vicious circle into which we had driven ourselves.”“This was altogether a victory for common sense, reason, democracy, and common human values,” he said.

The Missouri countryside glistened, with a cluster of cold war nuclear-missile silos hundreds of miles to the west all but forgotten. Mr. Gorbachev obviously enjoyed the day, offering Churchill’s V-for-victory signal to pleading photographers and giving thanks for a lunch of baked ham and potato salad provided by the administrators of the 140-year-old liberal arts college of 750 undergraduates.

Examining the roots of the cold war, Mr. Gorbachev cited a critical Soviet error in Stalin’s inability to grasp postwar politics. But he contended that “the West, and the United States in particular, also committed an error.”“Its conclusion about the probability of open Soviet military aggression was unrealistic and dangerous,” he said, differing with the basis of the West’s collective defensive strategy of the postwar decades. “This could never have happened, not only because Stalin, as in 1939-41, was afraid of war, did not want war, and never would have

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It was the college, which gained international visibility after the famous 1946 speech, that invited him to speak today. Mr. Gorbachev, as in earlier addresses, warned against the excesses of nationalism reawakened at the end of the cold war, as well as against a “monocentric” view of post-cold-war politics. In that view, one dominant nation, the United States, might prevail over a “multipolar” political world. The former Soviet leader was cheered as he arrived in the sunshine at the speaking platform set before a sculpture by Edwina Sandys, Churchill’s granddaughter, celebrating the fall of the Berlin wall.

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He came as a pensioned politician looking for a foothold in the West on a fund-raising tour for his new Gorbachev Foundation. He spoke gratis and beamed and touched his chest to demonstrate his gratitude, as a crowd estimated at 10,000 applauded the college’s award to him of an honorary doctorate of laws. […] The mood in Fulton was serene, in severe contrast to the ominous one conjured up here on March 5, 1946 by Churchill. “A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victory,” the British wartime leader said. “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” Today, Mr. Gorbachev stood in the Missouri sunshine to proclaim an end to Churchill’s alarm, but also to press for a greatly strengthened United Nations to deal with the complicated postSoviet world. In particular, he called for creation of a “special body” to use economic and military means to prevent regional conflicts and for a greatly enlarged Security Council, with nations like India, Japan, Poland, Mexico, Germany, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia and Egypt as members, even if without veto power. Churchill had declared, “Nobody knows what Soviet Russia and its Communist international organization intends to do in the immediate future, or what are the limits, if any, to their expansive and proselytizing tendencies.” Today, Mr. Gorbachev stood at the same lectern as Churchill to symbolize the Soviet Union’s peaceful demise and to look no less uncertainly into the future, hoping this time that nations “made wise by bitter experience” might cast aside “egoistic considerations in order to arrive at the exalted goal that is man’s destiny on earth.”From the New York Times, May 7, 1992 © 1992 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission in prohibited. Source: Clines, F. X. (1992, May 7). At Site of ‘Iron Curtain’ Speech, Gorbachev Buries the Cold War. The New York Times. From The New York Times, 1992 ©1992 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited.

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4.1.3 TIMELINE ASSIGNMENT: GERMANY AND THE COLD WAR TIMELINE

Because understanding chronology is one of the key themes of historical study, this assignment asks you to develop a deep understanding of some of the key events of the Cold War as it relates to Germany. 1. Select a subtopic or theme of interest to you. Examples: Berlin, the GDR, Resistance, etc. 2. Timeline: Construct a timeline of 10 dates from the period between 1945-1990. Your timeline may include significant events of the Cold War (outside Germany) as they relate to your theme. 3. Explanation of Timeline (Why did you pick these dates?): You should describe briefly what happened on each date that you feel merits inclusion on your timeline. There are two ways to present your descriptions: on the timeline itself, or in a separate “booklet.” 4. Be creative. You may present your timeline in any way you want. For example, it may be a traditional linear timeline, or it may take other forms, such as a board game, a diary, the Brandenburg Gate, etc. Sources: Make sure to include a reference list. Be original/creative, neat and most importantly, historically accurate.

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4.1.3 TIMELINE COLD WAR TIMELINE

DATE

EVENT

1945 May 8:

Capitulation of the German Wehrmacht officially ends World War II in Europe.

July 3:

Allied troops complete occupation of Berlin.

July 17 – August 02:

The four allied powers meet in Potsdam for the so called “Potsdam Conference.” Germany and Berlin are divided into four zones of occupation. Western Sector: the American, British, and French zones. Eastern Sector: the Soviet zone.

1946 March 5:

Winston Churchill, in a speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, says an Iron Curtain has come down across Europe.

April 21:

Forced unification of the German Communist Party (KPD) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) in the Soviet occupied zone to become the “Socialist Unity Party of Germany” (SED).

October 29:

A 30-day valid Interzonenpass (inter-zone passport) is required to travel between the Western and Eastern sectors in Germany.

1947 March 12:

President Truman urges the United States “to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure” (Truman Doctrine).

June 5:

Marshall Plan is announced, setting a precedent for helping countries combat poverty, disease, and malnutrition.

1948 June 21:

Monetary reform in the three Western allied zones, the Deutsche Mark comes into force and replaces the Reichsmark.

June 24:

(Berlin) The Soviet Union blockades all highway, river, and rail traffic into Western-controlled West Berlin in order to force the Western powers out of Berlin. The Berlin Blockade lasts almost 11 months. As a result the Western allied forces start the famous Berlin Airlift.

1949 April 4:

The United States, Canada, and Western European countries sign the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Washington, DC.

May 12:

End of the Berlin Blockade.

May 23:

Founding of West Germany by proclaiming the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in Bonn.

May 23:

(GDR) With the Basic Law going into effect, the death penalty in West Germany is abolished. (Article 102)

September 15:

(FRG) Adenauer becomes the first Chancellor of Federal Republic of Germany.

September 30:

End of the Berlin Airlift.

October 7:

Founding of East Germany, the German Democratic Republic (GDR).

December 15:

(FRG) The Marshall Plan for the rebuilding of West Germany is implemented.

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1950 February 8:

(GDR) Founding of the Ministry for State Security (Stasi) as the “Shield and Sword of the Party.”

September 29:

(GDR) East Germany joins the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, an economic organization comprising the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.

1951 August 9:

(FRG) Founding of the Goethe-Institut to promote the study of German and the German culture abroad.

1952 January 11:

(FRG) The treaty for the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) is ratified by West Germany.

February 8:

(FRG) Against the votes of the Social Democrats (SPD), the Bundestag decides that West Germany will make a defense contribution.

May 27:

(GDR) East Germany closes its borders to West Germany in a one-sided undertaking. East Germany leaves the border between East and West Berlin open.

July 12:

(GDR) Start of collectivization of agriculture in order to build up agricultural production cooperatives.

1953 June 17:

(GDR) Protests and riots by East Berlin workers against the working conditions are suppressed by the Red Army.

1954 July 4:

(FRG) West Germany wins the soccer world championship in Switzerland. The unexpected win evoked a wave of euphoria throughout Germany. This was also the first public singing of the German national anthem since WWII. This victory at the beginning of the so-called economic miracle is often regarded as a turning point in post-war German history.

1955 May 5:

(FRG) West Germany gains full sovereignty.

May 9:

(FRG) West Germany joins NATO.

May 14:

(GDR) Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance (Warsaw Pact) officially established.

September 20:

(GDR) Sovereignty of East Germany.

November 12:

(FRG) Founding of the West German army, the Bundeswehr.

December 20:

(FRG) Start of the so called guest worker program to attract southern European workers to work in West Germany. It is officially stopped in 1973 because of the oil crisis.

1956 January 18:

(GDR) Founding of the East German army (Nationale Volksarmee).

February 25:

(GDR) With the so called “Secret Speech” by Nikita Khrushchev, three years after Stalin’s death a period of reform and opening-up starts, which also has an impact on East Germany.

August 17:

(FRG) Interdiction of the Communist Party.

October 24:

(GDR) Student unrest takes place in East Germany (and other Soviet satellites), which is suppressed by the police. This unrest contributes to the unrest and the uprising in Hungary.

1957 March 28:

(FRG) West Germany is one of six nations to sign the founding treaties of the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the EU.

October 4:

USSR launches Sputnik into Earth orbit.

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December 11:

4.1.3 Cold War Timeline

(GDR) Leaving East Germany without permission is forbidden and violations are prosecuted with up to three years in prison.

1958 July 1:

(FRG) The Gleichberechtigungsgesetz (equal rights law) comes into effect; women finally receive the same rights as men in all fields of daily life and society.

1960 - 1989 1960 - 1989

(GDR) The Schießbefehl (order to fire) is in place in various forms for the entirety of this time period. It’s a standing order that instructs border patrols of East Germany to prevent border penetration by East German citizens by all means necessary. Only in 1982 is this order formally legalized by §27 of the border law.

1960 February 10:

(GDR) Founding of the National Defense Council, with Walter Ulbricht as chairman.

August 29:

(FRG) West Germany contracts out of the inter-zone-agreement with East Germany because of travel restriction put into force by the GDR.

September 12:

(GDR) The position of the president is abolished and the State Council is founded, with Walter Ulbricht as chairman.

1961 April 1:

(FRG) The first acknowledged conscientious objectors (to military service) start their civilian service (Zivildienst), a kind of compulsory community service

June 1:

(GDR/ FRG) The birth control pill is introduced. In East Germany it’s promoted as the Wunschkindpille (plannedchild pill), in West Germany as Antibabypille (anti-baby pill).

August 13:

(GDR) Building of the Berlin Wall to block the stream of East German refugees from leaving East Germany to enter West Germany.

October 25-28:

(East/West Berlin) Army tank confrontation; American and Soviet tanks face each other at Checkpoint Charlie.

1962 October 22-27:

The Cuban Missile Crisis takes place between the USA and the Soviet Union. The Cold War reaches new heights.

October-December:

(FRG) The Spiegel Affair, one of the major political scandals in Germany during the era following World War II. During the scandal, the government had to be reshuffled, and finally the freedom of press was strengthened.

1963 January 22:

(FRG) The Elysée Treaty of Friendship between France and West Germany is signed.

June 23:

(West Berlin) US President John F. Kennedy visits the city and declares: “Ich bin ein Berliner.” (“I am a Berliner.”)

1964 June 12:

(GDR) Mutual assistance pact and friendship treaty between the Soviet Union and the GDR.

August 17:

(FRG) Start of the Freiwilliges Soziales Jahr (voluntary social year), a voluntary social service for teenager and young adults.

September 10:

(FRG) The one millionth so-called guest worker is ceremoniously welcomed.

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1967 January 1:

(West Berlin) The famous Kommune 1 or K1, the first politically motivated commune, is created. It originated from the non-parliamentarian opposition of the student movement.

June 2:

(West Berlin) The university student Benno Ohnesorg is shot by a West Berlin police officer who, simultaneously, is a secret spy for the Stasi. Start of the “student revolution.”

1968 April 6:

(GDR) Ratification of the new constitution for the GDR as the “Socialist State of the German Nation.”

April 11:

(West Berlin) Unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Rudi Dutschke, the most well-known spokesperson of West Berlin and the West-German student movement, by a right-wing extremist.

May 29:

(FRG) Under harsh protests the Bundestag passes the Emergency Constitution allowing the German government to defend West Germany in an emergency.

June 10-11:

(GDR) The People’s Chamber (Volkskammer), the unicameral legislature of East Germany, enacts passport and visa enforcement for the transit traffic between West Germany and West Berlin.

1969 – 1973 May 17:

(FRG) Bundestag ratifies the so-called Eastern Treaties (Ostverträge) as part of the new Eastern policies between West Germany and the Soviet Union, Poland, the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria.

1969 November 28:

(FRG) West Germany joins the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

1970 December 7:

(FRG) FRG and Polen sign the Treaty of Warsaw, in which they recognize each other’s territories, agree to only peaceful methods of border change and increased trade. Chancellor Willy Brandt kneels before the Warsaw memorial for the victims of the uprising in the Jewish Ghetto in Warsaw.

1971 September 3:

(Berlin) The Four Power Agreement over Berlin is reached. It charges the FRG and GDR with negotiating an accord that would regulate access to and from West Berlin from the FRG and secure the right of West Berliners to visit East Berlin and the GDR.

December 10:

(FRG) Chancellor Willy Brandt receives the Nobel Peace Prize for his so-called Ostpolitik (Eastern policy), a policy aimed at improving relations with the Eastern bloc, which caused considerable controversy in West Germany.

1972 January 6:

(GDR) For the first time, Central Committee secretary Erich Honecker calls West Germany a “foreign country.”

March 9:

(GDR) A new abortion law allows abortions within the first trimester of pregnancy.

August 26 – Sep-

(FRG) West Germany hosts the XX Summer Olympics in Munich. The games are overshadowed by the hostagetaking of the Israeli sports team by Palestinian terrorists on September 5th. During the crisis, two hostages are murdered during a unsuccessful attempt by the German police to liberate the hostages. All captives and five of the eight kidnappers are killed; in all, 17 people died. After a day of mourning the games were continued.

tember 11:

December 10:

(FRG) As the first writer in German postwar history, Heinrich Böll is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

December 21:

(East Berlin) Signing of “The Basic Treaty” between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The treaty committed both Germanys to develop normal relations on the basis of equality, guaranteeing their mutual territorial integrity as well as the border between them, and recognizing each other’s independence and sovereignty. They also agreed to the exchange of “permanent missions” in Bonn and East Berlin to further relations

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1973 May:

(GDR/FRG) East and West Germany establish formal diplomatic ties.

June 21:

(FRG) “The Basic Treaty” with East Germany is implemented.

September 18:

(GDR/FRG) East and West Germany become members of the United Nations.

November-Decem-

(FRG) First oil crisis which leads to a government ordered ban of driving on four Sundays.

ber:

1974 April 24:

(FRG) Günther Guillaume, one of the closest staff members of Chancellor Willy Brandt, is uncovered as an East German spy. It’s the most important case of political espionage between the two Germanys.

May 7:

(FRG) Chancellor Willy Brandt takes the political responsibility of the so-called Guillaume-affair and resigns from office.

1975 October 1:

(FRG) Opening of the Bundeswehr, the West German army, for women on a voluntary basis, but only in the field of medical and music service.

1977 Fall:

(FRG) So called “hot fall” of the West German terrorist movement Rote Armee Fraktion (RAF, Red Armee Fraction).

April 7:

(FRG) Assassination of the attorney general Siegfried Buback.

September 5 October 18:

(FRG) Kidnapping and eventual killing of Hanns Martin Schleyer, president of the Confederation of German Employers’ Association.

October13:

(FRG) Hijacking of a Lufthansa Airline’s plane in Mogadishu, Somalia.

1978 August 26:

(GDR) Astronaut Sigmund Jähn becomes the first German in space. He flies together with Waleri Fjodorowitsch Bykowski in a Soviet Sojus 31 to the Soviet space station Saljut 6. The flight is seven days, 20 hours, 49 minutes and four seconds long. During the 125 orbits around the earth they conducted many experiments.

1979 December 24:

Soviet Union intervenes Afghanistan.

1980’s Spring:

(GDR) Lutheran church circles criticize the invasion of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. The peace movement of East Germany becomes more important. (FRG) The West German peace movement focuses their protests against the NATO Double-Track Decision and against the United States’ plans for additional armament.

1980 January 13:

(FRG) The Green Party was founded.

August 31:

Gdansk Agreements, leading to establishment and official recognition of independent Polish trade union “Solidarity.”

1982 April 24:

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(FRG) For the first time in history the 17-year-old singer Nicole (Seibert) wins the Eurovision Song Contest with her song “Ein bisschen Frieden” (A Little Peace) for West Germany.

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1985 March 11:

Mikhail Gorbachev becomes the 6th General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, initiating a campaign of openness called “glasnost” and restructuring called “perestroika.”

December 12:

(FRG) Joschka Fischer appears in scandalous sneakers, jeans, and a sportive jacket in the Hessian Parliament to be sworn in as the first green minister for environment and energy.

1986 April 26:

(GDR/ FRG) The Chernobyl disaster takes place. Radioactive fallout falls over Germany. The East German government and the state-controlled media ignore it completely. The West German government addresses the topic and issues warnings to the population to stay indoors, not to consume certain fresh vegetables, fresh milk, etc.

1987 March 25:

(FRG) Bundeswehr soldiers participate in maneuvers of the Warsaw Pact in the GDR.

June 6 – 8:

(West Berlin/ GDR) A three-day open-air rock concert in West Germany, only meters away from the Berlin Wall, leads to violent clashes between the East German police and East German teenagers who want to listen to the concert from East Berlin.

June 12:

(West Berlin) U.S. President Ronald Reagan visits West Berlin and calls on Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall.

September 7 – 11:

(GDR/ FRG) Erich Honecker, chairman of the State Council of the GDR, visits West Germany.

December 18:

(GDR) The death penalty is abolished in East Germany.

1989 May 2:

(GDR) Hungary opens its borders to Austria, so hundreds of GDR-citizens can emigrate to the West.

May 7:

(GDR) Regional elections take place in East Germany. Citizens protest against election fraud committed by the East German government. In Leipzig more than 100 demonstrators are arrested by the Stasi.

June 6:

(FRG) State visit of President Mikhail Gorbachev in West Germany.

July 1:

(West Berlin) The first Love Parade takes place. About 150 participants dance behind a small truck with techno music along the Kurfürstendamm, the major shopping street in West Berlin. It was as a political demonstration for peace and international understanding through love and music.

September 30:

(FRG) West German Foreign Minister Hans Dietrich Genscher announces in the West German Embassy in Prague that all of the almost 6,000 GDR citizens, who had fled to the embassy grounds, are allowed to emigrate to West Germany.

October 7:

(GDR) The 40th anniversary of the founding of the GDR is celebrated with a huge parade. At the same time the Stasi applies force on demonstrators in different parts of East Berlin.

October 8:

(GDR) During his visit to East Berlin, President Mikhail Gorbachev declares: “He, who comes too late, is punished by life.”

October 9:

(GDR) Peaceful “Monday demonstration” in Leipzig with 70,000 participants chanting “ We are the people.”

October 18:

(GDR) Egon Krenz succeeds Erich Honecker as general secretary of the Socialist Unity Party (SED), the ruling party of East Germany.

November 4:

(GDR) Anti-government demonstration in East Berlin with about 1 million demonstrators.

November 8:

(GDR) The entire Politbüro (cabinet council) of the Socialist Unity Party resigns.

November 9:

(Berlin) The East German government announces that visits to West Germany and West Berlin will be permitted. Immediately, thousands of East Berliners pass into West Berlin as border guards stand by. That same night, people begin tearing down the Berlin Wall (Mauer), which is finally opened.

November 13:

(GDR) Hans Modrow becomes new Prime Minister of East Germany.

November 28:

(FRG) Chancellor Helmut Kohl presents his Ten-Point-Plan for the reunification of Germany.

December 4:

(GDR) The Erfurt Stasi-office is occupied to prevent the Stasi from destroying files. Afterward all over the GDR Stasi-offices are occupied by the opposition.

December 6:

(GDR) Egon Krenz resigns as chairman of the State Council of the GDR.

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December 7:

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(GDR) Begin of the “Round Table Talks” between representatives of the West German government and the East German opposition.

1990 February 24-25:

Chancellor Helmut Kohl meets with President Bush at Camp David to discuss the German reunification process.

February 4 - March 8:

Kohl refuses to guarantee future German acceptance of the Polish-German border, unless Poland promises not to seek WWII reparations. Such a treaty should guarantee rights of ethnic Germans in Poland. Kohl retreats from these demands; West German Bundestag passes a resolution renouncing all claims to Polish territory.

March 18:

(GDR) First free and democratic elections were held in East Germany.

June 19:

(FRG) West Germany signs the “Schengen Treaty” (in the city of Schengen) pledging to decrease inner-European border controls.

July 1:

(GDR/FRG) Both West and East Germany sign the treaty to merge monetary, economic, and social matters going forward. The introduction of the Deutsche Mark in the GDR, replacing the Ostmark currency, marks the beginnings of the currency union.

August 31:

(GDR/ FRG) Both Germanys sign the Unity Treaty.

September 12:

(GDR/ FRG) U.S., Britain, France, Soviet Union, East Germany, and West Germany sign the “Two-Plus-Four-Treaty” in Moscow. This treaty is the final settlement to WWII and officially ends the four allied powers’ rights and responsibilities in Germany.

September 24:

(GDR) East Germany formally withdraws from the “Warsaw Pact.”

October 3:

(GDR/ FRG) Day of German Unity: East Germany formally joins West Germany creating one unified Germany.

1991 throughout 1991

The Warsaw Pact is dissolved. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev resigns and the Soviet Union breaks apart into Russia and several countries.

Sources Borbe, A. (2010). Die Zahl der Opfer des SED-Regimes. Thüringen: Landeszentrale für politische Bildung. Brown, T. S. (2011). “1968” East and West: Divided Germany as a Case Study in Transnational History. The American Historical Review, 114 (1), 69-96. doi: 10.1086/ahr.114.1.69 Council of Europe Publishing. (2011). Charting the landscape of European youth voluntary activities. Retrieved October 19, 2011, http://youth-partnership-eu.coe.int/youth-partnership/documents/EKCYP/Youth_Policy/docs/Voluntary/Research/2005_charting_landscape_voluntary_ coepub.pdf Correll, J. T. (2011). Showdown in Berlin. Air Force Magazine, September 2011, 92-100. http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Documents/2011/September%202011/0911berlin.pdf Ludgerschule. (2011). Der 1000000. Gastarbeiter kommt nach Deutschland. Retrieved October 19, 2011, http://www.ludgerusschule.de/content/projekte/50jahre/60er/1964.htm Deutsche Einheit e.V. (2007). Zeittafel Deutschlands von 1945 bis Ende 1994. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.forge-deutsche-einheit.de/ Deutsche Welle. (2011). Gleiches Recht für Alle - 50 Jahre Gleichberechtigungsgesetz. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.dw-world.de FIFA. (2011). Fussball-Historie. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://de.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=9/index.html Historicum. (2011). Zeitleiste. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.historicum.net/themen/internationale-geschichte/zeitleiste/#1900 IP Global. (2011). Liberated from the Bundeswehr. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://ip-journal.dgap.org/en/ip-journal/topics/liberated-bundeswehr Migration Information. (2011). Germany: Immigration in Transition. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?id=235

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NASA. (2011). Sputnik. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/ NATO. (2011). NATO Archives. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17451.htm NATO. (2011). NATO Update. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://www.nato.int/docu/update/80-89/1980e.htm Peace Magazine. (2011). The Independent Peace Movements in Europe. Retrieved October 20, 2011, http://archive.peacemagazine.org/v01n9p08.htm Silies, E. (2010). Liebe, Lust und Last: Die Pille als weibliche Generationserfahrung in der Bundesrepublik 1960-1980. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag. Spiegel Online International. (2011). The History of DER SPIEGEL. Retrieved October 19, 2011, http://www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,789853,00.html

The Cold War Museum. (2011). Berlin Time Line. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.coldwar.org/articles/60s/BerlinWallTimeLine.asp Timelines. (2011). Today in History. Retrieved October 20, 2011, http://timelines.ws/days/04_11.HTML Tompson, W. J. (1995). Khrushchev: A Political Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Universität Leipzig. (2011). Zeitleiste DDR-BRD bis 1990. Retrieved July 15, 2011, from http://www.uni-leipzig.de/journalistik/scheinheit/zeitstrahl.html

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4.2.1

FOCUS 4 – Reunification

“WE ARE THE PEOPLE” – PEACEFUL REVOLUTION IN LEIPZIG 1989

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4.2.2 Interviews

4.2.2 Handout Interviews with Irmtraud Hollizter and Tobias Hollizter Interview with Irmtraud Hollitzer, 67 years old Conducted by Gerrit Book Can you give me an overview about the most important events in your life? What did your husband do? My husband worked for the church, and that was really illustrious. It was a church theatre, the Leipziger Spielgemeinde, it was the only professional church-run theatre, and he was an actor. He had actually studied dramaturgy, but without a party membership he couldn’t get a job, so he joined together with three other guys and founded this church theatre group. In the beginning they performed very regularly, and not just in Leipzig but also in all of Germany. But some time before the borders were completely closed they were no longer allowed to perform throughout Germany. After the Wall was built, it was of course completely impossible. They still performed within the GDR, but this also became forbidden; they were only allowed to play in Saxony and in the end only in Leipzig …. This theatre was labeled by the Stasi, as you now can see from the files, as a “center of political and ideological diversion.” So that was my husband’s job. Besides the theatre he also gave lectures about the topic of antisemitism and its roots. He tried to bring this topic to the GDR public, but also gave lectures in the field of German studies. Once again, this was only possible through the church and in so-called house circles,1 which is where I got to know him. Luckily both of us had the same attitude towards the state and towards the circumstances, so it was easier for us to agree upon exactly how we wanted to educate our kids, which was that they should only collaborate with the state or assimilate in school when really necessary and not to adapt to the state. You mentioned that you hoped your four children would follow the same path that you did. Did they? Yes. There was this incident with our youngest daughter which comes to mind. She was 13 and played the piano very, very well. There was a music school competition that was in 1985 and her piano teacher approached us and was very upset. She had just realized that our daughter, Konstanze, was not a member of the FDJ. She accused us of destroying the career of our daughter because she wouldn’t be judged fairly at the competition if she didn’t wear the FDJ clothes …, so there was no need for her to even play. I think, in fact her concern was that her student would make her look bad... She asked if Konstanze couldn’t just become a member of the FDJ really quick to which I replied, “Are you completely crazy? That’s totally impossible.” So the teacher suggested she borrow the clothes (uniform) from a friend; nobody would realize it. I had no idea what I should do, and I struggled with this question: Do we have the right as parents to make these types of decisions for our children? So I spoke with my daughter and told her about the teacher’s suggestion, and she said immediately: “Mom, are you crazy? I’m not going to wear such a rag.” I was so relieved. I knew she would play, and she had decided by herself and had taken the possible consequences into account. And she played and there was actually a happy end; she got a silver medal. …with our older daughter, well I can’t really say for sure how she felt, but I still remember that because we hadn’t taken part in the Wehrkundeunterricht (pre-military class) at school when we were young, our children should not either. It had finally been agreed that they were allowed to “do socially valuable things”. You need to keep this expression in mind. Well, we had suggested that she could go to a different class during the Wehrkundeunterricht because Wehrkundeunterricht meant the 14-year-old boys would begin training with rifles, and the girls would be educated in civil defense which we found too early and didn’t want. But she was not allowed to simply attend a different class because then other parents could say, “Oh, you can opt out of it?!” So it wasn’t possible. And then we were threatened that it would be anti-social behavior if we didn’t send our kids to class, which could mean, in the worst case, that the authorities would take our kids away because we as parents were not able to turn them into good socialists. That was a worst case scenario, but we definitely kept it in the back of our minds. And so, we had finally achieved that they were allowed to do something else, like helping the custodian for instance. So my daughter was paired with a custodian or teacher or with someone who showed her how they deal with people who don’t participate. She had to do really icky or gross things at the school, so she came back one day and cried and told me, “Mom I can’t do this. I can’t do this.” In this moment a point was reached, and I questioned myself. How do I behave now? What do I do? Am I causing my child more pain by sending her back and saying, “Do

1

Meetings of different like-minded people at somebody’s home.

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it”? Finally, I said to her, “There is no work which is too awful or icky that you can’t stand to do. This will happen more often in your life.” Pretty harsh words, but I was worried about the consequences, which I thought might be much worse if she didn’t go back. That was a situation I found pretty precarious. Regarding the other children, I don’t remember it being so difficult; the teachers reacted very differently, especially with the two younger ones. They were allowed to do pretty nice things. Maybe I can summarize and comment on it: Even in a dictatorship it depends on people. There is leeway, and you are allowed to use it and you can use it, if possible. For the third child, our younger son, it wasn’t very dramatic. But because of his experience that he hadn’t participated in the pre-military class in school, he wanted to do pre-military education during his apprenticeship. He began his apprenticeship at 16 and pre-military education was a part of it; all apprentices had to go for a one month course. When he told us we were all a bit shocked at first and not very happy but he said that “he wanted to go and he wanted to see for himself; he wanted to make the decision”. We thought we would get around it again somehow like we did with our elder son, Tobias, but all of a sudden this one said he wanted to go. Finally, after arguing with him and explaining it further, he said, “Actually I don’t want to shoot and I won’t do it, but I want to see it for myself.” So we let him go and he had some very bitter experiences. He was humiliated quite a bit by the army officer because of his position, because he dared to say, “I don’t want to be trained with a weapon. I just want to look.” He came back home totally aghast and I wrote a petition to Honecker2 because I thought it was really awful how they treated him. We received a very nice answer, short and succinct, that said we should contact the local authorities, but for him it was already too late and so we didn’t go ahead with any of it. Later he asked us, “Why didn’t you leave? Why did you hold out? Why did you demand that from yourselves and from us kids? How far did you want to go and just watch?” He knew that Tobias had been arrested twice, and, especially after he learned that Tobias was on the list to be imprisoned in one of the isolation camps3, he asked again, “Why didn’t you leave?” Leaving was the only alternative, but it wasn’t really a possibility. Because with four kids it’s impossible; you can’t just get up and leave. When you applied to be allowed to leave the country it was not a guarantee that you could go, instead it could be martyrdom for years and years… This question has followed me until today and actually I don’t have an answer. On the one hand I’m still happy that we sent the kids down the road we did, and I can say I’m happy because everything came to such a happy end. I can also say this because all four children, even Andreas, the third, thanked us in 1989 for having sent them down this road and not a different one, and I found this really, really wonderful as parents. In spite of this, how would it have been if everything had gotten worse, much worse, and if they had imprisoned our eldest in the camp? What would we have done? Would we have just watched it? And then I think of the many, many terrible events where people were experiencing this exact situation… How do you handle such extreme situations? I only hope that we’ll never be in such situations and that we’ll never again experience a period like this. This is why I always swear to the children and teenagers and whomever to care for the rights we have now in this freedom. Use them for the good and just. Until 1990, you were, on the one hand, a mother and a housewife and on the other hand, you were singing in the choir. You also said that you were critical about the state and the circumstances, but when did you become really active in the opposition? I can tell you very clearly, actually because of Tobias, my eldest son. He became involved in the field of environment and just took us with him, especially me… Tobias took us with him; he infected us. I remember, for instance, that Leipzig was so deteriorated, the houses, the buildings, and he walked with me along the streets and pointed out, “Mom, look up at the buildings, at the roofs. Here should be something, and there is something missing too, fallen apart. This was all done by the communists.” He gave me a view for things I had not seen before, and he did the same for me in the field of environment. Of course the bad environment affected and disturbed all of us. In November and December I always rode my bicycle with a cloth in front of my mouth and it always slowly became grey. The snow was grey and the air was terrible. We were suffering and my son started doing something about it, and we joined him. The whole family went to these environmental Sunday services and this was the first time I experienced something like this at all. For example, he came home one day and said we need help with the Pleiße River event4, and all of a sudden I really participated, as well as the whole family at home in our apartment. This was the first time I can say I was a bit more active than usual, but I was also scared too because the Stasi was pretty close and noticeable. Even so I always had a good feeling because of my son, because I knew he wouldn’t do anything dangerous. He considered everything in many ways but at the same time he was brave and very decisive …. 2 3 4

The head of the GDR government. Prior to the large demonstration that was expected on October 9, 1989, the GDR government had prepared camps outside of Leipzig to imprison large numbers of demonstrators in order to stop the demonstrations. A so called pilgrimage against the pollution of the river and the environment in general. For more details read interview with Tobias Hollitzer.

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So I thought: “Yeah, you can take part; it’s a good thing.” It was similar with the Monday demonstrations. Sometimes we went together and other times we walked separately. It was also similar with the occupation of the Stasi headquarters. I went with the group and simply worked with them. But I was really only a small number within this Bürgerkomitee (citizen committee) …. Tobias also made very brave decisions with these other young people… I was more in the background, doing things which had to be done for the whole … and in the end I came to work at the museum. It started with work as a museum docent, holding discussions with visitors, answering questions if there was a guided tour – which we didn’t have, so I said I would try to do one. I realized that I could actually talk about something I had previously had inhibitions about … and then there were so many tours that I was completely consumed by it. Basically it was the start of a completely new life and work; this is why I can say that I really had a good time in 1989 and 1990. The country in which I never felt comfortable came to an end, and I was part of bringing it to an end. Suddenly I had a new task, and this task was to tell people what kind of a country this state was. That is a wonderful thing. Is it correct to say that the Monday demonstration on October 9, 1989 was the most critical and dangerous one? Can you describe the day and the events around it a little bit? We were out of town on October 7 and therefore only in the evening saw pictures on TV in the evening of the demonstrations in Berlin against the official military parade for the 40th anniversary of the founding of the GDR. Gorbachev was there etc. and while watching those images we got really scared and thought, “What’s going on in this country?” And we projected this on Leipzig, because the Stasi and the police were bludgeoning the demonstrators, beating them up, chasing them and it was live on West German TV. All of us had already read the article in the Leipziger Volkszeitung5 (Leipzig People’s Newspaper) that they would defend the socialist achievements with weapons if necessary, and this was targeted at October 9, so we had a sample of how they would probably react on Monday, not necessarily with weapons, but still very violently. We had a special meeting on Sunday in the parish council of St. Thomas, which I was a member of, because there was a proposal to hold peace prayers there. I wasn’t very happy about this, but it was discussed, and it soon became clear that we would do it. Up until then the peace prayers were only held in St. Nicolai and now for the first time they would be held in St. Thomas, St. Peter and at the reformed church too. I thought the peace prayers were already taunting enough for the government. Why even more? I though it probably wasn’t a good idea, but it was decided that they would also be held in St. Thomas…so different jobs were assigned, and I was assigned to stand at one of the side doors of the church. In talks with friends, family, and neighbors, it was clear almost everybody was feeling uneasy about the upcoming events. You could say the air was burning because of the tautness and uncertainty of not knowing what would happen. So on Monday October 9 at the end of the peace prayer service, when I opened the door I thought I heard military march music and was really confused. There was an army vehicle opposite the church and immediately in my mind I associated the music with shooting, so it took me a while to realize it came from public loud speakers. It was a so-called city broadcast. And then suddenly there was the voice of Kurt Masur6 who said something like, “Dear citizens of Leipzig, concerns about our city have prompted us to search for a solution. We call on everybody for non-violence. We want to make sure that a dialogue about the free exchange of opinions for how to continue socialism in this country is made possible.” I was very happy to hear this voice because Masur was a well-known person and if somebody like him finally piped up, someone who they wouldn’t beat up right away, it was good and just. I also thought he could have done it sooner, and then maybe everything wouldn’t have become so drastic. But after I heard this, I still didn’t turn left towards the city center, but right towards our home. I was just too fainthearted. In hindsight, I think I didn’t realize that this would be the day we would cross the threshold. This meant that everybody counted, that everybody went, that they joined because if 70,000 people hadn’t been there, then the state would have been able to handle it, to suppress it. We had expected 25,000 people. And therefore I’m a bit sad that I didn’t walk with the demonstration, but I’m honest enough to say I was so afraid and I just didn’t realize it and I placed my fear above all of this. So I went back home and on the way I saw brigade groups and military everywhere along the road, and in front of the Stasi headquarters there were five rows of military standing behind each other with these martial shields and helmets and long bludgeons. At this point I thought it really was best that I go home. This was October 9. In the end everything stayed peaceful; it didn’t come to an intervention of brigade groups, police or military. There was no military or any other intervention because the chief of police of Leipzig saw that there were simply too many coming, many more people than expected. 5 6

The party newspaper in Leipzig. A world famous music conductor.

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He spoke first with the operation controllers of the district, but they didn’t want to make the decision either. So they contacted Berlin, but the reply from Berlin regarding how to handle this new situation came too late from the perspective of the government and for the demonstrators. Thank goodness it came too late. By the time the decision came the people had already demonstrated and gone back home. Well, this is what I read afterwards, but up until I arrived home, it had been my own experience. And in the evening West German TV showed how the demonstrators had marched, and I was astonished and very happy.

Interview with Tobias Hollitzer, 45 Years old Conducted by Gerrit Book Please give me an overview about the most important events in your life. I think it was central that I grew up as a Christian in a Lutheran home. So I was specifically brought up to be honest, sincere, truthful, and so on. Inevitably discrepancies developed between my upbringing and the official GDR state policy and educational system. This result, and I have to say this very clearly, was not the educational goal of my parents. In fact it was more the opposite. They tried to model a balancing act by the way they lived their own lives and to educate us in this way. This means, on the one hand, learning to deal with the demands of the state, and on the other hand, to deviate and once in a while say no. But we were not educated to totally reject the system, the country, and the surroundings where I was forced to grow up, born five years after the Wall was built. And your parents really lived this balancing act for themselves too? Actually, yes, at least I perceived it as a balancing act. Central for me, especially in my early childhood and youth, was a basic pacifistic attitude. This was instilled in me by my parents, but at the same time it was also a very strong concern of my own. This was the important point in my relationship to the GDR education system. There was this militarization of which I had no desire to be a part. I still remember during my early years of school that very often before I fell asleep I thought about what would happen when I came of age and got drafted. How would I be able to stand being imprisoned or something like this? 7 So this question was, right from the beginning, also an argument of whether or not to participate in the Junge Pioniere (Young Pioneers) and in the FDJ (Freie Deutsche Jugend = Free German Youth).8 Well, actually my parents said, “Pioniere, this is something we decide for you.” (I did not participate.) “The FDJ you can decide for yourself.” So it was somehow a given decision, but I never perceived it as an enforced decision. I always viewed it as the right decision for me. I never had the feeling I want to be one of the Junge Pioniere. I was actually happy not to be one of them, but at the same time of course it was a huge problem for me to be an outsider, to not be one of them. I think this was probably a problem for every kid or teenager …. In elementary school I had a pretty fair and nice teacher in the sense that she made this a topic of discussion, and the fact was that my parents wanted it to be a topic of discussion. So it became part of the discussion during teacher-parent class conferences. This means the other parents knew that I was not member of the Junge Pioniere. This resulted unavoidably in a debate among the other parents. Why are our kids part of it? Because the argument that you had to be a member was not valid anymore in my class because I was the living example that you did not have to be …. Things like this also have totally apolitical dimensions. For example, there was Shrovetide, a carnival. This was not a class thing. It was a pioneer thing. And every year my teacher again said in class, “We are going to celebrate carnival, and I assume that we are going to invite Tobias too.” Well, so I as a non-pioneer got invited to the pioneer carnival. This was okay; it made the situation manageable for the class and me. You can imagine it also would have been possible to deal with it in a totally different extreme way …. Well, not to participate in the FDJ was really my own decision; I was 14 and would never have decided differently. As an alternative and I just call it an alternative in the sense of having the possibility to interact with others, kids of the same age, the same education and interests, I participated in the Junge Gemeinde.9 Confirmation class, Sunday school, those things became very, very important to me. I learned a lot there also in the field of social competencies, civic education, etc. But I still played a special role in our confirmation class because we were, all in all, only three kids and I was the only one who went only to confirmation. All of the others went to confirmation and Jugendweihe10 (youth inauguration). The real break came in 8th grade with introduction of the subject Wehrkundeunterricht (pre-military class). It was in 1978, and my year was 7 8 9 10

There was no possibility in the GDR to refuse military service as a conscientious objector. Both of them were state youth organizations. A form of church youth work within the Lutheran church of the GDR. A secular coming of age ceremony promoted during GDR-times by the government as a replacement for confirmation.

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the first year when it became a compulsory subject in school and of course they looked very carefully at the deviators and deniers. And, as I could later see from the files, really hard action was anticipated …. It was a point when they reacted really extreme. So I got called in and had a two-hour discussion with the principal, school inspector, the party secretary of the school and others. I mean I was a 13-year-old boy during that time …. Right afterwards my dad went to the school and also had a discussion with them, so I was actually not alone with these issues. Interestingly in the end I had to sweep the yard and scrub the toilets and similar things during the time of the Wehrkundeunterricht …. As the final result I was not allowed to make my Abitur (high school degree). So I did an apprenticeship as a cabinetmaker, in a private workshop. This was a real niche I have to say. And then till 1989 I worked for a private wood and furniture restorer. All attempts to make an apprenticeship in this field were not only impossible because of the limited number of places but also because of the political preconditions. Talking about niches, we need to always be clear. Niche meant you already left or got kicked out of those areas which were normal in this country and which were supposed to be accessible for everybody. So finding a niche is nice in a certain way, but it really had meant that I was not allowed to obtain my Abitur or study at university. Another dimension of niche you always have to keep in mind too is the fear of prison in case you don’t find a niche where you can arrange yourself …. Therefore my life inevitably got a political approach. And as a result I found myself in the position to be in conflict with my parents because I had the opinion, “You have to reject the whole country; communism is really endmost.” And my parents answered, “You cannot say so, … ” I really have to say my parents didn’t educate us to be in opposition with the system, but to care about honesty, truthfulness and other moral categories, and this led necessarily to the point that I eventually opposed the system. And in those moments when I used concrete issues to point that out very clearly it also partly came to big arguments. My parents often said, “You can’t go so far because you still have to live here.” …. When and how did you become really active in the opposition? At the very beginning, at the end of the 1970s, at 14-years-old, I got engaged in a church-based third-world group … and we started collecting money for a hospital in Tanzania …. In 1981, after martial law had already been announced in Poland, we supported a monastery there. I thought this was somehow better. It was the tendency to say, let’s not get so far away with countries like Tanzania, but let’s face the issues closer to us. This was a pretty fast development. But already at ages 15 and 16, I started caring about environmental questions, really in the sense of the surroundings. Because I had decided for myself that if I actually stay, I don’t live in the GDR; I live in Leipzig. This is very important to say that this relationship and closeness with this city was in many regards a central element. I was very interested in city history, but also for the rediscovery of the city. What was actually behind the rundown and dirty facades? Why was this city once an important place? What was this city once able to do? Who and what did it nurture? If you tried hard you could still see these things everywhere. I did not get depressed, but actually felt in a positive mode. It was a motivation for me to become active, to care about my surrounding, my environment. My attitude became, “If I actually stay here, I want to be involved; I want to participate actively.” So the topic of environmental pollution became really important for me. And again it started with practical work, which became political very fast …. In the field of the environment, everything was secret. There was no data available. It was totally absurd. Officially everything was nice, but it was dirty everywhere. The huge discrepancy between the experienced reality and the things you could read in the press or what you heard at official occasions was just unimaginable …. In the beginning of 1984, I joined the Christian environmental seminar in Rötha, a suburb of Leipzig, with a huge coking plant, other brown coal plants, open cast coal mining, etc. This was again very interesting. The people who were active in this group were all much older than I was. It was more the generation of my parents …. We were two or three of the younger generation. There were actually very interesting debates about the goals and especially about the instruments and methods to use …. To talk about 1989, I became very much involved in organizing the Pleiße-march11. This event had taken place in 1988, but I had the impression it had not made a big impact. I thought there was much more behind this topic …. It was already the time when the Monday demonstrations had started and some people wanted to do it directly on “Environmental Day”, which was a Monday that year, after the peace prayer, so it would become a public protest event with police operations etc. But I didn’t want this. If it would be like this in the end, okay, but the actual content of the work had the priority. I didn’t want to create unrest by any means necessary; it was about reaching out to the people. If we would do it on Sunday, not on Monday we could reach out to the families with kids. And this is how we actually did it. We arranged an environmental Sunday service in Connewitz, a neighborhood of Leipzig, where the river still runs open, and then we went on a pilgrimage 11

The Pleiße is a small river in Leipzig.

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along and on top of the piped river into the city center to the reformed church with another final service and a closing event. This was of course a demonstration. This was clear to me too, but we registered it purposely as a pilgrimage. That was June 4, 1989. When we started planning in December 1988 and January 1989, it was not foreseeable what kind of dynamics the developments would reach. But this is how it was with many events in the year 1989. Well, with this approach of content-related work, I wanted to spread good researched information. I wanted to convince the people with content-related arguments, and this approach became my dictum thenceforth until today. And then it can also become real protest, of course. So we created 40 pages of information on the history and current situation of the Pleiße River, but we also listed all kinds of laws and regulations related to the topic to show the people there is much more in there than they actually allow. So our approach was, let’s look at what’s officially written in the law. Let’s get informed and afterwards try to claim these rights and see if we actually have to act outside the law …. And then we’ll see and in some cases we may move further, of course. But moving step-by-step actually had an impact. So many, many people said, in regard to the Pleiße-march, that it can’t be true. The organizers of the march said totally logical, clear and true things, and then they get loaded on trucks just because they want to walk along the river? How can that be? They don’t want to leave for West Germany, nor demonstrate against anything, nor are they enemies of the state, they just say the river is dirty, which can be seen by everybody, and want it cleaned. Well, this was probably one reason why in Leipzig many of those really apolitical people said three, four, five weeks earlier as in other cities: “This (the behavior of the state regarding the Pleiße-march) is somehow one step too far, that’s not acceptable anymore.” So these people were probably willing to come out and take action earlier as in other places. You just mentioned that they were loaded on trucks. What does it actually mean? This means people got arrested. During the year 1989 this was actually almost always the case, every Monday. To give an example, in January there was a demonstration to remember Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, two famous German communists. People spontaneously got flyers by a group of oppositionists inviting them, and they all got arrested. But still 300 to 500 people came together on the main market square in Leipzig. After a short speech they walked to the former residence of Karl Liebknecht. The purpose was to demand basic democratic rights and therefore to use the communist’s own ideology, namely, “Freiheit ist immer Freiheit der Andersdenkenden” (freedom is always the freedom of dissenters), which is a famous quote by Rosa Luxemburg. So it was basically a demonstration for basic rights, freedom of choice, freedom of opinion, freedom to demonstrate and others. Well, in the end 50 of the demonstrators got arrested by the police. But something very important in regards to the further development happened. Different media in West Germany reported about this event. But more important the American and the West German foreign ministers criticized the arrests during the third OSCE Follow-Up Conference in Vienna that took place at the same time, which was reported in the Western media again. As a result, within hours all of the arrested got released at the personal order of Erich Honecker. So 10 days after the flyer activity, they had printed 10,000 flyers, distributed 5,000 of them, and after a successful demonstration all of the arrested were released without any juridical consequences because of the international public protest. This was a completely new experience! Only a year before in Berlin oppositionists like Bärbel Bohley, Freya Klier, Wolfgang Templin, and Stephan Krawczyk were arrested and had to leave the country. Some of them were actually forced to officially apply to be allowed to leave the country. Some of them like Bohley and Templin returned in the summer of 1989. And all of this happened because they had participated in the official demonstration to commemorate Luxemburg and Liebknecht, but with their own banners and posters. So this new constellation in Leipzig was of really great importance for the mobilization of the Leipzig opposition. Because we said, it seems that if we can create publicity, we can get away with much more than before. Looking back, we were right, especially because all of those who distributed flyers, participated in official demonstrations with their own posters, or protested against voter fraud on their own were still arrested and sentenced to one or two years in prison. Most of them were only released because of the amnesty in October 1989. So it was not a general liberalization of the system. No, it was only a concession to the circumstances. In Leipzig on March 13, 1989, there was a large demonstration of people who had applied to be allowed to leave the country. The police didn’t interfere. It was filmed and later on broadcasted by West German main TV news. This meant that almost every GDR citizen saw it12. This again contributed massively to the further mobilization of the people. Well, the peace prayers took place every Monday beginning in September 1981, and they became a very important breeding and information ground for the opposition. And, returning to your question, since May 1, 1989, after the end of every peace prayer there was sometimes a smaller, sometimes a bigger police operation with arrests on the square in front of St. Nicholas.

12

Almost everywhere in the GDR West German TV could be received. Officially it was not allowed to watch it, but people still did.

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Is it correct to say that the Monday demonstration on October 9 was the most critical and dangerous one? Can you describe the day and the events around it a little bit? Yes, this is my strong belief and not only my personal belief, but it really was like this. According to research it’s a matter of fact. On this date the SED-regime (SED = Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands = Socialist Unity Party of Germany) wanted “to dispose of this spook once and for all” – a quote of Erich Honecker, the leader of the East German government. And the famous article in the Leipziger Volkszeitung13 (Leipzig People’s Newspaper), written by the commander of the brigade groups, stated, “We are prepared and willing to defend what we created with our hands, if necessary with the use of weapons.” By GDR standards that was a very clear announcement …. And the preparations had even gone so far that they had already planned a special edition of the Leipziger Volkszeitung with reports about the successful abolition of the counterrevolutionary uprising …. Interestingly, that newspaper article was published one day before October 7, so it was not a reaction to anything, but it was clear that they definitely wanted to pull through the 40th anniversary of the founding of the GDR. But there were public protests including police operations during this day, October 7, in Magdeburg, in Potsdam, in Berlin, in Dresden, in Karl-Marx-Stadt, and this was not foreseeable beforehand. All of this became part of the further dynamics, but this general decision that they are not going to tolerate these things in Leipzig on October 9 anymore, this general decision was already taken before. This was so clear, and it was communicated so clearly by the SED, that everybody knew October 9 is going to be the day we cross the Rubicon. It was not for anything that thousands of people went to Leipzig, from Nordhausen, from Potsdam, from Rostock, from wherever; they took the train, the car and said, “This is the day, the decisive day, I am going to participate now or never ….” Is it correct that the reason why October 9 became the decisive day was that they wanted to finish the celebrations for the 40th anniversary of the founding of the GDR in a positive light? Yes, Honecker didn’t want anybody to destroy the 40th anniversary of the founding of the GDR. Additionally, there are always these coincidences …. If we look at the overall development, we had June 4 in China and the reaction of the GDR government which was definite, clear, and disastrous.14 Since then the expression of the “Chinese solution” was present, and it was clear on October 9 that a Chinese solution was on the horizon. But coming back to June, a few days later was the meeting of the Warsaw Pact members in Bucharest, with THE hardliner, Mr. Ceauşescu, as the host. But Gorbachev declares the Brezhnev Doctrine to be abolished. This means, to say it in a very sloppy way, everybody builds Socialism in its own way, and we don’t interfere with one another. Honecker suffered from renal colic and left early and was not seen in his office again until September 22. So he was away from June until September! In between he was in office for one or two days or worked from his bed in the hospital. He also edited an article in the Neues Deutschland15 (New Germany), by himself and added the sentence: “We won’t shed a tear for them.” Until that time the ones who wanted to leave were the ones who had to explain themselves because they were the betrayers who just wanted to have a comfortable life. But all of a sudden the number of those who left because of Hungary16 was so huge that the ones who stayed in the country had to question themselves. Why am I actually staying here? This changes the motivation pressure completely. So Honecker is gone for several months. The little he’s doing is stupid, but there is no deputy. He had disposed of Mr. Krenz, because he didn’t trust him anymore, and had appointed Mr. Mittag, the economy guy, but he and the other leading figures didn’t make any decisions. All of this has to be kept in mind. On September 22 Honecker gets back and already a day later everything was tightened. The next day the first telex is already sent out talking about counterrevolution before any of the others had dared to talk about counterrevolution. So Honecker is back in office and writes, “The counterrevolutionary unrests are to be nipped in the bud.” …. And right away, on September 22 and 23, the planning in the different districts started to deal with the situation. No general decision gets taken, but the tendency is clear. In addition, they didn’t have the forces and the time to do anything because all forces were concentrated in Berlin to protect the anniversary celebrations on October 7. So the Monday demonstration on October 2 went by undisturbed, but they didn’t want to let Leipzig get away with October 9. On October 9th not only were the police mobilized, but there was also the military, correct? Well, in principle the NVA (Nationale Volksarmee = National People’s Army) had been deployed since October 3. They had already prepared them for the 40th anniversary to build up the so-called groups of hundreds of draftees to support the police. Actually, it was forbidden to deploy the army within the country. So they said we will build these groups of a hundred and put them under the control of the police …. It 13 14 15 16

The party paper of Leipzig. The GDR government had welcomed the violent suppression of the uprising in China. The nationwide party newspaper. Hungary opened its border to Austria in June.

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was a totally absurd idea; the draftees were not clear about it. For them it was basically a deployment under oath of allegiance. And in Leipzig, October 9, there were also 3000 of them on standby and also brigade groups, Stasi, police, etc. When, why and who occupied the headquarters here in Leipzig? We had a peculiar situation here in Leipzig; the Stasi headquarters was directly located on the ring road.17 This meant that the Monday demonstrations had to pass by the headquarters. It was probably the case that the demonstrators said, “Oh, straight ahead is the Stasi headquarters. Do we really want to go that far?!” This is my interpretation, but how do you explain the fact for instance that on September 25 the demonstrators suddenly turned around and walked back to the railway station? In many other cities the demonstrations had to be directed purposely to these locations. Here it just happened. The round corner18 was right from the beginning always the critical point where the question arose, “Do we stay non-violent or not?” Therefore by mid-October people of those newly founded opposition groups like Neues Forum (New Forum) and others had already positioned themselves in front of the building with “Neues Forum” banners and “No Violence” banners, in order to stay in between the Stasi and the demonstrators. The Stasi liked that a lot of course, and they invited these people for talks under the motto: “Great that you are doing this.” But they told the Stasi, “Well, we are doing this because we want to know what you are doing here, and we want you to reform.” The Stasi of course didn’t like that. So there was a fundamental conflict about the aims of this action between the Stasi and these opposition people. On the morning of December 4, the Stasi office in Erfurt19, located on a hill in the outskirts of the city, was occupied by the local women’s group. This news made it to Leipzig through the channels of the Neues Forum and other new groups and parties that organized the rallies before the Monday demonstrations. Since mid-October there were always speeches before the demonstrations. So those people said, “If this news gets out to the people today, we won’t be able to handle the situation anymore. It’ll explode.” I have to add and explain this because there’s always the question again, why this particular day, wasn’t it driven and arranged by the Stasi itself? In order to understand the situation you have to keep in mind that on Friday20 the newly founded malpractice and anti-corruption commission had presented their first intermediate report in the Volkskammer21 (People’s Chamber). Saturday the weapon storage in Kabelsdorf, in the harbor of Rostock22 had been discovered. So people got to know that the GDR was a weapons dealer. On December 1 and 2, the first wave of arrests of leading SED-cadres23 had taken place. Bum, bum, bum, so only things like this; it really called for action – this just as a side note to give you a better understanding of the circumstances. So on December 4, some people actually went over to the Stasi office here in Leipzig and said, “Good afternoon, we are from the Neues Forum. We are here to suggest something. We are going to stand in front of your building again tonight to protect it, but only if you let 30 people in, so we can prevent you from destroying any more files.” That had been the reason for the occupation of the Erfurt Stasi office because in the morning a member of a guard in Berlin had said in a radio interview that the Stasi had already been destroying files for days. So these rumors were on the air. So, that afternoon, here in Leipzig they negotiated for three hours, but the Stasi refused to let them in. So, in the end, the people said, “If you don’t agree, we will go back now to Augustusplatz24 and you can see how you are going to deal with 150,000 to 200,000 people tonight by yourself.” This led to a final phone call to Berlin25 and they were allowed to get into the building. Only a short time later the demonstrators came along the road and about 30 people were chosen from the demonstrators to be let in. They went out onto the balcony and announced to the people that the Stasi was now controlled by the people. They debated the whole night long in sealed rooms, etc. This control, which was first meant to be a tool to de-escalate the situation, developed very quickly into a real occupation. I entered the building sometime during the night. Later on I was with other people, and we occupied another Stasi office in the outskirts. And I think it was the same for me and many others, I thought, “How can you go back home after seeing so many things? This has to be addressed!” For instance we found big bags with original letters and asked ourselves, “Are we at the post office, or what is it?”26 17 Typically after the Monday peace prayer at St. Nicholas in the center of the old town, the demonstrators started walking out to the ring road. This road follows the old city walls around the city center. They would march once around the ring road. 18 The Stasi offices; one of the buildings of the Stasi had a half round corner entrance. 19 A city in Thuringia. 20 December 1, 1989. 21 The so called parliament of the GDR. 22 The largest port city of the GDR on the Baltic Sea. 23 SED =Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Socialist Unity Party of Germany. 24 Augustus Square, one major square in Leipzig. 25 With the Ministry for State Security in Berlin. 26 The Stasi collected, opened, copied and kept or resent thousands of letters every year everywhere in the GDR in order to keep control.

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So our intended control developed into an occupation and developed further into a so-called “security partnership”27. This was important because the demonstrators asked very soon who those people were who were “sitting” on their Stasi files. So there was huge pressure for legitimization, on the one hand by the people and on the other hand by the Stasi. So we formed the Bürgerkomitee (Citizen’s Committee). It was a permanent process of debate and finding compromises. Who was and is the Bürgerkomitee? It was formed by those who were there. The Bürgerkomitee were those who were there. So, it was more or less by accident? Yes. That’s very interesting; looking back from today’s perspective I’m almost the only one who was involved in opposition work for the longterm and ended up in the Bürgerforum. This means that those who were politically active in these times stepped out of this sphere again very quickly. They saw it only as an intermediate step – most of the members had been ordinary demonstrators, of course with some oppositional background, in lots of cases with a church background, but not only. It was a very interesting mix of people who had not been really active in the opposition before. And in the end the core stayed, till today. So Tuesday morning28 I asked myself if I would go to work or if I would stay. So I called my workplace and told them, “I’m at the Stasi. I’m going to take vacation for a while.” That was crazy, completely crazy. We said, “Dear Stasi, we are not going back home. We are staying. You are occupied, but you have to ensure that we are paid for it.” That was one of the first things we demanded. There was this paragraph in the GDR working law that workers could get on paid leave because of “important work for the society” … and the employers could get financially compensated. So we didn’t just leave unexcused. This was the character of this revolution …. And then we were involved in securing the files, the opening of files, and in developing the (file-law), is that correct? Are you still involved in administrating the files today? You can say that we, as the Bürgerforum, legitimized ourselves, but we always tried to do it with a connection to parliament. Actually we knew very well what we wanted. We were not an official administration … but right from the beginning we always tried to produce fundamental decisions and resolutions in regard to the Stasi files by the Runder Tisch29 (Round Table) which we carried out …. So, at least here in Leipzig, we had the responsibility for the files until October 3, 1990. And always together with the police, so nobody was allowed in alone at any time. On October 3, 1990 the Stasiunterlagenbehörde (Federal Government Agency for the Stasi Archives) was founded. Here in Leipzig a lot of people from the Bürgerkomitee, including myself, moved into this office. I worked there until 2007. I was mostly responsible for dealing with a Stasi branch office and for many years I worked as the vice-director responsible for this branch office. The Bürgerkomitee of Leipzig focused then on the museum and the exhibition. The exhibition itself was opened in June 1990 as a temporary exhibition and on August 31 it was opened permanently here in the building. This is probably a major reason why we still exist as the Bürgerkomitee. There are still several more around today in different cities, but not all of them anymore. The last major common action of all the GDR Bürgerkomitees was a draft for a Stasiunterlagengesetz in February 1991. So there was a huge consensus among all of the Bürgerkomitees to find a regulated and legitimized approach to the opening and handling of the files ….

27 This meant that one was not allowed to be without the other – representatives from the opposition, Stasi people, and the police controlled the Stasi building together, in order to prevent one group from destroying or manipulating files or other things. 28 December 5, 1989. 29 A discussion forum between the government and the different opposition groups.

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4.2.3 LEIPZIG DBQ

4.2.3 Handout LEIPZIG DBQ (Document Based Question) This question is based on the accompanying ten documents. It is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Some of the documents have been edited to fit the purposes of the question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Historical Context:

The German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) was officially formed on October 7, 1949 in the Soviet-occupied zone of postWorld War II Germany and became a satellite state of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Leipzig was the second largest city in East Germany. Many Germans were dissatisfied with the division of their country. Shortly thereafter, many East Germans flocked to West Germany, resulting in the East German government hastily constructing the Berlin Wall starting the night of August 13, 1961.The Berlin wall became the symbol of the political and ideological separation of East and West Germany. Political activism against the government and meetings of such nature (including religious gatherings) were strictly forbidden in East Germany; however, churches had an agreement with the state whereby, at least in theory, they were allowed to continue practicing their faith unhindered. Although, the reality was quite different, as the regime desperately tried to quash the churches’ influence, and succeeded in many ways. But internal public opposition strengthened and grew in the GDR. Since 1982, people had gathered at the St. Nicholas Church (Nikolaikirche) in downtown Leipzig every Monday evening to pray for peace as well as for personal and political freedom. Over time this practice spread to other churches in East Germany, and the tone of these prayer circles became increasingly political. It was during these Monday prayer sessions that people began to express not only their worries, but also suggested solutions and courses of action. The Monday prayers became a time during which all kinds of people assembled to express their desire for change. Grassroots organizations formed in opposition to the state — such initiatives were against the law. However, once organized, the people were bolstered by their sheer size and solidarity. These Monday prayer services at Nikolaikirche soon transformed into political protests in Leipzig’s main square. After the prayer service, the people would gather and walk peacefully through the streets to the center of town holding lit candles. By the fall of 1989, after the weakening of the communist grip on the Eastern Bloc, the demonstrations grew to an enormous size, with hundreds of thousands of protestors. The October 9, 1989 Monday prayer session at Nikolaikirche was an especially significant example of non-violent protests by the East German people. Within a few weeks, the Berlin Wall was taken down, and shortly thereafter Germany was reunified. Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of recent German history, write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion on the following topic: Discuss the events of October 9, 1989 in Leipzig and their significance to the collapse of the German Democratic Republic. Support your response with relevant facts, examples, and details from the documents. Be sure to include different viewpoints.

Document 1: “While the leadership celebrated with torchlight parades, goose-stepping and military marches, the world witnessed the East German police and state security break up peaceful rallies with brutal violence” (Helmut Kohl, German Chancelor 1982-1998). Document 2: “We all need a free exchange of views about the continuing development of socialism in our country. Therefore, the public figures whose names are being read today promise all citizens that they will apply their full power and authority to advancing this dialogue, not only within the district of Leipzig, but also with our government” (Lange, et al., 1989).

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Document 3: “That day [October 9, 1989] Leipzig resembled an armed camp. According to later testimony from the riot police, officers had been told that morning that a peaceful outcome to the demonstrations was unlikely, and that they should prepare for possible acts of violence. Accordingly, they wore riot gear: helmets with visors and neck protection, shields, gas masks (tear gas had been acquired in large quantities), truncheons, and so-called RKWs [gas projectiles]; officers were armed with pistols, and dog teams were also deployed. On the courtyard of the VP [Volkspolizei or People’s Police] District Authority, ‘munitioned up’ armored trucks stood ready, huge steel giants with bulldozing capacity; the drivers were armed with submachine guns and sixty shots of ammunition apiece. The police troop numbered three thousand men, twelve hundred of whom had been brought over from the Halle and Neubrandenburg districts” (German Historical Institute, 2011).

Document 4: My dear people, I have the impression that people here, on this day, want to change our society for good. There is a pressure to succeed: Today we must be the victors, now or never. But do we want to win at any price, even with blood and tears? I think enough blood has already been spilled in the last few days. God will help us! The reforms that we seek will come if we allow the spirit of peace, calm and tolerance to enter us. For anyone who kneels before God, words of peace become a drive to action. Is there any greater charge that we could be given than to be peacemakers in our city? Everybody who takes part in this service has the duty to be an instrument of peace. The spirit of peace must go out beyond these walls. Take great care that you are not rude to police officers. Be careful that you don’t sing songs or chant slogans which could provoke the authorities. Take the stone out of your clenched fists. Our help and protection are in the Lord alone” (Gotthard Wendel, pastor, St. Nicholas Church in Leipzig, Germany on October 9. 1989).

Document 5: Full-time officers and informers used conspiratorial flats and buildings for their meetings. Mainly concentrated in the city centre, isolated premises in the suburbs of Leipzig were also used . All in all, the Leipzig district contained more than 600 conspiratorial flats and buildings, whose usage for this purpose was of course kept top secret” (Stasi Museum Leipzig, 2011).

Document 6: “There’s an amusing story amid all the tension. The pastor at the Nikolaikirche, Christian Führer, walked into the church at 2:30 P.M. to find the nave full with over a thousand people. He recognized at once who they were, and was amused. These were party officials and Stasi members who had been told to fill the pews of the Nikolaikirche where, according to their sources, criminals and troublemakers (the Germans call these Rowdies) were banding together to stage a counterrevolution. Pastor Führer wanted them to know that he knew exactly who they were, so he addressed his impromptu congregation: ‘The Nikolaikirche is open to everybody, and it really means just that, with no exception. You are most welcome. I’m just a little surprised that you are already here at 2:30 P.M., when the working proletariat can only come after 4 o’clock, which is why we have the prayers at 5 P.M.. But still, you are very welcome. But you will of course understand that we are keeping the gallery closed, so that a few of the working population, and a few Christians, can get into the church.’ … And so the party officials and secret police sat quietly in their pews and waited for the Rowdies to storm the church” (Davie, 2002).

Document 7: “More than 2,000 people leaving the church were welcomed by tens of thousands waiting outside with candles in their hands – an unforgettable moment. Two hands are necessary to carry a candle and to protect it from extinguishing so that you can not carry stones or clubs at the same time. The miracle occurred. … [The] spirit of non-violence seized the masses and became a material, peaceful power. Troops, (military) brigade groups and the police were drawn in, became engaged in conversations, then withdrew. […] There were no winners and no defeated, nobody triumphed over the other, nobody lost […] face. There was just a tremendous feeling of relief. […] There were thousands in the churches. Hundreds of thousands in the streets around the city center. But: Not a single shattered shop window. This was the incredible experience of the power of on violence” (Führer, 2011).

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Document 8: “Horst Sindermann, who was a member of the Central Committee of the GDR, said before his death: ‘We had planned everything. We were prepared for everything. But not for candles and prayers’” (Sindermann as quoted in Führer, 2011).

Document 9: “The wall will remain so long as the conditions that led to its erection are not changed. It will be standing even in 50 and even in 100 years, if the necessary conditions are not removed” (Erich Honecker, East German head of state, 1971-1989).

Document 10: “October 9, 1989, was a Monday and thus a day of peace prayers and demonstrations in Leipzig. But this Monday was different. Party leadership and security forces were more nervous than ever. Again and again during the day we received alarming news: schools and preschools in Leipzig were closed, and hospitals were stocking up their blood banks. But more people than ever met that evening in the streets of Leipzig. They held prayer vigils in the churches and then they went, some arm in arm or holding hands, into the street. The SED leadership was initially intent on confrontation. Seventy thousand demonstrators were met by eight thousand members of the People’s Police, the National People’s Army, and the Ministry for State Security, supported by five thousand so-called social forces from the party and state apparatus. […] Finally the liberating news arrived: The citizens of Leipzig were in the streets and demonstrating unchallenged. Not one shot had been fired. Much later, it was learned that [the authorities in Leipzig] had decided not to use force against the demonstrators. Egon Krenz, who went on to claim that he had prevented the Politburo from using force, only endorsed that decision later” (Marianne Birthler, human rights advocate and German politician for Alliance ‘90/ The Greens party).

Sources: Birthler, M. (2008, October, 3). The Peaceful Revolution of the Fall of 1989. Hertie Lecture delivered at the GHI’s German Unification Symposium. Retrieved October 28, 2011, from http://www.ghi-dc.org/files/publications/bulletin/bu044/bu44_043.pdf Davie, T. (2002, October 13). Leipzig, 9 October 1989: When the Church Led a Peaceful Revolution. Sermon preached at All Hallows Church in Leeds, United Kingdom. Retrieved from http://allhallowsleeds.org.uk/ Führer, C. The Events in Fall 1989. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.nikolaikirche-leipzig.de/englisch-topmenu-100/63-the-events-in-fall-1989/64-the-eventsin-fall-1989 German Historical Institute. (2011). The Triumph of Nonviolence in Leipzig (October 9, 1989). Retrieved July 2011, from http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/ sub_document.cfm?document_id=230 Honecker, E. (1989, January 19). Retrieved October 28, 2011, from http://www.nationalcoldwarexhibition.org/explore/biography.cfm?name=Honecker,%20 Erich Kohl, H. as quoted in Schmemann, S. (1989, October 10). East Germans Let Largest Protest Proceed in Peace. The New York Times, Retrieved from http://www. nytimes.com/1989/10/10/world/east-germans-let-largest-protest-proceed-in-peace.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm Lange, B., Masur, K. Meyer, K., Pommert, J., Wötzel, R. & Zimmermann, P. (October 9, 1989). The Triumph of Nonviolence in Leipzig. Joint statement as quoted by the German Historical Institute. Retrieved July 2011, from http://germanhistorydocs.ghidc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=230 Sindermann, H. As quoted in Führer, C. The Events in Fall 1989. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.nikolaikirche-leipzig.de/englisch-topmenu-100/63-theevents-in-fall-1989/64-the-events-in-fall-1989 Stasi Museum Leipzig. (2011). Retrieved May 7, 2011, from http://www.runde-ecke-leipzig.de/index.php?id=76&L=1 Wendel, G. as quoted in Davie, T. (2002, October 13). Leipzig, 9 October 1989: When the Church Led a Peaceful Revolution. Sermon preached at All Hallows Church in Leeds, United Kingdom. Retrieved from http://allhallowsleeds.org.uk/

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4.2.4 Teacher Background Information Der SPIEGEL

‘We Are the People:’ A Peaceful Revolution in Leipzig By Andrew Curry October 9 , 2009 LEIPZIG—Oct. 9 is a monumental day in German history. Twen-

hundreds of journalists and broadcast around the world. Leipzig

ty years ago, the residents of Leipzig took to the streets under

was out of the way. There are just a few grainy tapes of the huge

the banner ‘We Are the People’ and sparked peaceful protests

Monday Demonstrations, and outside of Germany they have mostly

that would lead to the fall of the Berlin Wall only a few weeks

been forgotten.

later.

But at the time, it helped that Leipzig was out of the spotlight. Alt-

Pastors Christian Fuehrer and Christoph Wonneberger had never

hough activists in Berlin had better contacts with Western journa-

seen so many people in the Nicolaikirche, an 800-year-old church in

lists, the capital was under constant scrutiny. “Berlin was the show-

downtown Leipzig. It was Oct. 9, 1989, and the two young pastors

case. In Berlin, everyone was minding their Ps and Qs for fear they’d

knew they were on the verge of something huge. “There were 8,000

get sent back to Karl Marx Stadt,” Peter Claussen, a US diplomat who

people inside -- more couldn’t fit,” Fuehrer said. “When we came out

worked in the American embassy in Berlin in the late 1980s, told

of the church there were so many people expressing themselves

SPIEGEL ONLINE. “People were more willing to take risks outside of

and demanding their freedom.”

Berlin.”

This was no spontaneous flash mob. By the summer of 1989, East

By the late 1980s, fueled in part by East Germans frustrated that they

German dissidents had been meeting at Leipzig’s 800-year-old Ni-

couldn’t leave the country, the Monday prayer meetings in Leipzig

colaikirche for almost a decade to pray and talk politics. At times

were attracting hundreds, and then thousands, of people -- the lar-

there were fewer than a dozen people in the church, but all through

gest regular meetings in Germany. Average citizens began to take

the 1980s the meetings happened every Monday without fail. Even-

notice. So did the Stasi: Dozens were jailed for weeks for their in-

tually, they attracted people eager to discuss a wide range of causes,

volvement.

from the environment to the right to travel freely.

Fuehrer and Wonneberger, long the targets of intense secret police

By the fall of 1989, the prayer meetings had evolved into a nation-

surveillance and pressure, were arrested in late September and told

wide movement centered in Leipzig. And on Oct. 9, Leipzig hosted

to call off the Monday meetings -- or else.

the largest protest demonstration in East German history: Between

‘It Wasn’t at all Clear it Would Be Peaceful’

70,000 and 100,000 peaceful demonstrators braved warnings from the feared Stasi, or secret police, and thousands of armed riot cops to march around the city center. In the end, the police did nothing, setting the stage for a peaceful revolution that swept across East Germany. On Friday, Leipzig is celebrating its pivotal role in the fall of communism with concerts, exhibitions, light shows and an anniversary march tracing the steps of the Oct. 9 demonstration that rocked East Germany and helped pave the way for the collapse of the Berlin Wall more than a month later. ‘People Were Willing to Take Risks Outside Berlin’

It wasn’t an empty threat. In the summer of 1989, East German politicians praised the Chinese decision to use violence against democracy activists camping in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square. In September and early October, East German police had cracked down forcefully on protesters in Dresden, Berlin and Plauen. Protesters marching in Leipzig on Oct. 2 were beaten by police. “People had seen pictures from Beijing,” Jens Schoene, a historian and author of “The Peaceful Revolution: Berlin 1989/90 -- The Path to German Unity,” says. “It wasn’t at all clear it would be peaceful.” On Monday, Oct. 9, Fuehrer, Wonneberger and the others at the Nicolaikirche decided to go ahead with the scheduled protests. All of

The events in Leipzig tend to be overshadowed by the sudden col-

East Germany, it seemed, was holding its breath. “We were so wor-

lapse of the Berlin Wall, which was photographed and filmed by

ried they would come in and shoot everybody,” said Dorothee Kern,

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then a graduate student in the nearby city of Halle. “We had goose-

ners. Leipzig was nicknamed “Heldenstadt,” or “hero city.”

bumps the whole day and the day before.”

No one knew it at the time, but the peaceful Leipzig demonstrations

Dissidents prepared for the worst. Couples with kids made sure

exerted irresistible pressure to reform on the East German regime

one parent stayed home, in case there was a police crackdown. Ru-

-- and led directly to the fall of the wall five weeks later. “It was a

mors flew around the city: Hospitals had been stocked with extra

self-liberation. We did it without the dollar or the DAX, without the

blood and beds; stadiums were readied to hold masses of arrested

US or Soviet armies,” Fuehrer says. “It was the people here who did it.”

demonstrators. On his way home from work at the opera house in

Source:

the middle of town that day, Leipziger Hans Georg Kluge remembers seeing the city filling with soldiers and police. “Everyone had to reckon with the state suppressing any demonstration,” he says. “Violently, if necessary.” ‘We Are the People’

Curry, A. (2009, October 9). A Peaceful Revolution in Leipzig. Spiegel Online. Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,654137,00.html From Spiegel Online, October 9, 2009 © 2009 Spiegel Online. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the

At 5 p.m., more than 8,000 people crowded into the Nicolaikirche.

United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of

Four other Leipzig churches opened to accommodate thousands

this Content without express written permission in prohibited.

more protesters. After an hour-long service, Fuehrer led worshipers outside. The nearby Augustusplatz was jammed with demonstrators clutching lit candles. Prominent Leipzigers -- including Kurt Masur, the conductor of Leipzig’s Gewandhaus Orchester -- read an appeal to protesters and police alike, urging them to keep the peace. Slowly, the crowd began walking around Leipzig’s ring road, past the Stasi headquarters and towards the train station. There were so many people on the road traffic and trams were blocked. Drivers left their cars in the middle of the streets and joined the march. Behind the scenes, police and Stasi officials were frantically trying to communicate with higher-ups in Berlin -- to no avail. As the crowd made its way towards the city’s century-old train station -- accompanied by thousands of helmeted riot police -- tension grew. But at the decisive moment, the police stood aside and let the protesters march by. “They didn’t attack,” Fuehrer says. “They had nothing to attack for.” Organizers made sure the crowds gave the police no excuses. They carried nothing but candles and banners reading “We are the people.” The Stasi planted plainclothes officers in the crowd to cause trouble, but they were all quickly surrounded and neutralized by protesters chanting “no violence.” Historian Erhard Neubert later called that night East Germany’s “October Revolution.” At least 70,000 people – perhaps as many as 100,000 -- took to the streets, making Oct. 9, 1989 the largest protest East Germany had ever seen. “People were on the streets and had the courage,” Schoene says. The time for violence was over. Secretly recorded footage of the march was broadcast on West German television, inspiring Monday Demonstrations all over East Germany in the weeks to come. The demonstrations in Leipzig doubled in size every week, attracting protesters from all over East Germany. By Oct. 23, 1989, a little less than two weeks before the Berlin Wall came down, more than 300,000 people filled Leipzig’s city center, carrying candles and ban-

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THE NEW YORK TIMES

A Clergyman of the Streets Leaves His Historic Pulpit By Nicholas Kulish January 12, 2008 LEIPZIG, Germany—The problems in the eastern part of Germany

follow his father into the ministry. It was not a monastic life, howe-

have changed. The Rev. Christian Führer, pastor of the Nikolai Chur-

ver, but one of involvement that he sought. Pastor Führer cited Diet-

ch here, has not.

rich Bonhoeffer, the prominent German Protestant theologian who

Pastor Führer fought political injustice as one of the leading figu-

was part of a plot to overthrow Hitler, and was eventually executed

res of the Monday Demonstrations in 1989 that gathered tens of

in a concentration camp, as among his greatest influences.

thousands in the streets of Leipzig and helped bring down the for-

“The church must always be political,” he said, “but there is a diffe-

mer East German government. After German reunification, he refo-

rence between political and party-political.”

cused his energies on the region’s emerging economic injustices, helping the unemployed find not only jobs but also a voice for their problems.

He learned Greek and Latin and studied theology at what was then Karl Marx University (now the University of Leipzig). At the same time he worked three summers in a car factory, and said he also

Speaking out for others seems to come easily to the pastor. Since

loved to ride motorcycles as a telegram delivery boy. He was fas-

the end of Communism, he has taken a stand against everything

cinated by the lively discussions that he heard in his days as a train

from the Iraq war to the closing of a brewery, from right-wing extre-

waiter, and noticed that as a student of religion people spoke more

mists to the curtailing of unemployment benefits.

freely with him than was usual, assuming he was outside of the

But in March, change will be forced upon him. Pastor Führer will

Communist system.

have to step down as leader of his historic Protestant church in the

“All critical people, they could only assemble and articulate their

center of town here. He is turning 65, the church’s mandatory retirement age. This past Sunday, he introduced his successor to the congregation, who at 39 is two years older than Pastor Führer was when he took the job in 1980. While stepping down is unlikely to silence him — indeed, he said he would use some of his newfound free time to work on a book — it will mark the beginning of a slow retreat from his leading role in the city and beyond.

thoughts in the church,” he said in an interview here in his home office. Painted a shade of pink reminiscent of the pastel colors decorating the interior of the Nikolai Church, the office is a masterpiece of organized clutter, filled with stacks of papers and files, including one particularly precarious tower of stacked books on the corner of his desk. On one side of a window overlooking the church square are pictures of his wife, children and grandchildren, on the other depic-

Outspoken and energetic, the minister seems far younger in person. He has arresting blue eyes and a commanding yet calming presence. With his signature denim vest and his spiky white hair, he looks more like a taxi driver than a man of God, but that fits perfectly with his philosophy of active engagement.

tions of Jesus, including one where he is breaking a rifle over his leg. It was through the peace movement that Pastor Führer eventually found himself at the center of the protests against the East German government. In 1982, two years after being appointed head of the congregation, he began leading prayers for peace regularly on

“I always wanted also to move in the earthly realm,” Pastor Führer

Mondays. He led demonstrations against the arms race, drawing ca-

said. “It is not the throne and the altar but the street and the altar

ricatures of two bombs, one black with “NATO” painted on the side

that belong together.”

and one white, with “Warsaw Pact” written on it, satirizing the notion

CHRISTIAN FÜHRER was born in Leipzig in 1943, during World War II.

of the good bomb versus the bad bomb.

Aside from how fitting his given name, Christian, is for a minister, his

In February 1988, he invited 50 people who were part of a move-

last name, Führer, simply means leader. Yet, for many — especially

ment that advocated the right to leave East Germany to a discus-

non-German speakers — the word is all but inseparable from Hitler.

sion at the church. Instead, about 600 showed up and many began

In addition to meaning leader, however, it also means guide, appropriate for a spiritual counselor.

attending his regular prayer sessions. “They brought the masses,” he said. The prayers and the vigils that followed drew more and more

A sickly child, he was fascinated by the way Jesus cared for the ab-

people. In May 1989, the police, concerned, began blocking traffic

ject and the outsiders, and from a young age he knew he wanted to

in the direction of the church.

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Although East Berliners streaming through the recently opened wall

pyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution,

became the iconic images of the time, the Monday Demonstrations

or retransmission of this Content without express written permission in

here were the vanguard of the peaceful revolution. Despite the bea-

prohibited.

tings and arrests of demonstrators at previous rallies in Leipzig, Berlin and Dresden, over 70,000 people took part in the Monday Demonstration on Oct. 9, 1989, with the famous chants of “We are the people.” At the urging of Pastor Führer and other speakers, the protest remained nonviolent and the police did nothing to stop it, a turning point that encouraged more protests and helped hasten the opening of the country. The next Monday, 120,000 people showed up. On Nov. 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall fell, with celebrations and high expectations for the future. The expectations were too high, Pastor Führer said, with East Germans imagining that they would immediately have everything that their West German counterparts did. Instead, after unification, factories closed and entire industries collapsed. He traveled to the former West Germany to learn how churches could help the unemployed, and in February 1991 started the Nikolai Church’s initiative for the jobless. The emphasis was not on handouts, but on finding work, even if it was just volunteer work to get them out of the house, dealing with debt, and navigating the complicated system of benefits. “Those without help, they give up and don’t even get what little is coming to them,” Pastor Führer said. GERMANY’S economy is in the midst of a much heralded revival, and Leipzig’s rehabilitated downtown features plenty of luxury stores, with their jewelry and designer clothes. Yet government statistics show that the East has never caught up with the West; unemployment in Leipzig hovers around 19 percent. The services they provide at the church’s initiative are like “a drop of water on a hot stone,” Pastor Führer said, but someone “has to give a sign of hope.” Germany has no minimum wage and the widening gap between rich and poor has become a hot political topic. Pastor Führer deplores what he says are outsize executive salaries and supports not just a minimum wage but also a minimum income for all people, working or not. But he also maintains some perspective on the situation in Germany, where even the scaled back social benefits are more generous than in most countries. Compared with East German times, the majority of people are doing better. “In Poland, in Ukraine,” he added, “one would say, ‘They live in a paradise.’” Source: Kulish, N. (2008, January 12). A Clergyman of the Streets Leaves His Historic Pulpit. The New York Times, Retrieved from The New York Times. From the New York Times, January 12, 2008 © 2008 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Co-

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Leipzig, 9 October 1989: When the Church Led a Peaceful Revolution Sermon preached at All Hallows By Trish Davie October 13, 2002 “Do you remember the Cold War? Strange how it seems such a long

rities became more unnerved, and reacted in May by sealing off all

time ago now, and yet it only ended 12 years ago. The images of

access roads to the church, including nearby motorway exits. But

missiles on each side of the Iron Curtain pointing at the other, and of

the numbers of people attending the prayers grew and grew, and

their leaders each with a finger on the nuclear button, seem forgot-

the sign outside the church saying ‘Open to all’ became a reality, as

ten now, as Russia joins the G8 and more and more former Eastern

members of the Stasi — the much feared State Security Police —

Bloc countries seek to enter the European Union. Yet the threat of

gathered to spy on the Christians and non-Christians, regime critics,

war in Europe was very real and frightening.

environmentalists and simply curious [attendees] who were drawn

Germany of course was at the center of this theater of war, divided

to the church.

since the Second World War into two states, one in NATO, the other

On June 4th the news came of the brutal events in Tiananmen

in the Warsaw Pact. Perhaps this added pain of their divided nation,

Square in Beijing, [China] — mockingly the name means ‘the square

where villages and communities were literally cut in half by the bor-

of heavenly peace’ — where tanks met pro-democracy demonst-

der, strengthened the protest on both sides against the stationing

rators, killing and injuring many students. This was a stark and chil-

of medium-range missiles on German soil. Integral to this protest

ling reminder to the people of East Germany of what could happen

movement were the prayers for peace, which started as a decade of

there. Six days later, on June 10th, police broke up the street music

prayers every year — but in Leipzig it was decided that once a year

festival in Leipzig. People stood weeping as musicians were forced,

was not enough, and so from September 1982 prayers for peace

with their flutes and double basses, into trucks and taken away.

were held in St. Nicholas church — the Nikolaikirche — every Mon-

As the GDR approached its 40th anniversary celebrations on Octo-

day, with the words of the Beatitudes, which we heard in our gospel reading, central to the worship.

ber 6th, the regime was becoming more and more anxious to calm a situation which was out of control. Thousands of its citizens were

Under the East German regime, political meetings were of course

escaping across the Czech border to Hungary, which had opened

forbidden, but the churches had an agreement with the state whe-

its borders to the West, and attempts to stop this resulted in more

reby, at least in theory, they were allowed to continue practicing

angry protests and police using water cannons and batons to drive

their faith unhindered — the reality was very different, as the regime

back the crowds.

desperately tried to quash the churches’ influence, and succeeded

The next Monday prayers were due on October 9th, and the num-

in many ways.

bers of both police and demonstrators had been steadily growing.

In 1986, though, the Nikolaikirche became a focus of hope through

Both the demonstrators and the authorities knew that October 9th

its support of people desperate to leave the GDR, which was forbid-

would be decisive. Leaders on both sides began to make prepa-

den. The church held a discussion as part of the prayer meeting on

rations. An article appeared in the press saying that force must be

‘Living and Staying in the GDR,’ and hundreds of people came, not

used if necessary to put an end to the so-called counterrevolution.

just from Leipzig but also from other cities. So the Monday prayers

Documents from the time reveal that this was not just a threat. A

became a place where all kinds of groups came together to express

force of eight thousand police officers, soldiers and members of the

their longing for change.

dreaded security police was assembled with batons and firearms.

In January there was the first big demonstration of ordinary citi-

Specialists in the treatment of gunshot wounds were told to prepa-

zens joining the opposition groups on the streets. The police res-

re for casualties.

ponded by arresting opposition leaders and people who handed

Meanwhile, the pastor at the Nikolaikirche urged three other inner-

out leaflets. Tensions rose as week upon week more people came

city churches to open their doors and hold the peace prayers, so

to the Nikolaikirche to find out what was going on. They attended

that as many people as possible would be inside, protected from the

the prayer service, then simply stood in the big square outside the

police. A university professor traveled to Berlin to urge the authori-

church. Flowers were stuck in the grille covering the windows, with

ties to avoid bloodshed. Local dignitaries, including the director of

notes demanding the release of prisoners. As word spread beyond

the Leipzig Philharmonic Orchestra and local government officials,

Leipzig about the Monday meetings at the Nikolaikirche, the autho-

met to prepare a plea for non-violence to be read out over the pu-

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blic address system. The area bishop prepared his own appeal for

today we must be the victors, now or never. But do we want to win

non-violence, which he would read out in each of the four churches.

at any price, even with blood and tears? I think enough blood has al-

And thousands of ordinary people left their homes, said goodbye

ready been spilled in the last few days. God will help us! The reforms

to children and partners, and converged upon the city center. Eyewitnesses tell of the turmoil of emotions they felt: terror, as they wondered if they would be returning home, and yet at the same time a determination arising out of the despair of knowing that if they stayed at home nothing would ever change. ‘Demokratie, jetzt oder nie’ — ‘Democracy, now or never’ — was both the slogan and the feeling on October 9th. There’s an amusing story amid all the tension. The pastor at the Nikolaikirche, Christian Führer, walked into the church at 2:30 p.m. to find the nave full with over a thousand people. He recognized at once who they were, and was amused. These were party officials and Stasi members who had been told to fill the pews of the Nikolaikirche where, according to their sources, criminals and trouble-

that we seek will come if we allow the spirit of peace, calm and tolerance to enter us. For anyone who kneels before God, words of peace become a drive to action. Is there any greater charge that we could be given than to be peacemakers in our city? Everybody who takes part in this service has the duty to be an instrument of peace. The spirit of peace must go out beyond these walls. Take great care that you are not rude to police officers. Be careful that you don’t sing songs or chant slogans which could provoke the authorities. Take the stone out of your clenched fists. Our help and protection are in the Lord alone.” The Reverend Christian Führer describes what happened as the service ended with the bishop’s blessing and urgent call for nonviolence:

makers (the Germans call these Rowdies) were banding together to

“More than 2,000 people leaving the church were welcomed by

stage a counterrevolution. Pastor Führer wanted them to know that

tens of thousands waiting outside with candles in their hands. I will

he knew exactly who they were, so he addressed his impromptu

never forget this moment. A person needs two hands to carry a can-

congregation: ‘The Nikolaikirche is open to everybody, and it really

dle: one to hold it and the other to protect the flame — so you can’t

means just that, with no exception. You are most welcome. I’m just

carry sticks or stones at the same time. The miracle happened. Jesus’

a little surprised that you are already here at 2:30, when the wor-

spirit of non-violence seized the masses and transformed them into

king proletariat can only come after 4 o’clock, which is why we have

a real and peaceful, powerful presence. Troops and police officers

the prayers at 5 p.m. But still, you are very welcome. But you will, of

were drawn in and became engaged in conversations. The crowds

course, understand that we are keeping the gallery closed, so that a

chanted ‘No violence,’ and the police withdrew. The city of Leipzig

few of the working population, and a few Christians, can get into the

was literally circled by a massive cordon of peacemakers as the lea-

church.’ […] And so the party officials and secret police sat quietly in

ders of the demonstration met the tail end on the inner ring road.

their pews and waited for the Rowdies to storm the church.

There were no winners or losers, nobody triumphed over anyone

5 p.m. came, and this is what they heard: Jesus said: ‘Blessed are the poor,’ and not ‘Happy are the wealthy.’ Jesus said: ‘Love your enemies,’ and not ‘Down with your opponents.’

else, nobody lost face. There was just a tremendous feeling of relief. There were 70,000 demonstrators on the streets that evening and yet there wasn’t a single shattered shop window. This was the incredible experience of the power of non-violence. Within a few weeks

Jesus said: ‘Many who are now first will be last,’ and not ‘Everything

of further peaceful demonstrations, the party and ideological dic-

stays the same.’

tatorship had collapsed. ‘He hath set down the mighty from their

Jesus said: ‘For whosoever will save his life shall lose it, and whosoever will lose her life for my sake shall find it,’ and not ‘Be very careful.’ Jesus said: ‘You are the salt,’ and not ‘You are the cream.’ The irony — and the wonder of this — is not lost on Christian Führer. ‘I always appreciated that the Stasi members heard the Beatitudes from the Sermon on the Mount every Monday. Where else would they hear them?’ The following day, these people actually came to thank him for the peace prayers. It’s worth quoting the powerful words of the preacher that evening, Gotthard Wendel:

seat and hath exalted the humble and meek.’ ‘You will succeed, says the Lord, not by military power or by your own strength, but by my spirit.’ A member of the ruling party said before his death: ‘We had planned everything. We were prepared for everything. But not for candles and prayers.’” I could stop there, and we could all bask in the afterglow of an amazing story with a happy ending. But this story speaks urgently to us here and now. I don’t know about you but I’m scared. I’m scared because we live in a world, particularly since September 11th [2001], where not only do we have nowhere to go to protect ourselves from terrorists, but we no longer seem to have the power to defend

“My dear people, I have the impression that people here, on this day,

ourselves from the crazed logic of our rulers. As an American politi-

want to change our society for good. There is a pressure to succeed:

cian said recently, the world is not so much frightened by what the

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terrorists might do as by what we are going to do. The democracy

Leeds, United Kingdom. Retrieved from http://allhallowsleeds.org.

that we are supposed to be fighting for seems powerless to stop the

uk

madness, which threatens to destroy us all. The world is crying out for a new understanding, for a lasting, true peace. It’s so easy to fall into despair and its close relative, apathy. But we have just heard a remarkable story that can truly inspire us. It teaches us that prayer is action. Not sabre-rattling, not getting in our retaliation first, not building more defenses — but prayer. Out of a tiny mustard seed of prayer and eventually the unlikeliest team of worshippers, a peaceful revolution was born: some were there to spy, some half-listening, cynical, some committed, some believers, many unsure. We too can plant a mustard seed: ourselves, our prayer, be it mixed up with doubt and fear and helplessness. Jesus said: ‘Blessed are the poor in spirit,’ not ‘Happy are those who rely on their own certainty.’ The God we worship is a vulnerable God, vulnerable like us, vulnerable with us. Our shaky, faltering steps toward hope, when we are full of fear but choose not to rely not on our own strength but to listen to truths that we know deep inside ourselves, are an act of peace. Prayer is like the drop on the pond, sending ripples far and wide — or like the steady drip which gradually wears away the stone. Prayer and action become one. The people in the Nikolaikirche left the peace prayers and went onto the streets chanting ‘Wir sind das Volk!’ — ‘We are the people!’ ‘Keine Gewalt!’ — ‘No violence!’ When I was in Leipzig in August I visited the Stasi museum, which is housed in the original state security police building. What struck me was how pathetic these power freaks really were. In order to keep control, or convince themselves they were so doing, they invented all sorts of silly contraptions that look like something Mr. Bean invented, to listen in and spy on their people and intimidate them. I could hardly believe the ridiculous make-up and wigs, false eyebrows, noses, moustaches, etc. that the secret police used as disguise. It gives you a really good picture of how weak and little these people really are, and how flimsy are the structures on which they build their illusion of strength….When Bush came to power, I often thought he resembled a helpless little boy. It is interesting how he too has developed his mask so as to appear strong and mighty. In his recent sermon to mark the 20th anniversary of the peace prayers, Reverend Christian Führer challenged the American people and their president to reflect on the bronze sculpture entitled ‘Swords into Ploughshares’ outside the UN building. He then exhorted us to respond to the fear within and the violence around us in the words of St Paul: ‘rejoice in hope, be patient in tribulation and remain constant in prayer.’ Amen” (Davie, 2002). Source: Davie, T. (2002, October 13). Leipzig, 9 October 1989: When the Church Led a Peaceful Revolution. Sermon preached at All Hallows Church in

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German Historical Institute

The Triumph of Nonviolence in Leipzig (October 9, 1989) Translated by Jeremiah Riemer 2011 A contemporary witness recounts the events of Monday, October 9th in Leipzig, beginning with the GDR regime’s early-morning preparations for the city-wide demonstrations scheduled for later that day. As author Wolfgang Schneider recalls, local communist authorities and police forces anticipated violence and prepared themselves accordingly. In the end, however, 70,000 “fearful yet unyielding” demonstrators remained calm and peaceful in the face of massive security forces, and local leaders opted for restraint. This opened the door for further protests under the slogan “we are the people.”

That day Leipzig resembled an armed camp. According to later testimony from the riot police, officers had been told that morning that a peaceful outcome to the demonstrations was unlikely, and that they should prepare for possible acts of violence. Accordingly, they wore riot gear: helmets with visors and neck protection, shields, gas masks (tear gas had been acquired in large quantities), truncheons, and socalled RKWs**; officers were armed with pistols, and dog teams were also deployed. On the courtyard of the VP*** District Authority, “munitioned up” armored trucks stood ready, huge steel

A great deal has been written and even more has been speculated

giants with bulldozing capacity; the drivers were armed with sub-

about the course of events on that fateful Monday. It is still unclear

machine guns and sixty shots of ammunition apiece. The police tro-

whether a special order to shoot was in place on October 9th in

op numbered three thousand men, twelve hundred of whom had

Leipzig. The clarification of this question, still pending, is not even of

been brought over from the Halle and Neubrandenburg districts. In

decisive historical relevance, since Secret Order No. 8/89 (decreed

addition, there were five squadrons of Factory

on September 26th by the chair of the National Defense Council, Erich Honecker) was still in force with no restrictions. With respect to the expected “riots,” it clearly stated, “They are to be prevented from the start.” And there was yet another clear instruction: “hostile actions should be prevented offensively.”

Combat Groups [Betriebskampfgruppen] and a special police task force from the Ministry for State Security. The number of those called in ran into the four figures, and their arsenals contained more than just handguns. [ . . . ]Six important Leipzig personalities issued a call for calm, which was read aloud during peace devotions

Just how literally the Leipzig police leadership, chaired by the acting

in St. Nicholas Church [Nikolaikirche] and three other churches: “Our

first secretary of the SED [Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands

common concern and responsibility has brought us together here

or Socialist Unity Party of Germany] district leadership, Helmut Ha-

today. We are taken aback by the developments in our city and are

ckenberg, took this order was already evident early that morning.

searching for a solution. We all need a free exchange of views about

Factory employees were warned against entering the downtown

the continuing development of socialism in our country. Therefore,

area after 4 p.m.; mothers were supposed to pick up their children

the public figures whose names are being read today promise all

from inner-city daycare centers and kindergartens by 3 p.m.; school-

citizens that they will apply their full power and authority to advan-

children and [university] students were threatened with expulsion

cing this dialogue, not only within the district of Leipzig, but also

should they participate in “actions.” The city was abuzz with rumors.

with our government. We urgently request that you remain calm, so

There were furtive whispers about gunmen on centrally located

that a peaceful dialogue is possible.”

buildings, fears about the deployment of paratroopers, and it was understood that the NVA* helicopter squadron in Cottbus had been put into “command-readiness.” Reports about security-force bases in Küchenholz and Rosental were more reliable, as were those on preparations being made at the agricultural fairground in nearby Markkleeberg for the internment of “the delivered” (this had already been rehearsed on October 7th). Churches were to be kept open for escapees, and a medical station was set up in St. Thomas [church] posthaste. Emergency beds were set up in hospitals, and particular attention was given to the staffing of surgical and intensive-care stations. Thousands of additional units of stored blood were ready and waiting. [...]

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This joint appeal by cabaret artist Bernd-Lutz Lange, Gewandhaus music director Kurt Masur, and theologian Peter Zimmermann, along with secretary of the SED district leadership Kurt Meyer, Jochen Pommert, and Roland Wötzel was also broadcast at 6 p.m. by the Sender Leipzig television station and about an hour later by the local radio station. This request to speak, as committed as it was courageous, undoubtedly contributed to the day’s peaceful development, though it did not play the decisive role prematurely attributed to it. Only the concentrated power of the 70,000 fearful yet unyielding people who occupied the downtown and lined the city ring forced the ultimate retreat of the armed units at around

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6:25 p.m. It was undoubtedly these anonymous people that Christof Hein had in mind when he proposed naming Leipzig the GDR’s “City of Heroes.”. On October 9th in Leipzig, the German Democratic Revolution of 1989 triumphed. On that Monday, the cry “We are the people” became the material force that gave rise to, and accelerated, every hesitant concession by the party and government from that point on.” [...] _______________________ *

NVA [Nationale Volksarmee]: literally, National People’s Army – trans.

** RWK [Reizwurfkörper]: CS gas projectiles – trans. *** VP [Volkspolizei]: People’s Police – trans.

Source: German Historical Institute. (2011). The Triumph of Nonviolence in Leipzig (October 9, 1989). Retrieved July 2011, from http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/Chapter1_Doc5English.pdf

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4.3.1 Timeline of the GDR and Jana Hensel’s Life

4.3.1 JANA HENSEL HANDOUT TIMELINE OF THE GDR AND JANA HENSEL’S LIFE (adapted from After the Wall, translated by Jefferson Chase) WWII ends. The Soviet Army captures Berlin and accepts Germany’s surrender. The city is divided into

May 1945

four separate zones controlled by Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union. As tensions rise between the new superpowers, the Soviet forces blockade West Berlin, trapping its

June 1948-

inhabitants with little food or fuel. West Berlin is an island inside Communist controlled East Germany, May 1949

and the Allies keep the city alive with a continuous airlift of supplies.

May 23, 1949

The Federal Republic of Germany—West Germany—is founded.

October 7, 1949

The German Democratic Republic (GDR)—East Germany—is founded. East Germany closes its borders with West Germany. Only the border between East and West Berlin

1952

remains open. Mass-uprising of East Berlin building workers against the Communist government. The revolt is crushed

June 1953

with the help of the Soviet Army. At least forty people are killed. Berliners hear rumors of the Soviet Union closing the border. More than 4,000 East Germans flee to West

August 11, 1961

Berlin. East German troops seal Berlin’s borders and begin building the Wall on the night of August I2. The Wall begins as a barbed wire barrier and gradually grows into an elaborate series of walls and fences, fortified

August 12-13, 1961

with automatically triggered weapons and patrolled by heavily armed guards with dogs, all designed to stop East Germans from leaving. In the years that follow, [between 100-200] people are killed trying to cross the Wall.

August 26, 1961

All crossing points are closed to West Berliners. President Kennedy visits the Wall. He pronounces himself a “Berliner” and pledges to defend the resi-

June 26, 1961

dents of West Berlin.

May 1973

East Germany and West Germany establish formal diplomatic ties.

1976

Jana Hensel is born in the GDR.

1983-1990

Jana Hensel attends grade school in Leipzig.

June 12,1987

President Ronald Reagan visits Berlin and urges Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Wall.

May-September 1989

Hungary opens its borders with Austria, allowing East Germans to begin leaving the Eastern Bloc. East Germans take refuge in West German embassies in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. Hungarian government stops enforcing East German visa restrictions, opening its borders. In the first

September 10, 1989

three days, 15,000 East German refugees pass through en route to West Germany, where they receive asylum.

September-October 1989 November 4, 1989 November 9, 1989

In the face of weekly pro-democracy demonstrations that begin in the city of Leipzig, Communist leader Erich Honecker is forced to resign as head of state and is replaced by professed reformist Egon Krenz. An anti-Communist protest in East Berlin draws more than one million people demanding democracy. Three days later, the East German government resigns. The Berlin Wall is opened, and travel restrictions are lifted. Mass celebrations follow.

December 1989

Chancellor Helmut Kohl begins Round Table talks with new East German leader Hans Modrow.

February 1990

The Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, and the United States approve the reunification.

March 18, 1990 October 3, 1990

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In free elections, East Germans overwhelmingly approve reunification and Western-style political and economic systems. A formal treaty is signed in May. Germany is formally reunited.

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4.3.1 Timeline of the GDR and Jana Hensel’s Life

Jana Hensel attends high school in Leipzig as part of the first East German class to use a Western sylla-

1991-1995

bus.

1998-1999

Jana spends a year in Marseilles.

1999

Jana moves to Berlin. Jana moves to Paris for one year, then back to Berlin. She begins to write After the Wall, which is published in Germany as Zonenkinder. The Book debuts on the bestseller list and stays there from September

2002

2002 until March 2004, including ten months in the top ten. Zonenkinder is reprinted fourteen times. More than 180,000 copies are sold in Germany. Paperback edition of Zonenkinder is published in Germany and becomes an immediate bestseller. A

2004

companion volume of essays on “the book that changed Germany” is published under the title Zonenkinder und Wir (Zonenkinder and Us).

Source: Idaho Human Rights Education Center. International Education: Post-Unification Germany: An excerpt from Jana Hensel’s memoir. Retrieved July 2011, from: http://www.sde.idaho.gov/internationaleducation/docs/germany/germany8language.pdf

An Excerpt from Jana Hensel’s memoir After the Wall: Confessions from an East German Childhood and the Life That Came Next Chapter 1: That Warm Fuzzy Feeling of Togetherness: On Growing Up in the GDR My childhood ended one evening when I was thirteen years and three months old. It was already dark when Mom and I left the house. Dark and cold. We could see our breath in front of our faces. I had been told to put on tights, boots, and two sweaters underneath my blue thermal anorak, but no one told me where we were going. We crossed over the railroad tracks to get to the tram stop to downtown Leipzig. We didn’t see a single soul. At least, I don’t think we did. Now, when I look back, I can’t honestly remember whether the streets were really deserted or whether I just imagine them that way. And I can’t say for sure that I appreciated the beauty of the rain, just barely visible in the yellow-gray glow of the streetlights. Back then, you had to open tram doors by hand, and they didn’t shut tight. An ice-cold draft would blow in through the cracks, while you burned your butt on the overheated leather seats. That night, the passengers in the streetcar were all bundled up in heavy outdoor clothing. A few women wore those fashionable earmuffs that had just recently appeared in the shops. Others wore legwarmers that they had knitted by hand. I thought it was weird that no one was carrying a handbag. After several stops, the driver opened the doors of the first car and told us the tram was being terminated. We’d have to walk the rest of the way. We all got out and headed off, without a word, in the same direction as if there were only one possible destination that evening. As we arrived in the center of town, I saw crowds of people forcing their way toward St. Nicolas Church and Karl Marx Square. There were masses of people lined up to march along the ring road. Some carried banners and signs. I can’t be sure any more what I saw with my own eyes and what I now remember from the endless newscasts that followed. But I’m certain—probably because I never discussed them with anyone—that a few of my recollections are personal. I remember walking beside a university student and wanting to hold his hand. And I remember the armed men in uniform standing on the side of the road watching us; I wanted to ask them why they didn’t come join us. After all, there were a lot more of us than there were of them. Instead I just kept walking, like a good girl, between my mother and the student. For the first time in my life, I realized that something big was happening—something I didn’t understand. Even the grown-ups seemed confused. What would all this lead to? If the student had told me that this was just the beginning, that with each successive Monday more and more people would take to the streets, that the walls would fall and the German Democratic Republic—Communist East Germany—would soon disappear without a trace, taking everything we had known with it, I would have given him a funny look and thought: Fat chance. The GDR couldn’t disappear. Not in a million years.

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There was no way for me to know that fall of 1989 that I was living the last days of my childhood. Now, when I look back on those years before the Wall fell and the whole world changed around us, it seems like a far-away, fairy-tale time. It’s a remote past with different hairstyles, different smells, and a different pace of life. It’s not easy for people my age—the last generation of GDR kids—to remember the old days, because back then we wanted nothing more than for them to hurry up and end—as though there would be no pain whatsoever involved in losing everything we knew. At some point the tram doors shut properly, and the old days were suddenly gone. Now, a decade and a half later, the first half of our lives seems very remote. Even when we try, we can’t remember much. Nothing remains of our childhood country— which is of course exactly what everyone wanted—and now that we’re grown up and it’s almost too late, I suddenly miss all the lost memories. I’ve grown afraid that, by always looking forward and never glancing back, we no longer have any idea where we stand. I’d like to retrace where we come from, to rediscover lost memories and forgotten experiences. I only worry whether I’ll be able to find my way back. Shortly after the Wall fell in November 1989, the pictures of Lenin and former GDR Head of State and Party Erich Honecker disappeared from our classrooms. It was all we could talk about for a while. Day in and day out, these two men had been as much a part of our visual lives as the test pattern that appeared on television at the end of the broadcast day, but we only really noticed them after they were gone. A bit later, the old system of buying milk collectively—paying a month in advance and having it delivered to your home was discontinued. Presumably, the change was made to avoid scaring off new customers in a free market economy, but I don’t remember exactly when it happened. What I do remember was that moment of rebellion years before—it must have been in the second or third grade—when, behind the teacher’s back, I tore open the slippery and always somewhat smelly plastic milk package with my teeth and drank straight from the hole. That was cool. The others were still drinking their milk through straws like kindergartners. At some other point in late ‘89 or early ‘90— here, too, I can’t remember exactly when—we stopped going to all those state-run extracurricular events. Saturdays had previously been reserved for community activities, but now most of us preferred to drive across the border to West Germany with our parents to pick up our Begrüssungsgeld— the 100 deutschmarks in “welcome money” handed out by the West German government to East German visitors. Our teachers soon decided to do the same. Saturday activities were never officially discontinued; they simply disappeared on their own. The same thing happened to Tuesday afternoons. No one was interested in dance fitness groups, the Young Historians Society, the chess club, or art classes anymore. And Wednesdays changed, too. As a preteen in the GDR, I used to put on my red scarf and pointy cap every Wednesday afternoon at 4 P.M., and head off to meetings of the Junge Pioniere (Young Pioneers), our version of the Scouts, but with a heavy Socialist slant. Likewise, the older kids used to attend gatherings of the Freie Deutsche Jugend, or Free German Youth. One by one, we stopped all the activities through which our Socialist pedagogues had hoped to mold our personalities and to prepare us for future careers as engineers, cosmonauts, teachers, or transportation workers. Contact lapsed between us and the industrial managers who had served as our state-sponsored godfathers and who were responsible for initiating us into the mysteries of Socialist production. The milkmoney collector disappeared, as did the group committee director, his deputy, and the leader of the Young Pioneers. Seemingly overnight, the endless appointments that had filled our childhood were cancelled. We used to arrive at school to find that a short excursion, a fire alarm, or a flag saluting exercise had been scheduled before first period. No more. The compulsory medical examinations were discontinued, and no one accompanied us—for reasons of “class solidarity,” as our teachers had always said— down to the school basement, where the dentist had set up a makeshift office. That was all right with me. I was just as happy not to have to wait on the long, hard sports benches and listen to the dentist drilling in the next room, or to sprint back up the stairs holding my nose so as not to gag on the smell of antiseptics. Gone, too, were the Spartacus Track and Field Competitions. No one came to tell us where to set up the heavy black loudspeakers, which would kick off the big event by blaring the Olympic anthem. It was the end of a childhood ritual. Track meets were huge in the GDR. They always started around 7 A.M., before the sun had even come up. We would stand around the freezing sports fields, anxiously awaiting our chance to qualify for the district championships in the triple jump or the sixty-meter dash. I would press the thermos of hot tea clipped to my belt against my belly and imagine the voice of Heinz Florian Oertel, East Germany’s leading sports announcer, relating my triumphs. Others would slap their biceps, as they had seen our national cyclists do on television during the last Goodwill Games with the West. Competitive sports were out. No one went to after-school practice any more. We’d always been irritated that sports had clashed with the

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ever-exciting Little House on the Prairie or the 1950s Western series Fury. (Everyone in the GDR watched Western TV shows, which could be picked up by fiddling with the TV antennas. We just had to do it secretively, and we were careful never to mention our favorite shows in front of our teachers.) Kids used to get back home at 6 P.M., exhausted and sore, chug a bottle of milk in front of the refrigerator, and then quickly do homework. Now we rushed home as soon as school was over and parked ourselves in front of the TV. Our mothers initially welcomed this development. At long last, there’d be time to watch Medicine by Numbers, Monika the Jockey, Suburban Hospital and other GDR shows as a family. The only problem was that, by the time we stopped going to after-school sports in 1990, those shows had all been cancelled. The ABC magazines for young readers gradually disappeared from our school, taking with them Manne Murmelauge, the friendly little freckle-faced mascot with the scarf and cap from page three, who gave us tips on how to better organize our charity fund-raising brigades, or how to improve the quality of our special edition of the school newspaper celebrating the signing of the Warsaw Pact. No longer did Manne explain the meaning of the three points of the Young Pioneer neck scarf or urge us to recycle old newspapers and hold bake sales in our school lobby to raise funds for Nelson Mandela and the Sandinistas. Bake sales, according to Manne in the old days, were best staged in front of the principal’s office and the door leading to the school playground, where the flags of the GDR, the Young Pioneers, the Free German Youth, and the Soviet Union would be clearly visible. If we won the competition between schools for the most money raised, Manne had always promised, we’d win a pennant, and Mandela would get to leave jail. Frankly, I could see the advantage in not having Manne around any more telling us what to do. I’d always been an enthusiastic collector of old newspapers: the SERO recycling company had paid a couple of cents per kilo, and it had been one of the few ways to earn a bit of extra pocket money. But in a free market economy, you had to collect two to three times as much paper before they’d buy it, and competition for territory was fierce. If we had rung a doorbell and announced “Hello, we’re from the Young Pioneers, and we’re collecting old bottles and newspapers” on a street that belonged to the seventh-grade kids, there would have been trouble. When we went around collecting old paper, we’d post the toughest-looking kid in front of the house to guard our push-cart. If the seventh graders caught us on their turf, then that kid was left to defend our recyclables, while the rest of us scattered. Walks through the woods were more dangerous after 1989. I no longer had Korbine Früchtchen, the mascot of the FRÖSI “Let’s Be Joyful and Sing” Society, at my side to tell me which berries were okay to eat and which weren’t. She used to explain that the forestry industry depended on me to collect chestnuts and acorns, and to plant medicinal herbs in the school garden to increase its annual production. But our interests had moved on anyway: We now collected the free toy surprises that came with McDonald’s Happy Meals. We no longer spent our Sunday afternoons making acorn figures or decorating our bicycle spokes with beer coasters. We now sat inside hunched over a game of Monopoly or absorbed in a Mickey Mouse comic book. Today, when I look at old GDR photos of myself, I see a sulky kid with an old leather military pouch slung haphazardly over her shoulders and a white nurse’s bonnet with a Red Cross insignia on her head, her hands tightly gripping the handlebars of a green push-bike. In those pictures, I’m always staring directly into the camera. If I didn’t know better, I’d say I looked a bit like an operative in some child police commando. That was one of the by-products of an ideological education—children learned that they were supposed to be useful and do their duty toward the state. As kids, we were always pretending to be soldiers, nurses, cops, doctors—any responsible job where you got to wear a uniform. These pictures were taken more than fifteen years ago. In the meantime, everything has changed. The Wall came down, the GDR was swallowed up by the West, and my childhood disappeared. Sometimes I feel as if my past has been locked away in a museum with no name and no aGDRess [address], and no one seems very interested in going inside to have a look to see what’s there. Occasionally I walk around its dingy rooms. When I do, I stumble across old friends like Manne Murmelauge. I’m happy to see him, but I can tell that he resents me for turning my back on him without so much as a goodbye. Indeed, the harder I press my nose to his glass case, the more he seems to withdraw from view. As soon as the Wall fell, the language changed. The consumer depot was suddenly called a “supermarket,” nickies became “T-shirts,” and apprentices turned into “trainees.” Counters were called “terminals,” the Polylux machine became an “overhead projector,” and date books had morphed into “Filofaxes.” One morning, after the local polyclinic had gotten a fresh coat of paint, the sign over the door suddenly read “Doctors’ Offices.” And mondos were now known as “condoms”—but that didn’t concern us at our age. Not yet. I no longer went to the Pioneer House but to the rec center, where the Pioneer Leaders were now called “supervisors.” Before, our activities were organized into so-called working groups; now everybody just joined “clubs.” In stores you could buy everything that was advertised on TV. Everywhere on the streets, con men were trying to get suckers to bet money

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on shell games. Ex-classmates who’d fled the GDR before the fall of the Wall—who’d “absconded,” as people used to say—now reappeared in our schoolyards, as if they’d never been away. Their accents were different, though, and they looked if they’d just stepped straight out of Medi & Zini or one of those other West German kids’ TV shows. We were no longer allowed to call people “Fidschis”; we were told to say “foreigners” or “asylum seekers”; that sounded funny, because many of those people had been born in East Germany and had never been out of the country. We didn’t have a special nickname for people from Cuba or Mozambique either, before or after the Wall. And now we didn’t need one; after the Wall, they all suddenly disappeared. The same was true for the convicts who used to man the SERO recycling centers, sorting the bottles by color and making sure that none of us climbed through a hole in the fence and broke into the metal container where the Western newspapers were kept, waiting to be re-used for the good of the Socialist community. One day, they too were gone. I quickly purged my vocabulary of words like “Assis” or “antisocials,” which was how we described criminals or people who refused to work. In school, we used to tutor their children, seeing to it that they learned to read and write and that no one picked on them too much. If they played hooky, it was our responsibility to go to their homes and find them. But after the Wall, both the “antisocials” and their kids also disappeared. With the Olsen family it was different. The Olsens were a band of rather simpleminded Danes, who were the stars of our Sunday morning children’s movie matinees. Generations of Socialist kids had laughed at the Olsens’ numbskull adventures, mistakenly believing that the presence of Danish films on our screens meant that the world outside the Warsaw Pact hadn’t completely forgotten we existed. After the Wall, you could still sometimes catch an old Olsens’ film on TV, but it broke my heart to learn that we were the only ones who had ever tuned in. No one in West Germany had even heard of Egon, Benny, and Kjeld. By contrast everyone knew Karel Gott, the “Golden Voice of Prague,” whose schmaltzy easy-listening records were a fixture of the state-run East German label Amiga. That was devastating. We always thought Gott had learned German especially for us. Today, I can’t help feeling a bit jealous when my West German friends go on about how much they love going home for visits with their folks. Even though they would never dream of moving back to Heidelberg or Krefeld, it’s nice to have everything just as they remember it. That always makes me imagine walking the streets of my childhood, retracing my route to school and rediscovering past sights and smells. I picture myself surreptitiously lying down between periods on the pile of dusty mattresses in the far corner of our school gym and pressing my nose against the heavy medicine ball. I look over at the long wooden benches, run my hand over their surfaces, and remember being afraid of getting splinters when we slid across them on our bellies, churning our arms as if swimming. To tell the truth, though, I preferred Völkerball, a Socialist variation of dodge ball. There would always be one star who rose to glory when most of his teammates were “out” and the uncoordinated or fat kids who couldn’t care less which team won had already headed for the changing rooms. That was too bad for them. They never got to witness how a single star player can completely turn around a game of Völkerball. Those of us who stuck around until the end always admired the star. Later, during classes, I would turn round and watch him out of the corner of my eye, basking in his reflected glow. Yesterday’s dodge-ball heroes are gone, and since our childhood has been locked up in that nameless museum, there are no words left to describe them adequately. And because the museum also has no aGDRess I don’t even know where to go to find them. We’ll never be part of a youth movement, I thought. It was 1998 and I was spending a year abroad as a university student. I was crowded together with friends from Italy, Spain, France, Germany, and Austria in a tiny dorm room in Marseilles. The Italians had cooked dinner. There were no stools, and people knelt, sat on the bed, squatted on the floor, or simply leaned on the doorframe. After several bottles of wine and enough cigarettes to overflow every ashtray, the mood turned euphoric. Everyone began to jabber at once. The names of childhood heroes ricocheted like balls off the walls. My friends invoked their favorite Smurfs and discussed the genealogical complexities of Smurf Village. Favorite movies were cited, favorites books compared, and heated debates broke out over The Lord of the Rings and Pippi Longstocking, Donald Duck and Lucky Luke, Asterix and Obelix. All I had to contribute were Alfons Zitterbacke, well-behaved Ottokar, the Wizard of Sapphire City, and a host of other obscure characters from East German children’s books and TV programs. Nobody knew them in the West, of course, but I, too, wanted to share something of my childhood heroes. I tried to explain. The others looked at me with vague interest, but the euphoria was gone. Suddenly I felt sick and tired of being different than everyone else. I just wanted to tell childhood stories--like the Italians, French, and Austrians did—without having to

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explain, without having to translate my memories into words that had not been part of my experience and that scattered my recollections even more so with each attempt at clarification. I didn’t want to spoil the party and their warm, fuzzy feeling of togetherness, so I just kept my mouth shut. Instead I asked myself: What was I ever going to make of my childhood? Like an old summer dress, it had gone out of fashion. It wasn’t even good enough for a bit of party chit-chat. I took a sip of wine and decided it was time to go. Time for a trip. A trip back to where I came from.

Excerpt Source: Idaho Human Rights Education Center. International Education: Post-Unification Germany: An excerpt from Jana Hensel’s memoir. Retrieved July 2011, from: http://www.sde.idaho.gov/internationaleducation/docs/germany/germany8language.pdf Book Source: Hensel, J.; Chase, J. (Translation). (2004). After the Wall: Confessions from an East German Childhood and the Life That Came Next. New York: PublicAffairs.

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4.3.2 Reflective Questions on the movie Goodbye, Lenin!

4.3.2 Handout Reflective Questions on the movie Goodbye, Lenin! 1.

The first ten minutes of the film describes what life was like during the last few years of the GDR. Describe your first impressions of what you saw.

2.

From watching the film, describe what you think life would have been like living in East Berlin. In what ways does it differ from your life in the United States?

3.

Describe your feelings if you had lived in East Berlin. How would you have felt about the Wall getting progressively more impassable? Would you have felt safer? Or would you have felt more trapped?

4.

What happened to Alex’s father? What role does he play in the early part of the film? Who is Sigmund Jähn? Who does Sigmund Jähn represent to Alex?

5.

What role does Alex’s mother play in his life? Is she a sympathetic woman?

6.

What event of October 7, 1989 is celebrated in the film? What political activities took place simultaneously on that day? Compare and contrast the behavior of Alex and his mother Christiane on this day.

7.

After the collapse of the Wall and the political events that follow, how does life for the Kerner family change? Evaluate the significance of Christiane’s coma for the family. Does her comatose state have greater symbolic significance for the film?

8.

The new political reality triggers identity conflicts for many East Germans. Describe how people of different age groups deal with the changes.

9.

How does the film depict the passage of the time?

10.

Alex and his sister Ariane make changes to the family apartment while their mother is in the hospital. What are these changes, and what do they symbolize about how life has altered in East Berlin after the collapse of the Wall?

11.

List some typical Ostprodukte (east products). What happened to everyday GDR culture? What things disappear first, and why is that?

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4.3.2 Reflective Questions on the movie Goodbye, Lenin!

12.

Describe the family’s reaction to Christiane’s return home from the hospital. How does Ariane react?

13.

Why does Alex decide to “restore” Christiane’s room to its original state?

14.

List the specific actions which Alex, his family, friends, and neighbors undertake to prevent Christiane from discovering the truth about the events that transpired during the eight months when she was comatose and continue to unfold.

15.

Is Alex’s distortion of history only for his mother? Has he discovered the possibility of new truths for himself? Assess and evaluate his political and social viewpoints. How do you evaluate the “creative” news broadcast?

16.

How does Christiane’s confession at the end of the film affect her family? Imagine you were one of her children, how would you have felt at that moment?

17.

Describe Christiane’s venture outside the apartment building. What does she discover? How does she react? How does Alex react? When does Christiane learn the truth?

18.

What is the connection between the film’s title and the fall of the Berlin Wall?

19.

How might the film’s tone have been different if director Wolfgang Becker had included more about the darker side of the regime, such as the activities of the Stasi?

20.

What differences does the film highlight between life under a communist regime and a capitalist government?

21.

What examples of Western culture “infiltrate” the film, and how do the characters satirize those examples?

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4.3.3

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4.3.3

FOCUS 2 – Reunification

OSTALGIE AND DAILY LIFE IN THE FORMER GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

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4.3.4 Ostalgie Research Articles

FOCUS 4 – Reunification

4.3.4 Ostalgie Research Articles The New York Times

Eisenhüttenstadt Journal Warm, Fuzzy Feelings for East Germany’s Gray Old Days By Richard Bernstein January13, 2004 EISENHÜTTENSTADT—This town is the perfect setting for the stran-

“The products are genuine and the shelves are genuine,” Mr. Blech-

ge mood of nostalgia that seems to be taking hold in Germany late-

schmied said, standing inside the well-stocked store, “but usually

ly, even if a Socialist utopia from the Stalinist former German Demo-

they were more spread out than you see here, and there were lots

cratic Republic (otherwise known as East Germany) does not seem a

of empty spaces.”

natural inspirer of warm and fuzzy feelings about the past.

Ostalgie is complicated, made up of various ingredients. One is

But, strange as it is, a wave of what is called ostalgie (ost meaning

clearly the disillusionment felt by many former Easterners over Ger-

east in German) has become a phenomenon in this country. People

man reunification, which took place 13 years ago. Unemployment

wear born-in-the-G.D.R. T-shirts, or they collect Trabants, the rattling

these days is commonly 25 percent in regions like Eisenhüttenstadt.

two-cylinder cars that East Germans waited years to buy, or they go

Rents are no longer subsidized. Doctor visits cost money. People can

on line to be contestants on the “‘Ossi-Quiz,” all questions relating to

be fired. In addition, as Andreas Ludwig, the West German scholar of

East German pop culture.

urban history who started the museum a few years ago, noted, even

Here in Eisenhüttenstadt -- Steel Mill Town -- a few miles from the

capitalist products break down or are shabby and schlocky.

Polish border, ostalgie has been provided with its own museum, of-

All this has given rise to a sort of East German post-mortem fee-

ficially known as the Documentation Center on Everyday Life in the

ling that maybe the East had its good aspects after all, especially a

G.D.R. It is just down the road from the giant steel mill built here in

certain economic security and stability, even if your best vacation

the early 1950’s as an industrial showpiece.

option was Bulgaria.

The museum is just a few rooms, mostly on the second floor of a for-

Ostalgie got a huge lift during the course of the last year by the

mer day-care center, but it holds 70,000 to 80,000 objects from the

success of a movie, “Goodbye Lenin,” which offered a poignant, very

former East Germany. About 10,000 people a year come to look at

human image to life in the East. Set in East Berlin just after the fall of

Mikki transistor radios, jars of Bulgarian plums, schoolbooks, plastic

the Berlin Wall, it’s the story of a woman in such delicate health that

water glasses that never seemed to come in the right colors. Seeing

she might die if she learns that her country has ceased to exist, so

these familiar objects clearly stirs warm feelings about the vanished

her loving children maintain an ever more elaborate charade aimed

and unrecapturable past.

at persuading her that nothing fundamental has changed.

“It’s a very nice place when you want to remember your childhood,”

The mother, for example, asks for Spreewald Pickles, a highly valued

Thomas Blechschmied, a 29-year-old visitor, said the other day. “My

East German product that disappeared from the market after the fall

parents still have those egg-holders,” he continued, pointing to a

of the wall (and has since, by popular demand, reappeared). When

bright yellow object inside a case of plastic kitchen utensils from

the children find a discarded bottle with the Spreewald label still on

the early 1970’s.

it, they treasure it as an item that can save a life.

There’s no general wish for the East German state be revived, Mr.

Looking around Eisenhüttenstadt is to see that the Center of Eve-

Blechschmied said, explaining the limits of ostalgie. It is more a recognition that millions of people made do as best they could for the 40 or so years between the end of World War II and the fall of

ryday Life is a museum inside another sort of museum. Built during the course of the 1950’s, the town was one of four model communities East Germany created to embody in the here and now the

the Berlin Wall, when the East Germans competed in all areas of life,

futuristic promise of Communism.

from consumer products to Olympic ice skating. A person might,

The steel mill continues to operate, one of the very few such so-

looking at a jar of nougat, have a Proustian recollection of the shor-

cialist installations still doing so. The workers’ housing blocks, with

tages that plagued everyday life in East Germany.

their sometimes Stalinist-classical facades, are actually rather attrac-

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tive, painted in creamy or buttery or ochre tones. There are parks, playgrounds, day-care centers, schools. At the same time, the place imparts a feeling of emptiness; there is an absence of bustle, a quiet at the center of things, that is itself a legacy of central planning. Mr. Ludwig, who comes from what was West Berlin during the divided years, proposed the museum to the state of Brandenburg, though his purpose was not then and is not now to provide props for national nostalgia. He felt that with the East German state dead, it had become appropriate to collect its artifacts and to study them, just as one might have collected objects and testimonies about the American South right after the Civil War. “There’s no real reason to be nostalgic toward the G.D.R.,” he said. “It was a dictatorship and people couldn’t get out.” People, he said, rarely come alone to the museum; more often, two or more generations of a family come together, or Ossis with Wessies, and they find that objects impart not only memories but lessons. “The thing about everyday objects is that they don’t say much about politics,” Mr. Ludwig said. “But people start talking when they’re in front of things. ‘I remember that,’ A says to B. People intervene, and that starts a discussion.” Source: Bernstein, R. (2004, January 13). Eisenhüttenstadt Journal; Warm, Fuzzy Feelings for East Germany’s Gray Old Days. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/01/13/world/eisenhuttenstadt-journal-warm-fuzzy-feelings-for-east-germany-s-grayold-days.html From the New York Times, January 14, 2004 © 2004 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission in prohibited.

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Der Spiegel

Homesick for a Dictatorship Majority of Eastern Germans Feel Life Better under Communism By Julia Bonstein July 3, 2009 Glorification of the German Democratic Republic is on the rise

Germany. “The GDR had more good sides than bad sides. There were

two decades after the Berlin Wall fell. Young people and the

some problems, but life was good there,” say 49 percent of those

better off are among those rebuffing criticism of East Germany

polled. Eight percent of eastern Germans flatly oppose all criticism

as an “illegitimate state.” In a new poll, more than half of former

of their former home and agree with the statement: “The GDR had,

eastern Germans defend the GDR.

for the most part, good sides. Life there was happier and better than

The life of Birger, a native of the state of Mecklenburg-West Pome-

in reunified Germany today.”

rania in northeastern Germany, could read as an all-German success

These poll results, released last Friday in Berlin, reveal that glorifica-

story. The Berlin Wall came down when he was 10. After graduating

tion of the former East Germany has reached the center of society.

from high school, he studied economics and business administrati-

Today, it is no longer merely the eternally nostalgic who mourn the

on in Hamburg, lived in India and South Africa, and eventually got a

loss of the GDR. “A new form of Ostalgie (nostalgia for the former

job with a company in the western German city of Duisburg. Today

GDR) has taken shape,” says historian Stefan Wolle. “The yearning for

Birger, 30, is planning a sailing trip in the Mediterranean. He isn’t

the ideal world of the dictatorship goes well beyond former govern-

using his real name for this story, because he doesn’t want it to be

ment officials.” Even young people who had almost no experiences

associated with the former East Germany, which he sees as ”a label

with the GDR are idealizing it today. “The value of their own history

with negative connotations.”

is at stake,” says Wolle.

And yet Birger is sitting in a Hamburg cafe, defending the former

People are whitewashing the dictatorship, as if reproaching the

communist country. “Most East German citizens had a nice life,” he

state meant calling their own past into question. “Many eastern

says. “I certainly don’t think that it’s better here.” By “here,” he means

Germans perceive all criticism of the system as a personal attack,”

reunified Germany, which he subjects to questionable comparisons.

says political scientist Klaus Schroeder, 59, director of an institute at

“In the past there was the Stasi, and today (German Interior Minis-

Berlin’s Free University that studies the former communist state. He

ter Wolfgang) Schäuble -- or the GEZ (the fee collection center of

warns against efforts to downplay the SED dictatorship by young

Germany’s public broadcasting institutions) -- are collecting infor-

people whose knowledge about the GDR is derived mainly from

mation about us.” In Birger’s opinion, there is no fundamental diffe-

family conversations, and not as much from what they have learned

rence between dictatorship and freedom. “The people who live on

in school. “Not even half of young people in eastern Germany de-

the poverty line today also lack the freedom to travel.”

scribe the GDR as a dictatorship, and a majority believe the Stasi was

Birger is by no means an uneducated young man. He is aware of

a normal intelligence service,” Schroeder concluded in a 2008 study

the spying and repression that went on in the former East Germany,

of school students. “These young people cannot, and in fact have no

and, as he says, it was “not a good thing that people couldn’t leave

desire to, recognize the dark sides of the GDR.”

the country and many were oppressed.” He is no fan of what he cha-

“Driven Out of Paradise”

racterizes as contemptible nostalgia for the former East Germany. “I

Schroeder has made enemies with statements like these. He recei-

haven’t erected a shrine to Spreewald pickles in my house,” he says, referring to a snack that was part of a the East German identity. Nevertheless, he is quick to argue with those who would criticize the place his parents called home: “You can’t say that the GDR was an illegitimate state, and that everything is fine today.”

ved more than 4,000 letters, some of them furious, in reaction to reporting on his study. The 30-year-old Birger also sent an e-mail to Schroeder. The political scientist has now compiled a selection of typical letters to document the climate of opinion in which the GDR and unified Germany are discussed in eastern Germany. Some

As an apologist for the former East German dictatorship, the young

of the material gives a shocking insight into the thoughts of dis-

Mecklenburg native shares a majority view of people from eastern

appointed and angry citizens. “From today’s perspective, I believe

Germany. Today, 20 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, 57 percent,

that we were driven out of paradise when the Wall came down,”

or an absolute majority, of eastern Germans defend the former East

one person writes, and a 38-year-old man “thanks God” that he was

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able to experience living in the GDR, noting that it wasn’t until after

“not an unjust state,” but “my home, where my achievements were

German reunification that he witnessed people who feared for their

recognized.” Schön doggedly repeats the story of how it took him

existence, beggars and homeless people.

years of hard work before starting his own business in 1989 -- before

Today’s Germany is described as a “slave state” and a “dictatorship of capital,” and some letter writers reject Germany for being, in their opinion, too capitalist or dictatorial, and certainly not democratic. Schroeder finds such statements alarming. “I am afraid that a majority of eastern Germans do not identify with the current sociopolitical system.” Many of the letter writers are either people who did not benefit from German reunification or those who prefer to live in the past. But they also include people like Thorsten Schön. After 1989 Schön, a master craftsman from Stralsund, a city on the Baltic Sea, initially racked up one success after the next. Although he no longer owns the Porsche he bought after reunification, the lion skin rug he bought on a vacation trip to South Africa -- one of many overseas trips he has made in the past 20 years -- is still lying

reunification, he is quick to add. “Those who worked hard were also able to do well for themselves in the GDR.” This, he says, is one of the truths that are persistently denied on talk shows, when western Germans act “as if eastern Germans were all a little stupid and should still be falling to their knees today in gratitude for reunification.” What exactly is there to celebrate, Schön asks himself? “Rose-tinted memories are stronger than the statistics about people trying to escape and applications for exit visas, and even stronger than the files about killings at the Wall and unjust political sentences,” says historian Wolle. These are memories of people whose families were not persecuted and victimized in East Germany, of people like 30-year-old Birger, who says today: “If reunification hadn’t happened, I would also have had a good life.”

on his living room floor. “There’s no doubt it: I’ve been fortunate,”

Life as a GDR Citizen

says the 51-year-old today. A major contract he scored during the

After completing his university degree, he says, he would undoub-

period following reunification made it easier for Schön to start his

tedly have accepted a “management position in some business

own business. Today he has a clear view of the Stralsund sound from

enterprise,” perhaps not unlike his father, who was the chairman of

the window of his terraced house.

a farmers’ collective. “The GDR played no role in the life of a GDR ci-

‘People Lie and Cheat Everywhere Today’

tizen,” Birger concludes. This view is shared by his friends, all of them

Wall decorations from Bali decorate his living room, and a miniature version of the Statue of Liberty stands next to the DVD player. All the same, Schön sits on his sofa and rhapsodizes about the good old days in East Germany. “In the past, a campground was a place where people enjoyed their freedom together,” he says. What he misses most today is “that feeling of companionship and solidarity.” The economy of scarcity, complete with barter transactions, was

college-educated children of the former East Germany who were born in 1978. “Reunification or not,” the group of friends recently concluded, it really makes no difference to them. Without reunification, their travel destinations simply would have been Moscow and Prague, instead of London and Brussels. And the friend who is a government official in Mecklenburg today would probably have been a loyal party official in the GDR.

“more like a hobby.” Does he have a Stasi file? “I’m not interested in

The young man expresses his views levelheadedly and with few

that,” says Schön. “Besides, it would be too disappointing.”

words, although he looks slightly defiant at times, like when he says:

His verdict on the GDR is clear: “As far as I’m concerned, what we had in those days was less of a dictatorship than what we have today.”

“I know, what I’m telling you isn’t all that interesting. The stories of victims are easier to tell.”

He wants to see equal wages and equal pensions for residents of

Birger doesn’t usually mention his origins. In Duisburg, where he

the former East Germany. And when Schön starts to complain about

works, hardly anyone knows that he is originally from East Germa-

unified Germany, his voice contains an element of self-satisfaction.

ny. But on this afternoon, Birger is adamant about contradicting the

People lie and cheat everywhere today, he says, and today’s inju-

“victors’ writing of history.” “In the public’s perception, there are only

stices are simply perpetrated in a more cunning way than in the

victims and perpetrators. But the masses fall by the wayside.”

GDR, where starvation wages and slashed car tires were unheard

This is someone who feels personally affected when Stasi terror

of. Schön cannot offer any accounts of his own bad experiences

and repression are mentioned. He is an academic who knows “that

in present-day Germany. “I’m better off today than I was before,” he

one cannot sanction the killings at the Berlin Wall.” However, when

says, “but I am not more satisfied.”

it comes to the border guards’ orders to shoot would-be escapees,

Schön’s reasoning is less about cool logic than it is about settling

he says: “If there is a big sign there, you shouldn’t go there. It was

scores. What makes him particularly dissatisfied is “the false picture

completely negligent.”

of the East that the West is painting today.” The GDR, he says, was

This brings up an old question once again: Did a real life exist in the

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midst of a sham? Downplaying the dictatorship is seen as the price people pay to preserve their self-respect. “People are defending their own lives,” writes political scientist Schroeder, describing the tragedy of a divided country. Source: Bonstein, J.; Sultan C. (Translation). (2009, July 3). Homesick for a Dictatorship: Majority of Eastern Germans Feel Life Better under Communism. Spiegel Online. Retrieved July 2011, from http://www. spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,634122,00.html From Spiegel Online, July 3, 2009 © 2009 Spiegel Online. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission in prohibited.

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The Guardian

The Sandmännchen Germany’s cutest communist, turns 50 By Kate Conelly November 23, 2009 The citizens of the German Democratic Republic used to habitually tune into West German TV despite the risk of being caught doing so. But once a day at [6:50 P.M.], millions adjusted their sets to receive the East German channel DDR 1 for the latest exploits of a cartoon character who has become a national cultural icon, uniting East and West Germans like little else. Once the wall fell, the Sandmännchen – little Sandman – supplanted a cruder version of himself in West Germany, becoming one of the few aspects of life in the GDR to survive in the reunited country. The little Sandman – inspired by Hans Christian Andersen’s character – celebrated his 50th anniversary yesterday, having first appeared on 22 November 1959. At the end of that first episode he went to sleep in the snow, prompting upset young viewers to write in and offer him their beds, so the decision was made that at the end of every adventure he should always return to his fairytale homeland. He might have appeared an innocent and apolitical creation, but he came to embody the wanderlust of many East Germans frustrated at their inability to travel. He took hot air balloons to exotic places, visited the pyramids and Lapland. When he drove in a Landrover to Africa it is hard to judge what caused the greater controversy – the fact that he travelled in a west-European car or that he enjoyed a cold beer to help him cope with the heat. He visited the Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein in 1979 shortly after the former Iraqi president had seized power, arriving in Baghdad on a magic carpet. In 1963 he even flew to Moscow’s Red Square in a jet engine (later it was said that he might have inspired Matthias Rust to do the same for real). His program makers were often given stern warnings by the authorities lest he put ideas for escape into the minds of his fellow citizens. Celebrated on a stamp, on mugs, as a doll and in other paraphernalia, there is a museum dedicated to him at Babelsberg film park, currently holding an exhibition on Germany’s most popular TV character, who has been exported everywhere from Angola to Vietnam. Source: Connelly, K. (2009, November 22). The Sandmännchen, Germany’s cutest communist, turns 50. The Guardian. Retrieved from http:// www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/nov/23/sandmannchen-germany-communist

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Der Spiegel

Endangered Species East German Trabants Heading for Extinction By Eric Kelsey July 29, 2010 The beloved Trabant, a trademark of communist East Germany, is dying out fast. The number rattling around on German roads has dwindled to 35,000 from close to one million shortly after reunification. Last year’s cash-for-clunkers program appears to have persuaded many owners to ditch their brand loyalty.

But the cars remain a feature on the streets of the German capital, at least the eastern part of it, and Berlin officials are well aware that the cars are a tourist attraction. In 2009, the city declared that the Trabant had become a world-famous trademark for East Germany and decided to protect the endangered species by relaxed emissi-

After the fall of the Berlin Wall two decades ago, East Germans had had enough. Even as Trabants were hard to come by in communist times, once Germany reunified, everyone wanted a Western car.

ons standards for Trabis.

Not long later, thought, the little plastic car with its fume-belching two-stroke engine became the premier cult item for hard-core auto enthusiasts -- and for those who had succumbed to Ostalgie, dubious nostalgia for life in communist East Germany when “Trabis” provided a limited source of freedom and people had to wait 10 years for delivery.

Trabi Safari, a company that rents Trabis by the hour in Berlin, Dres-

These days, though, Trabis are slowly sliding toward extinction, with the number registered in Germany rapidly dwindling. Much of that, of course, is due to natural selection. The vehicles are made of Duroplast -- a mixture of resin powder and cotton -- and are literally falling apart. In addition, however, many owners ditched their brand loyalty last year when the German government offered a €2,500 vehicle scrapping bonus to persuade people to buy new cars to boost the flagging economy. Merely 35,000 Trabis are still registered with the German Federal Office of Motor Vehicles (KBA), a decrease of more than 95 percent from 1993, as far back as the KBA has statistics. “Naturally, the cars are just too old,” KBA spokesman Stephan Elsner told SPIEGEL ONLINE. The plant in the eastern town of Zwickau that produced the first Trabi in 1957 rolled the final one off its assembly line in 1991, shortly after reunification. ‘It’s Only a Hobby Today’ “The number of Trabis on the road is constantly going down,” Uwe Tautz, who restores old Trabants at his garage in the eastern Berlin district of Marzahn-Hellersdorf, told SPIEGEL ONLINE. “It’s only a hobby today.” Still, if you ask around, the number of those intent on keeping their plastic rattle-traps hasn’t fallen. “Our customer base has remained constant over the years,” Andreas Trull, a mechanic at the Trabant Oasis, a garage in the town of Hoppegarten near Berlin, told SPIEGEL ONLINE. “The reason some don’t drive them anymore is because of low-emission environmental zones some cities have introduced.”

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The cars have also lived on in a number of jokes about the vehicles. Click below for a selection: den and Potsdam, gets their spare parts from a factory in Hungary that still manufactures components. All told, roughly three million Trabis were produced and many of them found homes across the Eastern bloc. ‘Many Go Kaput’ Trabi Safari’s armada currently totals more than 90 of the subcompacts, nearly all of which are registered in Berlin. That’s roughly 10 percent of the capital’s total Trabi count. “We get them mostly from private owners, and still many go kaput,” Michaela Drepte, an assistant at the rental company, told SPIEGEL ONLINE. The company, however, has to add a special part to all their Trabis to comply with Berlin’s emission standards. Despite their growing rarity, however, Trabants are still relatively cheap to come by. A mere €1,000 ($1,300) is enough according to prices in online classifieds, the easiest place to find Trabis according to Tautz. Soon, though, there might even be some new ones available. IndiKar, a car manufacturer based outside of Zwickau, is hoping to give the Trabi new life. The company unveiled plans last year to make an electric-engine car in the Trabi style. IndiKar hopes car will hit roads in 2012 and cost around €25,000 ($32,500). Source: Kelsey, E. (2010, July 29). Endangered Species: East German Trabants Heading for Extinction. Spiegel Online. Retrieved July 2011 from http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/endangered-species-east-german-trabants-heading-for-extinction-a-708896.html From Spiegel Online, July 29, 2010 © 2010 Spiegel Online. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission in prohibited.

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4.3.5 Poetry Activity

4.3.5 Handout Poetry Activity Property by Volker Braun The poem describes the loss of the GDR and the feelings of mourning which East Germans felt. There is an atmosphere of despair and confusion, as the narrator tries to understand what he has just lost and attempts to create a vision for the future.

Das Eigentum Da bin ich noch: mein Land geht in den Westen. KRIEG DEN HÜTTEN FRIEDE DEN PALÄSTEN. Ich selber habe ihm den Tritt versetzt. Es wirft sich weg und seine magre Zierde. Dem Winter folgt der Sommer der Begierde. Und ich kann bleiben wo der Pfeffer wächst. Und unverständlich wird mein ganzer Text Was ich niemals besaß wird mir entrissen. Was ich nicht lebte, werd ich ewig missen. Die Hoffnung lag im Weg wie eine Falle. Mein Eigentum, jetzt habt ihrs auf der Kralle. Wann sag ich wieder mein und meine alle.

Property I’m still here, though my country’s gone West. PEACE TO THE PALACES AND DEVIL TAKE THE REST. I gave it the elbow and heave-ho once myself. Now it´s giving away its negligible charms itself. Winter is followed by a summer of guzzling. But I remain, worrying at the root of all evil. And my poem becomes increasingly puzzling, To wit: what I never had is being filched. I shall always mourn what never happened to me in person. Hope lay across the path like a trap. And that’s my junk you’ve got your paws on. Will it ever again be given me To say mine and thereby mean the collective me.

Source: Braun, V.; Hoffmann, M. (Translation). (1996). Das Eigentum (Property). Lustgarten. Preußen: Suhrkamp Verlag. Retrieved July 2011, from Poetry International Web, http://poetryinternationalweb.net/pi/site/poem/item/2409/auto/0/0/Volker-Braun/Property

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4.3.5 Poetry Activity

Using a think-pair-share strategy, answer the following questions based on your reading of the poem. 1.

The title of the poem is “Property.” What was the author’s property?

2.

In line 1, why does the author say: “I’m still here,”?

3.

Why is line 2 in all capital letters? Substitute “peace” with the word “war.” Does the line make more or less sense? Why does the poet use “peace” instead?

4.

In line 5, what does the sentence “Winter is followed by a summer of guzzling” mean?

5.

In line 6, why is the word “remain” italicized?

6.

In line 7, why does the “poem become increasingly puzzling?”

7.

In line 9, what does the author mean by “I shall always mourn what never happened to me in person?”

8.

In line 11, what was the “hope”? Why is it like “a trap?”

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4.3.5 Poetry Activity

berlin encounter by Yaak Karsunke This poem uses the symbol of a Doppelgänger (or double) to describe the imaginary encounter between an East German with his fictional West German alter ego. The East German asks the West German what the GDR “had turned [him] into” had he lived over there?” The West German rejects the comparison, but the East German suggests that their lives are indeed not so different after all. The West German cannot bear his mirror image any longer and asks him to go away.

berliner begegnung wer tritt da aus dem zwielicht mir entgegen? mit halber stimme in der halben nacht stellt er die frage (äußerst ungelegen): was hätte dieser Staat aus dir gemacht? nicht so, mein zerrbild, nicht mit dieser masche - das opfertäter-netz verfängt hier nicht – lüg dir nicht immer weiter in die tasche! jedoch mein trüber schatten widerspricht: wir hier im osten, ihr im freien westen, was angesagt, das haben wir gelernt; wir in den hütten, ihr in den palästen, & doch so weit nicht, wie du denkst, entfernt. geh aus dem spiegel, bruder. ich erschrecke, wenn ich in dir mein ebenbild entdecke.

berlin encounter who is stepping up to me from the twilight? with half a voice in the half-night asks the question (extremely inconvenient): what his state had turned you into? not so, distorted image, not with this trick - the victim versus perpetrator net won’t take me here – don’t keep on lying to yourself any longer! but my murky shadow protests: we here in the east, you in the free west, we’ve now learned what’s trend-setting: we in the huts, you in the palaces – but not as far-away as you think. leave the mirror, brother, I am frightened, when I discover my image in you.

Source: Karsunke, Y.; Falkenberg, M. (Translation). (2000). Berliner Begegnung (Berlin Encounter). hand & fuß. Munich: Buch & Media / Lyrikedition. Retrieved July 2011, from Lyrikline.org: http://lyrikline.org/index.php?id=162&L=1&author=yk00&show=Poems&poemId=3688&cHash=ef4 b256c8f

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4.3.5 Poetry Activity

Using a think-pair-share strategy, answer the following questions based on your reading of the poem: 1.

The poem is called “berlin encounter.” Who meets whom? Who speaks? How many voices are reflected in this poem?

2.

What do the following words from the poem represent: twilight, half-night, half a voice, distorted image, shadow, and mirror?

3.

In line 13, explain the expression, “ I am frightened.”

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4.4.1 Stasi Articles DER SPIEGEL

The World from Berlin Stasi Files Reveal East Germany’s ‘Dirty Reality’ By Cathrin Schaer July17, 2009 This week Germans were shocked to learn that almost 17,000

nal, “was to disqualify for new positions, or terminate the on-going

of their civil servants had once worked for the feared East Ger-

employment, of Stasi and high-ranking (communist party) leaders.”

man secret police, the Stasi. Commentators on Friday are happy to argue the relevance and accuracy of the figures but they all agree about the need for debate on an uncomfortable topic. Germany has been scratching an old itch this week. The issue of what to do with those Germans who once worked for the East German secret police, most commonly known as the Stasi, has come up again with figures released earlier in the week indicating there were still around 17,000 ex-Stasi employees in Germany’s civil service. Even more troubling, some of them appear to be employed by the police or in various national or state offices of criminal investigation. One was even rumored to be working as a bodyguard for Chancellor Angela Merkel although this was later denied by the agency responsible. And by the end of the week those numbers were coming under closer scrutiny with some researchers claiming they are too old to be reliable and that the issue was moot. At the height of its powers in the late 80s, the Stasi, considered to be one of the effective intelligence agencies in the world, employing

While criminal prosecutions were rare, thousands of former Stasi employees lost their jobs or were relegated to back offices. But, as figures released this week in German newspaper the Financial Times Deutschland indicate, apparently not enough of them. Firstly, the various state and national organizations that apparently employ former-Stasi were criticized for being too lax with their background checks. Klaus Schroeder, a historian from Berlin’s Free University who specializes in the East German regime, seemed surprised, telling reporters that, “there’s more to this than anyone knew.” But now some are arguing that the figures are over 10 years old and that the issue is old news, as everything that could be done, has been. Experts also point out that in 2006 the government resolved to end regular vetting of those working in minor positions in the civil service. An amendment to legislation around the Stasi files also stipulates that from 2012 even those in positions of authority, in politics or management, will no longer have to make themselves available for security checks of this nature.

an estimated 91,000 people to keep a close eye on the population

Broadly speaking German commentators say that any open debate

in the former communist state. And hundreds of thousands more

about this uncomfortable subject can only be healthy for the nation

-- perhaps even as many as two million, according to some resear-

as a whole. But, they add, the debate should be conducted respon-

chers -- also spied on friends, family and colleagues. The informati-

sibly and without recourse to 20-year-old prejudices.

on gathered on up to 5.6 million individuals was filed at the Stasi’s central catalogue and used to stifle political dissent. It also fostered

The center-left Süddeutsche Zeitung writes:

a repressive climate of fear in East German communities because

“Twenty years after the end of the GDR it is obvious that the East has

what the Stasi knew about you could, and most likely would, affect

learned a lot more about West than the West has learned about the

your educational, professional and even recreational opportunities.

East. Even 20 years later a lot of West Germans still talk as though half

So it’s hardly surprising that after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Stasi became a broad target for national resentment. And, post 1989, tho-

of those who lived in the East were Stasi, and the other half worked for them.”

se working for the Stasi found their own careers severely curtailed

“And every time someone comes out with some new figures about

with the introduction of background checks and closer examination

how many former Stasi workers are still employed in the civil ser-

of the Stasi files. Many civil servants -- police, teachers, janitors -- had

vice (even if these are old figures being touted as new) it brings up

to fill in questionnaires regarding any association with the former

all those old prejudices again. Altogether, the message is loud and

secret police. “The aim of this scrutiny,” writes the German Law Jour-

clear: we took on far too many of ‘them.’”

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“Such sweeping statements are false and dangerous and smack of

mans were demonstrating for 20 years ago. The problem is the way

self-righteousness. Of course, those working with the Stasi files and

in which the debate is proceeding.”

making decisions on the future careers of former GDR citizens made some mistakes. But they were honest mistakes, with decisions being made on the basis of personal preference, the mood of the time, changing political standards and, more times than not, on incomplete paperwork. No doubt there were mistakes made, sometimes

“For example, when a leader of research into the issue who has been involved in this area for years, says there’s more to this than he knew. Begging your pardon, but that sort of surprise is surprising.” The Financial Times Deutschland writes:

there were probably even huge injustices.” “Discussion about the ex-Stasi employees is uncomfortable for “Which means that today there are people in government offices

many and far from their everyday reality for others. But for all con-

who shouldn’t be allowed to work there. On the other hand, there

cerned it is long overdue.”

were probably also people thrown out of government offices undeservedly. It’s unfortunate -- but it’s too late to change. The files will

“Every state had its own criteria for clearing employees. But even in

never forget. But the time for using them to make decisions about

the 1990s it would not have been practical to throw all 190,000 of

employment in civil service has passed. They should only be used in

those who were at one time either official or unofficial Stasi emplo-

special circumstances now, when someone is being evaluated for a

yees out of their jobs. And it would make even less sense to throw

position of authority, for instance.”

those that are still working out now. What is necessary though, is that this topic is finally being discussed openly.”

“Anyone who has been working with the Stasi files knows … they show the dirty reality of the GDR, they are the last traces of a tota-

“An open discussion will show that not everyone that had so-

litarian system. These traces must be examined further -- but with

mething to do with the Stasi was a stalwart comrade. Sometimes

sensitivity not resentment and certainly not for the sake of resurrec-

it was just a little bit of contact, at other times a misunderstanding.

ting old prejudices.”

Though of course, others will have to admit they did the wrong

Conservative newspaper Die Welt writes:

thing -- either because of their own opportunism or because they were persuaded somehow.”

“Despite opposition from out of the West, the East Germans decided

“A political debate in which there are recriminations and belitt-

that the Stasi’s files should not just be locked away -- even though

lement will only make an already difficult relationship between

that is what Helmut Kohl and Wolfgang Schaüble first wanted. The-

victims and perpetrators more poisonous.”

se documents should have been helpful in outlining the inhumane methods used by the secret police and to explain why some people’s lives worked out the way they did. For the most part, this chance has been wasted. The information in these files was simply considered burdensome by many employers.” “Today hardly anyone who once worked for the Stasi can be prosecuted due to employment legislation. So this is not really about whether historians can expose the amount of Stasi infiltration (into the civil service).It is about German society accounting for itself -even if it’s just out of respect for the era-shattering events that oc-

Source: Schaer, C. (2009, July 10). The World from Berlin: Stasi Files Reveal East Germany’s ‘Dirty Reality.’ Spiegel Online. Retrieved from http:// www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,635486,00.html From Spiegel Online, July 10, 2009 © 2009 Spiegel Online. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission in prohibited.

curred twenty years ago.” The left-leaning Die Tageszeitung writes: “So where is the scandal? This question -- of ex-Stasi -- pops up fairly regularly. And considering this is an election year as well as the anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, it was probably long overdue.” “Now it’s turned up. Four and a half million people work in the German civil service. Of those, 17,000 of them once worked for the Stasi in some way, 20 years ago. The problem with this debate is not that we are having it. This is the kind of transparency that the East Ger-

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Piecing Together the Dark Legacy of East Germany’s Secret Police’ By Andrew Curry January 18, 2008 Ulrike Poppe used to be one of the most surveilled women in East

middle school and opened all of her mail. “They really tried to cap-

Germany. For 15 years, agents of the Stasi (short for Staatssicher-

ture everything,” she says. “Most of it was just junk.”

heitsdienst, or State Security Service) followed her, bugged her phone and home, and harassed her unremittingly, right up until she and other dissidents helped bring down the Berlin Wall in 1989. Today, the study in Poppe’s Berlin apartment is lined floor to 12-foot ceiling with bookshelves full of volumes on art, literature, and political science. But one shelf, just to the left of her desk, is special. It holds a pair of 3-inch-thick black binders — copies of the most important documents in Poppe’s secret police files. This is her Stasi shelf. Poppe hung out with East German dissidents as a teenager, got blackballed out of college, and was busted in 1974 by the police on the thin pretext of “asocial behavior.” On her way out of jail, Stasi agents asked her to be an informant, to spy on her fellow radicals, but she refused. (“I was just 21, but I knew I shouldn’t trust the Stasi,

But some of it wasn’t. And some of it ... Poppe doesn’t know. No one does. Because before it was disbanded, the Stasi shredded or ripped up about 5 percent of its files. That might not sound like much, but the agency had generated perhaps more paper than any other bureaucracy in history — possibly a billion pages of surveillance records, informant accounting, reports on espionage, analyses of foreign press, personnel records, and useless minutiae. There’s a record for every time anyone drove across the border. In the chaos of the days leading up to the actual destruction of the wall and the fall of East Germany’s communist government, frantic Stasi agents sent trucks full of documents to the Papierwolfs and Reisswolfs — literally “paper-wolves” and “rip-wolves,” German for

let alone sign anything,” she says.) She went on to become a foun-

shredders. As pressure mounted, agents turned to office shredders,

ding member of a reform-minded group called Women for Peace,

and when the motors burned out, they started tearing pages by

and was eventually arrested 13 more times — and imprisoned in

hand — 45 million of them, ripped into approximately 600 million

1983 for treason. Only an international outcry won her release.

scraps of paper.

Poppe learned to recognize many of the men assigned to tail her

There’s no way to know what bombshells those files hide. For a

each day. They had crew cuts and never wore jeans or sneakers. So-

country still trying to come to terms with its role in World War II and

metimes they took pictures of her on the sidewalk, or they piled into

its life under a totalitarian regime, that half-destroyed paperwork is

a white sedan and drove 6 feet behind her as she walked down the

a tantalizing secret.

street. Officers waited around the clock in cars parked outside her top-floor apartment. After one of her neighbors tipped her off, she found a bug drilled from the attic of the building into the ceiling plaster of her living room.

The machine-shredded stuff is confetti, largely unrecoverable. But in May 2007, a team of German computer scientists in Berlin announced that after four years of work, they had completed a system to digitally tape together the torn fragments. Engineers hope their

When the wall fell, the Stasi fell with it. The new government, de-

software and scanners can do the job in less than five years — even

termined to bring to light the agency’s totalitarian tactics, created

taking into account the varying textures and durability of paper, the

a special commission to give victims access to their personal files.

different sizes and shapes of the fragments, the assortment of prin-

Poppe and her husband were among the first people in Germany

ting (from handwriting to dot matrix) and the range of edges (from

allowed into the archives. On January 3, 1992, she sat in front of a

razor sharp to ragged and handmade.) “The numbers are tremend-

cart loaded with 40 binders dedicated to “Circle 2” — her codename,

ous. If you imagine putting together a jigsaw puzzle at home, you

it turned out. In the 16 years since, the commission has turned up 20

have maybe 1,000 pieces and a picture of what it should look like at

more Circle 2 binders on her.

the end,” project manager Jan Schneider says. “We have many mil-

The pages amounted to a minute-by-minute account of Poppe’s life, seen from an unimaginable array of angles. Video cameras were

lions of pieces and no idea what they should look like when we’re done.”

installed in the apartment across the street. Her friends’ bedrooms

As the enforcement arm of the German Democratic Republic’s

were bugged and their conversations about her added to the file.

Communist Party, the Stasi at its height in 1989 employed 91,000

Agents investigated the political leanings of her classmates from

people to watch a country of 16.4 million. A sprawling bureaucracy

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almost three times the size of Hitler’s Gestapo was spying on a po-

In several small cities, rumors started circulating that records were

pulation a quarter that of Nazi Germany.

being destroyed. Smoke, fires, and departing trucks confirmed the

Unlike the prison camps of the Gestapo or the summary executions of the Soviet Union’s KGB, the Stasi strove for subtlety. “They offered incentives, made it clear people should cooperate, recruited informal helpers to infiltrate the entire society,” says Konrad Jarausch, a historian at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “They beat people up less often, sure, but they psychologically trampled people. Which is worse depends on what you prefer.” That finesse helped the Stasi quell dissent, but it also fostered a pervasive and justified paranoia. And it generated an almost inconceivable amount of paper, enough to fill more than 100 miles of shelves. The agency indexed and cross-referenced 5.6 million names in its central card catalog alone. Hundreds of thousands of “unofficial employees” snitched on friends, coworkers, and their own spouses, sometimes because they’d been extorted and sometimes in exchange for money, promotions, or permission to travel abroad. For such an organized state, East Germany fell apart in a decidedly messy way. When the country’s eastern bloc neighbors opened their borders in the summer of 1989, tens of thousands of East Germans fled to the West through Hungary and Czechoslovakia. By autumn, protests and riots had spread throughout East Germany, with the participants demanding an end to restrictions on travel and speech. In the first week of October, thousands of demonstrators in Dresden turned violent, throwing rocks at police, who broke up the

fears of angry Germans, who rushed in to their local Stasi offices, stopped the destruction, and spontaneously organized citizen committees that could post guards to secure the archives. Demonstrators spray-painted the walls with slogans like “The files belong to us” and “Stasi get out.” Finally, on the evening of January 15, 1990, thousands of demonstrators pushed in the front gate of the Stasi’s fortified Berlin compound. At headquarters, agents had been more discreet than their colleagues in the hinterlands. Burning all those files would tip off angry Berliners that something was up. When the first destruction orders came in, they began stacking bags of paper in the “copper kettle,” a copper-lined basement designed as a surveillance-proof computer room. The room quickly filled with bags of shredded and torn paper. Today, even the people gathering and archiving the Stasi files express grudging admiration for the achievement. “Destroying paper is shit work,” says government archivist Stephan Wolf. “After two days your joints hurt. They ripped for two months.” But a few days after demonstrators breached the Stasi front gate, the archives still hadn’t been found. A citizen group coalesced, determined to track them down. Among the searchers was a 23-yearold plumber named David Gill, a democracy activist barred from university because his father was a Protestant minister. He was secretly studying theology at an underground seminary in Berlin.

crowd with dogs, truncheons, and water cannons. The government

Accompanied by cooperative police, Stasi agents led Gill and his

described the thousand people they arrested as “hooligans” to state-

compatriots through twisting alleys and concrete-walled cour-

controlled media.

tyards, all eerily empty. Finally they arrived at a nondescript office

But on October 9, the situation escalated. In Leipzig that night, 70,000 people marched peacefully around the city’s ring road — which goes right past the Stasi office. Agents asked for permission from Berlin to break up the demonstration, but this was just a few months after the Chinese government had brutally shut down pro-

building in the heart of the compound. Inside, there was more paper than he had ever imagined. “We had all lived under the pressure of the Stasi. We all knew they could know everything,” Gill says today. “But we didn’t understand what that meant until that moment. Suddenly it was palpable.”

democracy protests in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square, to international

Gill and his crew of volunteers preserved whatever they could, com-

condemnation. The East German government didn’t want a similar

mandeering trucks and borrowing cars to collect files from Stasi safe

bloodbath, so the Stasi did nothing. A week later, 120,000 people

houses and storage facilities all over Berlin. Most of it was still intact.

marched; a week after that, the number was 300,000 — in a city

Some of it was shredded, unrecoverable. They threw that away. But

with a population of only 530,000.

then there were also bags and piles of hand-torn stuff, which they

In November, hundreds of East and West Berliners began dismantling the wall that bisected the city. But the communist government

saved without knowing what to do with it. “We didn’t have time to look at it all,” Gill says. “We had no idea what it would mean.”

was still in power, negotiating with dissidents and hoping to hold

Bertram Nickolay grew up in Saarland, a tiny German state close to

on. Inside the Stasi, leaders hoped that if they weathered whatever

Luxembourg that is about as far from East Germany as you could go

changes were imminent, they’d be able to get back to business un-

in West Germany. He came to West Berlin’s Technical University in

der a different name. But just in case, the head of the Stasi ordered

1974 to study engineering, the same year Ulrike Poppe was placed

the agency to start destroying the incriminating paperwork it had

under Stasi surveillance on the other side of the Berlin Wall. A Christi-

on hand.

an, he felt out of place on a campus still full of leftist radicals praising

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East German communism and cursing the US. Instead, Nickolay gravitated toward exiled East German dissidents and democracy activists. “I had a lot of friends who were writers and intellectuals in the GDR. There was an emotional connection,” he says.

On the right-hand screen, digital images of paper fragments appeared — technicians had scanned them in using a specially designed, two-camera digital imaging system. As Schneider pulled down menus and clicked through a series of descriptive choices, fragments disappeared from the screen. “Basically, we need to reduce the search space,” he says. White paper or blue — or pink or green

Today, Nickolay is head of the Department of Security Technolo-

or multicolored? Plain, lined, or graph? Typewriting, handwriting, or

gy for the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design

both? Eventually, only a handful of similar-looking pieces remained.

Technology. Fraunhofer is Europe’s largest research nonprofit, with

Once matched, the pieces get transferred to another processor. The-

56 branches in Germany alone and an annual budget of more than

se popped up as a reconstructed page on the left-hand screen, rips

$1 billion. (Fraunhofer researchers invented the MP3 audio codec,

still visible but essentially whole. (The reconstructors caught one

which netted the society more than $85 million in license fees in

big break: It turns out that the order-obsessed Stasi usually stuffed

2006.)

one bag at a time, meaning document fragments are often found together.)

In 1996, Nickolay saw a TV news report on an unusual project. A team working for the Stasi Records Office (BStU), the newly created ministry responsible for managing the mountain of paper left behind by the secret police, had begun manually puzzling together bags full of documents, scrap by scrap. The results were explosive: Here was additional proof that East Germany sheltered terrorists, ran national sports doping programs, and conducted industrial espionage across Western Europe. BStU’s hand-assembly program also exposed hundreds of the Stasi’s secret informants — their ranks tur-

Just 19 years old when the Berlin Wall fell, Schneider doesn’t share Nickolay’s moral outrage. For him, this is simply a great engineering challenge. He turns away from the massive monitors on the wall and picks up my business card to explain how the team is training the computers to look at these documents — the same way people do. “You see a white piece with blue writing on it — computer writing, machine writing, not handwriting — and here in the upper left is a logo. Tear it up and you’d immediately know what to look for, what

ned out to include bishops, university professors, and West German

goes together.”

bureaucrats.

But my card is easy. For one thing, I sprang for heavy stock, and

But the work is painfully slow. Gerd Pfeiffer, the project’s manager,

you’d be hard-pressed to tear it into enough pieces to constitute

says he and a dwindling staff have reassembled 620,500 pages of Stasi secrets in the 13 years since the project began. That works out to one bag per worker per year — 327 bags so far — and 700 years to finish.

“destroyed.” The Stasi files are something else entirely. In 2000, the BStU collected them and sent them to Magdeburg, a decaying East German industrial city 90 miles west of Berlin. In hand-numbered brown paper sacks, neatly stacked on row after row of steel shelves, they fill a three-story, 60,000-square-foot warehouse on the nort-

That TV segment resonated with Nickolay — he had opposed the

hern edge of town. Each sack contains about 40,000 fragments, for

East German regime, and he had the necessary technical expertise.

a total of 600 million pieces of paper (give or take a hundred million).

“This is essentially a problem of automation,” he says, “and that’s so-

And each fragment has two sides. That’s more than a billion images.

mething Fraunhofer is very good at.” He sent a letter to the head of BStU offering his help.

The numbers aren’t the worst part. The documents in the bags date from the 1940s to the 1980s, and they’re made of everything from

The government was hesitant, but eventually the BStU issued a

carbon paper and newsprint to Polaroids and heavy file folders. That

proof-of-concept challenge: Anyone who could digitally turn 12

means the fragments have a wide variety of textures and weights.

pieces of ripped-up paper into a legible document or documents

Hand-ripping stacks of thick paper creates messy, overlapping mar-

would get a grant. About 20 teams responded. Two years later,

gins with a third dimension along the edges. For a computer loo-

Nickolay’s group was the only one to succeed, earning a contract

king for 2-D visual clues, overlaps show up as baffling gaps. “Keep

for a two-year, 400-bag pilot project.

ripping smaller and smaller and you can get pieces that are all edge,”

On a gray day last fall, I sat in front of two wall-mounted Sharp

Schneider says.

Aquos flatscreen TVs hooked up to four networked computers. Next

The data for the 400-bag pilot project is stored on 22 terabytes

to me, Jan Schneider, Nickolay’s deputy and the manager of the Sta-

worth of hard drives, but the system is designed to scale. If work on

si document reconstruction project, booted up the machines. (This

all 16,000 bags is approved, there may be hundreds of scanners and

was just a demo: Nickolay refused to show me the actual lab, citing

processors running in parallel by 2010. (Right now they’re analyzing

German privacy law.)

actual documents, but still mostly vetting and refining the system.)

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Then, once assembly is complete, archivists and historians will pro-

all. “I always used to wish that some Stasi agent would defect and

bably spend a decade sorting and organizing. “People who took the

call me up to say, Here, I brought your file with me,’” Poppe says.

time to rip things up that small had a reason,” Nickolay says. “This isn’t about revenge but about understanding our history.” And not just Germany’s — Nickolay has been approached by foreign officials from Poland and Chile with an interest in reconstructing the files damaged or destroyed by their own repressive regimes. This kind of understanding isn’t cheap. The German parliament has given Fraunhofer almost $9 million to scan the first 400 bags. If the system works, expanding up the operation to finish the job will cost an estimated $30 million. Most of the initial cost is research and development, so the full reconstruction would mainly involve more scanners and personnel to feed the paper in.

Reading the reports in that first set of 40 binders spurred her to uncover as much as she could about her monitored past. Since 1995, Poppe has received 8 pages from the group putting together documents by hand; the collection of taped-together paper is in a binder on her Stasi shelf. The truth is, for Poppe the reconstructed documents haven’t contained bombshells that are any bigger than the information in the rest of her file. She chooses a black binder and sets it down on the glass coffee table in her living room. After lighting a Virginia Slim, she flips to a page-long list of snitches who spied on her. She was able to match codenames like Carlos, Heinz, and Rita to friends, coworkers,

Is it worth it? Günter Bormann, the BStU’s senior legal expert, says

and even colleagues in the peace movement. She even tracked

there’s an overwhelming public demand for the catharsis people

down the Stasi officer who managed her case, and after she set up

find in their files. “When we started in 1992, I thought we’d need five

a sort of ambush for him at a bar — he thought he was there for a

years and then close the office,” Bormann says. Instead, the Records

job interview — they continued to get together. Over the course of

Office was flooded with half a million requests in the first year alo-

half a dozen meetings, they talked about what she found in her files,

ne. Even in cases where files hadn’t been destroyed, waiting times

why the Stasi was watching her, what they thought she was doing.

stretched to three years. In the past 15 years, 1.7 million people have

For months, it turned out, an agent was assigned to steal her baby

asked to see what the Stasi knew about them.

stroller and covertly let the air out of her bicycle tires when she went

Requests dipped in the late 1990s, but the Oscar-winning 2006 film The Lives of Others, about a Stasi agent who monitors a dissident playwright, seems to have prompted a surge of new applications; 2007 marked a five-year high. “Every month, 6,000 to 8,000 people decide to read their files for the first time,” Bormann says. These days, the Stasi Records Office spends $175 million a year and employs 2,000 people. This being Germany, there’s even a special word for it: Vergangenheitsbewältigung, or “coming to terms with the past.” It’s not self-evident — you could imagine a country deciding, communally, to recover from a totalitarian past by simply gathering all the documents and destroying them. In fact, in 1990 the German press and citizen committees were wracked by debate over whether to do just that. Many people, however, suspected that former Stasi agents and ex-

grocery shopping with her two toddlers. “If I had told anyone at the time that the Stasi was giving me flat tires, they would have laughed at me,” she says. “It was a way to discredit people, make them seem crazy. I doubted my own sanity sometimes.” Eventually, the officer broke off contact, but continued to telephone Poppe — often drunk, often late at night, sometimes complaining about his failing marriage. He eventually committed suicide. Poppe is looking forward to finding out what was in that last, reconstructed 5 percent. “The files were really important to see,” she says, taking a drag on her cigarette and leaning forward across the coffee table. “They explained everything that happened — the letters we never got, the friends who pulled away from us. We understood where the Stasi influenced our lives, where they arranged for something to happen, and where it was simply our fault.”

informants were behind the push to forgive and forget.

Source:

By preserving and reconstructing the Stasi archives, BStU staffers

Curry, A. (2008, January 18). Piecing Together the Dark Legacy of

say they hope to keep history from repeating itself. In November,

East Germany’s Secret Police. Wired Magazine, 16 (2). Retrieved from

the first children born after the fall of the wall turned 18. Evidence

http://www.wired.com/politics/security/magazine/16-02/ff_stasi

suggests many of them have serious gaps in their knowledge of the past. In a survey of Berlin high school students, only half agreed that the GDR was a dictatorship. Two-thirds didn’t know who built the Berlin Wall. The files hold the tantalizing possibility of an explanation for the strangeness that pervaded preunification Germany. Even back then, Poppe wondered if the Stasi had information that would explain it

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4.4.2 The Lives of Others Movie Handout

4.4.2 Handout The Lives of Others Movie Handout Film:

Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others)

Web site: http://www.sonyclassics.com/thelivesofothers/swf/index.html Setting: 1984- East Berlin The German Democratic Republic was among the most closed and repressive of the Soviet bloc countries. Political opponents were quickly imprisoned, and all institutions were placed under the control of the Ministry of State Security (Staatssicherheit or the Stasi). The Stasi force was highly professional and infiltrated almost every aspect of GDR life in the regime’s efforts to control “enemies of the state.” By 1989, the Stasi had nearly 100,000 employees and as many as two million collaborators. From the West, the most obvious sign of the GDR’s repressive system was its control on the freedom of movement. Following reunification, the government passed the Stasi Records Law, which stated that both citizens of the former East Germany as well as foreigners had the right to view their files. It is estimated that over one million people have accessed their files; there were files on approximately six million East Germans, over a third of the population (Democracy Web, 2011). Source: Democracy Web: Comparative Studies in Freedom. (2011). Rule of Law: Country Studies – Germany. Retrieved November 29, 2011, from http://www.democracyweb.org/rule/germany.php

Main Characters • Gerd Wiesler: a highly skilled officer of the Stasi, a proud, zealous, disciplined and entirely cold-blooded professional, an expert interrogator • Lieutenant Colonel Grubitz: former classmate of Wiesler, now head of Stasi’s Culture Department • Georg Dreyman: renowned East German playwright, boyfriend of Christa-Maria Sieland • Minister Bruno Hempf: high-ranking member of the central committee of the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, (SED or Socialist Unity Party); former Stasi member • Christa-Maria Sieland: famous East German actress, girlfriend of Georg Dreyman, secretly in a relationship with Minister Hempf to retain a favorable position in the acting scene of the GDR • Paul Hauser: friend of Dreyman’s and political activist • Albert Jerska: once famous theater director from the GDR, blacklisted for many years by the government

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4.4.2 The Lives of Others Movie Handout

Scene 1 Training for Stasi & Hohenschönhausen Prison (central Stasi detention center) Timing: 7 minutes 1.

When does the movie take place?

2.

What does Wiesler do when the student questions the sleep deprivation technique?

3.

How could Wiesler determine the truth from a lie?

4.

Why was the prisoner being questioned?

5.

Why do you think that an odor sample would be helpful for an investigation?

6.

What does Wiesler say about the “enemies?”

7.

Does it appear that the Stasi is doing anything particular illegal in this scene?

Scene 2 At the opening of Dreyman’s Play Timing: 5 minutes 1.

What does Wiesler say immediately upon seeing Georg Dreyman? Why do you think he judges him? How could he be an enemy?

2.

Grubitz, head of Stasi’s Culture Department, thinks Dreyman is “clean” and should not be monitored. What does he mean by clean?

3.

What causes Grubitz to change his mind about monitoring Dreyman? (This occurs when Grubitz goes to talk to Hempf, a prominent member of the SED.)

4.

What does Minister Hempf promise Grubitz if he “finds something?”

5.

What is your opinion now of Grubitz and Wiesler?

6.

How does this scene illustrate the relationship between the German communist party and the Stasi? Who is the true enemy here?

Scene 6 Wire-tapping Dreyman’s Apartment (start with Dreyman playing ball outside with children) Timing: 5 minutes 1.

Describe how Wiesler’s men wiretap Dreyman’s apartment. Where in the apartment building does he establish his surveillance headquarters?

2.

When Wiesler notices that a woman sees him through the peep hole, what happens?

3.

How is she compensated for her services?

Scene 8 40th Birthday Party of Dreyman The scene begins with Wiesler turning on the lights to his recording room. Dreyman has just come back from talking with his friend Albert Jerska, a playwright that has been blacklisted (meaning that he can no longer direct) by the government (perhaps for portraying something too critical about the government or the GDR). Georg tries to give his friend some hope about returning to the theater soon. (Scene stops with Wiesler beginning to type his report.) Timing: 7 minutes 1.

Dreyman asks Frau Meineke to help him with his tie. How does she react to this?

2.

When he asks her “if she could keep a secret about this” what happens?

3.

When Jerska says to Dreyman that he was reading Bertolt Brecht, Wiesler makes a note of this in his journal. Why? What could this mean?

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4.

One of Dreyman’s friends, Paul Hausner (wearing glasses) accuses another director at the party of being with the Stasi. When Dreyman tries to calm him down, Paul angrily states why he believes Jerska was blacklisted. Who does he think did this?

5.

Paul tells Dreyman before he leaves that “if you don’t stand up, you’re not human.” What does he want Dreyman to do?

6.

In this scene you have 3-4 instances of friendships becoming difficult because of real or assumed Stasi interference. What does this say about relationships and friendships in the GDR?

Scene 12 Dreyman confronts Christa-Maria about her relationship with Minister Hempf. Scene begins with Wiesler meeting a young boy in the elevator of Dreyman’s apartment complex. Timing: 6 minutes 1.

What does the boy say about the Stasi? How does Wiesler react?

2.

How does the Minister treat Grubitz?

3.

What does Grubitz tell Wiesler about their work on the love story?

4.

Dreyman confronts Christa-Maria about her affair with Minister Hempf and tells her to have more faith in herself and her talents. How does this scene show that Georg’s and Christa-Maria’s beliefs about the “system” differ?

Scene 26-28 Two years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Dreyman makes an important discovery in his apartment after he learns from Hempf that he was under full surveillance all along. 1.

How much time has passed in the story?

2.

What does Dreyman discover inside his light switch?

3.

Why does Dreyman visit the former Stasi headquarters in Berlin? What does he discover about Christa-Maria?

4.

Why does he want to know the identity of the Stasi agent?

5.

What has happened to Wiesler? Why doesn’t Dreyman confront him?

General Questions: 1.

At the beginning of the film, Wiesler is a principled communist and Stasi officer. During his surveillance of Dreyman’s flat, he gradually changes. Trace the stages of Wiesler’s change, the questioning of his ideology, his growing involvement with “the lives of others.”

2.

One theme of The Lives of Others is that power is in the hands of one person who controls the destiny of another. Consider how totalitarian states demonstrate power and authority toward every single person. How would this have affected the average GDR citizen on a daily basis? What happens to the human need for privacy and intimacy when espionage is a common instrument? How might people feel if they can never be certain if their surroundings are safe? Which consequences of the totalitarian state can be seen in the film The Lives of Others? Why are the ideas of communism and socialism in conflict with the ideas of self-realization and individuality?

Source: This movie handout was taken directly from 2009 TOP Fellow Jeanne Scheppach’s lesson. Scheppach, J. M. (2011). Goethe TOP Program Lesson Plan: The Stasi and Espionage in the GDR. Retrieved from Goethe-Institut Washington, Top Online Web site: http://www.toponline.org/lessons/high/lp09s_scheppach.pdf

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4.4.3 Stasi Surveillance Report

FOCUS 4 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Reunification

4.4.3 Handout Stasi Surveillance Report Stasi Surveillance Report on (Create Code Name of Student)

Name of Informer (Create a Code Name for yourself )

City, Date

Place a star next to your false name if you were selected as an informer. In short paragraph form, note the time of each activity watched and what the student did. Be as detailed as possible. Your remarks should be limited to facts. In your report, please do not name other students by their actual name. Use other descriptors such as height, hair color, apparent age, or ethnic background. Your statements need to be neutral, non-offensive, and as close to reality as possible. They should be un-biased and non-judgmental. School rules for respectful behavior apply above else. Response needs to be typed. Try and observe the student in at least 5-7 interactions throughout the day. This can be in class or during lunch. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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5.1.1 Timeline of Reunified Germany (1989-2011)

FOCUS 5 – Political System

5.1.1 Handout Timeline of Reunified Germany (1989-2011)

DATE

EVENT

1989 November 9:

(Berlin) The East German government announces that visits to West Germany and West Berlin will be permitted. Immediately, thousands of East Berliners pass into West Berlin as border guards stand by. That same night, people begin tearing down the Berlin Wall (Mauer), which is finally opened.

1990s throughout the 1990s

Techno-culture develops in all major cities of Germany, with Berlin as its center. It‘s a youth movement and subculture around the development of techno and electronic music.

1990 March 18:

(GDR) First free and democratic elections were held in East Germany.

June 19:

(FRG) West Germany signs the „Schengen Treaty“ (in the city of Schengen) pledging to decrease inner-European border controls.

July 1:

(GDR/FRG) Both West and East Germany sign the treaty to merge monetary, economic, and social matters going forward. The introduction of the Deutsche Mark in the GDR, replacing the Ostmark currency, marks the beginnings of the currency union.

August 31:

(GDR/FRG) Both Germanys sign the Unity Treaty.

September:

The so-called 1000-Roof-Program to promote and subsidize the use of solar panels on the roofs of houses is launched by the German Federal Government.

September 12:

(GDR/FRG) U.S., Britain, France, Soviet Union, East Germany, and West Germany sign the „Two-Plus-Four-Treaty“ in Moscow. This treaty is the final settlement to WWII and officially ends the four allied powers‘ rights and responsibilities in Germany.

September 24:

(GDR) East Germany formally withdraws from the „Warsaw Pact.“

October 3:

(GDR/FRG) Day of German Unity: East Germany formally joins West Germany creating one unified Germany.

October 4:

The first session of a unified-German Bundestag held in the Berlin Reichstag building with the members of the former GDR parliament takes place.

November 9:

First anniversary of the fall of the Wall. German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev sign the German-Soviet treaty pledging “Good Neighborhood, Partnership, and Collaboration.”

December 2:

First all-German elections for the Bundestag of the Federal Republic of Germany. As part of a coalition, Helmut Kohl‘s political party maintains the majority and he the elected office of German chancellor.

1991 January 2:

For the first time East German conscripts join the Bundeswehr.

March 8:

Germany adopts Gemeinschaftswerk Aufschwung Ost, a large rebuilding and investment program for former East Germany.

April 1:

German terrorists assassinate Mr. Detlev Karsten Rohwedder, president of the Berlin Trust Agency (Treuhandanstalt). The agency assisted in the process of privatizing former communist regime-run factories.

May 29:

Regular high-speed railway travel starts in Germany. The InterCityExpress train (ICE) runs up to 155 miles per hour.

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5.1.1 Timeline of Reunified Germany (1989-2011)

FOCUS 5 – Political System

June 12:

Der Grüne Punkt (the green dot) recycling program is introduced in Germany, which marks the beginning of extensive recycling.

June 20:

The German Bundestag votes to move the seat of the federal government and parliament from Bonn to Berlin. Bonn remains an administrative center for the federal government.

August 10:

Germany celebrates the 200th anniversary of the Brandenburg Gate.

August 17:

The allied troops begin to withdraw from Germany.

September 17-23:

In Hoyerswerda, an east German city in the state of Saxony, the first racist pogroms after WWII take place. It starts with the attack on Vietnamese street vendors by a group of neo-Nazis, and leads to attacks on a home of foreign contract workers and another home of asylum seekers. The homes‘ inhabitants are evacuated; nevertheless, 32 people are injured. Within a couple of days most foreigners leave Hoyerswerda and the city becomes ausländerfrei (free of foreigners).

1992 January 1:

The bill outlining how to handle the Stasi files (Stasi-Unterlagengesetz) in passed into law.

August 22 – 24:

The most violent mob attack against foreigners in postwar Germany takes place in Rostock-Lichtenhagen, an east German city in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Neo-Nazis threw stones and petrol bombs at an apartment building housing asylum seekers, thankfully no one was killed. At the height of the violent riots, several hundred militant neo-Nazis are involved.

November 4:

The Bundestag passed the first of several laws outlining rehabilitation programs and compensation schedules for victims who suffered from the GDR-regime‘s political persecution.

November 23:

In Mölln, an east German city in the state of Schleswig-Holstein, neo-Nazis set on fire two houses in which Turkish families lived. Nine people are injured and two girls and their grandmother die.

1993 Start of the Freiwilliges Ökologisches Jahr (voluntary ecological year), a voluntary year of service for teenager and young adults in the field of ecology. January 1:

A European community free trade agreement becomes the catalyst for renewed inner-European trade.

March 16:

The federal government and the state governments agree on the Solidarity Pact I, which was in effect from 1995 until 2004. This agreement replaces the German Unity Fund and makes various federal and state funds available to boost the economic development of the five newly adopted states (former East Germany).

May 29:

In Solingen, a west German city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, a group of neo-Nazis set fire to a house in which Turkish families lived. Five people (three girls and two women) died; another 17 people are severely injured.

May 26:

The asylum law is tightened and a third-country regulation is adopted, whereby asylum seekers from presumably safe countries, wishing to immigrate to Germany, are returned to their country of origin.

July 1:

The reformed asylum law comes into effect making it more difficult to obtain asylum in Germany.

November 1:

As a result of the Treaty of Maastricht, the European Community becomes the European Union (EU).

1994 May 31:

Within the framework of harmonizing both law systems of the former two Germanys, the so-called „Homosexual Paragraph“ is abolished.

August 31:

Russia ends its military presence in former East Germany and the Baltic states after half a century. President Boris Yeltsin and Chancellor Helmut Kohl officiate the formal withdrawal.

September 8:

Withdrawal of the Western allies from West Germany. However, the U.S. and Great Britain still maintain strategic military basis in Germany.

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5.1.1 Timeline of Reunified Germany (1989-2011)

FOCUS 5 – Political System

1995 January 1:

Adoption of the Solidarity Surcharge-- an additional surcharge to income tax and corporate income tax that financed the rebuilding and investment program for former East Germany.

January 1:

The newly-invented compulsory long-term healthcare insurance becomes law.

October 1:

The updated „Abortion Paragraph“ is enacted. With the issuance of a counseling certificate, abortions are legal within the first trimester. Abortions are also legal for the entire duration of the pregnancy, if the mother‘s life, her physical, or mental health are in danger.

1998 June 1:

The new European Central Bank (ECB) opens for business in Frankfurt at the River Main.

September 27:

Federal elections are held and, for the first time in German history, the Social Democrats form a coalition with the relatively new Green Party to take the majority in parliament forming a new government.

1999 - 2003

The federal government extends the „100,000-roof program“ to promote and subsidize the use of solar panels on the roofs of houses. The financial volume of the program reaches more than 1 billion Euros.

1999 March 24:

German fighter jets take off from Italy toward Yugoslavia. It’s the first combat mission of German soldiers since World War II.

April 21:

President Bill Clinton presented German Chancellor Helmut Kohl with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States‘ highest civilian honor.

June 19:

The European education ministers sign the Bologna Declaration, which starts the process of harmonizing the European higher education system. Within this framework all signing countries agreed to adopt the bachelor‘s and master‘s degree system by 2010.

July 10:

The Love Parade celebrates its 10th anniversary with the largest crowd to date: approximately 1.5 million participants.

September 30:

It is announced that Günter Grass receives the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature.

2000 April 1:

The German Renewable Energy Bill (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz, EEG) becomes law. It‘s designed to encourage energy efficiency and guarantees fixed prices for energy from renewable sources in order to stimulate greater investment in this field. It is the beginning of a tremendous boost of renewable energy in Germany.

May-June:

The OECD conducts the first PISA studies (Programme for International Student Assessment) in 43 countries. Germany is in 20th place. Ever since this disappointing PISA result, Germany has steadily improved their PISA score.

June 14:

The coalition government (social democrats and the green party) comes to an agreement with leading German power companies to phase out nuclear energy by 2021.

August 2:

The Bundestag approves the establishment of the foundation for „Remembrance, Responsibility and Future“ (Stiftung „Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft,“ or EVZ). The foundation provides financial compensation „to former forced laborers and to those affected by other injustices from the Nazi period“ (Law on the Creation of a Foundation “Remembrance, Responsibility and Future” § 2). It‘s capital of 5.2 billion euro is provided in equal amounts by the German Industry Foundation Initiative and the German federal government.

2001 January 1:

On a voluntary basis, women can now enlist in all areas of the Bundeswehr.

June 10:

Klaus Wowereit formally accepts his party‘s nomination to run for major of Berlin. In his speech he publically announced that he is gay. „Ich bin schwul, und das ist auch gut so.“ („I‘m gay, and that‘s a good thing.“) In 2011 he is running for his third term in office.

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5.1.1 Timeline of Reunified Germany (1989-2011)

FOCUS 5 – Political System

August 1:

The civil union bill (Lebenspartnerschaftsgesetz) becomes law, granting same-sex couples many of the rights married couples have.

September 11:

Germans gather to mourn the victims of the New York, Washington DC, and Pennsylvania terror attacks. Over 250,000 gather in front of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin to show their solidarity.

November 16:

The Bundestag decides in two voting sessions that Germany will participate in „Operation Enduring Freedom“ in Afghanistan.

2002 January 1:

The Euro currency is introduced in 12 European Union countries, among them Germany.

January 1:

Prostitution is fully legalized, granting prostitutes many aspects of social welfare.

April 26:

With new nuclear regulations becoming law, the phasing out of nuclear energy in Germany is underway.

August:

After intense rainfall, the Elbe river overflows and dams break causing the German „100 Year Flood.“ The government response was expedient, aiding in Chancellor Schröder‘s reelection.

August:

The German government decides against a military participation in the Iraq war. This leads to harsh discord between the American and German governments, but also secures Chancellor Gerhard Schröder‘s reelection.

2003 March 14:

Chancellor Gerhard Schröder delivers a speech before the German Bundestag outlining proposed plans for a major reform called “Agenda 2010.” Its three main focus areas are: the economy, the social security system, and Germany‘s position in the world economy. The agenda includes the already began so-called Hartzreforms.

2004 May 1:

The eastern enlargement of the European Union takes place. With 10 new members joining at once, it was the single largest EU expansion in terms of territory, number of states, and population; however, not in terms of gross domestic product (GDP). Germany decides to protect its labor market from the incoming labor force of the new members for seven years.

2005 January 31:

Federal and state governments are renegotiating the financing of former East Germany. Under the Solidarity Pact II, both sides agree to use €156 million ($203 million) to rebuild east Germany‘s infrastructure with the caveat of using these funds more effectively than under Solidarity Pact I.

May 22:

State elections are held in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany‘s highest populated state. After a 39-year reign, the social democrats are not reelected and are now the opposition party. As a result, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder calls for early federal elections in hopes of holding onto his party‘s (social democrats) majority in the Bundestag. The procedure is controversial, but finally approved by the constitutional court.

September 18:

Early federal elections are held for the Bundestag. For the second time since WWII, Germany is lead by a grand coalition: the two largest parties in parliament form the government.

November 22:

Angela Merkel of the Christian Democratic Union or CDU assumes the office of German chancellor. She is the first woman to hold this position.

throughout 2005:

Some German states, mostly those under conservative governments, introduce tuition fees of up to €1000 per year to attend university.

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5.1.1 Timeline of Reunified Germany (1989-2011)

FOCUS 5 – Political System

2006 June 9 – July 9:

Germany hosts the Men‘s Soccer World Cup. It creates a wave of euphoria among the German people. It marks the first time since WWII that Germans wave their national flags with ease and joy. Germany places third in the end.

2007 January 1:

Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union. Germany decides once again to protect its labor market from the incoming labor force of the new members for seven years.

January 1:

The Elterngeld (parental leave benefit) replaces the Erziehungsgeld (education benefit). Elterngeld is paid for 12-14 months following the birth of the child. The amount is calculated according to the parental income. Unemployed parents generally receive the minimum monthly amount of €300. The former Erziehungsgeld of €300 per month was paid for up to 24 months. Many people argued that the new regulation disadvantages low-income and unemployed parents.

2008 September 15:

Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc., a global financial services firm, collapses and marks the beginning of a worldwide financial and economic crisis. Germany is also affected.

November 5:

The German government approves a €23 billion stimulus package. Among other efforts, this enables the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (credit institute for reconstruction), a government-owned development bank, to distribute up to €15 billion as low-interest loans to small- and medium-size enterprises. The stimulus package was supposed to prevent a cash flow shortage brought on by the financial crises.

2008-2011:

Some German states, mostly those under center-left-coalition governments, abolish the newly-introduced university tuition after intense student protests.

2009 January:

The German federal government bails out German banks facing bankruptcy as a result of the global financial crisis. The bail out costs are unforeseeable; figures range from €50–120 billion or even more.

January 1:

The Gesundheitsfonds (health fund) is established. This health fund is a federally financed health insurance institution that subsidizes public insurance companies which run a deficit. As a result, everyone insured pays the same monthly fee. Traditionally, the fee was split equally between employer and employee, but any further fee increases will now be paid by the employees.

January 12:

The German government approves the second stimulus package, which amounts to €50 billion, to stimulate a faster recovery of the German economy which is affected by the global financial and economic crisis.

July 1:

The so-called energy passport for buildings becomes compulsory. It outlines the energy consumption of buildings and is suppose to encourage energy efficiency.

September 27:

Chancellor Angela Merkel is reelected with a larger majority than before, allowing her to form a governing coalition with the liberal party of Germany (FDP).

October 8:

Announcement of the Nobel Prize in Literature for Herta Müller.

2010 April 27:

Germany‘s first off-shore wind farm north of the island of Borkum is officially opened and set into commercial operation.

May 29:

The 19-year-old singer Lena Meyer-Landrut wins the annual Eurovision Song Contest in Oslo with her song “Satellite.” This is Germany‘s second win in Eurovision history.

May 31:

Federal President Horst Köhler resigns from office early, after heavy criticism by German politicians and the media, because of a statement he made about foreign military deployments of the Bundeswehr in Afghanistan.

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5.1.1 Timeline of Reunified Germany (1989-2011)

FOCUS 5 – Political System

July 24:

More than one million young people gather in Duisburg to celebrate the Love Parade. Tragically, 21 people die and more than 500 are injured in a stampede in an overcrowded tunnel leading into the festival. Because of this tragic accident the annual Love Parade is discontinued for good.

October 28:

The Bundestag extends the production of nuclear energy in Germany from 2021 until the year 2035. This action by the German government was controversial.

throughout 2010:

The Catholic Church of Germany is shaken by hundreds of child abuse scandals. Catholic clergymen sexually abused hundreds of children and teenagers during the last fifty years. It becomes public that the Catholic Church knew about the majority of these abuses and failed to inform the police about them.

2011 March 1:

German Defense Minister Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg resigns from office after being accused of plagiarizing major parts of his doctoral thesis.

March 15:

After the severe power plant accident in Fukushima, Japan, resulting from a tsunami and earthquake, Chancellor Merkel imposes a three-months moratorium on the use of nuclear energy in Germany. During these three months, the seven oldest nuclear power plants are shut down to undergo security checks. Additionally, the government reviews the German energy policy during this time.

March 27:

State election are held in Baden-Württemberg. After 58 years, the social conservatives (Christian Democratic Union, or CDU) lose their re-election as parliamentary majority.

March 28:

Following the state election in Baden-Württemberg the ÖkoDAX (an index of ecological and sustainably oriented companies) raises by 8 percent at the Frankfurt stock exchange.

April - June:

Chancellor Merkel and the Bundestag discuss a new energy policy for Germany. A more expedient nuclear power phase-out and the stronger promotion of renewable energies are at the forefront of these discussions.

May 1:

After the Germany-imposed seven-year transition period, Germany opened up its labor market to the 10 Eastern European member states that joined the EU in 2004.

May 12:

In one of the last Holocaust trials, a German court in Munich convicted the 91-year-old John Demjanjuk on all 27,900 counts of accomplice to murder. He was an SS officer in the Sobibor death camp in Poland, and now sentenced to five years in prison.

May 30:

The German government announces that its nuclear power phase-out will be completed by 2022. The eight oldest nuclear power plants--already shut down in the aftermath of the power plant accident in Fukushima, Japan--will remain closed down for good. The government seeks a wide political and societal consensus about the Energiewende (turning point for energy) toward the increased use of renewable energies.

June 7:

President Barack Obama presented German Chancellor Angela Merkel with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States‘ highest civilian honor. Chancellor Merkel is the second German chancellor receive this honor.

June 26 – July 17:

Germany hosts the Women’s Soccer World Cup.

June 30:

With the votes of all parties, except the left party (Linkspartei), the Bundestag approves the gradual elimination of nuclear energy in Germany by the year 2022.

July 1: