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ILFORD FILM PROCESSING CHART 20°C/68°F

PAN F PLUS EI

ILFOTEC DD-X

1+4

ID-11

stock 1+1 1+3

ILFOTEC HC

ILFOSOL S

MICROPHEN

PERCEPTOL

HP5 PLUS

50

50

125

200

400

800

1600 3200

7

8

8

10

12

9

10

13

41/2 61/2 61/2 81/2

10

71/2 10 1/2 14

15

13 16

6

8

1/2

8

11

250

320

DELTA100 PRO

25

121/2 15 17 20

1+15 1+31

ILFOTEC LC29

FP4 PLUS

4

6

1+9

400

500

1600 3200

400

800

6

8

91/2 101/2 131/2 18

6

7

7

81/2 101/2

7

91/2

111/2 141/2 19

7

8

10

11

10

14

17

8

9

61/2 91/2

14

4

5

5

9

61/2 91/2 14

5

9

51/2 71/2 10 81/2

1+29

51/2

8

12

1+9

4

4

1+14

6

71/2 91/2

6

1/2

stock

1+1

6

1+3

11

stock

9

14

9

12

1+1

10

15

13

7

7

1/2

8

1/2

91/2

14 8

8

9

6

10

14

12 15

14

18

1/2

7

1/2

11

11

4 5

6

6

23

15

10

17

12

4

6

RODINAL

1+25

9

13

7

9

61/2

9

11

13

12

14

10

14

171/2

22

14

22

6

9

12

10

15

15 18 17 23 8 8

1/2

13

7

101/2

9

13

19

13

5

7

101/2

9 141/2

9

13 19

8 10

13

7

9

1/2

91/2 111/2 19

8

12 16

1/2

8

1/2

19 101/2 141/2

7

1/2

11

4 5

6

12

15

13

15

18

141/2

51/2

7

7

8

9

11

20

91/2 101/2 13

17

10 121/2 161/2 141/2

18

51/2 91/2 5

5

16

91/2

1+3

6

9

11

4

5

7

15

12 15

18

20

11

1+31

8

15

111/2 141/2 19

stock

6

11

20

6

13

1/2

91/2

20

14

181/2 51/2

8

12

7

HC 110 B

stock

41/2 61/2 91/2

1/2

11

16

10

151/2 19

11

41/2

71/2

8

111/2 131/2 151/2 19

9

MICRODOL-X

1+1

14

14

14

XTOL

10

7

15

3 /4

8

1/2

10

12

1/2

7

1/2

11

1+3

800

14

13 1/2

71/2 91/2 121/2

1+15

4

6

9

HC 110 A

400

10

11 1/2

20

9

17

9 141/2 5

6

8

81/2

71/2

13

15

6

91/2 101/2 13

5 6

6

1+1

6400 12500 200

91/2 121/2 17

14 20 16

stock

1+4

8

12

ACUFINE

T-MAX

14

1/2

10 14 81/2

13

1/2

17

6

16 22

11

111/2

5

18

41/2 61/2

10 131/2

13

1/2

7

1/2

71/2

10

25

stock

5

10

15

1+50

8

61/2

6

8

17

10 131/2 5

9

1/2

1600 3200

1/2

1/2

6

15 17 17 21

D -76

71/2

6

16

13

6

5

4

1/2

800

51/2 71/2 13

4

1+3

6

8

11

14

320

SFX 200

18

71/2

8

1/2

13

15 20 5

6

4

200

14

5

4

1/2

200

4

1+19

1/2

100

20

250

DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL

20 91/2 12

1/2

50

DELTA 400 PROFESSIONAL

8

51/2 71/2 13 7

10 13

1/2

11

5 6

1/2

131/2

7

1/2

8

13

5

9 14

9

1/2

10 111/2 13

DEVELOPMENT TIMES Follow the recommended times in the chart for the film/developer combination of your choice. CAUTION: These times are intended as a guide only. Times shorter than 5 minutes may lead to uneven development. AGITATION For manual processing in spiral tanks and deep tanks, the development times are based on intermittent agitation. With spiral tanks, invert the tank four times during the first 10 seconds, then invert the tank four times again during the first 10 seconds for each further minute. Where continuous agitation is used for manual processing (as in a dish/tray or with some types of developing tank), reduce these times by up to 15%. For use in rotary processors without a pre-rinse, reduce the spiral tank development times by up to 15%. A pre-rinse is not recommended as it can lead to uneven processing. FIXATION After development, rinse the film in water or ILFORD ILFOSTOP or ILFOSTOP PRO stop bath (1+19) for 10 seconds at 20°C/68°F, and fix in ILFORD HYPAM or ILFORD RAPID FIXER (1+4) for 2–5 minutes at 20°C/68°F. WASHING Where a non-hardening fixer, such as HYPAM or ILFORD RAPID FIXER, has been used, wash the film in running water for 5–10 minutes at a temperature within 5°C/9°F of the processing temperature.

18

16 22 9

61/2

8

91/2 111/2

10

8

11

14

12

17

6

19 6

1/2

7 7

1/2

8 9

1/2

5

61/2

6

7

9

111/2 13 151/2 20

1/2

7 8

1/2

81/2 101/2 131/2 51/2 61/2 71/2 81/2

11

10

10 12

13

17

5

6

6

1/2

7

1/2

14 81/2 101/2 121/2 1/2

7

11

Some products in this chart may not be available in your country. 01074.GB.www August 2004


September 2002

DELTA PROFESSIONAL ISO 100/21ยบ, FINE GRAIN, BLACK AND WHITE PROFESSIONAL FILM FOR SUPERB PRINT QUALITY ILFORD 100 DELTA PROFESSIONAL is a medium speed, fine grain, black and white film, ideal for pictorial and fine art photography.

SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY Wedge spectrogram to tungsten light (2850K)

100 DELTA Professional rollfilm is coated on 0.110mm/4-mil clear acetate base with an antihalation backing which clears during development. It is available in 120 lengths and is edge numbered 1 to 19. 100 DELTA Professional sheet film is coated on 0.180mm/7-mil polyester base with an antihalation backing which clears during development. It is available in a wide range of standard sizes. The emulsion faces the user when sheet film is held in the position shown.

Sensitivity

100 DELTA Professional 35mm film is coated on 0.125mm/5-mil acetate base and is available in 24 or 36 exposure cassettes, or in bulk lengths of 30.5 metres (100ft). 100 DELTA Professional 35mm film is supplied in DX coded cassettes, suitable for all 35mm cameras.

Wavelength nm

FILTER FACTORS 100 DELTA Professional film may be used with all types of filters (eg colour, polarising and neutral density filters) in the usual way. Follow the instructions given by the filter manufacturer. The exposure increase in daylight may vary with the angle of the sun and the time of day. In the late afternoon or the winter months, when daylight contains more red light, green and blue filters may need slightly more exposure than usual.

Cameras with through-the-lens metering will usually adjust the exposure automatically when using filters. With some automatic exposure cameras, the correction given for deep red and orange filters can produce negatives under exposed by as much as 11/2 stops.

EXPOSURE RATING 100 DELTA Professional has a speed rating of ISO 100/21ยบ (100ASA, 21DIN, EI 100/21) to daylight. Best results are obtained at EI 100/21, but good image quality will also be obtained at meter settings from EI 50/18 to EI 200/24. It should be noted that the exposure index (EI) range recommended for 100 DELTA Professional is based on a practical evaluation of film speed and is not based on foot speed, as is the ISO standard.

Page 1 of 6


100 DELTA PROFESSIONAL MAKING LONG EXPOSURES For exposures between 1/2 and 1/10 000 second, no adjustments are needed for reciprocity law failure. When exposures longer than 1/2 second are given, 100 DELTA Professional along with other films, needs to be given more exposure than indicated by a meter. Use the graph to calculate the increased exposure time which should be given once the measured time is known.

175 150 125

75 50 25

10 5 15 20 Measured exposure time (sec)

25

Adjusted exposure time (sec)

100

30

CHOOSING THE BEST ILFORD DEVELOPER FOR THE JOB Manual processing (eg spiral tank, dish, deep tank) and rotary processors Best overall image quality Finest grain (EI 100/21) Finest grain (EI 50/18) Maximum sharpness Maximum film speed (EI 200/24) One-shot convenience

Liquid ILFOTEC ILFOTEC ILFOTEC ILFOTEC ILFOTEC

DD-X DD-X DD-X HC (1+31) DD-X

Economy

ILFOSOL S (1+14) ILFOTEC DD-X ILFOTEC LC29 (1+29)

Replenishable

ILFOTEC HC

Machine processing Dip and dunk

Short leader

ILFOTEC DD ID-11 MICROPHEN ILFOTEC HC ILFOTEC RT RAPID

Roller transport

ILFOTEC HC ILFOTEC RT RAPID

Page 2 of 6

Powder ID-11 (stock) PERCEPTOL (1+1) PERCEPTOL (stock) ID-11 (1+3) MICROPHEN (stock) ID-11 (1+1) MICROPHEN (1+1) ID-11 (1+3) MICROPHEN (1+3) ID-11 MICROPHEN PERCEPTOL

Best overall image quality (liquid) and long tank life Best overall image quality (powder) and long tank life Maximum film speed and long tank life Flexible process time, range of dilutions and economy Rapid processing, best overall image quality and long tank life Range of dilutions, flexibility and economy Rapid processing


100 DELTA PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT TIMES The table gives development times for both manual and machine processing 100 DELTA Professional. These times will produce negatives of average contrast suitable for printing in all enlargers. The development times are intended as a guide and may be altered if a different result is needed. For manual processing in spiral tanks and deep ILFORD developer

Dilution

tanks, the development times are based on intermittent agitation. Where continuous agitation is used for manual processing (as in a dish/tray or with some types of developing tank), reduce these times by up to 15%. For use in rotary processors without a pre-rinse, reduce the spiral tank development times by up to 15%. A pre-rinse is not recommended as it can lead to uneven processing. 35mm film, Rollfilm & Sheet film Meter setting EI 50/18 EI 100/21 EI 200/24

Spiral tank, deep tank, dip and dunk machines (min/20°C/68°F) ID-11

stock 1+1 1+3

7 10 15

8 1/2 11 20

101/2 13 –

MICROPHEN

stock 1+1 1+3

– – –

61/2 10 14

8 14 20

PERCEPTOL

stock 1+1 1+3

12 13 16

15 17 22

– – –

ILFOTEC DD-X

1+4

91/2

12

14

1+9 1+14

41/2 61/2

6 10

– –

ILFOSOL S ILFOTEC HC

1+31

5

6

8

ILFOTEC LC29

1+19 1+29

5 51/2

6 71/2

8 10

Acufine Acufine

stock

51/2

Agfa Refinal

stock

51/2

61/2

Agfa Rodinal

1+25 1+50

7 10

9 14

– –

Fuji Super Prodol

stock 1+1

– –

5 8

61/2 10

Kodak D-76

stock 1+1 1+3

7 91/2 14

9 12 22

11 14 –

Kodak HC-110

B

5

6

8

Kodak Microdol-X

stock 1+3

12 16

15 22

– –

Kodak T-Max

1+4

6

7

8

Paterson Acutol

1+10

16

Tetenal Ultrafin

1+10 1+20

– –

6 91/2

8 111/2

Tetenal Ultrafin Plus

1+4

5

7

Tetenal Ultrafin SF

stock

5

7

Kodak Xtol

stock

61/2

71/2

91/2

8

91/2

121/2

Non-ILFORD developer

Dip and dunk machines (min/24ºC/°F) ILFOTEC DD

1+4

Kodak T-Max RS

stock

5

6

8

Kodak Xtol

stock

61/2

91/2

ILFOLAB FP40, roller transport and short leader machines (sec/26ºC/79°F) ILFOTEC RT RAPID

1+1+2 1+1+5

– 40

40 56

50 75

Kodak Duraflo RT

stock

45

55

Page 3 of 6


100 DELTA PROFESSIONAL If 100 DELTA Professional has been inadvertently exposed at settings below EI 50/18 or above EI 200/24, the following guide will ensure usable negatives are obtained. Obviously, the quality of negatives processed in this way will not be so high as conventionally processed ones. Manual processing (min/20ºC/68ºF) – accidental exposure only Meter setting EI 25/15 EI 400/27 and below and above

MICROPHEN stock

10

PERCEPTOL

9

stock

Temperature (°F)

Dilution

New development time (min)

PROCESSING AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES 100 DELTA Professional film can be processed over a range of temperatures. Development times at temperatures other than 20ºC/68ºF may be calculated from the chart below.

Relative log exposure

100 DELTA Professional rollfilm developed in ILFORD ID-11 stock for 81/2 minutes at 20ºC/68ºF with intermittent agitation. This curve is also representative of the 35mm and sheet film formats.

Temperature (°C)

For example, if 4 minutes at 20ºC/68ºF is recommended, the time at 23ºC/73ºF will be 3 minutes and the time at 16ºC/61ºF will be 6 minutes.

New development time (min)

Page 4 of 6

CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

Density

Note Development times may need adjusting to suit individual processing systems and working practices. If an established system is producing good results, adjust the recommended development times until the desired contrast level is obtained. Development times in other manufacturers’ developers are included for your convenience, and are only a general guide. Other manufacturers can and do change their product specifications from time to time, and the development times may change as a result.


100 DELTA PROFESSIONAL PROCESSING 100 DELTA Professional can be processed in all types of processing equipment including spiral tanks, rotary processors, dishes/trays, deep tanks and automatic processors. Standard capacity figures and replenishment rates can be maintained. When fixing 100 DELTA Professional however, slightly longer times than used with conventional film are recommended for best results.

The process time given is the minimum required, if necessary a longer time may be used and should not cause any process problems provided it is not excessive.

Safelight recommendations Handle 100 DELTA Professional film in total darkness. For very brief inspections during processing, use the ILFORD 908 (very dark green) safelight filter, with a 15W bulb, fitted in a darkroom lamp (such as the ILFORD DL10 or DL20). Do not allow direct lighting from the safelight to fall on the film.

ILFORD Fixer

Agitation Intermittent agitation is recommended for use in spiral tanks and deep tanks. Continuous agitation is recommended in dishes/trays by rocking the dish/tray. With spiral tanks, invert the tank four times during the first 10 seconds, then invert the tank four times again during the first 10 seconds of each further minute. Otherwise, follow the recommendations given by the processing equipment manufacturer. Stop, fix, wash and rinse For best results it is recommended that all process solutions are kept at the same temperature or at least within 5ºC (9ºF) of the developer temperature. Stop Bath After development the film can be rinsed in water but we recommend that an acid stop bath is used such as ILFORD ILFOSTOP (with indicator dye) or ILFOSTOP PRO (without indicator dye). ILFOSTOP PRO is recommended for all machine processing applications. When tanks or dishes (trays) of process solutions are in use a stop bath immediately stops development and reduces carry over of excess developer into the fixer bath. This helps to maintain the activity and prolong the life of the fixer solution. ILFORD Stop Bath Dilution Temperature range Time (seconds) at 20ºC (68ºF)

ILFOSTOP

ILFOSTOP PRO

1+19

1+19

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

10

10

Capacity films/litre 15x(135–36) (unreplenished)

Page 5 of 6

22x(135–36)

Fix The recommended fixers are ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD HYPAM liquid fixers and ILFORD ILFOFIX II powder fixer,all are non-hardening fixers.

Dilution Temperature range Time (mins) at 20ºC (68ºF) Capacity films/litre (unreplenished)

ILFORD HYPAM & ILFORD RAPID FIXER 1+4

ILFORD ILFOFIX II stock

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

2–5

4–8

24x(135–36)

24x(135–36)

WASH When a non-hardening fixer has been used wash the films in running water for 5–10 minutes at a temperature within 5ºC (9ºF) of the process temperature. For spiral tank use, when a non-hardening fixer has been used, the following method of washing is recommended. This method of washing is faster, uses less water yet still gives negatives suitable for long term storage. After fixing, fill the spiral tank with water at the same temperature, +/– 5ºC (9ºF), as the processing solutions and invert it five times. Drain the water away and refill. Invert the tank ten times. Once more drain the water away and refill. Finally, invert the tank twenty times and drain the water away. Rinse For a final rinse use ILFORD ILFOTOL wetting agent added to water, it helps the film to dry rapidly and evenly. Start by using 5ml per litre of rinse water (1+200), however the amount of ILFOTOL used may need some adjustment depending on the local water quality and drying method. Too little or too much wetting agent can lead to uneven drying. Remove excess rinse solution from the film before drying.


100 DELTA PROFESSIONAL FIX HARDENER ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD ILFOFIX II must not be used with fix hardeners as they are not compatible with them. If a fix hardener is required then only ILFORD HYPAM fixer can be used. Add ILFORD HYPAM HARDENER to turn HYPAM into a hardening fixer.

Drying To avoid drying marks, use a clean squeegee or chamois cloth to wipe 100 DELTA Professional film before hanging it to dry. Dry 100 DELTA Professional at 30–40ºC/86-104ºF in a drying cabinet or at room temperature in a clean dustfree area.

Generally for most applications modern camera films are sufficiently hardened at manufacture. Additional hardening from a fixer hardener is not usually needed or recommended for processing in spiral tanks, dishes/trays, deep tanks, rotary processors, dip and dunk (hanger) machines and short leader card processors, unless the processing temperature is above 30ºC (86ºF), or poor drying performance is being experienced. To minimise the risk of physical damage a fixer hardener may be needed when using a roller transport film processor.

STORAGE Store 100 DELTA Professional in a cool (10–20ºC/50-68ºF), dry place in its original packaging.

Using a fix hardener will require the recommended fix and wash times to be extended. Depending on the film and processing conditions the hardened fix time will be between 4 and 10 minutes and the subsequent wash time 10–20 minutes in running water. The amount of HYPAM HARDENER that can be added to the fixer is dependant on the film and process conditions used. In some processors the full amount of hardener cannot be used as the fix and wash times cannot be extended adequately. In these circumstances we recommend starting with the minimum amount of hardener to have some effect. This is around 3–6 mls of hardener per litre of working strength HYPAM used. This increases the film hardness slightly but has a negligible effect on the fix and wash efficiency. When fix and wash times are restricted the maximum amount of HYPAM HARDENER recommended is 10–20ml of hardener per litre of working strength HYPAM used. This higher amount gives a definite increase to the hardness of the films processed and while fixing and washing efficiency are reduced the films will be adequately fixed and washed for most purposes.

Exposed film Once exposed, process 100 DELTA Professional as soon as practical. Images on exposed but unprocessed film will not degrade for up to several months when stored as recommended. Negatives Store processed negatives in a cool (10–20ºC/50-68ºF), dry place, in the dark. Suitable storage sleeves include those made of cellulose triacetate, Mylar or paper (pH 6.5–7.5) or inert polyester. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country.

When fix and wash times can be extended the maximum amount of HYPAM HARDENER needed to achieve fully hardened films is 1 part to 40 parts working strength HYPAM i.e. 24 ml per litre.

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

Page 6 of 6

95026A.www

September 2002


April 2004

FACT SHEET

ISO 125/22ยบ BLACK AND WHITE PROFESSIONAL FILM FOR HIGH PRINT QUALITY AND FLEXIBILITY IN USE ILFORD FP4 Plus is an exceptionally fine grain, medium speed, black and white film. It is ideal for high quality indoor and outdoor photography, particularly when giant enlargements are to be made. In addition to general photography, FP4 Plus is also suited to copying and internegative work, and has many applications in scientific, technical and industrial photography. FP4 Plus is robust and will give usable results even if it is overexposed by as much as six stops, or underexposed by two stops. It is compatible with all major processing systems, including those which give the standard short fixing and washing times. FP4 Plus 35mm film is coated on 0.125mm/5-mil acetate base and is available in 24 or 36 exposure cassettes, or in bulk lengths of 17 and 30.5 metres (56 and 100ft). FP4 Plus 35mm film is supplied in DX coded cassettes, suitable for all 35mm cameras.

EXPOSURE RATING FP4 Plus has a speed rating of ISO 125/22ยบ (125ASA, 22DIN, EI 125/22) to daylight. The ISO speed rating was measured using ILFORD ID-11 developer at 20ยบC/68ยบF with intermittent agitation in a spiral tank. Best results are obtained at EI 125/22, but good image quality will also be obtained at meter settings from EI 50/18 to EI 200/24. It should be noted that the exposure index (EI) range recommended for FP4 Plus is based on a practical evaluation of film speed and is not based on foot speed, as is the ISO standard. SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY Wedge spectrogram to tungsten light (2850K)

FP4 Plus sheet film is coated on 0.180mm/7-mil polyester base with an anti-halation backing which clears during development. It is available in a wide range of standard sizes. The emulsion faces the user when sheet film is held in the position shown.

Sensitivity

FP4 Plus rollfilm is coated on 0.110mm/4-mil clear acetate base with an anti-halation backing which clears during development. It is available in 120 and 220 lengths and is edge numbered 1 to 19 (120) and 1 to 40 (220). Wavelength nm

FILTER FACTORS FP4 Plus film may be used with all types of filters (eg colour, polarising and neutral density filters) in the usual way. Follow the instructions given by the filter manufacturer. The exposure increase in daylight may vary with the angle of the sun and the time of day. In the late afternoon or the winter months, when daylight contains more red light, green and blue filters may need slightly more exposure than usual. Cameras with through-the-lens metering will usually adjust the exposure automatically when using filters. With some automatic exposure cameras, the correction given for deep red and orange filters can produce negatives under exposed by as much as 11/2 stops.

Page 1 of 6


FP4 Plus MAKING LONG EXPOSURES For exposures between 1/2 and 1/10 000 second, no adjustments are needed for reciprocity law failure. When exposures longer than 1/2 second are given, FP4 Plus, along with other films, needs to be given more exposure than indicated by a meter. Use the graph to calculate the increased exposure time which should be given once the measured time is known.

175 150 125

75 50 25

5

10

15

20

25

Adjusted exposure time (sec)

100

30

Measured exposure time (sec)

CHOOSING THE BEST ILFORD DEVELOPER FOR THE JOB Manual processing (eg spiral tank, dish/tray, deep tank) and rotary processors Liquid

Powder

Best overall image quality

ILFOTEC DD-X

ID-11 (stock)

Finest grain

ILFOTEC DD-X

PERCEPTOL (stock)

Maximum sharpness

ILFOSOL S

ID-11 (1+3)

Maximum film speed

ILFOTEC DD-X

MICROPHEN (stock)

One-shot convenience

ILFOSOL S ILFOTEC DD-X

ID-11 (1+1) MICROPHEN (1+1)

Economy

ILFOTEC LC29 (1+29)

ID-11 (1+3) MICROPHEN (1+3)

Rapid processing

ILFOTEC HC (1+15)

–

Replenishable

ILFOTEC HC

ID-11

Dip and dunk

ILFOTEC DD ID-11 ILFOTEC HC

Best overall image quality (liquid) and long tank life Best overall image quality (powder) and long tank life Flexible process time, range of dilutions and economy

Short leader

ILFOTEC RT RAPID ILFOTEC HC

Rapid processing, best overall image quality and long tank life Range of dilutions, flexibility and economy

ILFOTEC RT RAPID

Rapid processing

Machine processing

Roller transport

Page 2 of 6


FP4 Plus DEVELOPMENT TIMES The table gives development times for both manual and machine processing FP4 Plus. These times will produce negatives of average contrast suitable for printing in all enlargers. The development times are intended as a guide and may be altered if a different result is needed. For manual processing in spiral tanks and deep

tanks, the development times are based on intermittent agitation. Where continuous agitation is used for manual processing (as in a dish/tray or with some types of developing tank), reduce these times by up to 15%. For use in rotary processors without a pre-rinse, reduce the spiral tank development times by up to 15%. A pre-rinse is not recommended as it can lead to uneven processing. 35mm film, Rollfilm & Sheet film

ILFORD developer

Dilution

Meter setting EI 50/18 EI 125/22

EI 200/24

Spiral tank, deep tank, dip and dunk machines (min/20ºC/68ºF) ILFOTEC DD-X

1+4

8

10

12

ILFOSOL S

1+9 1+14

41/2 71/2

61/2 91/2

71/2 –

ILFOTEC HC

1+15 1+31

– 6

4 8

5 9

ILFOTEC LC29

1+9 1+19 1+29

– 6 8

4 8 12

5 9 –

ID-11

stock 1+1 1+3

61/2 8 17

81/2 11 20

10 15 –

MICROPHEN

stock 1+1 1+3

– – –

8 10 14

9 14 18

PERCEPTOL

stock 1+1 1+3

9 13 17

12 15 21

– – –

Acufine Acufine

stock

4

6

Agfa Refinal

stock

6

9

Agfa Rodinal

1+25 1+50

– –

9 15

13 20

Kodak D-76

stock 1+1 1+3

6 9 14

8 11 16

9 15 20

Kodak HC-110

A B

– 6

41/2 9

6 12

Kodak Microdol-X

stock 1+3

10 17

15 23

– –

Non-ILFORD developer

Kodak T-Max

1+4

8

9

Paterson Acutol

1+10

7

9

12

Tetenal Ultrafin

1+10 1+20

– –

7 11

9 14

Tetenal Ultrafin Plus

1+4

6

9

81/2

10

7

81/2

111/2 – 101/2

Kodak Xtol

stock

Dip and dunk machines (min/24ºC/75ºF) ILFOTEC DD

1+4

Kodak T-Max RS

stock

71/2

Kodak Xtol

stock

7

ILFOLAB FP40, roller transport and short leader machines (sec) ILFOTEC RT RAPID

1+1+2/26ºC/78ºF 1+1+5/26ºC/78ºF

40 55

45 65

54 84

ILFOTEC HC

1+11/24ºC/75ºF

70

Kodak Duraflo RT

stock/26ºC/78ºF

50

Page 3 of 6


FP4 Plus

o

Temperature ( C)

Note Development times may need adjusting to suit individual processing systems and working practices. If an established system is producing good results, adjust the recommended development times until the desired contrast level is obtained. Development times in other manufacturers’ developers are included for your convenience, and are only a general guide. Other manufacturers can and do change their product specifications from time to time, and the development times may change as a result. METER SETTINGS BELOW EI 50/18 AND ABOVE EI 200/24 If FP4 Plus has been inadvertently exposed at settings below EI 50/18 or above EI 200/24, the following guide will ensure usable negatives are obtained. Obviously, the quality of negatives processed in this way will not be so high as conventionally processed ones.

New development time (min)

Dilution Meter setting EI EI 25/15 400/27 and and below above

MICROPHEN

stock

16

PERCEPTOL

stock

81/2

PROCESSING AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES FP4 Plus film can be processed over a range of temperatures. Development at 20oC/68°F is recommended and the times are given in the development times table. If development is not possible at 20oC/68°F, the following chart can be used. The chart is based at 20oC/68°F for a general developer, and can be used to give an estimate of development times at temperatures around 20oC/68°F

o

ILFORD developer

Temperature ( F)

Manual processing (min/20ºC/68ºF) – accidental exposure only

New development time (min)

Note The chart can only be used as a guide because different developers and processing techniques can vary the results. CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

Density

For example, if 4 minutes at 20oC/68°F is recommended, the time at 23oC/73°F will be 3 minutes and the time at 16oC/61°F will be 6 minutes.

Relative log exposure

FP4 Plus rollfilm developed in ILFORD ILFOTEC HC (1+31) for 8 minutes at 20oC/68°F with intermittent agitation. This curve is also representative of the 35mm and sheet film formats.

Page 4 of 6


FP4 Plus PROCESSING FP4 Plus can be processed in all types of processing equipment including spiral tanks, rotary processors, dishes/trays, deep tanks and automatic processors. Standard capacity figures and replenishment rates can be maintained. FP4 Plus is very robust in processing and will tolerate less than ideal processing conditions. Also, it will not contaminate the processing chemicals.

Fix The recommended fixers are ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD HYPAM liquid fixers and ILFORD ILFOFIX II powder fixer,all are non-hardening fixers.

Safelight recommendations Handle FP4 Plus film in total darkness. For very brief inspections during processing, use the ILFORD 908 (very dark green) safelight filter, with a 15W bulb, fitted in a darkroom lamp (such as the ILFORD DL10 or DL20). Do not allow direct lighting from the safelight to fall on the film.

Temperature range Time (mins) at 20ºC (68ºF)

Agitation Intermittent agitation is recommended for use in spiral tanks and deep tanks. Continuous agitation is recommended in dishes/trays by rocking the dish/tray. With spiral tanks, invert the tank four times during the first 10 seconds, then invert the tank four times again during the first 10 seconds of each further minute. Otherwise, follow the recommendations given by the processing equipment manufacturer. Stop, fix, wash and rinse For best results it is recommended that all process solutions are kept at the same temperature or at least within 5ºC (9ºF) of the developer temperature. Stop Bath After development the film can be rinsed in water but we recommend that an acid stop bath is used such as ILFORD ILFOSTOP (with indicator dye) or ILFOSTOP PRO (without indicator dye). ILFOSTOP PRO is recommended for all machine processing applications. When tanks or dishes (trays) of process solutions are in use a stop bath immediately stops development and reduces carry over of excess developer into the fixer bath. This helps to maintain the activity and prolong the life of the fixer solution. ILFORD Stop Bath Dilution Temperature range Time (seconds) at 20ºC (68ºF)

ILFOSTOP

ILFOSTOP PRO

1+19

1+19

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

10

10

Capacity films/litre 15x(135–36) (unreplenished)

22x(135–36)

The process time given is the minimum required, if necessary a longer time may be used and should not cause any process problems provided it is not excessive. Page 5 of 6

ILFORD Fixer Dilution

Capacity films/litre (unreplenished)

ILFORD HYPAM & ILFORD RAPID FIXER 1+4

ILFORD ILFOFIX II stock

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

2–5

4–8

24x(135–36)

24x(135–36)

WASH When a non-hardening fixer has been used wash the films in running water for 5–10 minutes at a temperature within 5ºC (9ºF) of the process temperature. For spiral tank use, when a non-hardening fixer has been used, the following method of washing is recommended. This method of washing is faster, uses less water yet still gives negatives suitable for long term storage. After fixing, fill the spiral tank with water at the same temperature, +/– 5ºC (9ºF), as the processing solutions and invert it five times. Drain the water away and refill. Invert the tank ten times. Once more drain the water away and refill. Finally, invert the tank twenty times and drain the water away. Rinse For a final rinse use ILFORD ILFOTOL wetting agent added to water, it helps the film to dry rapidly and evenly. Start by using 5ml per litre of rinse water (1+200), however the amount of ILFOTOL used may need some adjustment depending on the local water quality and drying method. Too little or too much wetting agent can lead to uneven drying. Remove excess rinse solution from the film before drying. FIX HARDENER ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD ILFOFIX II must not be used with fix hardeners as they are not compatible with them. If a fix hardener is required then only ILFORD HYPAM fixer can be used. Add ILFORD HYPAM HARDENER to turn HYPAM into a hardening fixer.


FP4 Plus Generally for most applications modern camera films are sufficiently hardened at manufacture. Additional hardening from a fixer hardener is not usually needed or recommended for processing in spiral tanks, dishes/trays, deep tanks, rotary processors, dip and dunk (hanger) machines and short leader card processors, unless the processing temperature is above 30ºC (86ºF), or poor drying performance is being experienced. To minimise the risk of physical damage a fixer hardener may be needed when using a roller transport film processor.

Negatives Store processed negatives in a cool (10–20ºC/50–68ºF), dry place, in the dark. Suitable storage sleeves include those made of cellulose triacetate, Mylar, paper (pH6.5–7.5) or inert polyester. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country.

Using a fix hardener will require the recommended fix and wash times to be extended. Depending on the film and processing conditions the hardened fix time will be between 4 and 10 minutes and the subsequent wash time 10–20 minutes in running water. The amount of HYPAM HARDENER that can be added to the fixer is dependant on the film and process conditions used. In some processors the full amount of hardener cannot be used as the fix and wash times cannot be extended adequately. In these circumstances we recommend starting with the minimum amount of hardener to have some effect. This is around 3–6 mls of hardener per litre of working strength HYPAM used. This increases the film hardness slightly but has a negligible effect on the fix and wash efficiency. When fix and wash times are restricted the maximum amount of HYPAM HARDENER recommended is 10–20ml of hardener per litre of working strength HYPAM used. This higher amount gives a definite increase to the hardness of the films processed and while fixing and washing efficiency are reduced the films will be adequately fixed and washed for most purposes. When fix and wash times can be extended the maximum amount of HYPAM HARDENER needed to achieve fully hardened films is 1 part to 40 parts working strength HYPAM i.e. 24 ml per litre. Drying To avoid drying marks, use a clean squeegee or chamois cloth to wipe FP4 Plus film before hanging it to dry. Dry FP4 Plus at 30–40ºC/86–104ºF in a drying cabinet or at room temperature in a clean dust-free area. STORAGE Store FP4 Plus in a cool (10–20ºC/50–68ºF), dry place in its original packaging. Exposed film Once exposed, process FP4 Plus as soon as practical. Images on exposed but unprocessed film will not degrade for up to several months when stored as recommended. ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

Page 6 of 6

94117.GB.www

April 2004


July 2004

FACT SHEET

o

ISO 400/27 BLACK AND WHITE PROFESSIONAL FILM FOR HIGH PRINT QUALITY AND FLEXIBILITY IN USE ILFORD HP5 Plus is a fast black and white film. It is ideal for action, available light and general purpose photography. HP5 Plus is compatible with all major processing systems, including those which give the standard short fixing and washing times.

EXPOSURE RATING o HP5 Plus has a speed rating of ISO 400/27 (400ASA, 27DIN, EI 400/27) to daylight. The ISO speed rating was measured using ILFORD o o ID-11 developer at 20 C/68 F with intermittent agitation in a spiral tank.

Although rated at ISO 400/27o, HP5 Plus can produce high quality prints when exposed at meter settings up to EI 3200/36 and given extended development in ILFORD ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC HC, MICROPHEN or ILFOTEC RT RAPID developers.

Best results are obtained at EI 400/27, but good image quality will also be obtained at meter settings from EI 400/27 to EI 3200/36.

HP5 Plus 35mm film is coated on 0.125mm/5-mil acetate base and is available in 24 or 36 exposure cassettes, or in bulk lengths of 17 and 30.5 metres (55 and 100ft). HP5 Plus 35mm film is supplied in DX coded cassettes, suitable for all 35mm cameras.

It should be noted that the exposure index (EI) range recommended for HP5 Plus is based on a practical evaluation of film speed and is not based on foot speed, as is the ISO standard. SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY Wedge spectrogram to tungsten light (2850K)

HP5 Plus sheet film is coated on 0.180mm/7-mil polyester base with an anti-halation backing which clears during development. It is available in a wide range of standard sizes. The emulsion faces the user when sheet film is held in the position shown.

Sensitivity

HP5 Plus rollfilm is coated on 0.110mm/4-mil clear acetate base with an anti-halation backing which clears during development. It is available in 120 lengths and is edge numbered 1 to 19.

Wavelength nm

FILTER FACTORS HP5 Plus film may be used with all types of filters (eg colour, polarising and neutral density filters) in the usual way. Follow the instructions given by the filter manufacturer. The exposure increase in daylight may vary with the angle of the sun and the time of day. In the late afternoon or the winter months, when daylight contains more red light, green and blue filters may need slightly more exposure than usual. Cameras with through-the-lens metering will usually adjust the exposure automatically when using filters. With some automatic exposure cameras, the correction given for deep red and orange filters can produce negatives under exposed by as much as 11/2 stops.

Page 1 of 7


HP5 Plus MAKING LONG EXPOSURES For exposures between 1/2 and 1/10 000 second, no adjustments are needed for reciprocity law failure. When exposures longer than 1/2 second are given, HP5 Plus, along with other films, needs to be given more exposure than indicated by a meter. Use the graph to calculate the increased exposure time which should be given once the measured time is known.

175 150 125

75 50 25

10 5 15 20 Measured exposure time (sec)

25

30

Adjusted exposure time (sec)

100

CHOOSING THE BEST ILFORD DEVELOPER FOR THE JOB Manual processing (eg spiral tank, dish/tray, deep tank) and rotary processors Liquid

Powder

Best overall image quality at meter setting EI 400/27 ILFOTEC DD-X EI 800/30 ILFOTEC DD-X EI 1600/33 ILFOTEC DD-X) EI 3200/36 ILFOTEC DD-X

ID-11 (stock) ID-11 (stock) MICROPHEN (stock) MICROPHEN (stock)

Finest grain

ILFOTEC DD-X

PERCEPTOL

Maximum sharpness

ILFOSOL S

ID-11 (1+3)

Maximum film speed

ILFOTEC DD-X

MICROPHEN (stock)

One-shot convenience

ILFOSOL S (1+9) ILFOTEC DD-X

ID-11 (1+1) MICROPHEN (1+1)

Economy

ILFOTEC LC29 (1+29)

ID-11 (1+3) MICROPHEN (1+3)

Rapid processing

ILFOTEC HC (1+15)

Replenishable

ILFOTEC HC

ID-11

Dip and dunk

ILFOTEC DD ID-11 ILFOTEC HC

Best overall image quality (liquid) and long tank life Best overall image quality (powder) and long tank life Flexible process time, range of dilutions and economy

Short leader

ILFOTEC RT RAPID ILFOTEC HC

Rapid processing, best overall image quality and long tank life Range of dilutions, flexibility and economy

ILFOTEC RT RAPID

Rapid processing

Machine processing

Roller transport Page 2 of 7


HP5 Plus DEVELOPMENT TIMES The table gives development times for both manual and machine processing HP5 Plus. These times will produce negatives of average contrast suitable for printing in all enlargers. The development times are intended as a guide and may be altered if a different result is needed.

For manual processing in spiral tanks and deep tanks, the development times are based on intermittent agitation. Where continuous agitation is used for manual processing (as in a dish/tray or with some types of developing tank), reduce these times by up to 15%. For use in rotary processors without a pre-rinse, reduce the spiral tank development times by up to 15%. A pre-rinse is not recommended as it can lead to uneven processing.

35mm film, Rollfilm & Sheet film ILFORD developer

Dilution

Meter setting (EI) 250/25 320/26

400/27

800/30 o

1600/33 3200/36

o

Spiral tank, deep tank, dip and dunk machines (min/20 C/68 F) ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 – – 9 10 13

20

ILFOSOL S

1+9 1+14

– –

– –

7 91/2

81/2 14

14 –

– –

ILFOTEC HC

1+15 1+31

– –

– –

31/2 61/2

5 91/2

71/2 14

11 –

ILFOTEC LC29

1+9 1+19 1+29

– – –

– – –

31/2 61/2 9

5 91/2 –

71/2 14 –

11 – –

ID-11

stock 1+1 1+3

– – –

– – –

71/2 13 20

101/2 161/2 –

14 – –

– – –

MICROPHEN

stock 1+1 1+3

– – –

– – –

61/2 12 23

8 15 –

11 – –

16 – –

PERCEPTOL

stock 1+1 1+3

13 – –

– 18 25

– – –

– – –

– – –

– – –

stock

41/2

61/2

91/2

Non-ILFORD developer Acufine Acufine Agfa Refinal

stock

6

81/2

Agfa Rodinal

1+25 1+50

– –

– –

6 11

8 –

– –

– –

Kodak D-76

stock 1+1 1+3

– – –

– – –

71/2 11 22

91/2 13 –

121/2 – –

– – –

Kodak HC-110

A B

– –

– –

21/2 5

33/4 71/2

51/2 11

91/2 –

Kodak T-Max

1+4

61/2

8

91/2

111/2

Kodak Xtol

stock 1+1

– –

– –

8 12

11 17

14 –

19 –

Paterson Acutol

1+10

7

Tetenal Ultrafin

1+10 1+20

– –

– –

71/2 16

10 –

– –

– –

Tetenal Ultrafin Plus

1+4

7

10

13

Page 3 of 7


HP5 Plus 35mm film, Rollfilm & Sheet film ILFORD developer

Dilution

Meter setting EI 400/27 EI 800/30 EI 1600/33 EI 3200/36

Dip and dunk machines (min/24oC/75oF) ILFOTEC DD 1+4

7

10

14

18

Kodak T-Max RS

stock

41/2

5

7

Kodak Xtol

stock

71/2

91/2

12

16

ILFOLAB FP40, roller transport and short leader machines (sec) ILFOTEC RT RAPID

1+1+2/26ºC/79 F 1+1+5/26ºC/79ºF

o

60 70

75 95

91 120

108 166

ILFOTEC HC

1+11/24ºC/75 F

55

70

90

130

60

81

120

166

Kodak Duraflo RT

Page 4 of 7

o

o

stock/26ºC/79 F


HP5 Plus DEVELOPMENT TIMES If HP5 Plus has been inadvertently exposed at settings below EI 250/25, the following guide will ensure usable negatives are obtained. Obviously, the quality of negatives processed in this way will not be so high as conventionally processed ones.

Dilution Meter setting EI EI EI 50/18 100/21 200/24

PERCEPTOL

stock

9

11

Note Development times may need adjusting to suit individual processing systems and working practices. If an established system is producing good results, adjust the recommended development times until the desired contrast level is obtained. Development times in other manufacturers’ developers are included for your convenience, and are only a general guide. Other manufacturers can and do change their product specifications from time to time, and the development times may change as a result. PROCESSING AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES HP5 Plus film can be processed over a range of temperatures. Development times at temperatures o other than 20°C/68 F may be calculated from the chart below. o

2.0

1. 0

1

2

3

4

HP5 Plus 35mm film developed in ILFORD ILFOTEC o HC (1+31) for 61/2 minutes at 20°C/68 F with intermittent agitation. This curve is also representative of the rollfilm and sheet film formats.

o

Temperature ( C)

Page 5 of 7

CHARACTERISTIC CURVES

Relative log exposure

For example, if 4 minutes at 20°C/68 F is o recommended, the time at 23°C/73 F will be 3 o minutes and the time at 16°C/61 F will be 6 minutes.

New development time (min)

New development time (min)

Density

9

o

ILFORD developer

Temperature ( F)

Manual processing (min/20°C/68oF) – accidental exposure only


HP5 Plus PROCESSING HP5 Plus can be processed in all types of processing equipment including spiral tanks, rotary processors, dishes/trays, deep tanks and automatic processors. Standard capacity figures and replenishment rates can be maintained. HP5 Plus is very robust in processing and will tolerate less than ideal processing conditions. Also, it will not contaminate the processing chemicals.

Fix The recommended fixers are ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD HYPAM liquid fixers and ILFORD ILFOFIX II powder fixer,all are non-hardening fixers.

Safelight recommendations Handle HP5 Plus film in total darkness. For very brief inspections during processing, use the ILFORD 908 (very dark green) safelight filter, with a 15W bulb, fitted in a darkroom lamp (such as the ILFORD DL10 or DL20). Do not allow direct lighting from the safelight to fall on the film.

Temperature range Time (mins) at 20ºC (68ºF)

Agitation Intermittent agitation is recommended for use in spiral tanks and deep tanks. Continuous agitation is recommended in dishes/trays by rocking the dish. As a general rule, follow the recommendations given by the processing equipment manufacturer. Stop, fix, wash and rinse For best results it is recommended that all process solutions are kept at the same temperature or at least within 5ºC (9ºF) of the developer temperature. Stop Bath After development the film can be rinsed in water but we recommend that an acid stop bath is used such as ILFORD ILFOSTOP (with indicator dye) or ILFOSTOP PRO (without indicator dye). ILFOSTOP PRO is recommended for all machine processing applications. When tanks or dishes (trays) of process solutions are in use a stop bath immediately stops development and reduces carry over of excess developer into the fixer bath. This helps to maintain the activity and prolong the life of the fixer solution. ILFORD Stop Bath Dilution Temperature range Time (seconds) at 20ºC (68ºF)

ILFOSTOP

ILFOSTOP PRO

1+19

1+19

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

10

10

Capacity films/litre 15x(135–36) (unreplenished)

22x(135–36)

The process time given is the minimum required, if necessary a longer time may be used and should not cause any process problems provided it is not excessive.

Page 6 of 7

ILFORD Fixer Dilution

Capacity films/litre (unreplenished)

ILFORD HYPAM & ILFORD RAPID FIXER 1+4

ILFORD ILFOFIX II stock

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

2–5

4–8

24x(135–36)

24x(135–36)

WASH When a non-hardening fixer has been used wash the films in running water for 5–10 minutes at a temperature within 5ºC (9ºF) of the process temperature. For spiral tank use, when a non-hardening fixer has been used, the following method of washing is recommended. This method of washing is faster, uses less water yet still gives negatives suitable for long term storage. After fixing, fill the spiral tank with water at the same temperature, +/– 5ºC (9ºF), as the processing solutions and invert it five times. Drain the water away and refill. Invert the tank ten times. Once more drain the water away and refill. Finally, invert the tank twenty times and drain the water away. Rinse For a final rinse use ILFORD ILFOTOL wetting agent added to water, it helps the film to dry rapidly and evenly. Start by using 5ml per litre of rinse water (1+200), however the amount of ILFOTOL used may need some adjustment depending on the local water quality and drying method. Too little or too much wetting agent can lead to uneven drying. Remove excess rinse solution from the film before drying.


HP5 Plus FIX HARDENER ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD ILFOFIX II must not be used with fix hardeners as they are not compatible with them. If a fix hardener is required then only ILFORD HYPAM fixer can be used. Add ILFORD HYPAM HARDENER to turn HYPAM into a hardening fixer. Generally for most applications modern camera films are sufficiently hardened at manufacture. Additional hardening from a fixer hardener is not usually needed or recommended for processing in spiral tanks, dishes/trays, deep tanks, rotary processors, dip and dunk (hanger) machines and short leader card processors, unless the processing temperature is above 30ºC (86ºF), or poor drying performance is being experienced. To minimise the risk of physical damage a fixer hardener may be needed when using a roller transport film processor. Using a fix hardener will require the recommended fix and wash times to be extended. Depending on the film and processing conditions the hardened fix time will be between 4 and 10 minutes and the subsequent wash time 10–20 minutes in running water.

Drying To avoid drying marks, use a clean squeegee or chamois cloth to wipe HP5 Plus film before hanging it to dry. Dry HP5 Plus at 30–40°C/86o 104 F in a drying cabinet or at room temperature in a clean dust-free area. STORAGE o Store HP5 Plus in a cool (10–20°C/50-68 F), dry place in its original packaging. Exposed film Once exposed, process HP5 Plus as soon as practical. Images on exposed but unprocessed film will not degrade for up to several months when stored as recommended. Negatives Store processed negatives in a cool (10–20°C/ o 50-68 F), dry place, in the dark. Suitable storage sleeves include those made of cellulose triacetate, Mylar or paper (pH6.5–7.5) or inert polyester. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country.

The amount of HYPAM HARDENER that can be added to the fixer is dependant on the film and process conditions used. In some processors the full amount of hardener cannot be used as the fix and wash times cannot be extended adequately. In these circumstances we recommend starting with the minimum amount of hardener to have some effect. This is around 3–6 mls of hardener per litre of working strength HYPAM used. This increases the film hardness slightly but has a negligible effect on the fix and wash efficiency. When fix and wash times are restricted the maximum amount of HYPAM HARDENER recommended is 10–20ml of hardener per litre of working strength HYPAM used. This higher amount gives a definite increase to the hardness of the films processed and while fixing and washing efficiency are reduced the films will be adequately fixed and washed for most purposes. When fix and wash times can be extended the maximum amount of HYPAM HARDENER needed to achieve fully hardened films is 1 part to 40 parts working strength HYPAM i.e. 24 ml per litre.

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

Page 7 of 7

95042.GB.www

July 2004


September 2002

FACT SHEET

400 PROFESSIONAL ISO 400/27º, FINE GRAIN, BLACK AND WHITE PROFESSIONAL FILM FOR SUPERB PRINT QUALITY

Although rated at ISO 400/27º, DELTA 400 Professional film can produce high quality prints when exposed at meter settings up to EI 3200/36 and given extended development in ILFORD ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC HC, MICROPHEN or ILFOTEC RT RAPID developers. DELTA 400 Professional 35mm film is coated on 0.125mm/5-mil acetate base and is available in 24 or 36 exposure cassettes, or in bulk lengths of 30.5 metres (100ft). DELTA 400 Professional 35mm film is supplied in DX coded cassettes, suitable for all 35mm cameras. DELTA 400 Professional rollfilm is coated on 0.110mm/4-mil clear acetate base with an antihalation backing which clears during development. It is available in 120 lengths and is edge numbered 1 to 19. EXPOSURE RATING DELTA 400 Professional has a speed rating of ISO 400/27° (400ASA, 27DIN, EI 400/27) to daylight. The ISO speed rating was measured using ILFORD ID-11 developer at 20°C/68°F with intermittent agitation in a spiral tank. Best results will be obtained at normal contrast, but good image quality will also be obtained at meter settings from EI 200/24 to EI 3200/36. It should be noted that the exposure index (EI) range recommended for DELTA 400 Professional is based on a practical evaluation of film speed and is not based on foot speed, as is the ISO standard.

Page 1 of 7

SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY Wedge spectrogram to tungsten light (2850K)

Sensitivity

ILFORD DELTA 400 PROFESSIONAL is a fast, fine grain, black and white professional film. It is ideal for action and available light photography, and also gives fine grain results for pictorial and fine art photography. DELTA 400 Professional film gives excellent performance in seasoned developers.

Wavelength nm

FILTER FACTORS DELTA 400 Professional film can be used with all types of filters (eg colour, polarising and neutral density filters) in the usual way. Follow the instructions given by the filter manufacturer. The exposure increase in daylight may vary with the angle of the sun and the time of day. In the late afternoon or the winter months, when daylight contains more red light, green and blue filters may need slightly more exposure than usual. Cameras with through-the-lens metering will usually adjust the exposure automatically when using filters. With some automatic exposure cameras, the correction given for deep red and orange filters can produce negatives under exposed by as much as 11/2 stops.


DELTA 400 PROFESSIONAL MAKING LONG EXPOSURES For exposures between 1/2 and 1/10 000 second, no adjustments are needed for reciprocity law failure. When exposures longer than 1/2 second are given, DELTA 400 Professional, along with other films, needs to be given more exposure than indicated by a meter. Use the graph to calculate the increased exposure time which should be given once the measured time is known.

CHOOSING THE BEST ILFORD DEVELOPER FOR THE JOB DELTA 400 Professional will give good results in a wide range of developers when exposed at meter settings up to EI 3200/36. After choosing your developer, refer to the development times table to check the meter setting needed with that developer.

175 150 125

75 50 25

5

10

15

20

25

Adjusted exposure time (sec)

100

30

Measured exposure time (sec)

CHOOSING THE BEST ILFORD DEVELOPER FOR THE JOB Manual processing (eg spiral tank, dish/tray, deep tank) and rotary processors Liquid

Powder

ILFOTEC DD-X

ID-11 (stock)

Finest grain normal contrast ILFOTEC DD-X

ID-11 (stock)

Finest grain (EI 200/24)

ILFOTEC DD-X

PERCEPTOL (stock)

Maximum sharpness

ILFOSOL S (1+9)

ID-11 (1+3)

Maximum film speed (EI 3200/36)

ILFOTEC DD-X

MICROPHEN (stock)

One-shot convenience

ILFOSOL S (1+9) ILFOTEC DD-X

ID-11 (1+1) MICROPHEN (1+1)

Economy

ILFOSOL S (1+14) ILFOTEC LC29 (1+29)

ID-11 (1+3) MICROPHEN (1+3)

Replenishable

ILFOTEC HC

ID-11

Dip and dunk

ILFOTEC DD ID-11 ILFOTEC HC

Best overall image quality (liquid) and long tank life Best overall image quality (powder) and long tank life Flexible process time, range of dilutions and economy

Short leader

ILFOTEC RT RAPID ILFOTEC HC

Rapid processing, best overall image quality and long tank life Range of dilutions, flexibility and economy

ILFOTEC RT RAPID

Rapid processing

Best overall image quality

Machine processing

Roller transport Page 2 of 7


DELTA 400 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT TIMES The table gives development times for processing DELTA 400 Professional film. The times in bold will produce negatives of normal contrast ( 0.62). The development times are intended as a guide and may be altered if a different result is needed.

intermittent agitation. Where continuous agitation is used for manual processing (as in a dish/tray or with some types of developing tank), reduce these times by up to 15%. For use in rotary processors without a pre-rinse, reduce the spiral tank development times by up to 15%. A pre-rinse is not recommended because it can lead to uneven processing.

For manual processing in spiral tanks and deep tanks, the development times are based on

35mm film and rollfilm ILFORD developer

Dilution

Meter setting (EI) 200/24 250/25 320/26 400/27 500/28 800/30 1600/33 3200/36

Spiral tanks and deep tanks - unreplenished developers (min/20°C/68°F) ID–11

stock 1+1 1+3

7 10 18

– – –

– – –

91/2 14 –

– – –

111/2 171/2 –

141/2 – –

19 – –

MICROPHEN

stock 1+1 1+3

5 81/2 16

– – –

– – –

61/2 111/2 –

71/2 131/2 –

81/2 151/2 –

101/2 19 –

14 – –

PERCEPTOL

stock 1+1 1+3

10 121/2 181/2

12 – –

– 151/2 –

– – –

– – –

– – –

– – –

– – –

ILFOTEC DD–X

1+4

6

8

91/2

101/2

131/2

18 13 –

ILFOTEC HC

1+15 1+31

– 5

– –

4 –

– 71/2

– –

51/2 10

71/2 131/2

ILFOTEC LC29

1+19 1+29

5 81/2

– –

– –

71/2 111/2

– –

10 17

131/2 –

– –

ILFOSOL S

1+9 1+14

61/2 10

– –

– –

9 13

– –

14 –

– –

– –

Non-ILFORD developer Agfa Rodinal

1+25 1+50

6 111/2

– –

– –

9 20

– –

– –

– –

– –

Kodak D–76

stock 1+1 1+3

7 10 18

– – –

– – –

91/2 14 –

– – –

111/2 171/2 –

141/2 – –

19 – –

Kodak HC–110

A B

– 5

– –

4 –

– 71/2

– –

51/2 10

71/2 131/2

13 –

Kodak Microdol X

stock 1+1 1+3

11 141/2 –

– – –

131/2 161/2 –

– – –

– – –

– – –

– – –

– – –

Kodak T–Max

1+4

5

61/2

7

81/2

101/2

131/2

Kodak Xtol

stock 1+1

6 9

– –

– –

71/2 111/2

81/2 13

10 151/2

13 20

17 –

Acufine

stock

7

9

11

13

16

131/2

Tetenal Ultrafin SF

stock 1+1

8 14

– –

– –

10 19

12 –

17 –

20 –

Tetenal Ultrafin Plus

1+4

6

71/2

10

12

161/2

Agfa Atomal FF

stock

8

9

Dip and dunk machines and deep tanks - replenished developers (min) ILFOTEC DD

1+4 6 (24ºC/75ºF)

7

10

13

14

Kodak T-Max RS

stock – (22ºC/72ºF)

5

61/2

9

121/2

Kodak Xtol

stock 51/2 (24ºC/75ºF)

7

81/2

11

14

Page 3 of 7


DELTA 400 PROFESSIONAL Note Development times may need adjusting to suit individual processing systems and working practices. If an established system is producing good results, adjust the recommended development times until the desired contrast level is obtained.

Note Development times in other manufacturers’ developers are included for your convenience, and are only a general guide. Other manufacturers can and do change their product specifications from time to time, and the development times may change as a result.

35mm film and rollfilm Dilution

Meter setting (EI) 200/24 250/25 320/26 400/27 500/28 800/30 1600/33 3200/36

Spiral tanks and deep tanks - unreplenished developers (min/24°C/75°F) ILFORD developer ID–11

stock 1+1 1+3

51/2 8 14

– – –

– – –

8 111/2 191/2

– – –

9 14 –

111/2 18 –

15 – –

MICROPHEN

stock 1+1 1+3

4 7 111/2

– – –

– – –

5 9 16

6 11 20

61/2 12 –

71/2 151/2 –

10 – –

PERCEPTOL

stock 1+1 1+3

7 9 141/2

9 – –

– 111/2 171/2

– – –

– – –

– – –

– – –

– – –

ILFOTEC DD–X

1+4

41/2

51/2

7

71/2

91/2

13

ILFOTEC HC

1+15 1+31

– 4

– –

– –

– 5

– –

41/2 7

51/2 10

8 –

ILFOTEC LC29

1+19 1+29

4 51/2

– –

– –

5 71/2

– –

7 11

10 16

– –

ILFOSOL S

1+9 1+14

5 8

– –

– –

71/2 111/2

– –

111/2 17

191/2 –

– –

Non-ILFORD developer Agfa Rodinal

1+25 1+50

5 91/2

– –

– –

7 16

– –

16 –

– –

– –

Kodak D–76

stock 1+1 1+3

51/2 8 14

– – –

– – –

8 111/2 191/2

– – –

9 14 –

111/2 18 –

15 – –

Kodak HC–110

A B

– 4

– –

– –

– 5

– –

41/2 7

51/2 10

8 –

Kodak Microdol X

stock 1+1 1+3

71/2 101/2 151/2

– – –

9 121/2 –

– – –

– – –

– – –

– – –

– – –

Kodak T–Max

1+4

4

5

51/2

7

81/2

11

Kodak Xtol

stock 1+1

4 61/2

– –

– –

41/2 81/2

6 91/2

71/2 111/2

91/2 14

12 18

Acufine

stock

41/2

51/2

7

71/2

10

19

Tetenal Ultrafin SF

stock 1+1

51/2 9

– –

– –

7 12

8 151/2

9 171/2

11 –

141/2 –

Tetenal Ultrafin Plus

1+4

5

6

8

81/2

10

131/2

Agfa Atomal FF

stock

5

6

ILFOLAB FP40, roller transport and short leader machines (sec/26°C/79°F) ILFOTEC RT RAPID

1+1+2 1+1+5

55 65

– –

– –

65 78

– –

71 104

84 127

104 166

Kodak Duraflo RT

stock

65

71

84

104

Page 4 of 7


DELTA 400 PROFESSIONAL PROCESSING AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES DELTA 400 Professional film can be processed over a range of temperatures. Development at 20ºC/68ºF or 24ºC/75ºF is recommended and the times are given in the development times table. If development is not possible at 20ºC/68ºF or 24ºC/75ºF, the following chart can be used. The chart is based at 20ºC/68ºF for a general developer, and can be used to give an estimate of development times at temperatures around 20ºC/68ºF.

CONTRAST-TIME GRAPHS The following graphs show the contrast of DELTA 400 Professional negatives when developed over a range of development times. ID-11

Contrast (

)

For example, if 6 minutes at 20°C/68ºF is recommended, the time at 23°C/73ºF will be 41/2 minutes and the time at 16°C/61ºF will be 9 minutes. Development time (min)

DELTA 400 Professional film developed in ILFORD ID-11 stock at (1) 24ºC/75ºF and (2) 20ºC/ 68ºF.

Contrast (

)

Temperature (°C)

MICROPHEN

New development time (min)

Development time (min)

DELTA 400 Professional film developed in ILFORD MICROPHEN stock at (1) 24ºC/75ºF and (2) 20ºC/68ºF.

Contrast (

)

Temperature (°F)

PERCEPTOL

New developoment time (min)

Note The chart can only be used as a guide because different developers and processing techniques can vary the results.

Development time (min)

DELTA 400 Professional film developed in ILFORD PERCEPTOL stock at (1) 24ºC/75ºF and (2) 20ºC/68ºF.

Page 5 of 7


DELTA 400 PROFESSIONAL Agitation Intermittent agitation is recommended for use in spiral tanks and deep tanks. With spiral tanks, invert the tank four times during the first 10 seconds, then invert the tank four times again during the first 10 seconds of each further minute. Otherwise, follow the recommendations given by the processing equipment manufacturer. Contrast (

)

ILFOTEC DD-X

Stop, fix, wash and rinse For best results it is recommended that all process solutions are kept at the same temperature or at least within 5ºC (9ºF) of the developer temperature.

Development time (min)

DELTA 400 Professional film developed in ILFORD ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 at (1) 24ºC/75ºF and (2) 20ºC/68ºF. CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

Stop Bath After development the film can be rinsed in water but we recommend that an acid stop bath is used such as ILFORD ILFOSTOP (with indicator dye) or ILFOSTOP PRO (without indicator dye). ILFOSTOP PRO is recommended for all machine processing applications. When tanks or dishes (trays) of process solutions are in use a stop bath immediately stops development and reduces carry over of excess developer into the fixer bath. This helps to maintain the activity and prolong the life of the fixer solution.

Density

ILFORD Stop Bath

Relative log exposure

DELTA 400 Professional 35mm film developed in ILFORD ID-11 stock for 8 minutes at 24°C/75ºF with intermittent agitation. PROCESSING DELTA 400 Professional film can be processed in all types of processing equipment including spiral tanks, rotary processors, dishes/trays, deep tanks and automatic processors. Standard capacity figures and replenishment rates can be maintained. When fixing DELTA 400 Professional film, however, slightly longer times than used with conventional film are recommended for best results. Safelight recommendations Handle DELTA 400 Professional film in total darkness. For very brief inspections during processing, use the ILFORD 908 (very dark green) safelight filter, with a 15W bulb, fitted in a darkroom lamp (such as the ILFORD DL10 or DL20). Do not allow direct lighting from the safelight to fall on the film.

Dilution Temperature range Time (seconds) at 20ºC (68ºF)

ILFOSTOP PRO

1+19

1+19

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

10

10

Capacity films/litre 15x(135–36) (unreplenished)

22x(135–36)

The process time given is the minimum required, if necessary a longer time may be used and should not cause any process problems provided it is not excessive. Fix The recommended fixers are ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD HYPAM liquid fixers and ILFORD ILFOFIX II powder fixer,all are non-hardening fixers. ILFORD Fixer Dilution Temperature range Time (mins) at 20ºC (68ºF) Capacity films/litre (unreplenished)

Page 6 of 7

ILFOSTOP

ILFORD HYPAM & ILFORD RAPID FIXER 1+4

ILFORD ILFOFIX II stock

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

2–5

4–8

24x(135–36)

24x(135–36)


DELTA 400 PROFESSIONAL WASH When a non-hardening fixer has been used wash the films in running water for 5–10 minutes at a temperature within 5ºC (9ºF) of the process temperature. For spiral tank use, when a non-hardening fixer has been used, the following method of washing is recommended. This method of washing is faster, uses less water yet still gives negatives suitable for long term storage. After fixing, fill the spiral tank with water at the same temperature, +/– 5ºC (9ºF), as the processing solutions and invert it five times. Drain the water away and refill. Invert the tank ten times. Once more drain the water away and refill. Finally, invert the tank twenty times and drain the water away. Rinse For a final rinse use ILFORD ILFOTOL wetting agent added to water, it helps the film to dry rapidly and evenly. Start by using 5ml per litre of rinse water (1+200), however the amount of ILFOTOL used may need some adjustment depending on the local water quality and drying method. Too little or too much wetting agent can lead to uneven drying. Remove excess rinse solution from the film before drying. FIX HARDENER ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD ILFOFIX II must not be used with fix hardeners as they are not compatible with them. If a fix hardener is required then only ILFORD HYPAM fixer can be used. Add ILFORD HYPAM HARDENER to turn HYPAM into a hardening fixer. Generally for most applications modern camera films are sufficiently hardened at manufacture. Additional hardening from a fixer hardener is not usually needed or recommended for processing in spiral tanks, dishes/trays, deep tanks, rotary processors, dip and dunk (hanger) machines and short leader card processors, unless the processing temperature is above 30ºC (86ºF), or poor drying performance is being experienced. To minimise the risk of physical damage a fixer hardener may be needed when using a roller transport film processor.

the minimum amount of hardener to have some effect. This is around 3–6 mls of hardener per litre of working strength HYPAM used. This increases the film hardness slightly but has a negligible effect on the fix and wash efficiency. When fix and wash times are restricted the maximum amount of HYPAM HARDENER recommended is 10–20ml of hardener per litre of working strength HYPAM used. This higher amount gives a definite increase to the hardness of the films processed and while fixing and washing efficiency are reduced the films will be adequately fixed and washed for most purposes. When fix and wash times can be extended the maximum amount of HYPAM HARDENER needed to achieve fully hardened films is 1 part to 40 parts working strength HYPAM i.e. 24 ml per litre. Drying To avoid drying marks, use a clean squeegee or chamois cloth to wipe DELTA 400 Professional film before hanging it to dry. Dry DELTA 400 Professional film at 30–40°C/86-104ºF in a drying cabinet or at room temperature in a clean dust-free area. STORAGE Store DELTA 400 Professional film in a cool (10–20°C/50-68ºF), dry place in its original packaging. Exposed film Once exposed, process DELTA 400 Professional film as soon as practical. Images on exposed but unprocessed film will not degrade for several months when stored as recommended. Negatives Store processed negatives in a cool (10–20°C/5068ºF), dry place, in the dark. Suitable storage sleeves include those made of cellulose triacetate, Mylar, paper (pH6.5–7.5) or inert polyester.

A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country

Using a fix hardener will require the recommended fix and wash times to be extended. Depending on the film and processing conditions the hardened fix time will be between 4 and 10 minutes and the subsequent wash time 10–20 minutes in running water. The amount of HYPAM HARDENER that can be added to the fixer is dependant on the film and process conditions used. In some processors the full amount of hardener cannot be used as the fix and wash times cannot be extended adequately. In these circumstances we recommend starting with Page 7 of 7

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

00028A.www

September 2002


September 2002

FACT SHEET

EI 3200/36, HIGH SPEED, BLACK AND WHITE PROFESSIONAL FILM FOR SUPERB PRINT QUALITY

DELTA 3200 Professional 35mm film is coated on 0.125mm/5-mil acetate base and is available in 36 exposure cassettes. DELTA 3200 Professional 35mm film is supplied in DX coded cassettes, suitable for all 35mm cameras.

SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY Wedge spectrogram to tungsten light (2850K)

Sensitivity

LFORD DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL is a high speed, black and white professional film for making quality photographs in difficult exposing conditions. It is ideal for action and available light photography. It is designed to be exposed at EI 3200/36 and given extended development. Recommended developers are ILFORD ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFORD MICROPHEN and ILFORD ID-11.

Wavelength nm

DELTA 3200 Professional rollfilm is coated on 0.125mm/5-mil acetate base. It is available in 120 lengths and is edge numbered 1 to 19.

HANDLING DELTA 3200 Professional is a very fast film. Always load and unload the camera in subdued light. At airports, request visual inspection of this film, and carry the film in hand luggage.

EXPOSURE RATING The recommended meter setting for DELTA 3200 Professional is EI 3200/36, but good image quality can also be obtained at meter settings from EI 400/27 to EI 6400/39. It can be used in all types of lighting.

FILTER FACTORS DELTA 3200 Professional film may be used with all types of filters (eg colour, polarising and neutral density filters) in the usual way. Follow the instructions given by the filter manufacturer.

DELTA 3200 Professional is particularly recommended for exposing in the range EI 1600/33 to EI 6400/39. It can be exposed at ratings up to EI 25000/45, but it is important to make test exposures first to ensure the results will be suitable for the intended purpose. DELTA 3200 Professional has an ISO speed rating of ISO 1000/31º (1000ASA, 31DIN) to daylight. The ISO speed rating was measured using ILFORD ID-11 developer at 20°C/68ºF with intermittent agitation in a spiral tank. It should be noted that the exposure index (EI) range recommended for DELTA 3200 Professional is based on a practical evaluation of film speed and is not based on foot speed, as is the ISO standard.

Page 1 of 7

The exposure increase in daylight may vary with the angle of the sun and the time of day. In the late afternoon or the winter months, when daylight contains more red light, green and blue filters may need slightly more exposure than usual. Cameras with through-the-lens metering will usually adjust the exposure automatically when using filters. With some automatic exposure cameras, the correction given for deep red and orange filters can produce negatives under exposed by as much as 11/2 stops.


DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL MAKING LONG EXPOSURES For exposures between 1/2 and 1/10 000 second, no adjustments are needed for reciprocity law failure. When exposures longer than 1/2 second are given, DELTA 3200 Professional, along with other films, needs to be given more exposure than indicated by a meter. Use the graph to calculate the increased exposure time which should be given once the measured time is known.

CHOOSING THE BEST ILFORD DEVELOPER FOR THE JOB DELTA 3200 Professional will give good results in a wide range of developers when exposed at meter settings up to EI 6400/39. At higher speed ratings, ILFOTEC DD-X and MICROPHEN developers are recommended. Further details are given in the table below.

175 150 125

75 50 25

5

10

15

20

25

Adjusted exposure time (sec)

100

30

Measured exposure time (sec)

CHOOSING THE BEST ILFORD DEVELOPER FOR THE JOB Manual processing (eg spiral tank, dish/tray, deep tank) and rotary processors Liquid

Powder

Best overall image quality at meter setting EI 400/27 ILFOTEC DD-X EI 800/30 ILFOTEC DD-X EI 1600/33 ILFOTEC DD-X EI 3200/36 ILFOTEC DD-X EI 6400/39 ILFOTEC DD-X

PERCEPTOL (stock) PERCEPTOL (stock) MICROPHEN (stock) MICROPHEN (stock) MICROPHEN (stock)

Finest grain

ILFOTEC DD-X

PERCEPTOL (stock)

Maximum sharpness

ILFOTEC DD-X

MICROPHEN (stock)

Maximum film speed (up to EI 25000/45)

ILFOTEC DD-X

MICROPHEN (stock)

One-shot convenience

ILFOSOL S (1+9) ILFOTEC DD-X

–

Rapid processing

ILFOTEC DD-X

MICROPHEN (stock)

Replenishable

ILFOTEC HC

ID-11

Dip and dunk

ILFOTEC DD ID-11 ILFOTEC HC

Best overall image quality (liquid) and long tank life Best overall image quality (powder) and long tank life Flexible process time, range of dilutions and economy

Short leader

ILFOTEC RT RAPID ILFOTEC HC

Rapid processing, best overall image quality and long tank life Range of dilutions, flexibility and economy

ILFOTEC RT RAPID

Rapid processing

Machine processing

Roller transport Page 2 of 7


DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT TIMES The table gives development times for both manual and machine processing DELTA 3200 Professional. The development times are based on picture testing and are intended as a guide; they should be altered if a different result is needed.

Note Development times may need adjusting to suit individual processing systems and working practices. If an established system is producing good results, adjust the recommended development times until the desired contrast level is obtained. For more contrasty negatives, try the development times for the meter setting above the one used.

For manual processing in spiral tanks and deep tanks, the development times are based on intermittent agitation. Where continuous agitation is used for manual processing (as in a dish/tray or with some types of developing tank), reduce these times by up to 15%. For use in rotary processors without a pre-rinse, reduce the spiral tank development times by up to 15%. A pre-rinse is not recommended as it can lead to uneven processing.

Note Development times in other manufacturers’ developers are included for your convenience, and are only a general guide. Other manufacturers can and do change their product specifications from time to time, and the development times may change as a result.

35mm film and rollfilm Dilution

Meter setting (EI) 400/27 800/30

1600/33 3200/36 6400/39 12500/42

Spiral tanks and deep tanks (min/20°C/68ºF) ILFORD developer ILFOTEC DD-X*

1+4

6

7

8

91/2

121/2

17

ILFOTEC HC

1+15 1+31

– 6

– 71/2

5 9

8 141/2

13 –

– –

ILFOTEC LC29

1+9 1+19

– 6

– 71/2

5 9

8 141/2

13 –

– –

ILFOSOL S

1+9

61/2

8

101/2

13

MICROPHEN*

stock

6

7

8

9

12

161/2

ID-11

stock

7

8

91/2

101/2

13

17

PERCEPTOL

stock

11

13

15

18

Agfa Rodinal

1+25

51/2

7

9

11

20

Kodak D-76

stock

7

8

91/2

101/2

13

17

Kodak HC-110

A B

– 6

– 71/2

5 9

8 141/2

13 –

– –

Kodak Microdol-X

stock

10

111/2

13

18

Kodak T-Max

1+4

51/2

61/2

71/2

81/2

11

14

Kodak Xtol

stock

5

6

61/2

71/2

10

121/2

Non-ILFORD developer

Recommended developers*

Page 3 of 7


DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL Dilution

35mm film and rollfilm Meter setting (EI) 400/27 800/30

1600/33 3200/36 6400/39 12500/42

Spiral tanks and deep tanks (min/24°C) ILFORD developer ILFOTEC DD-X*

1+4

5

6

7

9

12

ILFOTEC HC

1+15 1+31

– 5

– 6

– 7

51/2 101/2

81/2 –

– –

ILFOTEC LC29

1+9 1+19

– 5

– 6

– 7

51/2 101/2

81/2 –

– –

ILFOSOL S

1+9

51/2

61/2

8

101/2

MICROPHEN*

stock

5

6

7

91/2

131/2

ID-11

stock

6

7

8

9

11

131/2

PERCEPTOL

stock

91/2

101/2

12

151/2

Agfa Rodinal

1+25

51/2

71/2

15

Kodak D-76

stock

6

7

8

9

11

131/2

Kodak HC-110

A B

– 5

– 6

– 7

51/2 101/2

81/2 –

– –

Kodak Microdol-X

stock

7

8

9

12

Kodak T-Max

1+4

51/2

61/2

71/2

91/2

13

Kodak Xtol

stock

51/2

6

7

9

11

Non-ILFORD developer

* Recommended developers

Dip and dunk machines (min/24°C/75ºF) ILFOTEC DD

1+4

8

81/2

91/2

101/2

131/2

19

Kodak T-Max RS

stock

4

41/2

5

61/2

81/2

101/2

Kodak Xtol

stock

8

9

101/2

131/2

171/2

23

ILFOLAB FP40, roller transport and short leader machines (sec/26°C/79ºF) ILFOTEC RT RAPID

1+1+2 1+1+5

54 95

65 108

73 120

84 153

104 176

Kodak Duraflo RT

stock

54

65

73

84

104

Page 4 of 7


DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL

24ºC/75ºF min 17 171/2

PROCESSING AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES DELTA 3200 Professional film can be processed over a range of temperatures. Development at 20ºC/68ºF or 24ºC/75ºF is recommended and the times are given in the development times table. If development is not possible at either 20ºC/68ºF or 24ºC/75ºF, the following chart can be used. The chart is based at 20ºC/68ºF for a general developer, and can be used to give an estimate of development times at temperatures around 20ºC/68ºF.

New development time (min)

CONTRAST-TIME GRAPHS The following graphs show the contrast of DELTA 3200 Professional negatives when developed over a range of development times.

)

Meter setting EI 25000/45 manual processing Dilution 20ºC/68ºF min ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 25 MICROPHEN stock 22

Temperature (ºF)

METER SETTINGS OF EI 12500/42 AND ABOVE When using meter settings of EI 12500/42 and above, it is important to make test exposures first to ensure the results will be suitable for the intended purpose. A guide to development times for meter setting EI 12500/42 is given in the development times tables. For exposures at EI 25000/45, use the guide in the following table.

Contrast (

For example, if 12 minutes at 20°C/68ºF is recommended, the time at 22°C/711/2ºF will be 10 minutes and the time at 18°C/641/2ºF will be 15 minutes. Development time (min)

Contrast (

)

Temperature (ºC)

DELTA 3200 Professional film developed in ILFORD ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 at 20ºC/68ºF.

New development time (min) Development time (min)

Note The chart can only be a guide because different developers and processing techniques can vary the results.

Page 5 of 7

DELTA 3200 Professional film developed in ILFORD MICROPHEN stock at 20ºC/68ºF.


DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL Stop, fix, wash and rinse For best results it is recommended that all process solutions are kept at the same temperature or at least within 5ºC (9ºF) of the developer temperature.

Density

CHARACTERISTIC CURVES

Relative log exposure

DELTA 3200 Professional film developed in ILFORD ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 for 7, 9, 12 and 16 minutes at 20°C/68ºF with intermittent agitation.

Stop Bath After development the film can be rinsed in water but we recommend that an acid stop bath is used such as ILFORD ILFOSTOP (with indicator dye) or ILFOSTOP PRO (without indicator dye). ILFOSTOP PRO is recommended for all machine processing applications. When tanks or dishes (trays) of process solutions are in use a stop bath immediately stops development and reduces carry over of excess developer into the fixer bath. This helps to maintain the activity and prolong the life of the fixer solution. ILFORD Stop Bath Dilution Temperature range

Density

Time (seconds) at 20ºC (68ºF)

Relative log exposure

DELTA 3200 Professional film developed in ILFORD MICROPHEN stock for 7, 9, 12 and 16 minutes at 20°C/68ºF with intermittent agitation. PROCESSING DELTA 3200 Professional can be processed in all types of processing equipment including spiral tanks, rotary processors, dishes/trays, deep tanks and automatic processors. Standard capacity figures and replenishment rates can be maintained. When fixing DELTA 3200 Professional, however, slightly longer times than used with conventional film are recommended for best results. Handling DELTA 3200 Professional must not be handled under any safelighting. Handle the film in total darkness. Agitation Intermittent agitation is recommended for use in spiral tanks and deep tanks. With spiral tanks, invert the tank four times during the first 10 seconds, then invert the tank four times again during the first 10 seconds of each further minute. Otherwise, follow the recommendations given by the processing equipment manufacturer.

Page 6 of 7

ILFOSTOP

ILFOSTOP PRO

1+19

1+19

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

10

10

Capacity films/litre 15x(135–36) (unreplenished)

22x(135–36)

The process time given is the minimum required, if necessary a longer time may be used and should not cause any process problems provided it is not excessive. Fix The recommended fixers are ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD HYPAM liquid fixers and ILFORD ILFOFIX II powder fixer,all are non-hardening fixers. ILFORD Fixer Dilution Temperature range Time (mins) at 20ºC (68ºF) Capacity films/litre (unreplenished)

ILFORD HYPAM & ILFORD RAPID FIXER 1+4

ILFORD ILFOFIX II stock

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

2–5

4–8

24x(135–36)

24x(135–36)


DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL WASH When a non-hardening fixer has been used wash the films in running water for 5–10 minutes at a temperature within 5ºC (9ºF) of the process temperature. For spiral tank use, when a non-hardening fixer has been used, the following method of washing is recommended. This method of washing is faster, uses less water yet still gives negatives suitable for long term storage. After fixing, fill the spiral tank with water at the same temperature, +/– 5ºC (9ºF), as the processing solutions and invert it five times. Drain the water away and refill. Invert the tank ten times. Once more drain the water away and refill. Finally, invert the tank twenty times and drain the water away. Rinse For a final rinse use ILFORD ILFOTOL wetting agent added to water, it helps the film to dry rapidly and evenly. Start by using 5ml per litre of rinse water (1+200), however the amount of ILFOTOL used may need some adjustment depending on the local water quality and drying method. Too little or too much wetting agent can lead to uneven drying. Remove excess rinse solution from the film before drying. FIX HARDENER ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD ILFOFIX II must not be used with fix hardeners as they are not compatible with them. If a fix hardener is required then only ILFORD HYPAM fixer can be used. Add ILFORD HYPAM HARDENER to turn HYPAM into a hardening fixer. Generally for most applications modern camera films are sufficiently hardened at manufacture. Additional hardening from a fixer hardener is not usually needed or recommended for processing in spiral tanks, dishes/trays, deep tanks, rotary processors, dip and dunk (hanger) machines and short leader card processors, unless the processing temperature is above 30ºC (86ºF), or poor drying performance is being experienced. To minimise the risk of physical damage a fixer hardener may be needed when using a roller transport film processor.

the minimum amount of hardener to have some effect. This is around 3–6 mls of hardener per litre of working strength HYPAM used. This increases the film hardness slightly but has a negligible effect on the fix and wash efficiency. When fix and wash times are restricted the maximum amount of HYPAM HARDENER recommended is 10–20ml of hardener per litre of working strength HYPAM used. This higher amount gives a definite increase to the hardness of the films processed and while fixing and washing efficiency are reduced the films will be adequately fixed and washed for most purposes. When fix and wash times can be extended the maximum amount of HYPAM HARDENER needed to achieve fully hardened films is 1 part to 40 parts working strength HYPAM i.e. 24 ml per litre. Drying To avoid drying marks, use a clean squeegee or chamois cloth to wipe DELTA 3200 Professional film before hanging it to dry. Dry DELTA 3200 Professional at 30–40°C/86–104ºF in a drying cabinet or at room temperature in a clean dust-free area. STORAGE Store DELTA 3200 Professional in a cool (10–20°C/50–68ºF), dry place in its original packaging. Exposed film Once exposed, process DELTA 3200 Professional as soon as practical. Images on exposed but unprocessed film will not degrade for several months when stored as recommended. Negatives Store processed negatives in a cool (10–20°C/50–68ºF), dry place, in the dark. Suitable storage sleeves include those made of cellulose triacetate, Mylar or paper (pH6.5–7.5) or inert polyester. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country.

Using a fix hardener will require the recommended fix and wash times to be extended. Depending on the film and processing conditions the hardened fix time will be between 4 and 10 minutes and the subsequent wash time 10–20 minutes in running water. The amount of HYPAM HARDENER that can be added to the fixer is dependant on the film and process conditions used. In some processors the full amount of hardener cannot be used as the fix and wash times cannot be extended adequately. In these circumstances we recommend starting with

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

Page 7 of 7

98071.GB.www

September 2002


QuĂ­micos


INFORMACION TECNICA

1 PRODUCTOS QUIMICOS PARA PAPEL BROMOPHEN 1- DESCRIPCION BROMPHEN es un revelador en polvo de primera calidad que produce resultados magníficos con todo tipo de papeles fotográficos de calidad. Utilice BROMPHEN cuando se requiera de la más alta calidad en exhibición. BROMPHEN es un revelador de hidroquinona fenidona especialmente diseñado para ser utilizado con papeles de fibra con ILFORD MULTIGRADE FB y ILFOBROM GALERIE FB, pero también se puede utilizar con éxito con papeles de base de baño de resina (RC). BROMPHEN se presenta en forma de polvo, del cual se hace una solución al disolver dos ingredientes presentados en empaques diferentes. BROMPHEN se elabora como una solución stock y después de diluye.

2- PREPARACION Y USO Para mezclar la solución stock, disuelva los contenidos de la Parte A y tres cuartos del total del volumen de agua tibia (120°F ó 50°C). Cuando la mayoría del polvo de la Parte A ha sido disuelta, añada los contenidos de la Parte B y revuelva hasta que todo el polvo se haya disuelto. Añada agua fría para completar el resto del volumen total. Diluya una parte de la solución stock con tres partes de agua. Se recomienda un tiempo de revelado de 1 1/2 minutos a 68°F (20°C).

3- ALMACENAJE Los paquetes del revelador de papel BROMPHEN que no se hayan abierto tienen una vida de estante de aproximadamente tres años. Las botellas con su tapa bien apretada de solución stock se mantendrán de 4 a 6 meses. Las botellas medio llenas con su tapa bien apretada de solución stock se mantendrán por aproximadamente 2 meses.

4- CAPACIDAD Un litro de revelador de papel BROMPHEN diluido en 1+3 se procesará como 40 hojas de base de fibra de tamaño 8x10 pulgadas y de 70 a 80 hojas de base de baño de resina de tamaño 8x10 pulgadas.

PRODUCTOS QUIMICOS MULTIGRADE REVELADOR PARA PAPEL

2- PREPARACION Y USO El revelador MULTIGRADE se presenta en la forma de un líquido concentrado y económico. La dilución recomendada es de 1 parte revelador mezclado con 9 partes de agua. Mezcle únicamente la cantidad de revelador que se va a utilizar durante la sesión de ampliación. Para los papeles MULTIGRADE IV RC DELUXE y MULTIGRADE III RC RAPID, la imagen aparece después de 10 segundos, y el revelado a 68°F (20°C) se completa al minuto. Este tiempo de revelado produce ampliaciones idénticas en contraste y densidad máxima cuando se compara con ampliaciones procesadas durante dos minutos en un revelador de charola convencional. Para los papeles MULTIGRADE FB, la imagen aparece después de 35 segundos con un rango de revelado de 1 1/2 - 3 minutos a 68°F (20°C). El revelado se puede extender hasta 6 minutos sin un cambio marcado en contraste o velo. Para tener mayor control y economía, el revelador MULTIGRADE también se puede diluir 1+14. El revelador MULTIGRADE diluido se mantendrá en buenas condiciones en una charola abierta durante 2 días de trabajo sí es diluido 1+9, y sí es diluido a 1+14 durante 1 día de trabajo.

3- ALMACENAJE Las botellas de revelador MULTIGRADE sin abrir se mantendrán aproximadamente 24 meses. Las botellas con su tapa bien apretada se mantendrán hasta 6 meses.

4- CAPACIDAD Un litro de revelador de solución de trabajo procesará hasta 50 hojas de base fibra de tamaño 8x10 pulgadas y 100 hojas de base de baño de resina (RC).

FIJADOR PARA PAPEL 1- DESCRIPCION El fijador MULTIGRADE es un fijador sin endurecedor hecho con tiosulfato de amonio, se recomienda para ser utilizado con papeles de base de baño de resina (RC) y base de fibra.

2- PREPARACION Y USO El fijador MULTIGRADE se diluye 1 parte del concentrado con 4 partes de agua para hacer una solución de trabajo. Enjuague las ampliaciones en un baño de paro, y después traslade las ampliaciones al fijador MULTIGRADE. Agite las ampliaciones inicialmente y después fije las ampliaciones de base de baño de resina (RC) durante 30 segundos y las de base de fibra durante 60 segundos a 68°F (20°C).

1- DESCRIPCION El revelador MULTIGRADE es un revelador económico principalmente recomendado para ser utilizado con papeles MULTIGRADE. Utilice este versátil revelador para procesar tanto papeles de base de baño de resina (RC) como papeles de base de fibra.

3- ALMACENAJE Las botellas de fijador MULTIGRADE que no se hayan abierto se mantendrán durante 24 meses. Una botella medio llena con su tapa bien apretada se mantendrá durante 6 meses.


QUIMICOS 4- CAPACIDAD La capacidad del fijador varía dependiendo de sus requisitos de esperanza de vida (EV). Debajo encontrará los números recomendados para el fijado de hojas tamaño 8x10 pulgadas que se pueden procesar en un litro de solución de trabajo del fijador: Comercial Archivo Papel (EV menos de 25 años) (EV más de 100 años) Base de baño de resina 80 40* Base de Fibra 40 10 Base de Fibra con ILFORD Archival ------40+ Secuencia + La capacidad de ampliaciones se incrementa cuando se sigue la secuencia para procesado de archivo ILFORD Archival Processing Sequence utilizando Universal wash aid. *La información se basa en pruebas de envejecimiento acelerado y no refleja un tiempo real de pruebas.

PRODUCTOS QUIMICOS UNIVERSAL REVELADOR PARA PAPEL 1- DESCRIPCION El revelador de papel UNIVERSAL es un revelador hecho con fenidona con presentación de líquido concentrado. Se usa con papeles gradados y papeles de contraste variable tanto en papeles de base de fibra como con base de baño de resina (RC). La botella de 16 onzas hace cinco cuartos de solución de trabajo, se recomienda un tiempo de revelado de 1 1/2 minutos para todo tipo de papeles. Esto se puede ajustar para arriba o para abajo dependiendo de los resultados que se requieran.

2- PREPARACION Y USO Este líquido concentrado y económico se debe diluir 1 parte de revelador mezclado con 9 partes de agua para la solución de trabajo. Mezcle únicamente la cantidad de revelador que se va a utilizar durante la sesión de ampliación. Los tiempos de revelado pueden variar desde 35 segundos hasta dos minutos a 68°F (20°C). El revelador de papel UNIVERSAL producirá una imagen de color neutra con todos los papeles ILFORD.

3- ALMACENAJE Las botellas que no han sido abiertas del revelador concentrado de papel UNIVERSAL se mantendrán durante 18 meses aproximadamente. Una botella medio llena con su tapa bien apretada se mantendrá durante tres meses aproximadamente.

4- CAPACIDAD Un litro de solución de trabajo del revelador procesará alrededor de 45 hojas de base de fibra tamaño 8x10 pulgadas y de 70 a 80 hojas de base de baño de resina (RC) tamaño 8x10 pulgadas.

2 BAÑO DE PARO 1- DESCRIPCION Después del revelado, las ampliaciones se deben enjuagar en el baño de paro IN-1 stop bath. El uso de un baño de paro termina el revelado de inmediato y ayuda a mantener el baño de paro en buena condición IN-1 contiene un color indicador el cual cambia de un anaranjado brillante a un morado cuando el baño de paro se debe desechar.

2- PREPARACION Y USO El baño de paro IN-1 es un baño de ácido especialmente diseñado el cual se debe diluir 1+31 para ser utilizado. Está disponible en una botella de 16 onzas la cual hace 4 galones de solución de trabajo. Para una mayor economía, mezcle el baño de paro IN-1 1+63. Esta dilución es útil para sesiones cortas de ampliación adonde la solución de puede desechar de inmediato.

3- ALMACENAJE Las botellas que no han sido abiertas de baño de paro IN-1 concentrado se mantendrán hasta 36 meses. Una botella medio llena con su tapa bien apretada se mantendrá por lo menos tres meses.

4- CAPACIDAD Deseche el baño de paro IN-1 cuando el indicador cambie al color morado. Alternativamente, deseche la solución si las ampliaciones se sienten viscosas después de haber estado 10 segundos en el baño de paro.

FIJADOR PARA PAPEL Y PELICULA 1- DESCRIPCION ILFORD siempre recomienda el uso de fijadores que no contengan endurecedores ya que estos permiten que el tiempo de lavado sea mucho más corto. Los papeles ILFORD se podrán procesar de manera satisfactoria sin endurecedores hasta una temperatura de 83°F. Entre más alta sea la temperatura, más cuidado se requiere para evitar que se dañe la emulsión al manejar el papel mojado.

2- PREPARACION Y USO El fijador UNIVERSAL RAPID FIXER es un fijador rápido de tiosulfato de amonio el cual no contiene endurecedor. Es ideal para usarlo con papeles y películas ILFORD. Se presenta en un líquido concentrado, y se diluye con tres partes de agua para ser utilizado. Fije los papeles de base de baño de resina (RC) durante 30 segundos y papeles de base de fibra durante 60 segundos a 68°F (20°C). Las películas se pueden fijar efectivamente de 2 a 5 minutos a 68°F (20°C).


INFORMACION TECNICA

3 3- ALMACENAJE

4- CAPACIDAD

Las botellas que no han sido abiertas del fijador concentrado UNIVERSAL RAPID FIXER se mantendrán durante 12 meses y una botella medio llena del concentrado con su tapa bien apretada se mantendrá por lo menos seis meses.

Un litro de solución de trabajo del auxiliar de lavado ILFORD WASH AID procesará 40 hojas de tamaño 8x10 pulgadas.

4- CAPACIDAD La capacidad del fijador varía dependiendo de sus requisitos de esperanza de vida (EV). Aquí encontrara los números recomendados para el fijado de hojas tamaño 8x10 pulgadas que se pueden procesar en un litro solución de trabajo del fijador: Comercial Archivo Papel (EV menos de 25 años) (EV más de 100 años) Base de baño de resina 80 40* Base de Fibra 40 10 Base de Fibra con ILFORD Secuencia de Archivo ------40+ + La capacidad de ampliaciones se incrementa cuando se sigue la secuencia para procesado de archivo ILFORD Archival Processing Sequence utilizando Universal wash aid. *La información se basa en pruebas de envejecimiento acelerado y no refleja un tiempo real de pruebas.

AUXILIAR DE LAVADO PARA PAPEL 1- DESCRIPCION El auxiliar de lavado UNIVERSAL WASH AID está específicamente formulado para auxiliar en la eliminación de los subproductos del fijado y se recomienda para ser utilizado con papeles de base de fibra. Se utiliza como parte de la secuencia para procesado de archivo de ILFORD Archival Processing Sequence, los tiempos de procesado se pueden reducir hasta un medio.

2- PREPARACION Y USO El auxiliar de lavado UNIVERSAL WASH AID se presenta en líquido concentrado y se debe diluir 1+4 con agua para hacer una solución de trabajo. Después de cinco minutos en el lavado con agua fresca que fluya, sumerja las ampliaciones en el auxiliar de lavado UNIVERSAL WASH AID durante 10 minutos. Siga con un lavado con agua fresca que fluya y seque las ampliaciones.

PRODUCTOS QUIMICOS PARA PROCESO CON MAQUINA ILFORD 2150 XL CHEMICALS 1- DESCRIPCION El revelador y fijador ILFORD 2150 XL son líquidos concentrados especialmente formulados para procesar los papeles MULTIGRADE IV RC DELUXE, MULTIGRADE III RC RAPID, ILFOSPEED RC DELUXE, y todos los papeles de base de baño de resina (RC) en el procesador de papel de base de baño de resina ILFORD ILFOLAB 2150 RC. El revelador ILFORD 2150 XL es un revelador de papel hecho con hidroquinona fenidona presentado en líquido. Fue diseñado con el procesado de máquina en mente, el revelador ILFORD 2150 XL da un rendimiento alto a temperaturas altas. Corre limpiamente, rinde mucho y produce resultados estables a través de su vida. El fijador ILFOED 2150 XL es un fijador rápido sin hecho con tiosulfato de amonio Es especialmente diseñado para un acceso rápido a los sistemas de procesado, provee un fijado efectivo con un tiempo de 18 segundos. Se presenta en líquido concentrado que se mezcla rápida y fácilmente.

2- PREPARACION Y USO 2.1 PROCESADOR ILFOLAB 2150 RC El procesador ILFOLAB 2150 RC requiere de un galón de revelador concentrado ILFORD 2150 XL y un galón de fijador concentrado ILFORD 2150 XL. Estos productos químicos se deben colocar en los tanques apropiados. Simplemente vierta estos dentro del procesador adonde serán automáticamente diluidos. El revelador y fijador ILFORD 2150 XL se formularon específicamente para un uso prolongado sin refuerzo. Típicamente, las soluciones se utilizan durante dos semanas o con 1000 ampliaciones de tamaño 8x10 pulgadas, cualquiera que ocurra primero, antes de ser desechadas. Esto es equivalente a 80,000 pulgadas cuadradas de papel.

2.2 PROCESADO EN GRUPO 3- ALMACENAJE Las botellas que no hayan sido abiertas del auxiliar de lavado UNIVERSAL WASH AID se mantendrán aproximadamente 24 meses. Una botella medio llena con su tapa bien apretada se mantendrá aproximadamente seis meses.

El revelador y fijador ILFORD 2150 XL también se pueden utilizar en sistema de grupo de procesadores de papel de mesa. Una mezcla completa de cada concentrado hace catorce litros de solución de trabajo. La mayoría de los sistemas de refuerzo requieren una mezcla parcial. Ambos concentrados se mezclan 1 parte producto químico a 2.5 partes de agua.


QUIMICOS

4

Primero determine el tamaño del tanque que se utiliza, mida la cantidad apropiada del producto químico, y después añada agua para hacer el volumen final

Los productos químicos ILFORD 2000 RT también se pueden utilizar con papeles de base de fibra como MULTIGRADE FB en procesadores continuos.

Volumen Requerido 1 litro 1 galón

2 PREPARACION Y USO

ILFORD 2150 XL Producto químico 285ml 36.5 onzas

Agua 715ml 91.5 onzas

Multiplique el tamaño del tanque por los montos que se presentan en la tabla de arriba para determinar los requisitos de solución. Un litro de productos químicos ILFORD 2150 XL procesará hasta 70 ampliaciones de tamaño 8x10 pulgadas 5,600 pulgadas cuadradas de papel blanco y negro. El fijador y el revelador ILFORD 2150 XL se pueden utilizar en varias temperaturas con un rango preferido de 68°F 95°F. Utilice la siguiente guía cuando ajuste la temperatura y la velocidad de la máquina: Temperatura 68°F (20°C) 77°F (25°C) 86°F (30°C) 95°F (35°C)

Tiempo de inmersión 46 segundos 32 segundos 22 segundos 17 segundos

Esta es UNICAMENTE una guía, y los ciclos de procesado reales pueden variar. Utilice el mismo tiempo para todos los baños de productos químicos. Para extender la vida del fijador, un baño de agua o de paro entre revelador y fijador se prefiere.

3- ALMACENAJE Las botellas que no se hayan abierto de revelador o fijador concentrado ILFORD 2150 XL se mantendrán hasta 18 meses. Una vez que sean abiertas, el revelador se mantendrá hasta cuatro meses y el fijador se podrá utilizar hasta seis meses sí se mantiene en su botella con la tapa bien apretada. Cuando una mezcla completa se utiliza, el revelador y el fijador ILFORD 2150 XL tienen un rendimiento de hasta catorce días. Las mezclas parciales pueden rendir hasta cinco días. Guarde las botellas que no han sido abiertas en un lugar fresco. No permita que se congelen los productos químicos.

ILFORD 2000 RT CHEMICALS 1- DESCRIPCION Los productos químicos ILFORD 2000 RT están específicamente diseñados para procesar papeles de base de baño de resina (RC) ILFORD ILFOSPEED RC DELUXE, MULTIGRADE RC y todo tipo de papeles de base de baño de resina (RC) en procesadores de transporte de rodillos con sistema de refuerzo.

2.1 REVELADOR/REFUERZO El revelador/refuerzo se presenta como un líquido concentrado en contenedores de 2 1/2 galones. Diluya 1 parte de concentrado con 4 partes de agua para hacer una solución de trabajo del revelador y del refuerzo. Mezcle completamente. El revelador/refuerzo esta formulado para uso con temperaturas de procesado normales y de rápido acceso de 68°F a 95°F (20°C - 35°C). Inicialmente ajuste el índice de refuerzo a 7.5ml por cada hoja de tamaño 8x10 pulgadas ó 13.5ml/pie cuadrado de material que se procesa. Esta cantidad provee un refuerzo adecuado para la mayoría de los procesadores. Este índice se puede ajustar si se considera necesario. El pH de la solución fresca de abastecedor es 10.5 (+0.5). La gravedad específica, tomada a 68°F, es 1.058 (+- 0.05).

2.2 FIJADOR/REFUERZO El fijador/refuerzo es un fijador rápido sin endurecedor que también se presenta como líquido concentrado dentro de contenedores los cuales contienen 2 1/2 galones. Diluya 1 parte de concentrado con 4 partes de agua para hacer una solución de trabajo de fijador y refuerzo. Mezcle completamente. El fijador/refuerzo ILFORD 2000 RT esta formulado para ser utilizado con temperaturas de procesado de 68°F a 90°F (20°C - 32°C). Ya que es un fijador sin endurecedor, permite un lavado más corto y más eficiente con papeles de baño de resina (RC). Refuerce la solución de trabajo a índice de 12. 5ml por cada hoja de tamaño 8x10 pulgadas ó 22.5 ml/pie cuadrado de material procesado. Este índice proveerá un refuerzo adecuado para la mayoría de los procesadores pero se puede ajustar si es necesario. El pH de la solución fresca de refuerzo es 5.05 (+- 1.0). La gravedad específica, tomada a 68°F, es 1.078 (+0.05).

2.3 PROCESADO DE MAQUINA Utilice la siguiente guía al ajustar las máquinas para procesar papeles de base de baño de resina (RC) ILFORD. Esta guía es un punto de partida únicamente y el ciclo de procesado real debe de ser ajustado individualmente para cada procesador de fabricante diferente. Temperatura 68°F (20°C) 77°F (25°C) 86°F (30°C) 95°F (35°C)

Tiempo de revelado 45-50 segundos 30-35 segundos 20-25 segundos 15-20 segundos


5 El rango preferido de temperatura es de 68°F (20°C) a 86°F a(30°C). Los tiempos son aptos para sistemas de refuerzo con una vida de la solución de 3 meses. La vida de la solución depende de la cantidad de papel que se procese. El mínimo sugerido es 30 pies cuadrados ó 54 hojas de tamaño 8x10 pulgadas de papel por litro (0.26 galones) de solución de trabajo por semana. Si la cantidad de papel procesada es mucho menos que esto, los productos químicos se pueden degradar prematuramente. Para mantener la calidad de las ampliaciones es necesario: mezclar un tanque de solución fresco cada 6 semanas o hacer doble el índice de refuerzo. Utilice los mismos tiempos de fijado y las mismas temperaturas que se recomiendan con el revelador. El refuerzo del fijador debe de ser suficiente para mantener un máximo de 4 gramos por litro de plata dentro del baño de fijado. Lave las ampliaciones que se procesan con máquina con productos químicos ILFORD 2000 RT siguiendo las recomendaciones del fabricante del procesador.

3- ALMACENAJE Las botellas que no se hayan abierto de productos químicos ILFORD 2000 RT se mantendrán hasta 18 meses. Una vez que sean abiertas, el revelador se mantendrá hasta cuatro meses y el fijador se podrá utilizar hasta seis meses si se mantiene en su botella con la tapa bien apretada.

ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RAPID RP CHEMICALS 1- DESCRIPCION Los productos químicos de ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RAPID RP están especialmente formulados para permitir que los papeles de base de baño de resina (RC) ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RC RAPID se utilicen con el procesador Kodak Royalprint Processor.

2- PREPARACION Y USO ILFORD recomienda que los productos químicos ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RAPID RP se instalen en los procesadores estándar de Kodak Royalprint Processors para obtener resultados de calidad óptima de los papeles MULTIGRADE III RC PAPID. El activador ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RAPID RP se provee pre-mezclado en presentación lista para uso. Vierta lentamente dentro del tanque para ser utilizado. El baño de paro ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RAPID RP también se provee pre-mezclado en presentación lista para uso. Vierta lentamente dentro del procesador. El fijador ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RAPID RP se presenta en líquido que se provee en dos partes.

INFORMACION TECNICA La parte A se puede utilizar sola, vierta directamente dentro de la máquina. Después añada agua hasta que el volumen de estos líquidos alcance la marca de llenado en el indicador de fijador de la máquina. La parte B del fijador es un aditivo único el cual controla el tono de imagen. Si no se integra la Parte B, las imágenes que resultarán serán de tono frío, pero no afectará la permanecía de la ampliación. Si se requiere de un tono de imagen cálido, se debe añadir una botella de la parte B del fijador ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RAPID RP directamente dentro de la máquina justo después de añadir la parte A. Después se añade agua hasta que el volumen de estos líquidos alcance la marca de llenado en el indicador de fijador de la máquina. Los productos químicos de ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RAPID RP están diseñados para ser utilizados en sistemas de lote batch o sistemas de refuerzo. Cuando se procese en lote, cambie los productos químicos cuando cualquiera de las cosas que se describen aquí ocurran: 1. Después del procesado del equivalente de 1000 hojas tamaño 8x10 pulgadas blanco y negro. 2. Después que las disoluciones lleven más de una semana. 3. Después de haber utilizado 3 botellas de agua para abastecer el activador. Al utilizar los productos químicos ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RAPID RP con un sistema abastecido, el refuerzo se ajusta dependiendo en el ancho del papel. Los índices se proveen dentro de la guía de operación para Adaptador de Suministro de Rodillos Roll Feed Adapter y Montaje de Refuerzo Replenishment Assembly.

3- ALMACENAJE Las botellas que no hayan sido abiertas de los productos químicos ILFORD MULTIGRADE III RAPID RP se mantendrán por hasta un año. Almacene las botellas que no hayan sido abiertas en un lugar fresco. No permita que las soluciones se congelen.

CONSIDERACIONES DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE Y DE SEGURIDAD ILFORD hace todos los esfuerzos para cumplir con autoridades reconocidas tanto nacionales como internacionales para la protección correcta del usuario y del medio ambiente. Los productos químicos fotográficos no son peligrosos cuando se utilizan de manera correcta y cuando se utilizan reglas básicas de sentido común. En cada de los contenedores de productos químicos de ILFORD, siempre se encuentran recomendaciones de seguridad y salud como una guía de uso y manejo seguro.


QUIMICOS Detalles de manejo seguro, primeros auxilios, desecho y transporte se presenta en las hojas de información y seguridad (Material Safety Data Sheets, MSDS) de cada producto químico fotográfico de ILFORD. Se puede conseguir más información MSDS del representante de ILFORD de su país o directamente al comunicarse con ILFORD a su Servicio Técnico en E.U..A. al (201) 2656000.

MANTENGA TODOS LOS PRODUCTOS QUIMICOS DE PROCESO FUERA DEL ALCANCE DE NIÑOS. Para su seguridad, siempre utilice protección de cara y ojos y guantes de hule adecuados cuando se maneje o mezcle cualquier producto químico. Utilice estos únicamente en áreas bien ventiladas. No coma, beba o fume en áreas adonde se manejen o utilicen los productos químicos.

ILFORD puede modificar sus productos de tiempo a tiempo y como resultado la información impresa en esta publicación esta sujeta a cambios sin previo aviso. Los nombres impresos en mayúsculas son marcas registradas por ILFORD. Kodak y Royalprint Processor son marcas registradas del Eastman Kodak Company.

6


May 2003

FACT SHEET

ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC LC29 AND ILFOSOL S FILM DEVELOPERS LIQUID CONCENTRATE DEVELOPERS FOR LOW VOLUME BLACK AND WHITE FILM PROCESSING IN SPIRAL TANKS, DISHES/TRAYS AND ROTARY PROCESSORS WITHOUT REPLENISHMENT ILFORD ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC LC29 and ILFOSOL S are a range of liquid concentrate film developers formulated to exploit the full potential of conventional black and white film emulsions in all formats. They enable professionals and amateurs to develop small quantities of ILFORD and other films with ease and convenience. Their versatility allows for the optimisation of individual film speed, quality and economy while performing consistently throughout their long working lives. ILFORD ILFOTEC DD-X ILFORD ILFOTEC DD-X is an excellent fine grain developer which gives full film speed. It produces negatives which are easy to print. Correctly exposed negatives developed in ILFOTEC DD-X have a full range of tones, with depth in the shadows, a smooth transition through the mid-tones and bright detailed highlights. ILFOTEC DD-X is designed to complement the features of all ILFORD films, especially the range of ILFORD DELTA PROFESSIONAL films. In particular it is recommended for use with DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL film rates at EI 3200/36. It also gives excellent results when used with quality black and white films from other manufacturers.

ILFOTEC DD-X ensures a good balance of fine grain, sharpness and tonal rendition producing negatives which allow a high degree of enlargement. In addition it is highly recommended when fast films need to be push processed such as HP5 Plus, DELTA 400 PROFESSIONAL, DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL and SFX200. ILFOTEC DD-X is supplied as a liquid concentrate diluted 1+4 for one-shot use when the highest image quality is required. However, for greater economy it can be reused but image quality will be reduced slightly. ILFORD ILFOTEC LC29 ILFORD ILFOTEC LC29 is a high dilution liquid concentrate black and white film developer that is flexible and economic to use. It is based on the technology used in ILFORD ILFOTEC HC developer but is formulated to be an easy to pour liquid for small volume film processing. ILFOTEC LC29 is designed to complement the features of all ILFORD films giving fine grain negatives with good sharpness characteristics and image quality. It also gives excellent results when used with quality black and white films from other manufacturers. With ILFOTEC LC29 there is a choice of dilution – 1+29, 1+19 and 1+9 – and the option for either one-shot processing or for greater economy to reuse the diluted developer solution during one working session.

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LIQUID DEVELOPERS ILFORD ILFOSOL S ILFORD ILFOSOL S is a general purpose liquid concentrate black and white film developer. It is particularly suited to developing medium and slow speed films such as PANF Plus, FP4 Plus and 100 DELTA PROFESSIONAL. ILFOSOL S gives fine grain and good sharpness with full film speed. Dilute it immediately before use and discard directly after development. ILFOSOL S is supplied as a liquid concentrate normally diluted 1+9 for one-shot use. For greater economy it can be used with many films at a higher dilution of 1+14 with only a small trade off in image quality. Mixing instructions Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. It is recommended that gloves, eye protection and an apron or overall are worn when handling and mixing all chemicals. Always follow the specific health and safety recommendations on the chemical packaging. Photochemical material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD agents or directly from the ILFORD web site at www.ilford.com. Determine first either the tank size being used or the number of films to be processed and measure out the appropriate quantity of concentrate. Always used the smallest measuring cylinder available: it is easier to measure 10ml accurately in a 50ml cylinder than in a 500ml cylinder. Add the concentrate to the mixing vessel. A large measuring jug is a good mixing vessel as it provides a check on the total quantity of solution mixed. Rinse out the measuring cylinder used for the concentrate into the mixing vessel. Finally add hot and cold water to make up the final volume at the desired temperature and stir thoroughly. As most water drawn from pressure mains is highly aerated, we advise that users draw off the water they need and leave it to stand for a few minutes before using it to make up developers. Thoroughly wash all utensils, measuring and mixing vessels after use. Do not contaminate developer solutions with either stop bath or fixer solutions.

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LIQUID DEVELOPERS Table of Dilutions The following table gives a list of common spiral tank sizes cross referenced with the amount of liquid concentrate and water required to fill the tank.

1+4

1+9

Dilution 1+14 concentrate/water

1+19

1+29

Tank size ml 100 150 200

20 / 80 30 / 120 40 / 160

10 / 90 15 / 135 20 / 180

7 / 93 10 / 140 13 / 187

5 / 95 8 / 142 10 / 190

3/ / 97 5 / 145 7 / 193

250 300 350 400 450

50 60 70 80 90

25 30 35 40 45

/ / / / /

225 270 315 360 405

17 20 23 27 30

/ / / / /

233 280 327 373 420

13 15 18 20 23

/ / / / /

237 285 332 380 427

8 / 242 10 / 290 12 / 338 13 / 387 15 / 435

500 600 700 800 900

100 120 140 160 180

50 60 70 80 90

/ / / / /

450 540 630 720 810

33 40 47 53 60

/ / / / /

467 560 653 747 840

25 30 35 40 45

/ / / / /

475 570 665 760 855

17 20 23 27 30

1,000 2,000

/ / / / / / / / / /

200 240 280 320 360 400 480 560 640 720

200 / 800 400 / 1600

100 / 900 200 / 1800

1 litre = 33.81 US fluid ounces 3.8 litre = 1 US gallon 29.6 ml = 1 US fluid ounce Note We advise not to use amounts of concentrate less than 10ml when mixing working strength solutions as it is difficult to measure accurately such small quantities with a measuring cylinder. If it is necessary to measure out very small quantities use a graduated pipette.

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67 / 933 133 / 1867

50 / 950 100 / 1900

/ / / / /

483 580 677 773 870

33 / 967 67 / 1993


LIQUID DEVELOPERS pH and specific gravity The following table gives the pH and specific gravity (SG) for fresh solutions of ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC LC29 and ILFOSOL S developers. These figures were obtained under carefully controlled laboratory conditions and may differ slightly from measurements made by users in their own working areas. Users should make their own control measurements from their own accurately mixed fresh solutions for later comparison. Ideally a pH meter should be used to measure solution pH but if one is not available pH measurement sticks can be used. These are available in various pH ranges and those covering a range from pH7 to pH10 are sufficient. SG can be measured by using a hydrometer and one covering the range from 1.000 to 1.200 is useful for a wide range of photographic process solutions. Developer ILFOTEC DD-X ILFOTEC LC29

ILFOSOL S

dilution 1+4 1+9 1+19 1+29 1+9 1+14

pH

SG at 20ºC/68ºF 8.45 - 8.55 1.070 8.90 - 9.00 1.015 1.006 1.002 9.75 -9.85 1.005 1.002

PROCESS SYSTEMS Manual processing Spiral tanks ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC LC29 and ILFOSOL S developers can all be used to process films in spiral tanks using the recommended dilutions. The recommended developing temperature is 20ºC (68ºF). They can be used in the temperature range of 20–24ºC (68–75ºF) but the recommended development times must be reduced if higher temperatures are used. Care must be taken with the choice of dilution and temperature as very short development times with some films may lead to uneven processing Before starting to process prepare the appropriate volume of all the required process solutions according to tank size and number of films to be processed together. The solution volume must be enough to cover all the spirals used. Check the temperature of all the process solutions and adjust them to be +/- 1ºC (2ºF) of the temperature being used. Add the developer to the processing tank. Tap the tank firmly on the work bench to dislodge any air bubbles which may be trapped in the processing spiral. The following agitation is recommended for spiral tank processing with ILFORD chemicals. Invert the tank four times during the first 10 seconds. Repeat these four inversions during the first 10 seconds of each subsequent minute of development. At the end of each agitation sequence tap the tank firmly on the work bench to dislodge any air bubbles Page 4 of 10

which may be trapped in the processing spiral. This method of agitation should also be used with the fixer. Drain off the developer 10 seconds before the end of the development time immediately fill the tank with the next process solution. Dish (Tray) processing (Sheet film only) ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC LC29 and ILFOSOL S developers can all be used to process sheet film formats in dishes (trays) at the recommended temperature of 20ºC (68ºF) +/- 1ºC (2ºF). Higher temperatures are not recommended as the development times may become too short and lead to uneven processing. Before starting to process prepare the require volume of all the process solutions according to dish (tray) size used and number of films to be processed. The solution volume must be enough to cover the sheet film completely during processing. Check the temperatures of all the process solutions and adjust them to be +/- 1ºC (2ºF) of the temperature being used. When dish/tray processing continuous agitation is used, immerse the film completely in the developer and gently rock the dish from side to side taking care to avoid any spillage. This method of agitation is used for all subsequent processing steps. Continuous agitation reduces the recommended development times by about 15%. Remove the film from the dish/tray 10 seconds before the end of the development time and allow developer to drain from its surface before placing it the stop bath. Rotary tube processors Rotary tube processors have very similar processing conditions to spiral tank processing by hand, except they process with small amounts of solution using continuous agitation and can be pre-programmed. ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC LC29 and ILFOSOL S developers can all be used to process films in rotary processors using the recommended dilutions at 20ºC (68ºF). Follow any guidance given by the processor manufacturer when adjusting process times for these types of processors. However, generally we do not recommend using a pre-rinse as it can lead to uneven development. Without using a pre-rinse the given development times will need to be reduced by around 15% to compensate for the continuous agitation.


LIQUID DEVELOPERS

The development times are for films rated at an appropriate EI rating for each developer and should produce negatives of normal contrast, typically around a Gbar of 0.62. However they are only a guide and may need to be adjusted to suit individual processing systems, working practices and preferences. Higher or lower contrast negatives may be preferred by some to suit their individual requirements, adjust the recommended development times until the desired contrast level is obtained. ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC LC29 and ILFOSOL S developers can be used in the temperature range of 20–24ºC (68–75ºF). For processing at other temperatures increase the given development times by 10% for each 1ºC drop in temperature and decrease the given development times by 10% for each 1ºC rise in temperature. Alternatively use the time temperature graphs below. o

Temperature (°C)

For example, if 4 minutes at 20°C/68 F is o recommended, the time at 23°C/73 F will be 3 o minutes and the time at 16°C/61 F will be 6 minutes.

New development time (min)

Page 5 of 10

Temperature (°F)

DEVELOPMENT TIMES The table of development times given here gives an appropriate starting point for ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC LC29 and ILFOSOL S developers when general purpose black and white camera films are being developed in spiral tanks with intermittent agitation.

New development time (min)


LIQUID DEVELOPERS ILFORD films Developer time in min: sec Dilution Temperature 100 DELTA PROFESSIONAL DELTA 400 PROFESSIONAL

DELTA 3200 PROFESSIONAL

PANF Plus FP4 Plus

HP5 Plus

SFX200

ORTHO PLUS Pictorial Contrast

Page 6 of 10

ILFOTEC DD-X –––––––––––––––––– 1+4 1+4 20ºC/68ºF 24ºC/75ºF Meter setting EI 50/18 9:30 7 EI 100/21 12 9 EI 200/24 14 11 EI 200/24 6 4:30 EI 320/26 – – EI 400/27 8 5:30 EI 500/28 9:30 7 EI 800/30 10:30 7:30 EI 1600/33 13:30 9 EI 3200/36 18 13 EI 400/27 6 – EI 800/30 7 5 EI 1600/33 8 6 EI 3200/36 9:30 7 EI 6400 /39 12:30 9 EI 12500/42 17 12 EI 25/15 7 4 EI 50/18 8 5 EI 50/18 8 6 EI 125/22 10 8 EI 200 /24 12 10 EI 400/27 9 7 EI 800/30 10 8 EI 1600/33 13 10 EI 3200/36 20 14:30 EI 200/24 10 7 EI 400/27 14 10 EI 800/30 – – EI 80/20 Daylight Normal 6:30 – High 9 – EI 40/17 Tungsten Normal 6:30 – High 9 –

ILFOTEC LC29 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1+9 1+19 1+29 20ºC/68ºF

ILFOSOL S ––––––––––––––––– 1+9 1+14 20ºC/68ºF

– – – ---4 – –5:30 7:30 13 – – 5 8 13 – – – – 4 5 – 5 7:30 11 5 7 10:30

5 6 8 5 – 7:30 – 10 13:30 – 6 7:30 9 14:30 – – – 4 6 8 9 6:30 9:30 14 – 9 13 19

5:30 7:30 10 8:30 –11:30 – 17 – – – – – – – – – 5:30 8 12 – 9 – – – 11 – –

4:30 6 – 6:30 – 9 – 14 – – 6:30 8 10:30 13 – – – 4 – 6:30 7:30 7 8:30 14 – 9:30 11:30 19

6:30 10 – 10 – 13 – – – – – – – – – – – 6 7:30 9:30 – 9:30 14 – – 13 19 –

4 5

6 8

– –

4:30 6

– –

4 5

6 8

– –

4:30 6

– –


LIQUID DEVELOPERS Non ILFORD films Developer time in min: sec Dilution Temperature Kodak Tmax 100 Kodak Tmax 400

Kodak Tmax 3200

Kodak Plus X

Kodak Tri X

Agfa APX 100

Agfa APX 400

Fuji 100 Acros Fuji Neopan 400

Fuji Neopan 1600

ILFOTEC DD-X –––––––––––––––––– 1+4 1+4 20ºC/68ºF 24ºC/75ºF Meter setting EI 100/21 7 5 EI 200/24 9 7 EI 200/24 7 5 EI 400/27 8 6 EI 800/30 10 8.00 EI 1600/33 13 10 EI 800/30 7:30 6.00 EI 1600/33 9 7:30 EI 3200/36 11 9 EI 6400/39 15 12 EI 64/19 5 – EI 125/22 6 4:30 EI 200/24 8 6 EI 200/24 6:30 4:30 EI 400/27 8 6 EI 800/30 10 8 EI 1600/33 14 11 EI 50/18 6 4 EI 100/21 7 5 EI 200/24 8 6:30 EI 320/26 10 6:30 EI 400/27 12 8 EI 500/28 15 12 EI 80/20 – – EI 100/21 --– EI 400/27 7 5 EI 800/30 10 8 EI 1600/33 --–EI 3200/36 – –EI 400/27 – –EI 800/30 4:30 –EI 1600/33 5 3:30 EI 3200/36 9 6

The development times for other manufacturers’ films are a general guide. The specification of these products may have changed over time and as a result these development times may need to be adjusted. If necessary the given times should be adjusted to give the result required.

Page 7 of 10

ILFOTEC LC29 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1+9 1+19 1+29 20ºC/68ºF

ILFOSOL S ––––––––––––––––– 1+9 1+14 20ºC/68ºF

3:30 – – 3:30 5 – – –– –– 3:30 – – 3:30 5.00 7 –4 – – 3 – – – 4 – – – – – 3 –

8:30 – – 7:30 – – – – 17:30 – --7 ----10 – – – 7 – – 9 – – – 6:30 – – – – – – –

7:30 – – 6:30 8 8:30 – 8 11 13 – 5:30 – – 6:30 – ––7:30 – – 6 – 4:30 – 6 – – – – – 7 –

11 – 9 – – – ----– --9 – --– – – – 11 --------– --8 ----------10 ---

16 – – 14 – – – – – – --12:30 --– – – – --11 --------– --10 ----------– ---


LIQUID DEVELOPERS STOP, FIX, WASH and RINSE For best results it is recommended that all process solutions are kept at the same temperature or at least within 5ºC (9ºF) of the developer temperature. Stop Bath When using “one-shot” processing in small spiral tanks a water rinse can substitute for a stop bath. After development film can be rinsed in water but we recommend that an acid stop bath is used such as ILFORD ILFOSTOP (with indicator dye) or ILFOSTOP PRO (without indicator dye). When deep tanks or dishes (trays) of process solutions are in use a stop bath immediately stops development and reduces carry over of excess developer into the fixer bath. This helps to maintain the activity and prolong the life of the fixer solution. ILFORD Stop Bath Dilution Temperature range Time (seconds) at 20ºC (68ºF) Capacity films/litre (unreplenished)

ILFOSTOP 1+19 18–24 ºC (64–75ºF) 10

ILFOSTOP PRO 1+19 18–24 ºC (64–75ºF) 10

15 x 135–36

22 x 135–36

The process time given for the stop bath is the minimum required. if necessary a longer time may be used and should not cause any process problems provided it is not excessive. Fix The recommended fixers ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD HYPAM liquid fixers and ILFORD ILFOFIX II powder fixer, are non-hardening fixers. ILFORD Fixer Dilution Temperature range Time (minutes) at 20ºC (68ºF) Capacity films / litre (unreplenished)

ILFORD RAPID FIXER & ILFORD HYPAM 1+4 18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

ILFORD ILFOFIX II stock 18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

2–5

4–8

24 x 135–36

24 x 135–36

Wash When a non-hardening fixer has been used wash the films in running water for 5–10 minutes at a temperature within 5ºC (9ºF) of the process temperature. For spiral tank use, when a non-hardening fixer has been used, the following method of washing is recommended. This method of washing is faster, uses less water yet still gives negatives suitable for long term storage.

Page 8 of 10

After fixing, fill the spiral tank with water at the same temperature, +/- 5ºC (9ºF), as the processing solutions and invert it five times. Drain the water away and refill. Invert the tank ten times. Once more drain the water away and refill. Finally, invert the tank twenty times and drain the water away. Rinse For a final rinse ILFORD ILFOTOL wetting agent is recommended as it helps films to dry evenly. Start by using 5ml per litre of rinse water (1+ 200), however the amount of ILFOTOL used may need some adjustment depending on the local water quality and drying method. Too little or too much wetting agent can lead to uneven drying. Remove excess rinse solution from the film before drying. REUSING DEVELOPER WITHOUT REPLENISHMENT Working strength solutions of ILFOSOL S 1+9 and 1+14 and ILFOTEC LC29 1+29 are described as a one-shot developers. They should be used only once and discarded, we do not recommend reusing them to process more than one film. For the highest image quality ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 and ILFOTEC LC29 1+9 and 1+19 should also be used as one–shot developers. However for greater economy they can be reused to process either a number of films individually or multiple films in batches. The table below gives the number of 135/36 or 120 roll films a litre of ILFOTEC DDX 1+4 and ILFOTEC LC29 1+9 and 1+19 can process provided that the developer is reused. 1 litre ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 ILFOTEC LC29 1+9 ILFOTEC LC29 1+19

films/litre 10 10 5

As each film or batch of films is processed it releases halides and other by-products into the developer that act as a restrainer on the development of subsequent films. For this reason development times will need some adjustment after each successive film or batch of films. To calculate the adjustment a tally must be kept of the number of films processed in the developer solution.


LIQUID DEVELOPERS If a series of individual films is being developed in a spiral tank using either 1 litre of ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 or ILFOTEC LC29 1+9 and 1+19, compensate for the loss of developer activity after developing the first film by increasing the development time 10% for each successive film, (see table below). This method of time adjustment relies on the used developer, (250 -300ml for one 135/36 film), being poured back into the working strength solution’s storage bottle and mixed with the fresh unused part of the developer before processing the next film. When using spiral tanks this helps to give more consistent results by reducing the risks of problems due to solution losses and the restraining effect of the by-products. 1l N N+ N+ working 10% 20% strength ILFOTEC DD-X 1 2 3 1+4 ILFOTEC LC29 1 2 3 1+9 ILFOTEC LC29 1 2 3 1+19 N = standard development time nr = not recommended

N+ 30%

N+ 40%

N+ 90%

4

5

10

4

5

10

4

5

nr

When larger quantities of developer are in use increase the number of films that can be processed proportionally with the volume of working strength developer being used, e.g. if 5 litres of stock ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 are being used then increase the development times by 10% after processing every batch of 5 films. The following table shows for each developer the total amount of working strength solution that can be prepared from one bottle of concentrate along with the number of films that can be processed before each 10% increase in development time. ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 working N N+ N+ N+ strength 10% 20% 30% solution (litres) 5 1–5 6–10 11–15 16–20 N = standard development time ILFOTEC LC29 1+9 working N N+ N+ strength 10% 20% solution (litres) 2.5 1–3 4–5 6–7

N+ 40%

N+ 90%

21–25

46–50

N+ 30%

N+ 40%

N+ 90%

8–10

11–12

23–25

N+ 40%

N+ 90%

21–25

nr

ILFOTEC LC29 1+19 working N N+ N+ N+ strength 10% 20% 30% solution (litres) 5 1–5 6–10 11–15 16–20 nr = not recommended

Page 9 of 10

Reusing stock developer solutions can make more economical use of them but it is not without its drawbacks particularly when small volumes are being used. More inconsistencies will be seen by reusing a developer than by using a fresh developer solution on each occasion. The time compensation can only be an approximation to cover a range of circumstances such as film and negative types, solution losses and its age, etc. For example, if your negatives are night shots which will be relatively clear when developed then little of the developing agents will have been used in processing them. At the other extreme if the negatives are well blackened after development because they are of beach scenes in bright sunlight then more developing agent will have been used. Overall reusing developer lowers image quality slightly and increases the risk of physical damage. As the developer oxidises with reuse and storage, the risk of contamination is increased, precipitates may be formed and tiny particles of emulsion from the films processed previously may be held in suspension. In addition there is also a risk of miss counting the number of films that have been processed by a batch of developer. “One-shot” processing using ILFOTEC DD-X 1+4 or ILFOTEC LC29 1+9, 1+19 and 1+29 or ILFOSOL S 1+9 and 1+14 eliminates or greatly reduces these problems. One–shot processing is recommended when image quality, reliability and consistancy are more important than economy. We do not recommend push processing using reused developers. WORKING SOLUTION LIFE ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC LC29 and ILFOSOL S working strength solutions should not be kept for more than 24 hours. Make up fresh developer each time it is needed and discard it after the processing session.


LIQUID DEVELOPERS STORAGE Always store chemicals in their original containers and away from unsupervised children and pets. In cool, dry conditions, 4–20ºC (44–68ºF) ILFOTEC DD-X, ILFOTEC LC29 and ILFOSOL S developer concentrates should keep in good condition for the following time periods. ILFOTEC DD-X 24 months in full tightly capped bottles. 6 months in half full tightly capped bottles. ILFOTEC LC29 36 months in full tightly capped bottles. 6 months in half full tightly capped bottles. ILFOSOL S 24 months in full tightly capped bottles. 4 months in half full tightly capped bottles. AVAILABILITY AND CAPACITY ILFOTEC DD-X is available in 1 litre bottles worldwide. Used at 1+4 for one shot processing it will develop 16 135/36 films. If reuse techniques are used it will develop up to 50 135/36 or 120 films. ILFOTEC LC29 is available in 250ml bottles in all markets except those served via North America. The following table gives the developing capacity of a 250ml bottle of ILFOTEC LC29.

at 1+9 at 1+19 at 1+29

one-shot 8 16 25

reuse 25 25 nr

ILFOSOL S is available in North America in 500ml bottles and the rest of the world in 250ml bottles. 250ml at 1+9 will process 8 135/36 films. 250mls at 1+14 will process 12 135/36 films. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country.

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL England www.ilford.com

Page 10 of 10

02051.GB.www

May 2003


January 2004

FACT SHEET

B&W PAPER DEVELOPERS DEVELOPERS FOR THE DISH/TRAY PROCESSING OF BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPERS ILFORD MULTIGRADE developer MULTIGRADE is a rapid liquid concentrate dimezone-s/hydroquinone developer suitable for the dish/tray developing of all black and white photographic papers both resin coated, RC, and traditional fibre based, FB ones. It is usually used at a dilution of 1+9 but for greater development control and economy it can be used at 1+14. MULTIGRADE developer is clean working, has excellent keeping properties and gives a neutral image tone with most papers. MULTIGRADE developer is designed for use at ambient room temperatures, nominally 20ºC/68ºF. We do not recommend its use for high temperature or machine processing applications. It is not suitable for developing films. ILFORD PQ UNIVERSAL developer PQ UNIVERSAL is a liquid concentrate dimezones/hydroquinone developer suitable for the dish/tray developing of all RC and FB black and white photographic papers. Used at a dilution of 1+9 it is clean working and has excellent keeping properties. It gives a slightly warm of neutral image tone with most papers. In addition PQ UNIVERSAL can be used to dish/tray process ILFORD and some other technical films. It is also suitable for dish/tray developing of general purpose sheet films when a fast working, high contrast developer is needed and a high degree of enlargement is not required. For film processing applications it is diluted either 1+9 (high contrast) or 1+19 (pictorial contrast). PQ UNIVERSAL is not recommended for processing general purpose 35mm and roll film formats. PQ UNIVERSAL developer is designed for use at ambient room temperatures, nominally 20ºC/68ºF. We do not recommend its use for high temperature or machine processing applications

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ILFORD BROMOPHEN developer BROMOPHEN is a phenidone/hydroquinone developer supplied in powder form. It is suitable for dish/tray developing all RC and FB black and white photographic papers. It is made into a stock solution that is diluted 1+3 for use. It is economical, clean working and has good keeping properties. It gives a slightly warm of neutral image tone with most papers. It is particularly recommended for dish/tray developing MULTIGRADE Warmtone RC and FB papers to get the warmest image tone. BROMOPHEN developer is designed for use at ambient room temperatures, nominally 20ºC/68ºF. We do not recommend its use for high temperature or machine processing applications. It is not suitable for developing films. Mixing instructions Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. It is recommended that gloves, eye protection and an apron or overall are worn when handling and mixing all chemicals. Always follow the specific health and safety recommendations on the chemical packaging. Photochemical material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD agents or directly from the ILFORD web site at www.ilford.com.


B&W PAPER DEVELOPERS Preparing MULTIGRADE and PQ UNIVERSAL developer MULTIGRADE and PQ UNIVERSAL liquid concentrates are mixed with water for use. MULTIGRADE can be used at a dilution of either 1+9 or 1+14. PQ UNIVERSAL is used at a dilution of 1+9 for paper or 1+9/1+19 for technical films and sheet films. Prepare the working strength solutions of MULTIGRADE and PQ UNIVERSAL developers directly before they are needed. Determine the amount of solution needed for the processing session, making sure that it is a least enough to fill the developing dish/tray to a depth of about half full. Measure out the appropriate amount of concentrate using the smallest measuring cylinder appropriate to the liquid volume: it is easier and more accurate to measure 100 ml of solution in a 100 ml cylinder than a 1000 ml cylinder. Add the concentrate to the mixing vessel. A large measuring jug is a good mixing vessel as it provides a check on the total quantity of solution mixed. Using an appropriately sized measuring cylinder, measure out the required dilution water using hot and cold water to get to the solution’s working temperature, 20ºC/68ºF. Rinse out the measuring cylinder used for the concentrate into the mixing vessel with some of the dilution water. Finally add the remainder of the dilution water to make up to the final working volume and stir the solution thoroughly. The developer is then ready to use. Preparing BROMOPHEN stock developer BROMOPHEN cartons contain two parts, A and B that must be dissolved in water for use. Always make up the developer stock solution to the volume stated on the carton, do not attempt to prepare smaller solution quantities by using fractional parts of each powder, however larger stock solution quantities can be prepared by using multiples of whole packs. To prepare stock developer, dissolve the contents of part A (the smaller bag) in about three-quarters of the total solution volume (see carton) of warm water at about 40ºC/104ºF. Stir until most of the part A powder has dissolved, continue to stir while gradually adding the contents of part B (the larger bag). Keep stirring until no more powder dissolves. NB, it is normal for a few grains of powder to remain un-dissolved. Add cold water to make up to the final volume (see carton) and stir. Allow to cool to room temperature, nominally 20ºC/68ºF. Store in a tightly capped bottle until needed for use.

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Preparing working strength BROMOPHEN. To use BROMOPHEN the stock solution is diluted 1+3 with water to make a working strength solution. Prepare the working strength solution from the stock solution directly before it is needed. Treat the BROMOPHEN stock solution as if it were a liquid concentrate and use the mixing method and information given above in the section called “Preparing MULTIGRADE and PQ UNIVERSAL developer”. As most water drawn from pressure mains is highly aerated, we advise that users draw off the water they need and leave it to stand for a few minutes before using it to make up developers. Thoroughly wash all utensils, measuring and mixing vessels after use. Do not contaminate developer solutions with either stop bath or fixer solutions. pH and specific gravity The following table gives the pH and specific gravity (SG) for fresh solutions of MULTIGRADE, PQ UNIVERSAL and BROMOPHEN developers. These figures were obtained under carefully controlled laboratory conditions and may differ slightly from measurements made by users in their own working areas. Users should make their own control measurements from their own accurately mixed fresh solutions for later comparison. Ideally a pH meter should be used to measure solution pH but if one is not available pH measurement sticks can be used. These are available in various pH ranges and those covering a range from pH 7 to pH 10 are sufficient. SG can be measured by using a hydrometer and one covering the range from 1.000 to 1.200 is useful for a wide range of photographic process solutions. Developer MULTIGRADE

dilution 1+9 1+14 PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 1+19 BROMOPHEN stock 1+3

pH SG at 20ºC 10.45–10.55 1.022 1.011 10.48– 10.58 1.022 1.011 10.30–10.50 1.106 1.025

PROCESSING PAPER Dish/tray processing MULTIGRADE, PQ UNIVERSAL and BROMOPHEN working strength developer solutions should be used in a dish/tray at ambient room temperature. The recommended developing temperature is 20ºC (68ºF) ±1ºC (2ºF). Slightly lower temperatures can be used but development would need to be extended slightly. Slightly higher temperatures can also be used but development times would need to be reduced. These developers are not designed for high temperature processing. High temperatures will reduce the effective solution life considerably and may give very short development times that can lead to uneven processing being seen.


B&W PAPER DEVELOPERS Before starting to process prepare the require volume of all the process solutions according to dish/tray size used and number of sheets of paper to be processed. The solution volume should be enough to fill the processing dish/tray to a depth of about half full, it must be enough to cover the paper completely during processing. Check the temperatures of all the process solutions and adjust them to be ± 1ºC (2ºF) of the temperature being used. When dish/tray processing intermittent agitation is used. For a single sheet immerse the paper completely in the developer and gently rock the dish from side to side taking care to avoid any spillage. This method of agitation is used for all subsequent processing steps. When developing multiple sheets of paper at once, intermittent agitation is given by interleaving them. To interleave paper, slip the sheets into the solution one at a time, emulsion side down. When all the sheets are in the solution, pull the sheet from the bottom and place it on the top of the pile of sheets in the dish/tray. Continue this process of moving the bottom sheet to the top until the process time is complete. Use this method of agitation for all subsequent processing steps. The number of sheets that can be interleaved at one time is up to the individual, however do take care as too many sheets with too little agitation can lead to uneven processing. FB papers are more difficult to interleave than the waterproof RC based papers that remain rigid when wet. The traditional FB papers absorb far more liquid than RC ones and when they are wet they go rather limp and without careful handling they are more prone to damage. Remove the paper(s) from the dish/tray 10 seconds before the end of the development time and allow developer to drain before placing it the stop bath. Development times RC paper ILFORD Dilution ºC/ºF Time developer (min:sec) Liquids MULTIGRADE 1+9 20/68 1:00 MULTIGRADE 1+14 20/68 1:30 PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 20/68 2:00 Powder BROMOPHEN 1+3 20/68 2:00 Approximately double these times are recommended with MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper to obtain the coolest image colour – see the MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE fact sheet.

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FB paper ILFORD developer

Dilution ºC/ºF Time (min) RecomRange mended

Liquids MULTIGRADE 1+9 1+14 PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 Powder BROMOPHEN 1+3

20/68 20/68 20/68

2 3 2

11/2–3 2–5 11/2–3

20/68

2

11/2–3

On correctly exposed FB prints, the image will begin to appear after 35 seconds with these developers. Development may be extended to 6 minutes without any noticeable change in contrast or fog. To maintain print to print consistency when batch processing a large number of either RC or FB prints, it may be advantageous to reduce exposure slightly and extend development. Developer capacities The following table gives the developing capacity of 1 litre of working strength developer. ILFORD developer

Dilution

Liquids MULTIGRADE 1+9 MULTIGRADE 1+14 PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 Powder BROMOPHEN 1+3

20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) ILFORD prints RC paper

20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) ILFORD prints FB paper

100 70 70

50 40 45

70

45

Approximately half these capacities are achieved if only MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE is processed. This is because of the longer development times recommended with MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper. Stop ILFORD stop bath Liquid ILFOSTOP ILFOSTOP PRO

Dilution

ºC/ºF

1+19 18–24/64–75 1+19 18–24/64–75

Time (sec) 10 10

Fix ILFORD Dilution non-hardening

ºC/ºF

FIXER Liquids ILFORD RAPID 1+4 18–24/64–75 FIXER 1+9 18–24/64–75 HYPAM 1+4 18–24/64–75 1+9 18–24/64–75 Powder ILFOFIX II stock 18–24/64–75

RC

FB

time (min)

time (min)

1/2

1

1 2 1 2

2

3

1

1/2


B&W PAPER DEVELOPERS Washing RC paper

Fresh, running water

Temperature (ºC/ºF) Above 5/41

Time (sec) 120

When it is important to obtain a print in the shortest possible time, vigorously wash ILFORD resin coated papers for 30 seconds in running water. Prolonged immersion in water can cause edge penetration and print curl with resin coated papers: for this reason, avoid wet times longer than 15 minutes. Washing FB paper Fresh, ºC/ºF running water Double weight Above 5/41

Time (min) 60

Do not wash ILFORD papers with some non-ILFORD papers which ‘yellow’ on prolonged washing, because this can cause the papers to have a bloom or haze over the black areas on the prints. A washing aid is not needed when conventionally processing fibre base papers, but its use does reduce the final wash times, thus saving time and water. If a hardening fixer has been used, a washing aid is recommended as hardened prints take longer to wash. When using ILFORD WASHAID, wash prints for at least 5 minutes in running water before using the washing aid, then wash prints in running water for 20 minutes. Washing aid ILFORD Dilution ºC/ºF Time washing aid (min) Liquid ILFORD WASHAID 1+4 18–24/64–75 10

To develop sheet film formats in a dish/tray with PQ UNIVERSAL developer use the same techniques described above for dish/tray development of paper. We do not recommend the interleaving method for processing multiple sheets of film, even if great care is taken it may cause damage to the emulsion. Film Development times The development times given here are intended only as a guide and may be adjusted to suit individual preferences for density and contrast. EI

Time (min:sec)

Gbar

PQ UNIVERSAL 1+19 20ºC/68ºF FP4 Plus 64 HP5 Plus 320 Delta 100 80

4:00 4:30 4:00

0.62 0.62 0.62

ORTHO Copy Plus Daylight Tungsten

4:00 4:00

0.62 0.62

4:00–8:00 4:00–8:00 4:00–8:00

0.85–1.00 0.90–1.00 0.80–1.00

4:00–12:00 4:00–12:00

080–1.00 0.80–1.00

PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 20ºC/68ºF FP4 Plus 125–200 HP5 Plus 400–800 100 Delta 125–200 ORTHO Copy Plus Daylight Tungsten

PQ UNIVERSAL can also be used to develop the technical and sheet films of other manufacturers. Do not use PQ UNIVERSAL to process general purpose 35mm and roll film formats.

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50–80 25–40

Developer Capacity for film The following table gives the developing capacity of 1 litre of working strength developer.

PQ UNIVERSAL

PROCESSING SHEET FILM FP4 Plus, HP5 Plus, DELTA 100 Professional and ORTHO Copy Plus Sheet films can all be developed in a dish/tray using PQ UNIVERSAL developer 1+9 or 1+19 at 20ºC/68ºF. Development with dilution at 1+9 gives higher contrast but also an increase in granularity. Dilution 1+19 is recommended for pictorial contrast, Gbar 0.62, and lower grain but there is some loss of film speed and so for exposure a lower EI rating must be used.

25 12.5

Dilution

20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheet film

1+9 1+19

10 5

Stop After development the film can be rinsed in water but we recommend that an acid stop bath is used such as ILFORD ILFOSTOP (with indicator dye) or ILFOSTOP PRO (without indicator dye). When tanks or dishes (trays) of process solutions are in use a stop bath immediately stops development and reduces carry over of excess developer into the fixer bath. This helps to maintain the activity and prolong the life of the fixer solution.


B&W PAPER DEVELOPERS ILFORD Stop Bath Dilution Temperature range Time (seconds) at 20ºC (68ºF)

ILFOSTOP

ILFOSTOP PRO

1+19

1+19

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

10

10

Capacity 15 x films/litre 20.3x25.4cm (unreplenished) (8x10in)

22 x 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in)

The process time given is the minimum required, if necessary a longer time may be used and should not cause any process problems provided it is not excessive. Fix The recommended fixers are ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD HYPAM liquid fixers and ILFORD ILFOFIX II powder fixer,all are non-hardening fixers. ILFORD Fixer

ILFORD HYPAM & ILFORD RAPID FIXER 1+4

ILFORD ILFOFIX II stock

Temperature range Time (mins) at 20ºC (68ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

2–5

4–8

Capacity films/litre (unreplenished)

24 x 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in)

24 x 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in)

Dilution

Wash When a non-hardening fixer has been used wash the films in running water for 5–10 minutes at a temperature within 5ºC (9ºF) of the process temperature. Rinse For a final rinse use ILFORD ILFOTOL wetting agent added to water, it helps the film to dry rapidly and evenly. Start by using 5ml per litre of rinse water (1+200), however the amount of ILFOTOL used may need some adjustment depending on the local water quality and drying method. Too little or too much wetting agent can lead to uneven drying. Remove excess rinse solution from the film before drying.

WORKING SOLUTION LIFE BROMOPHEN stock solution should last for up to:6 months in full capped containers 3 month in a half full tightly capped container. Working strength MULTIGRADE developer, PQ UNIVERSAL and BROMOPHEN left in an open dish should not be kept for more than one working day. If stored in a tightly capped bottle they may last up to 24 hours. STORAGE Full unopened bottles of MULTIGRADE and PQ UNIVERSAL developer concentrates stored in cool conditions, 5–20ºC, (41–68ºF), will keep for 2 years. Once opened use the concentrate completely within six months and keep all bottles tightly sealed until used. Unopened packets of BROMOPHEN powder stored in cool and dry conditions, 5–20ºC, (41–68ºF), will keep indefinitely. Once opened prepare the stock solution immediately. AVAILABILITY AND CAPACITY MULTIGRADE developer is available in bottles of 500ml, 1 litre, 2.5 litres, and 5 litres as well as a 10 litres “bag in box” carton. A 1 litre bottle of MULTIGRADE developer makes enough working strength solution at 1+9 to process 1000 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of RC paper or 500 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of FB paper. PQ UNIVERSAL is available in bottles of 500ml, 1 litre, and 5 litres. A 1 litre bottle of PQ UNIVERSAL developer makes enough working strength solution at 1+9 to process 700 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of RC paper or 450 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of FB paper or 100 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheet films. BROMOPHEN is available in cartons of 1 and 5 litres. A 1 litre carton of BROMOPHEN developer makes enough working strength solution at 1+3 to process 700 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of RC paper or 450 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of FB paper.

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

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03212.GB.www

January 2004


August 2003

FACT SHEET

ILFOSTOP ILFOSTOP PRO ILFOTOL WASHAID BIOCLEAN ILFOCLEAN SUNDRY CHEMICALS FOR PROCESSING BLACK AND WHITE FILMS AND PAPERS To complement the range of ILFORD developers and fixers for black and white film and paper processing there is a range of other chemicals that includes stop baths, a wetting agent, a hypoclearing agent, an algaecide and a cleaning agent. This fact sheet gives information about how to use each of these products. Health and safety information is always given on the packaging of each product and should always be read before using it. Some photographic chemicals are classified as hazardous and care must be taken in handling them but when used correctly, following the instructions and guidelines that are given, they can be used quite safely. It is recommended that gloves, eye protection and an apron or overall are worn when handling and mixing all chemicals. Always follow the specific health and safety recommendations on the chemical packaging. Keep all foodstuffs away from areas where photographic chemicals are being prepared and used. Store all photochemicals out of the reach of children and do not allow them to use photochemicals unsupervised.

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Photochemical material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD agents or directly from the ILFORD web site at www.ilford.com. To avoid problems due to cross-contamination of photochemicals that can lead to process problems always thoroughly wash all utensils, measuring and mixing vessels after use. When ever possible use dedicated equipment for making up developer solutions. pH and specific gravity In the text for each chemical there are tables that give their pH and specific gravity (SG). These figures were obtained under carefully controlled laboratory conditions and may differ slightly from measurements made by users in their own working areas. Users should make their own control measurements from their own solutions for later comparison. Ideally a pH meter should be used to measure solution pH but if one is not available pH measurement sticks can be used, these are available in various pH ranges. SG can be measured by using a hydrometer and one covering the range from 1.000 to 1.200 is useful for a wide range of photographic process solutions.


CHEMICAL SUNDRIES ILFOSTOP ILFORD ILFOSTOP is a low odour citric acid stop bath. After development we recommend that films and papers are rinsed in an acid stop bath to stop development immediately and neutralise the developer to help maintain the activity of the fixer bath. ILFOSTOP contains an indicator dye that is pH sensitive and changes colour from yellow to purple as the stop bath becomes exhausted. It is specifically recommended for dish/tray processing of paper or deep tank processing of film. ILFOSTOP helps to maintain the activity and prolong the life of the fixer solution by reducing carry over of excess developer (alkaline) into the fixer bath (acidic). It is not recommended for machine processing applications as the short fix and wash times often used may leave a residual dye stain on films and prints. The longer wash times usually associated with dish/tray and tank processing minimise this risk. Do not let developer become contaminated with a stop bath solution. pH and specific gravity pH ILFOSTOP concentrate 1.00

SG at 20ºC 1.101–1.111

Mixing instructions and use ILFOSTOP is a liquid concentrate mixed with water 1+19 for use. Determine the amount of solution needed for the processing session. Make sure that it is enough to fill a dish/tray to a depth of about half full or to cover the films in a spiral tank completely or fill a deep tank. Measure out the appropriate amount of concentrate using the smallest measuring cylinder appropriate to the liquid volume: it is easier to measure 100ml of solution in a 100ml cylinder than a 1000ml cylinder. Add the concentrate to the mixing vessel. A large measuring jug is a good mixing vessel as it provides a check on the total quantity of solution mixed. Using an appropriately sized measuring cylinder, measure out the required dilution water using hot and cold water to get to the solution’s working temperature, 20ºC/68ºF. Use some of this water to rinse out the measuring cylinder used for the concentrate into the mixing vessel. Finally add the remainder of the dilution water to make up to the final working volume and stir the solution thoroughly. The stop bath is then ready to use.

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Dilution Temperature range Time for film and paper 20ºC (68ºF) Capacity – films/litre (unreplenished) Capacity RC papers/litre (unreplenished) Capacity – FB papers/litre (unreplenished)

ILFOSTOP 1+19 18–24 ºC (64–75ºF) 10 seconds 15x135–36 60 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) 30 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch)

The process time given is the minimum required, a longer time in the stop bath may be used and should not cause any process problems provided it is not excessive but care must be taken as the indicator dye may give a slight stain to some products. If staining occurs thorough washing will remove it. There are occasions when a stop bath cannot be included in the process sequence, in those circumstances a water bath or water rinse can be substituted for a stop bath. Using a water bath instead of a stop bath increases the risk of seeing processing related marks and stains, to reduce the risks the water bath must be completely changed at very frequent intervals. If a water bath must be used then fewer fixing problems will be seen if the fixer’s activity is monitored and adequate fixer replenishment rates are used. Storage and solution life Concentrate ILFOSTOP concentrate will keep for:5 years in full airtight bottles 12 months in half full tightly capped bottles Working strength 7 working days. Availability ILFOSTOP is available in 500ml bottles of concentrate, this makes 10 litres of working strength solution enough to process 150 135–36 or 120 films or 600 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) RC prints or 300 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) FB prints.


CHEMICAL SUNDRIES ILFOSTOP PRO ILFORD ILFOSTOP PRO is a low odour acid stop bath without an indicator dye that uses a combination of citric acid and acetic acid as the active ingredients. It stops development immediately and is recommended for all manual and machine film and paper processing applications where a stop bath can be used. ILFOSTOP PRO is the recommended stop bath for all ILFORD scientific products, X-ray films and plates. pH and specific gravity pH ILFOSTOP PRO 1.00 concentrate

SG at 20ºC 1.114–1.124

Mixing instructions and use ILFOSTOP PRO is a liquid concentrate mixed with water 1+19 for use. For small volumes of solution determine the amount needed for the processing session. Make sure that it is enough to fill a dish/tray to a depth of about half full or to cover the films in a spiral tank completely or fill a deep tank. Measure out the appropriate amount of concentrate using the smallest measuring cylinder appropriate to the liquid volume: it is easier to measure 100ml of solution in a 100ml cylinder than a 1000 ml cylinder. Add the concentrate to the mixing vessel. A large measuring jug is a good mixing vessel as it provides a check on the total quantity of solution mixed. Using an appropriately sized measuring cylinder, measure out the required dilution water using hot and cold water to get to the solution’s working temperature, 20ºC/68ºF. Use some of this water to rinse out the measuring cylinder used for the concentrate into the mixing vessel. Finally add the remainder of the dilution water to make up to the final working volume and stir the solution thoroughly. The stop bath is then ready to use. ILFOSTOP PRO can be mixed by using automatic mixing equipment to make the larger volumes of solutions such as would be used in dip and dunk (hanger) processors, etc.

Dilution Temperature range Time for film and paper 20ºC (68ºF) Capacity – films/litre (unreplenished) Capacity RC papers/litre (unreplenished) Capacity – FB papers/litre (unreplenished) Replenishment rate film Replenishment rate paper

ILFOSTOP PRO 1+19 18–24ºC (64–75ºF) 10 seconds 24x135–36 90 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) 45 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) 100–200ml/m2 100–200ml/m2

The process time given is the minimum required. Due to the configuration of some processing machines a longer stop bath time may be given automatically but this should not cause any process problems. The design of some processing machines means that a stop bath cannot be included and provided that the fixer activity is monitored and adequate fixer replenishment rates are used there should be no process problems. There are occasions when a stop bath cannot be included in the process sequence, in those circumstances a water bath or water rinse can be substituted for a stop bath. Using a water bath instead of a stop bath increases the risk of seeing processing related marks and stains, to reduce the risks the water bath must be completely changed at very frequent intervals. If a water bath must be used then fewer fixing problems will be seen if the fixer’s activity is monitored and adequate fixer replenishment rates are used. Storage and solution life Concentrate ILFOSTOP PRO concentrate will keep for:5 years in full airtight bottles 12 months in half full tightly capped bottles Working strength 7 working days unreplenished 6-12 months replenished Availability ILFOSTOP PRO is available in 5 litres bottles of concentrate, this makes 100 litres of working strength solution enough to process 2400 135/35 or 120 films or 9000 20.3x25.4 (8x10 inch) RC prints or 4500 20.3x 25.4 (8x10 inch) FB prints.

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CHEMICAL SUNDRIES ILFORD ILFOTOL ILFORD ILFOTOL is a non-ionic wetting agent used as a final rinse before drying films. It can be used in all manual and machine processes to aid rapid, even drying and so greatly reduce the risk of drying marks being formed. ILFOTOL can also be used as a final rinse before drying fibre based prints, again it promotes rapid, even drying. Additionally it can be used to clean glass and plastic lenses and filters and as an anti-static treatment.

ILFORD WASHAID ILFORD WASHAID is a hypo-eliminator formulated to aid the efficient removal of the thiosulphate byproducts of fixation by ion exchange. It is particularly useful in speeding up the washing of fibre based papers and is designed to be used with the ILFORD optimum permanence sequences. It can be used to aid the rapid washing of all ILFORD films and fibre papers saving both time and water. It is particularly useful if a hardening fixer has been used.

Mixing instructions and use As a final rinse for film we recommend starting with a solution of 5ml of ILFOTOL for each litre of rinse water (1+ 200). The dilution of ILFOTOL needed is dependant on a number of factors and may need some adjustment to get optimum performance for a particular set of circumstances. Performance may vary due the local water quality, the type of processor in use, drying method, etc..

pH and specific gravity pH ILFORD 7.00–7.20 WASHAID 1+4

As a final rinse for fibre papers use ILFOTOL diluted 1+200. Immerse the print complete in the rinse bath for a few seconds, the time is not critical, remove the print and drain the excess solution back into the dish/tray. Squeegee the print on both sides, it can then be air-dried at room temperature or heat-dried or glazed/ferrotyped in the usual way.

Determine the amount of solution needed for the processing session, making sure that it is a least enough to fill the dish/tray to a depth of about half full. Measure out the appropriate amount of concentrate using the smallest measuring cylinder appropriate to the liquid volume: it is easier to measure 100ml of solution in a 100ml cylinder than a 1000ml cylinder.

We recommend that ILFOTOL is measured and dispensed accurately as either too little or too much wetting agent can lead to uneven drying. Use a graduated pipette or eyedropper if very small quantities are needed. NB the ILFORD 1 litre bottle cap will hold approximately 20ml of ILFOTOL brim full, at 1+200 this is enough wetting agent for 4 litres of water.

Add the concentrate to the mixing vessel. A large measuring jug is a good mixing vessel as it provides a check on the total quantity of solution mixed. Using an appropriately sized measuring cylinder, measure out the required dilution water using hot and cold water to get to the solution’s working temperature, 20ºC/68ºF. Use some of this water to rinse out the measuring cylinder used for the concentrate into the mixing vessel. Finally add the remainder of the dilution water to make up to the final working volume and stir the solution thoroughly. The WASHAID is then ready to use.

Foaming will occur if excessive agitation is given to ILFOTOL solutions. pH and specific gravity pH ILFOTOL concentrate 7.00–7.02

SG at 20ºC 1.000–1.005

Storage and solution life Concentrate ILFOTOL concentrate will keep for:3 years in full airtight bottles 12 months in half full tightly capped bottles. Working strength 7 working days. Availability ILFOTOL is available in 1 litre bottles of concentrate, at 5ml for each litre of water this is makes 200 litres of wetting agent solution.

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SG at 20ºC 1.020

Mixing instructions and use ILFORD WASHAID is a liquid concentrate mixed 1+4 with water for use with either film or paper.


CHEMICAL SUNDRIES

Dilution Temperature range

ILFORD WASHAID 1+4 18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

Time for FB paper 20ºC (68ºF) Time for film 20ºC (68ºF) Capacity– films/litre Capacity – FB papers/litre

10 minutes 2–3 minutes 2m2 (11 ft2) 40 135/36 films 40 20.3x25.4 cm (8x10 inch)

The processing sequence is given in the following table

First wash, fresh running water ILFORD WASHAID 1+4 Final wash, fresh running water

FB paper

film

5

1

10

2–3

20

5

The water temperature should be 18–24ºC/ 65–75ºF for washing paper and within 5ºC/2ºF of the process temperature for washing film. Optimum permanence for fibre based papers There are several ways of achieving prints which will have optimum permanence under long term storage conditions. Essentially, prints must have minimum levels of residual silver (adequately fixed) and minimum levels of thiosulphate (adequately washed). Where short fixing times can be given, the following sequences give extremely low levels of retained fixer and silver compounds. This is achieved by the combination of a very short fixing time and the use of ILFORD WASHAID. These sequences replace the standard fixing and washing sequence. Optimum permanence sequence Fixing ILFORD RAPID FIXER (1+4), intermittent agitation First wash Fresh, running water Rinse ILFORD WASHAID (1+4), intermittent agitation Final wash Fresh, running water

1min 5min 10min 5min

Processing conditions: 18–24ºC/65–75ºF including wash water.

Page 5 of 7

Optimum permanence sequence with selenium toner Fixing ILFORD RAPID FIXER (1+4), 1min intermittent agitation Toning Selenium toner diluted with *min working strength ILFORD WASHAID instead of water, intermittent agitation Rinse ILFORD WASHAID (1+4), 10min intermittent agitation Final wash Fresh, running water 30min Processing conditions: 18–24ºC/65–75ºF including wash water. *Tone the print for the appropriate time to achieve the depth of colour needed. Be careful not to exceed the capacity of the fixer and not to extend the fixing time as both of these make washing more difficult. Storage and solution life Concentrate ILFORD WASHAID concentrate will keep for:4 years in full airtight bottles 6 months in half full tightly capped bottles. Working strength 7 working days. Availability ILFORD WASHAID is available in 1 litre bottles. A 1 litre bottle of concentrate makes enough working strength solution to process 200 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) fibre based sheets of paper or 200 135/36 films.


CHEMICAL SUNDRIES ILFORD BIOCLEAN ILFORD BIOCLEAN is a biocide that can be safely used to help prevent micro-biological contamination in the wash tanks of all photographic process machines. Algae tends to build up on the walls, racks, rollers and in the recirculation system of a processing machine’s wash water tank(s) while it is idle. The algae is brought in by the water supply and its growth is sustained by the minute particles of gelatin that come off the film or paper during processing. Growth is assisted by the tepid temperature conditions found in most water tanks. Once established algae can be very difficult to remove completely and in the worst cases can cause staining or damage to prints or film. It is far better to prevent the build up of algae in the first place and ILFORD BIOCLEAN is designed to do this. ILFORD BIOCLEAN will not clean up a wash tank that is already contaminated with algae but used regularly it will keep a clean wash tank, clean. Mixing instructions and use To use add 1ml of ILFORD BIOCLEAN for each litre of water in the wash tank. However if it is to function properly the wash tank must be clean. If the processor is new add the required amount of ILFORD BIOCLEAN as soon as the wash tank has been filled. Thereafter add ILFORD BIOCLEAN to the wash tank at the end of each working day after the processor has been switched off. However, if the processor’s wash tank has been used and is already contaminated then clean it and any associated parts by using a dilute solution of household bleach. Make sure the bleach has been thoroughly rinsed away before filling with fresh wash water and adding ILFORD BIOCLEAN. pH and specific gravity pH ILFORD BIOCLEAN 3.50 concentrate.

SG at 20ºC 1.020

ILFORD BIOCLEAN must not be mixed with developer and fixer solutions as it can effect their performance. Storage and solution life Availability ILFORD BIOCLEAN is available in 5 litres bottles of concentrate, enough to treat 5000 litres of water.

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ILFORD ILFOCLEAN ILFOCLEAN is a developer systems cleaner in four parts, parts A and B the cleaner, part C the neutraliser and part D the de-activator. It will efficiently remove silver deposits from all developer tanks, circulation systems, rollers, racks and developing dishes. It should not be used to clean fixer tanks and dishes or foam rubber rollers or wash tanks. PART A and PART B are liquids that when mixed remove the silver deposits. PART C is a powder that neutralises the pH before disposal. PART D is a powder that deactivates any remaining cleaner and removes the brown deposits formed during the cleaning process. pH and specific gravity pH ILFOCLEAN II Part A. 8.90 ILFOCLEAN II Part B. 0.12

SG at 20ºC 1.012–1.022 1.046–1.066

Warning: PART A is a deep purple liquid, it will cause stains if it comes into contact with skin or clothing. Do not add PART D directly to a mixture of PART A and PART B as this will result in the emission of sulphur dioxide gas. Mixing instructions and use Drain the developer tank and rinse it with water while flushing out the recirculation system. According to the size of the developer tank being cleaned measure out the appropriate equal amounts of PART A and PART B, see the table below. Close the drain valves and while filling the tank with clean water add PART A followed by PART B. Turn the processors drive and recirculation system on. Make sure that no developer replenisher is allowed into the tank during the cleaning process. After one hour check the tank, (if it was heavily silvered it may need up to two hours) and neutralise the contents by adding PART C. Fizzing will occur as neutralisation takes place. Leave the solution recirculating for another 10 minutes before switching the processor off and emptying the dirty brown contents of the tank. In many areas this can be discharged safely into trade effluent, however, regulations vary between countries and we advise that you consult your local waste water authority for their current guidelines and the legal requirements.


CHEMICAL SUNDRIES At this stage it is normal for the empty tank and rack to assume a rust like appearance. Refill the tank with clean water and turn on the drive and re-circulation system again. It is very important to wash out the tank thoroughly to avoid sulphur dioxide emissions when PART D is used. Switch off the processor and drain the tank.

Availability ILFOCLEAN is available as a kit containing 500ml bottles of PART A and PART B, two 65g bags of PART C and two 50g bags of PART D. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country.

Whilst refilling the tank for a second time with clean water add PART D. It is very important that the final solution level is higher than that used for PARTS A&B, this will ensure removal of all the brown deposits from the tank and rack. Failure to do this will give unsatisfactory results. Turn on the drive and recirculation system again. After 30 minutes turn the processor off and empty the tank. In many areas this can be discharged safely into trade effluent but again we advise consultation with your local water authority. Once again refill the tank with clean water and turn on the drive and recirculation system and leave them running for about 10 minutes. Switch off and drain the tank. Return the processor to its normal operating configuration and refill with fresh developer solution. A Guide to the quantities of solution to be used Tank Volume Volume Weight Weight size PART A PART B PART C PART D litres ml ml g g 65 50 5–15 250 250 (1 bag) (1 bag) 130 100 15–25 500 500 (2 bags) (2 bags) 260 260 25–45 1,000 1,000 (4 bags) (4 bags) 390 390 45–65 1,500 1,500 (6 bags) (6 bags) Disposal Prior to disposal of the tank cleaning solutions, PART A and PART B, PART C must be added to the tank to neutralise the acidity. If the amounts in the instructions are followed the pH of the resulting solution is between pH 6 and pH 8, this is usually acceptable for trade effluent disposal. For more information please see the effluent data sheet on our web site www.ilford.com and consult with your local waste water authority. Storage and solution life ILFOCLEAN PARTS A and B will keep for 24 months in full tightly capped bottles. PARTS C and D will keep indefinitely.

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

Page 7 of 7

02069.GB.www

August 2003


August 2002

FACT SHEET

RAPID FIXER A LIQUID RAPID FIXER FOR BLACK AND WHITE FILMS AND PAPERS ILFORD RAPID FIXER is a non-hardening rapid fixer supplied as a liquid concentrate that is diluted with water for use. It is easy and convenient to use in the temperature range of 18–40ºC (66–104ºF) for fixing black and white film and paper in all manual and machine processing applications.

Ensure that all utensils, processing tanks or dishes/trays and mixing vessels are thoroughly rinsed and cleaned before mixing fresh batches of ILFORD RAPID FIXER particularly if it is being used for the first time. Wash out the mixing vessels thoroughly after use.

ILFORD RAPID FIXER must not be used with fix hardeners.

After filling a processor with fresh ILFORD RAPID FIXER tank solution, switch it on and allow it to get up to temperature and circulate the solutions. After the working temperature is reached leave it recirculating for at least 10 minutes to ensure the fresh chemicals are thoroughly mixed before attempting to process any film or paper. Always replace the tank covers used on the process and replenishment solutions.

The fixing agent in ILFORD RAPID FIXER is ammonium thiosulphate, it contains no sodium thiosulphate (hypo). Mixing instructions Working strength ILFORD RAPID FIXER solutions can be mixed either manually or by using automatic solution mixing equipment. If automatic mixing equipment is used follow the equipment manufacturer’s recommendations and advice. Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. It is recommended that gloves, eye protection and an apron or overall are worn when handling and mixing all chemicals. Always follow the specific health and safety recommendations on the chemical packaging. Photochemical material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD agents or directly from the ILFORD web site at www.ilford.com. For all film fixing applications ILFORD RAPID FIXER is diluted 1+4 with water. For use as a fixer in paper processing machines ILFORD RAPID FIXER is diluted 1+4 with water but for manual fixing applications it can be diluted either 1+4 or 1+9. Fixer concentrates do not readily mix with water, to ensure a working strength solution performs correctly it is very important to stir it thoroughly during mixing. When making solutions make sure that the mixing vessel is large enough for the volume of solution to be mixed and stirred. Measure out the required amount of fixer concentrate and water accurately. Pour the concentrate into the mixing vessel and gradually add the water while stirring.

Page 1 of 5

pH and specific gravity The following table gives the pH and specific gravity (SG) for fresh, working strength ILFORD RAPID FIXER. These figures were obtained under carefully controlled laboratory conditions and may differ slightly from measurements made by users in their own working areas. Users should make their own control measurements from their own accurately mixed fresh solutions for later comparison. Ideally a pH meter should be used to measure solution pH but if one is not available pH measurement sticks can be used. These are available in various pH ranges and those covering a range from pH 4 to pH 6 are sufficient. SG can be measured by using a hydrometer and one covering the range from 1.000 to 1.200 is useful for a wide range of photographic process solutions. dilution 1+4 1+9

pH 5.0–5.5 5.0–5.5

SG at 20ºC/68ºF 1.070–1.080 1.030–1.040


RAPID FIXER Fixing times For best results it is recommended that all process solutions are kept at the same temperature or at least within 5ºC (9ºF) of the developer temperature. Below are the average minimum fixing times at 20ºC (68ºF) for materials manually processed using fresh fixer, the range of times for film takes into account different film types. The agitation for film is the same as that used for spiral tank development, i.e. 4 inversions during the first 10 seconds of fixing repeated during the first 10 seconds of each subsequent minute. The agitation for paper is the same as that used for the dish/tray development of paper, i.e. intermittent rocking of the dish/tray. Material General purpose film RC paper RC paper FB paper FB paper

Dilution 1+4 1+4 1+9 1+4 1+9

Time (minutes) 2–5 1/ 2

1 1 2

Due to the configuration of some film processing machines a longer fixing time may be automatically given, provided it is not excessive it should not cause any process problems. The configuration of most RC paper processing machines will usually give much shorter fixing times however this should not cause any process problems as the fixer bath will usually be working at a much higher temperature 25–40ºC (77–104ºF) . Washing films After fixing films are washed to remove the residual thiosulphate and other by-products of the process. When ILFORD RAPID FIXER has been used wash the films in running water for 5–10 minutes at a temperature within 5ºC (9ºF) of the process temperature. When ILFORD RAPID FIXER has been used for spiral tank processing the following method of washing is recommended. This method of washing is faster, uses less water yet still gives negatives suitable for long term storage. After fixing, fill the spiral tank with water at the same temperature, +/-5ºC (9ºF), as the processing solutions and invert it five times. Drain the water away and refill. Invert the tank ten times. Once more drain the water away and refill. Finally, invert the tank twenty times and drain the water away.

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Washing RC paper Wash RC papers for 2 minutes in fresh running water at a temperature above 5ºC (41ºF). When it is important to obtain a print in the shortest possible time, vigorously wash RC papers for 30 seconds in running water. Washing FB paper Wash FB papers for 60 minutes in fresh running water at a temperature above 5ºC (41ºF). Using ILFORD WASHAID reduces the washing time thus saving time and water. Wash the prints for 5 minutes in running water above 5ºC (41ºF), drain off the excess water and immerse the prints for 10 minutes in a dish/tray of 1 + 4 WASHAID at 18–24ºC (64–75ºF). Finally, wash the prints for 5 minutes in running water above 5ºC (41ºF). Capacity without replenishment An unreplenished fixer bath is eventually exhausted by the build up of silver and halides in it and the action of solutions carried over from the preceding baths that can cause some dilution and the pH to be raised. Material

Dilution

General purpose film RC paper

1+4 1+4 1+9

FB paper

1+4 1+9

Capacity/litre of working strength fixer 24x135–36 80 sheets of 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) 4m2 (44ft2) 40 sheets of 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) 2m2 (22ft2)

The figures for paper may be exceeded whenever print stability is not critically important.


RAPID FIXER Replenishment The activity of a fixer bath can be maintained by the regular addition of fresh working strength fixer. A properly replenished fixer bath can be used for a very long period of time Material

Dilution

General purpose film

1+4

RC paper

1+4 1+9 1+4 1+9

FB paper

Replenishment ml of working strength fixer 45ml/135–36 855ml/m2 (78ml/ft2) 250ml/m2 (23ml/ft2) 500ml/m2 (46ml/ft2)

Higher replenishment rates may be needed with some process systems that have inefficient replenishment systems. The suggested replenishment rate for machine processing RC papers is 300–450 ml/m2 (27–41 ml/ft2). Lower replenishment rates, up to 50–75% less, can be used when a properly set up silver recovery system is in use. To give adequate replenishment to deep tanks, it may be necessary to remove some of the used fixer from the tank so that the appropriate amount of fresh replenisher can be added. Calculate the amount of replenisher to be added. Remove more fixer from the tank than the amount of replenisher required. Add the replenisher to the tank and top up the solution to the correct level using some of the removed fixer while stirring thoroughly. Two bath fixing An extremely efficient method of fixing film or paper is to use the two bath fixing technique. Make up two separate fixing baths of the same solution volume. Fix the film or paper in the first bath for half the recommended fixing time and then transfer them to the second bath for the remainder of the time. Continue to work this way until the capacity of the first bath is reached, then discarded it and replace it with the second fixer bath. Prepare and use a completely fresh second bath. Repeat this process as required with the result that the film or paper is always thoroughly fixed by the relatively fresh fixer in the second bath.

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CHECKING AND MAINTAINING FIXER ACTIVITY Stop Bath After development and before fixing we recommend that films and papers are rinsed in an acid stop bath such as ILFORD ILFOSTOP (with indicator dye) or ILFOSTOP PRO (without indicator dye). When tanks of process solutions are in use a stop bath immediately stops development and reduces carry over of excess developer into the fixer bath. This helps to maintain the activity and prolong the life of the fixer solution. ILFOSTOP PRO is recommended for all machine processing applications. The indicator dye in ILFOSTOP turns from yellow to purple when the bath is exhausted, this can be useful when dish/tray processing paper. ILFORD Stop Bath Dilution Temperature range Time (seconds) at 20ºC (68ºF) Capacity – films/litre (unreplenished) Capacity – sheets of 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) RC paper/litre (unreplenished) Capacity – sheets of 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) FB paper/litre (unreplenished)

ILFOSTOP 1+19 18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

ILFOSTOP PRO 1+19 18–24ºC (64–75ºF)

10

10

15 x 135–36

22 x 135–36

60

90

30

45

The process time given is the minimum required. Due to the configuration of some processing machines a longer stop bath time may be given automatically, this should not cause any process problems provided it is not excessive. The design of some processing machines means that a stop bath cannot be included, provided the fixer activity is monitored and adequate fixer replenishment rates are used there should be no process problems. Adjusting fixer pH If a stop bath is not used and the pH of the fixer bath is found to be to high when measured, i.e. more alkali than it should be, then a few drops of a 50% acetic acid solution may be added to lower the pH value. This addition should be done gradually and with thorough stirring. Do not lower the pH of the fixer bath too far, the limits are given above.


RAPID FIXER Adjusting specific gravity SG If the solution concentration of a fixer bath is too high or too low efficiency is reduced and poor fixing can be experienced. If the SG of the working strength fixer bath is too low, i.e. the solution is too dilute, it can be restored by adding fresh fixer concentrate, however any addition of fixer concentrate must be stirred in thoroughly. In high temperature processors the SG of the working strength fixer bath may become too high, it concentrates due to water evaporation. This can be restored by topping up the tank with water. In some situations stirring may not be possible, e.g. in a roller transport processor, here the action of the processor’s moving parts and re-circulation system should be enough to give sufficient stirring. Film clearing time In order to avoid the risk of insufficient fixing. film should remain in the fixer for twice the time it takes the emulsion to clear. Fixer should be discarded when the clearing time in used fixer exceeds twice the clearing time in fresh fixer. The clearing time of a film and fixer combination can be found by the following method. It can be carried out in normal lighting.

If a high level of image permanence is required for commercial use the silver concentration in the fixer should be kept below 2 g/l when fixing FB papers. This approximates to 40, 20.3 x 25.4 cm, (8 x 10 inch) FB prints. Above this level compounds may remain in the paper base after washing and over time possibly contribute to print staining. For prints that need maximum stability for long term storage a the maximum silver level in the fixer should not rise above 0.5 g/l i.e.. approximately 10 20.3 x 25.4cm (8 x 10in) prints. However, print throughput can only be a guide to silver concentration as it depends on the proportion of exposed to unexposed areas on the prints being processed. Silver estimator papers are usually not sensitive enough to test the very low silver levels suitable for optimum permanence. For important prints it is recommended that paper is tested in the following way to ensure adequate fixing. Prepare the testing solution by dissolving 2g of sodium sulphide in 125ml of water. NB Take care to follow the health and safety information supplied by sodium sulphide manufacturer. For use, dilute the testing solution 1+9 with water.

Take a piece of scrap unprocessed film and place a drop of the working strength fixer on to a small part of the emulsion side. Leave it until the emulsion under the drop is a clear spot, this should take around 30 to 60 seconds. Immerse the piece of film in the fixer bath and using a stop clock time how long it takes for the rest of the film to clear. Clearing can be judged by comparing the surrounding film area with the clear central spot. The time taken for the rest of the film to clear is the clearing time. The fixing time needed is double the clearing time. Silver concentration The level of silver in a film fixing bath can be allowed to rise to 8–10 g/l without serious effect. The level of silver that can be tolerated in a paper fixing bath depends on the type of paper being processed and the degree of image permanence required.

Page 4 of 5

To establish a permanent reference for a particular type of paper, place a drop of the diluted testing solution on a white area of a print that is known to be well fixed and thoroughly washed. (Use the two bath fixing method). Remove any excess solution with clean blotting paper or absorbent tissue and a barely visible cream tint should be left. This is the reference colour for a well fixed and washed print on this type of paper. Any subsequent prints that show a yellowing of the test spot when tested are not properly fixed. Soak the prints in water for 5 minutes, then repeat the recommended fixing and washing sequence, using fresh fixer. Prints must be well washed before using the test, it is not effective on prints direct from the fixer bath. RC papers can be processed in fixers containing higher levels of silver, 4–6 g/l as the paper base is protected on both sides by an impervious polythene coating.


RAPID FIXER Silver recovery Any method of silver recovery can be used with ILFORD RAPID FIXER but for maximum efficiency the electrolytic method is recommended as the treated fixer can be recycled or reused. The electrolytic silver recovery units can be either an off-line remote unit, or an on-line unit in a processor’s re-circulation system. When collecting silver by electrolytic methods care must be taken not to pass too large a current through the solution as this may cause the fixers active ingredients to breakdown when the silver concentration becomes too low. Silver sulphide may be formed and deposited on the units cathode, this is called sulphiding, the efficiency of the fixer and the silver recovery process are both reduced by sulphiding. Vigorous electrolysis may also lead to hazardous hydrogen sulphide gas (bad eggs smell) being released. Properly set up an electrolytic silver recovery system can considerably reduce the silver in a fixer solution and thereby increase its efficiency and capacity and so allow lower replenishment rates to be used. Silver concentrations of around 50–100 ppm can be commonly achieved. In conjunction with primary electrolytic silver recovery systems, a processor’s fix and wash overflows can be further treated by secondary and tertiary units using ion exchange and metal exchange. Properly maintained these can reduce silver in the overflow to very low levels, around 3ppm, allowing processing waste discharges to meet to most demanding of effluent controls

STORAGE Full, unopened bottles of ILFORD RAPID FIXER concentrate stored in cool conditions, 5–20ºC (41–68ºF), will keep for two years. Once opened use completely within six months and keep all bottles tightly sealed until used. AVAILABILITY AND CAPACITY ILFORD RAPID FIXER is available in 500ml, 1 litre, 2.5 litres and 5 litres bottles as well as in 10 litres bag in box cubes. A 5 litre bottle of ILFORD RAPID FIXER concentrate makes enough working strength fixer solution to fix 600 135–36 films or 2000 20.3 x 25.4cm (8 x 10in) RC prints or 1000 20.3 x 25.4cm (8 x 10in) FB prints. Depending on the replenishment rate used a 5 litre bottle of ILFORD RAPID FIXER concentrate makes enough working strength fixer solution to replenish for 550 135-36 films or 1000–2000 20.3 x 25.4cm (8 x 10in) RC prints or 1000 20.3 x 25.4cm (8 x 10in) FB prints. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country.

To use silver recovery units for best results consult the information provided by the relevant silver recovery equipment and processor suppliers. More general information about silver recovery and other waste treatment, disposal and recycling is available from our web site at www.ilford.com. WORKING SOLUTION LIFE The life of a solution in a replenished system is dependent on film throughput, replenishment rates, processing temperature and film types. The only sure way of always knowing that the activity of a fixer is adequate is to use the techniques given above. Properly replenished ILFORD RAPID FIXER in regular use should have a very long life but as a general guide it is advisable to replace it after 12 months in the processing tank. Unreplenished ILFORD RAPID FIXER working strength solutions should last for up to:6 2 1 7

months in full tightly capped bottles months in a tank or dish/tray with a floating lid month in a half full tightly capped bottle. days in an open dish/tray.

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ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

02034.www

August 2002


Papel


June 2002

FACT SHEET

RC PAPERS

PROCESSING B&W PAPER

PROCESSING AND FINISHING ILFORD RESIN COATED PAPERS ILFORD resin coated papers are processed in a similar way to other resin coated papers. All ILFORD resin coated papers can be dish/tray or machine processed. Additional recommendations on processing ILFORD MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE and ILFORD MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE papers are given in their respective fact sheets. Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packaging. Photochemicals material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD. DISH/TRAY PROCESSING Agitation Use intermittent agitation when dish/tray processing prints, that is, intermittently rock the dish/tray when processing single sheets, or interleave them when processing several sheets of paper at once. To interleave prints, slip the sheets face down, one at a time, into the dish/tray. Then pull out the bottom sheet and place it on top of the remaining sheets in the dish/tray. Continue moving the bottom sheet to the top, until the processing step is complete. Development ILFORD Dilution ºC/ºF Time developer (min:sec) Liquids MULTIGRADE 1+9 20/68 1:00 MULTIGRADE 1+14 20/68 1:30 PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 20/68 2:00 Powder BROMOPHEN 1+3 20/68 2:00 * Approximately double these times are recommended with MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper to obtain the coolest image colour – see the MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE fact sheet. To maintain print to print consistency when batch processing a large number of prints, it may be advantageous to reduce exposure slightly and extend development. Page 1 of 4

MULTIGRADE 1+9 On correctly exposed prints, the image will begin to appear after about 6–15 seconds with these developers. The minimum recommended development time for high quality prints is approximately 45 seconds; after this time there is a more gradual image build-up. Overexposed prints developed for a minimum of 35 seconds are acceptable for those applications where the highest quality is not required. Developer capacity The following table gives the developing capacity of 1 litre/1 US quart of working strength developer. ILFORD developer

Dilution

20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) ILFORD prints

Liquids MULTIGRADE 1+9 100 MULTIGRADE 1+14 70 PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 70 Powder BROMOPHEN 1+3 70 * Approximately half these capacities are achieved if only MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE is processed. This is because of the longer development times recommended with MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper. MULTIGRADE Developer MULTIGRADE developer is suitable for developing all black and white papers. MULTIGRADE developer can be used at the standard dilution of 1+9 or at 1+14 for greater development control and for economy. MULTIGRADE developer is clean working and has excellent keeping properties. It can be stored as concentrate in full unopened bottles for up to 2 years; in half full bottles, it has a shelf life of 6 months. Diluted developer will stay in good condition in the open dish/tray for two working days, at dilution 1+9, and for one working day, at dilution 1+14.


PROCESSING B&W RESIN COATED PAPERS PQ UNIVERSAL developer PQ UNIVERSAL developer is supplied as a liquid concentrate. A full, tightly capped bottle of PQ UNIVERSAL developer concentrate will keep for up to two years; in half full tightly capped bottles it will keep for about six months. During use, PQ UNIVERSAL will keep in good condition for about 24 hours in the open dish/tray. BROMOPHEN developer BROMOPHEN developer is supplied as a powder which is mixed to make a stock solution, which is then diluted before use. BROMOPHEN powder can be stored indefinitely in a dry place. A full, tightly capped bottle of stock solution BROMOPHEN developer will keep for six months; in half full tightly capped bottles it will keep for about two months. During use, BROMOPHEN will keep in good condition for about 24 hours in the open dish/tray. Stop bath After development, rinse prints in an acid stop bath, such as ILFOSTOP or ILFOSTOP PRO. A stop bath stops development immediately, reduces the risk of staining and will extend the life of the fixer bath. The use of a stop bath is strongly recommended. ILFORD stop bath Liquid ILFOSTOP ILFOSTOP PRO

Dilution

ºC/ºF

Time (sec)

1+19 18–24/64–75 1+19 18–24/64–75

10 10

A guide to the capacity of ILFOSTOP solution is 60 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) prints per1 litre /1 US quart of working strength solution. ILFOSTOP contains a colour indicator which turns from yellow to purple when the working solution is exhausted. ILFOSTOP PRO has a higher capacity of 90 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) prints in 1 litre/1 US quart of working strength solution. Alternatively, discard the solution if the prints still feel slimy after 10 seconds in the bath. Fixation ILFORD non-hardening Liquids ILFORD RAPID FIXER HYPAM Powder ILFOFIX II

Dilution fixer

ºC/ºF

Time (min:sec)

18–24/64–75 18–24/64–75 18–24/64–75 18–24/64–75

0:30 1:00 0:30 1:00

stock 18–24/64–75

2:00

1+4 1+9 1+4 1+9

The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended as it reduces washing efficiency. There is no benefit in extending fixation beyond the recommended time; some loss of print quality might be seen when long fixing times are given, due to image etching. Fixer capacity The capacity of a fixer is limited by the build up of silver in the bath. A silver level of 4–6g/l (US quart) is safe for all commercial use with resin coated papers. This approximates to 80 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) prints per litre (US quart) of working strength fixer. For prints with maximum stability, that is, for long term storage, a silver level of 1g/l (US quart) should be used. This approximates to 20 20.3x25.4cm (8x10 inch) prints per litre (US quart) of working strength fixer. Two-bath fixing Although not normally recommended with resin coated papers, two-bath fixing can be beneficial when toning for aesthetic effect or to protect the print for display. Two-bath fixing at 18–24ºC/64–75ºF Dilution Fixing time (min) Bath 1 Bath 2 Liquids 1/2 1/2 + ILFORD RAPID FIXER 1+4 ILFORD RAPID FIXER 1+9 1 + 1 1/2 1/2 + HYPAM 1+4 HYPAM 1+9 1 + 1 Powder ILFOFIX II stock 2 + 2 Washing

Fresh, running water

Temperature (ºC/ºF) Above 5/41

Time (sec) 120

When it is important to obtain a print in the shortest possible time, vigorously wash ILFORD resin coated papers for 30 seconds in running water. Prolonged immersion in water can cause edge penetration and print curl with resin coated papers: for this reason, avoid wet times longer than 15 minutes. Drying A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1+200 with water, aids even and rapid drying. Optimum quality results are obtained with the ILFORD series of dryers, for example, the ILFOLAB 1250RC. ILFORD dryers give the best possible finish on all ILFORD paper surfaces, and produce a high gloss finish on ILFORD glossy papers. When a dryer for resin coated prints is not available, remove surplus water from the prints

Page 2 of 4


PROCESSING B&W RESIN COATED PAPERS and leave them to dry. At room temperature, prints dry in 10–20 minutes. Note ILFORD resin coated paper, as with other resin coated papers, should not be glazed/ferrotyped or dried on a drum or flatbed glazer, as this can cause the polyethylene in the paper to stick to the glazing surface. MACHINE PROCESSING ILFORD resin coated papers can be processed in all conventional machines for black and white resin coated papers. They are not suitable, however, for activation type processing. ILFORD processors ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher are recommended for use with all ILFORD black & white processors. They are supplied as liquid concentrates. A developer starter is not needed. For the convenience of automatic processing without the need to use large, floor standing equipment, the ILFOLAB 2150RC table-top processor is recommended. ILFORD 2150XL developer and fixer kits are recommended for use with this processor. They are supplied as 3 litre packs of liquid concentrate, which are simply poured into the processor and mixed to the correct dilution automatically by the processor. Other processors This section is a guide to setting up processors for ILFORD resin coated papers using ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher. These are diluted 1+4 to make tank or replenisher solution. These suggestions are only a guide, and the processing cycle should be checked in the processor. For further guidance, contact your local ILFORD company or distributor. Suggested development times The preferred temperature range is 20–30ºC/68–86ºF. Temperature (ºC/ºF) 20/68 25/77 30/86 35/95 40/104

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Development time (sec) including transfer time to next tank 46 32 22 15 12

These times are for non-replenished systems, with a maximum solution life of seven days. They are also for replenished systems with a solution life of up to three months. The suggested developer replenishment rate is 150–250ml/m2 (14–23ml/ft2) paper processed. The solution life is dependent on paper throughput, and a suggested minimum is 2.8m2 of paper/l (31ft2/US quart) of working strength solution per week. If paper throughput is considerably less than this, to maintain print quality, it may be necessary either to make up fresh tank solution every 6 weeks instead of 12 weeks, or to double the replenishment rates. Suggested fixing times The same times and temperatures as for development can be used for fixing. The actual fixing time, however, is shorter, and 20 seconds is ample above 20ºC/68ºF. These recommendations are suitable for both replenished and nonreplenished systems. In non-replenished systems, the maximum paper throughput is 4m2/l (44ft2/US quart) of working strength solution. The suggested fixer replenishment rate for replenished systems is 300–450ml/m2 (28–41ml/ft2) of paper processed. The maximum silver concentration in the fixer bath can be 4–6g/l. Note If fixing is not complete, then adequate washing is impossible. Washing times Wash for at least 15 seconds at temperatures above 5ºC/41ºF. Set the water flow so as to fill the wash tank in 4 minutes or less. Hot air drying Use temperatures up to 85ºC/185ºF. TONING AND CHEMICAL REDUCTION ILFORD papers respond in a similar way to other resin coated papers to the usual techniques of toning and chemical reduction. RETOUCHING ILFORD prints can be spotted and air brushed using dye (for a glossy finish) or water colour (for a matt finish), in the same way as most resin coated papers. When knifing resin coated prints, damp the area to be knifed, then use a sharp, pointed blade to scrape away the emulsion. Alternatively, bleach out specks completely using local chemical reduction. After knifing or local reduction, rewash and dry the print, then spot the resulting white area in the usual way.


PROCESSING B&W RESIN COATED PAPERS BACKWRITING The back of ILFORD resin coated papers is treated to accept pencil, most ball pens, non-water-soluble felt-tipped pens, fast drying stamp pad inks and all printing inks formulated for polyethylene printing. Many users also photocopy information onto the back of prints, although, strictly, this is not recommended. MOUNTING ILFORD prints can be mounted in one of the following ways. Where prints are to be mounted for long periods (in excess of 1–2 years), the dry mounting method is recommended. Dry mounting ILFORD prints can be dry mounted in the usual way. The use of a foil overlay is recommended for glossy surfaces and the use of silicone release paper for other surfaces. Although the manufacturers’ recommendations should be followed, most tissues will give good results in a dry mounting press at a temperature of 80–90ºC/176–194ºF with prints under pressure for about 30–40 seconds. Double-sided adhesive sheets/cold mounting films These provide a very effective and convenient means of mounting ILFORD papers onto porous or non-porous surfaces, without the need for special machinery. Some adhesive sheets allow the print to be repositioned after fixing. Several makes are available in sheet or roll form. Spray adhesives Spray adhesives are suitable for mounting ILFORD papers. Note Always read the safety advice given by the manufacturers before using spray adhesives. Contact adhesives These adhesives are available in liquid form for brushing or spraying and are suitable for mounting ILFORD prints onto porous or non-porous mounts. Solvents must be allowed to evaporate completely from both print and mount before the two are brought into contact. Wet mounting ILFORD papers can be mounted onto porous surfaces (eg hardboard) using wet adhesives such as those designed for wall coverings. When mounting large prints, this method is an advantage, as there is time to position the print correctly and remove any air bubbles that might have become trapped between the print and the mount, without damaging the print. Wet mounting resin coated prints on non-porous materials (eg metal) is not recommended.

DISPLAY OF PRINTS Prints made for display must be toned to protect them from the oxidising gases that are found in many environments. Oxidising gases come from everyday items such as newly laid carpet, wet gloss paint, newly applied adhesives and traffic fumes. Selenium toner is recommended as it has little effect on the image colour. Sulphide (or sepia) toning also gives an image of increased stability, as do polysulphide toners (for example, Kodak Brown Toner). Some metal replacement toners, for example, gold toner and platinum toner can protect the image, but other metal replacement toners, such as blue (iron) toner and red (copper) toner may not give extra protection as the image might fade. Dye toners do not give extra protection. Also recommended for image protection are image stabilising solutions, such as Agfa Sistan, Tetenal Stabinal and Fuji AgGard. Laminating may also help to protect the image, but ideally prints should be toned before laminating. ILFORD ILFOGUARD laminating and encapsulating films are recommended. Long term print storage When exceptionally long term print life is needed, prints must be processed as described in this fact sheet and then stored under special storage conditions. The ISO standard on print storage (ISO IT9.20–1994) has two levels of storage conditions: medium term and extended term. Medium term is for prints with a life expectancy of at least 10 years. Extended term is for prints with a longer life expectancy and to prolong the life of all prints. Briefly, the main conditions are: Freedom from chemical contamination, either airborne or from storage containers. Also protection from high levels of ultra-violet radiation, particularly sunlight but also fluorescent lighting. For medium term storage: a stable temperature up to 25ºC/77ºF (but preferably below 20ºC/68ºF) with a maximum daily cycling of ±2ºC/4ºF; and a stable humidity between approximately 20%RH and 50%RH with a maximum daily cycling of ±10%. For extended term storage: a stable temperature up to 18ºC/65ºF (but preferably lower) with a maximum daily cycling of ±1ºC/2ºF; and a stable humidity between approximately 30%RH and 50%RH with a maximum daily cycling of ±5%. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

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94056.GB.www

June 2002


December 2001

FACT SHEET

CONTRAST CONTROL

CONTRAST CONTROL FOR ILFORD MULTIGRADE VARIABLE CONTRAST PAPERS Contrast control with ILFORD MULTIGRADE papers can be achieved in several ways. These include the ILFORD MULTIGRADE hand filters and the ILFORD MULTIGRADE 600 equipment. Contrast can also be controlled with other variable contrast enlarger heads and with colour enlargers. CONTRAST RANGE This section describes how MULTIGRADE papers give different contrast levels. For practical information on selecting contrast levels turn to the next pages.

resultant curve has a very much wider exposure range and is thus of low contrast. By varying the proportion of blue to green light, a contrast range between these two extremes can be obtained. The simplest way of controlling the colour of the light reaching the emulsion during exposure is by the use of filters: a magenta filter absorbs green light and transmits blue; a yellow filter absorbs blue light and transmits green. In this way, high and low contrast images can be made. Exposure to blue light

MULTIGRADE papers are coated with an emulsion which is a mixture of three separate emulsions. Each emulsion is a basic blue sensitive emulsion to which is added different amounts of green sensitising dye. Thus, part of the mixed emulsion is sensitive mainly to blue light, part to blue light with some sensitivity to green light and part to both blue and green light. All parts of the emulsion have the same contrast. They also all have the same speed to blue light, but naturally, the part of the emulsion with only a small amount of green sensitising dye has a low speed (that is, is less sensitive) to green light.

Density

All chloro-bromide (black and white) emulsions are blue sensitive with a slight sensitivity to green light. To make an emulsion sensitive to colours in addition to blue, sensitising dyes need to be added.

Relative log exposure A B C D

combined curve dyed emulsion I dyed emulsion II dyed emulsion III

Exposure to green light

When the paper is exposed to green light, only the parts of the emulsion with the larger amounts of green sensitising dye react initially. This is because the three emulsions have very different sensitivities to green light. This image is of low contrast because of the additive effect produced by three emulsions with different speeds to green light, but with the same inherent contrast. The Page 1 of 4

Density

When the paper is exposed to blue light, all parts of the emulsion react and contribute equally to the final image. This image is of high contrast because of the additive effect produced by three emulsions with the same speed and contrast. The resultant curve has a narrow exposure range and is thus of high contrast.

Relative log exposure A B C D

combined curve dyed emulsion I dyed emulsion II dyed emulsion III


CONTRAST CONTROL MULTIGRADE FILTERS The twelve MULTIGRADE filters are numbered 00–5 in 1/2 steps, with the lowest filter number corresponding to the softest contrast. Filters are available in sets of filters 8.9x8.9cm (31/2x31/2 inches) and 15.2x15.2cm (6x6 inches). They can be used above or below the lens and can be cut to fit the enlarger filter drawer. Filter sizes 30x30cm (11.8x11.8 inches) are available to special order. A filter kit is available for below the lens use. The kit comprises 12 mounted contrast filters, a mounted safelight filter and a filter holder. MULTIGRADE filters are very easy to use: no complicated calculations are needed when changing from one filter to another. The exposure time for filters 00–31/2 is the same; that for filters 4–5 is double. MULTIGRADE 600 EQUIPMENT The MULTIGRADE 600 professional exposing system is a very convenient means of exposing MULTIGRADE papers over a wide contrast range of 00 to 5. It works on the closed loop system, with a single pre-warmed lamp, to give repeatable results, even at high contrasts. The light output is precisely controlled by the motorised shutter. The motorised filters give contrast control in 1/10 grade steps over grades 0 to 5. The head has five programmable paper channels (four pre-set for ILFORD MULTIGRADE papers). It also gives true white light for composition, focusing and exposure. Once calibrated, the exposure probe automatically calculates the exposure and contrast needed for each negative. It can be used under normal safelight conditions. The MULTIGRADE 600 system can also be used with most automatic roll easels. The MULTIGRADE 600H enlarger head replaces the standard lamphouse on the most popular professional enlargers. The control unit, power supply and probe complete the system. There are two versions of the MULTIGRADE 600H enlarger head. The medium format version is suitable for the Durst M805 enlarger. The standard format version is suitable for other enlargers including the Durst L1200, DeVere 504, Omega D and Beseler 45. The enlarger head fits directly in place on the Durst M805 and Durst L1200 enlargers. An adaptor kit is needed with other enlargers.

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MULTIGRADE 600 – medium format

Enlarger head Power supply Control unit Exposure probe Light mixing boxes*

MULTIGRADE (for negatives MULTIGRADE MULTIGRADE MULTIGRADE MULTIGRADE 35mm 6x6cm 6x9cm

600 up to 6x9cm( 600H 600S 600C 600P

Optional equipment Footswitch MULTIGRADE 600F *At least one light mixing box is needed for a complete system.

MULTIGRADE 600 – standard format

Enlarger head Power supply Control unit Exposure probe Light mixing boxes*

MULTIGRADE (for negatives MULTIGRADE MULTIGRADE MULTIGRADE MULTIGRADE 35mm 6x7cm 4x5inches

600 up to 4x5inches) 600H 600S 600C 600P

Optional equipment Footswitch MULTIGRADE 600F *At least one light mixing box is needed for a complete system.

OTHER VARIABLE CONTRAST ENLARGER HEADS The contrast of MULTIGRADE papers can be controlled with the range of variable contrast enlarger heads that are currently available. Some of these are easier to use than others, and several give excellent results. Many manufacturers make variable contrast heads for their enlargers which are specially designed for use with MULTIGRADE papers. Enlarger heads that have been designed in conjunction with ILFORD include those from De Vere, Dunco, Kaiser, Leitz, LPL and Meopta. For use with MULTIGRADE papers, follow the instructions provided by the enlarger manufacturer.


CONTRAST CONTROL

CONTRAST CONTROL

USE OF COLOUR HEADS By adjusting the yellow and magenta filtration on colour heads, it is possible to obtain a wide contrast range with MULTIGRADE papers. However, the maximum contrast will be slightly lower as the filters used in colour heads are optimised for use with colour paper and not with variable contrast paper. The suggested filtration in the following tables can only be a guide, because individual enlargers vary. The actual filtration for a particular enlarger must be determined by trial. Filtration types used in colour enlargers From the table below, select the type of filtration needed according to the enlarger type. Durst Dunco Durst Kaiser Kienzle Leitz Lupo

Kodak Advena Beseler Chromega De Vere Fujimoto IFF Jobo LPL Omega Paterson Simmard Vivitar

Meopta Meopta

Single colour filter settings From the table below, read off the approximate filtration needed for each contrast step. However, as the yellow and magenta filters have not been arranged to equalise exposures, new exposure times will have to be recalculated when the contrast is changed. If you are using a Durst enlarger, or one that uses Durst filtration values, choose the suggested settings depending on whether the maximum magenta setting on your enlarger is 170M or 130M. MULTIGRADE Durst Durst Kodak Meopta filter (max (max 170M) 130M) 00 150Y 120Y 199Y 150Y 0 90Y 70Y 90Y 90Y 1/2 70Y 50Y 70Y 70Y 1 55Y 40Y 50Y 55Y 11/2 30Y 25Y 30Y 30Y 2 0 0 0 0 21/2 20M 10M 5M 20M 3 45M 30M 25M 40M 31/2 65M 50M 50M 65M 4 100M 75M 80M 85M 41/2 140M 120M 140M 200M 5 170M* 130M 199M – *Some enlargers in this group have a maximum magenta setting higher or lower than 170M. For these enlargers, set the highest possible magenta value as an approximate equivalent to filter 5.

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Dual colour filter settings From the table below, read off the approximate filtration needed for each contrast step. Dual filtration values usually need longer exposure times than single filtration values, but should need less adjustment to exposure times when changing contrast. MULTIGRADE Durst Durst filter (max (max 170M) 130M) 00 115Y/0M 120Y/0M 0 100Y/5M 88Y/6M 1/2 88Y/7M 78Y/8M 1 75Y/10M 64Y/12M 11/2 65Y/15M 53Y/17M 2 52Y/20M 45Y/24M 21/2 42Y/28M 35Y/31M 3 34Y/45M 24Y/42M 31/2 27Y/60M 17Y/53M 4 17Y/76M 10Y/69M 41/2 10Y/105M 6Y/89M 5 0Y/170M 0Y/130M

Kodak

162Y/0M 90Y/0M 78Y/5M 68Y/10M 49Y/23M 41Y/32M 32Y/42M 23Y/56M 15Y/75M 6Y/102M 0Y/150M –

Leitz Focomat V35 135Y/6M 105Y/12M 77Y/11M 67Y/17M 52Y/28M 39Y/43M 32Y/51M 23Y/62M 14Y/79M 10Y/95M 15Y/154M 0Y/200M

EXPOSING LIGHT SOURCES MULTIGRADE papers are designed for use with most enlargers and printers, that is, those fitted with either a tungsten or tungsten halogen light source. They are also suitable for use with cold cathode (cold light) light sources designed for variable contrast papers. Cold cathode enlarger heads Enlargers fitted with a cold cathode (cold light) head which has been designed for use with variable contrast papers can give a full contrast range on MULTIGRADE papers. However, although a full contrast range may be available, it might not be evenly spaced. Also, in some cases, a full contrast range may not be available – it depends on the cold cathode lamp used. The following chart gives a guide to the contrast range of MULTIGRADE papers when exposed using MULTIGRADE filters with a conventional tungsten enlarger head and with an Aristo head fitted with an Aristo W45 cold cathode lamp. With the Aristo W45 lamp, extra yellow filtration was also added – CC40Y – as recommended by Aristo. It can be seen that a full contrast range can be achieved, but the grade intervals are bunched towards the hard contrast end.


CONTRAST CONTROL Exposure factors for an Aristo head fitted with the Aristo W45 lamp + 40Y filter MULTIGRADE filters 00

0

1/2

1

11/2

2

21/2

3

31/2

4

41/2

5

to 00

1.00

1.07

1.10

1.15

1.17

1.26

1.38

1.70

1.62

0.98

1.00

1.12

1/2

0

0.93 0.91

1.00 0.98

1.02 1.00

1.07 1.05

1.10 1.07

1.18 1.15

1.29 1.26

1.59 1.55

1.51 1.48

0.96 0.93

0.93 0.91

1.05 1.02

1 11/2

0.87 0.85

0.93 0.91

0.96 0.93

1.00 0.98

1.02 1.00

1.10 1.07

1.20 1.18

1.48 1.45

1.41 1.38

0.89 0.87

0.87 0.85

0.98 0.96

2 21/2

0.79 0.72

0.85 0.78

0.87 0.79

0.91 0.83

0.93 0.85

1.00 0.91

1.10 1.00

1.35 1.23

1.29 1.18

0.81 0.74

0.79 0.73

0.89 0.81

3 31/2

0.59 0.62

0.63 0.66

0.65 0.68

0.68 0.71

0.69 0.72

0.74 0.78

0.81 0.85

1.00 1.05

0.96 1.00

0.60 0.63

0.59 0.62

0.66 0.69

4 41/2

0.98 1.00

1.05 1.07

1.07 1.10

1.12 1.15

1.15 1.18

1.23 1.26

1.35 1.38

1.66 1.70

1.58 1.62

1.00 1.02

0.98 1.00

1.10 1.12

5

0.89

0.96

0.98

1.02

1.05

1.12

1.23

1.51

1.45

0.91

0.89

1.00

from

When changing contrast with an Aristo head fitted with the Aristo W45 lamp + 40Y filtration, the exposure has to be recalculated. This is because the MULTIGRADE filters (and other manufacturers’ filters) are designed for use with tungsten enlarger heads. The table gives the exposure factors for MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe paper. It can also be used as a guide for other MULTIGRADE papers. For example, if a print of correct density has been made using filter 2 but it is decided that the contrast of filter 3 is needed, multiply the exposure given for filter 2 by 0.74. Cold cathode (cold light) heads not designed for variable contrast papers and pulsed xenon light sources may give a reduced contrast range. The MULTIGRADE 00 filter is particularly useful with these light sources as it significantly extends the contrast range available. Alternatively, some additional yellow filtration, up to 70Y, may help. The contrast range will depend on the spectral characteristics of the light source used. The only way to determine the contrast range available with each model of enlarger is to carry out a practical test. DIFFUSER v CONDENSER ENLARGERS MULTIGRADE papers are designed for use with both diffuser and condenser enlargers. However, because of the different types of illumination there can be a contrast difference between the two types. In practical terms with most negatives, condenser enlargers give about an extra grade of contrast compared with a diffuser enlarger. This contrast difference, though, depends on the amount of silver left in the negative. Thus there is little change of contrast between the enlarger types for very pale, flat negatives and also for the dye image of ILFORD XP2 SUPER negatives. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheetmight not be available in your country

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ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

94055.GB.www

December 2001


December 2001

FACT SHEET

MULTIGRADE RC PF

VARIABLE CONTRAST, BLACK AND WHITE PAPER SPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR HIGH SPEED PRINTING APPLICATIONS ILFORD MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is a high speed, variable contrast, black and white photographic paper on a 190g/m2 resin coated base. It is specially designed for high speed printing applications, where automatic and semiautomatic printers, printer-processors and minilabs are used. Fast printing The sensitivity of MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is optimised for very short exposures, which ensures high printing throughput. Bright white base tint The preferred base tint of most users. Cool image colour The preferred image colour for most photofinishing applications, giving more customer acceptable prints first time. Sharp images The bright white base tint and cool image colour enhances the sharpness of many subjects. Excellent gloss Superb results with all drying methods. High productivity and easy to work with MULTIGRADE RC Express PF has excellent reciprocity characteristics. This means that its speed, contrast level and range are maintained at very short exposures. In particular, MULTIGRADE RC Express PF maintains a good maximum contrast. Good prints from over- and underexposed negatives The contrast level and wide contrast range of MULTIGRADE RC Express PF deals with most under- and over-exposed negatives. Very high levels of first-time-acceptable prints The combination of cool image colour, bright white base tint, excellent gloss, enhanced sharpness and the contrast level and range of MULTIGRADE RC Express PF gives prints with punch and sparkle, even from less-than-ideal negatives. Page 1 of 7

Good latent image stability MULTIGRADE RC Express PF gives good print-toprint consistency during production. Robust MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is very robust. It is highly resistant to physical damage during printing and processing. Long lasting prints MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is very resistant to the effects of atmospheric pollution on unprotected images. Compatible MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is compatible with all conventional black and white exposing and photofinishing equipment found in professional labs. It is suitable for printing all black and white negatives, including chromogenic negatives, such as ILFORD XP2 SUPER. Technical support Process control and technical support are available to help you use ILFORD products in your equipment. Product range MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is available in the full range of rolls in 1M glossy and 44M pearl. Rolls are mostly supplied EO (emulsion out), but EI (emulsion in) are also available. Roll sizes include widths from 8.9cm up to 25.4cm (31/2 –10in), and lengths from 76m to 400m (250–1315ft). A range of mural and cut sheet sizes are also available. Bulk quantities for large volume users For large volume users, a complete bulk delivery package is available of MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper in sacks, along with film processing and paper processing chemicals in 25 litre drums and 205 litre barrels.


MULTIGRADE RC Express PF OVERVIEW OF PRINTING MACHINES The main objective of machine printing is to get as many acceptable, saleable prints as quickly as possible, from a wide range of negatives using a first time exposure. Most printers used for black and white are usually appropriately modified colour printers. They are converted for black and white printing by using dedicated black and white software programmes, sometimes in association with hardware changes. Some colour printers can give limited performance without modification, and some printers are designed specifically for black and white printing. Although printers vary considerably in their specification, their principles of operation are very similar. To get the best from MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper, the user must know the type of system they have, and calibrate the printer according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Overall, printers divide into two broad groups: automatic printers and semi-automatic printers. Automatic printers Automatic printers need minimal operator intervention, once they have been calibrated and set up for the production run. They measure each negative for density and contrast, and automatically adjust the duration and colour of the exposing light to produce an acceptable print. They have fully automated and synchronised negative and paper transport systems. Semi-automatic printers Semi-automatic printers measure each negative for density, but not for contrast, and automatically adjust the exposure to produce a print of acceptable density. The contrast for each print is selected by the printer operator from a range of pre-calibrated buttons. The contrast of each print depends on the operator’s judgment of the negative, their print contrast preferences and the calibration of the button used. The paper transport is normally automatic, but the negatives are often moved by hand. Semi-automatic printers include small stand-alone printers, printer enlargers, combined printer processors and printer enlarger processors. The processing function does not add any complexity to the printing function.

HOW MULTIGRADE PAPERS WORK Black and white variable contrast papers are sensitive to both blue and green light. The print contrast is changed by varying the balance of blue and green light in the exposure. When more blue light is used, the contrast becomes harder. When more green light is used, the contrast becomes softer. Variable contrast papers are usually more sensitive to green light. Therefore exposures using green light are usually shorter than those using blue light. Minimum exposure (and hence maximum printing speed) is achieved with no filtration, that is, with white light. LIGHT SOURCES MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is designed for use with tungsten or tungsten halogen light sources. These are the light sources most commonly used in printer systems. Although alternative light sources are rarely used, MULTIGRADE RC Express PF can also be exposed with cold cathode (cold light) light sources designed for variable contrast papers. Other cold cathode (cold light) and pulsed xenon light sources may give a reduced contrast range. EXPOSURE CONTROL IN PRINTERS During use, the light source in a printer is normally on constantly. Many printers have multi-lamp heads to decrease exposure times. Exposure is controlled by a combination of lens aperture, shutter and filters. The lens aperture is normally fixed, but can be adjusted if necessary. The shutter normally has no manual controls. The filters are often not fixed, and can move through the light path, so part of the exposure can be unfiltered, that is to white light. Using moving filters and white light enables exposures to be very short, for example, in the region of 50 milliseconds for a ‘normal’ negative. The exposure given to a negative is linked mainly to its density, but contrast also has an effect. The higher its density is, the longer the exposure needs to be. The lower its contrast is, the longer the exposure needs to be: this is because the exposure is made with mainly blue light – see ‘How MULTIGRADE papers work’. The connection between exposure and contrast is controlled by the calibration of the printer’s software. CONTRAST CONTROL IN PRINTERS MULTIGRADE RC Express PF can give a wide contrast range with most printers. This ensures it can print with ease a wide variety of negatives. The contrast range and grade spacing achieved with individual printers depends on several factors. These include the filter type, the filter characteristics, the software program and the care taken to calibrate the printer. Please refer to the instructions supplied with your printer. Contrast is also referred to as slope, gradation or gamma by printer manufacturers.

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MULTIGRADE RC Express PF There are two filter systems used in colour printers: subtractive (cyan, magenta and yellow) and additive (red, green and blue). Subtractive is the most common. The filters used to expose black and white variable contrast paper are either yellow and magenta or blue and green. General purpose black and white variable contrast papers have no sensitivity to cyan or red light. Whichever filter system is used, the light used to expose the paper is always a combination of blue and green light. The software controlling contrast is in two parts: the film channel data and the paper channel data. Changes in contrast are made by changing the balance of blue and green light. This is controlled by a combination of the data set in the film channels and the paper channels. GETTING THE BEST RESULTS WITH MULTIGRADE RC EXPRESS PF The appearance and quality of the finished print and the productivity of the printer depends on the data that has been entered in its film and paper channels. The film channel data defines the density characteristics (and the contrast characteristics with automatic printers) of a film or group of films and the adjustments that are needed to produce a ‘normal’ print from a range of exposures. The paper channel data defines the speed characteristics (and the contrast characteristics with automatic printers) of an individual paper, as well as the print size (enlargement), crop (magnification) and paper surface (eg, glossy or pearl). Automatic printers In automatic printers, each negative is measured for density and contrast. These measurements are compared with the parameters set up in the film and paper channels, and the exposure and contrast are set automatically. Automatic printers are often set to cope with a film exposure range of –3 stops to +5 stops. The data needed to do this is determined by practical picture testing, and for best results, this should be carried out with films processed by the lab’s own film processing systems. With some software, the film channel data can be refined to compensate for certain types of negative, for example, flash shots, snow scenes, dominant sky, blank negatives, totally exposed film etc. Correct set up of the film channel data can enhance productivity greatly. The paper channel data defines the speed and contrast characteristics of an individual paper. Again, the data needed to do this is determined by practical picture testing. The basic method of setting up an automatic printer is to start with ‘normal’ negatives and adjust the film and paper channels to produce acceptable prints with reasonable exposure times. Prints are then made from a series of known underPage 3 of 7

and over-exposed negatives with adjustments made to the film channel to produce an acceptable print from each of these less than ideal negatives. The above process must be repeated for each combination of film and paper channels used. However, this process can be speeded up because most software allows data to be copied between channels. To complete the printer set up, production runs should be made and monitored. The film and paper channel data is then adjusted according to the print results seen during production. Semi-automatic printers The basic method of setting up a semi-automatic printer is to start with ‘normal’ negatives and adjust the film and paper channels to produce acceptable prints with reasonable exposure times. By changing the software data, each contrast button is adjusted to have a different combination of blue and green light. If this is done correctly, when a ‘normal’ negative is printed using each button in turn, the result should be a set of matched density prints, that have evenly spaced contrast steps from soft to hard. Once this has been established, the printer operator can choose the appropriate contrast button to produce a ‘normal’ print from a wide range of negatives.


MULTIGRADE RC Express PF EXPOSURE CONTROL IN ENLARGERS MULTIGRADE RC Express PF can be exposed in most enlargers.

MULTIGRADE RC Express PF unfiltered has an ISO range of R100. ISO range

ISO speed The speed of MULTIGRADE RC Express PF depends on the filtration used during exposure. MULTIGRADE RC Express PF unfiltered has a paper speed of ISO P640. ISO paper speed MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper and MULTIGRADE filters Setting 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 Speed (P) 250 ---------------------------------- 250 125 125 The above values are representative of those obtained when machine processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations. CONTRAST CONTROL IN ENLARGERS When using an enlarger, contrast is controlled by using MULTIGRADE hand filters, the MULTIGRADE 600 equipment, other MULTIGRADE equipment, variable contrast enlarger heads or colour enlarger heads. The twelve MULTIGRADE filters are numbered 00–5 in 1/2 steps, with the lowest filter number corresponding to the softest contrast. The exposure time for filters 00–31/2 is the same; that for filters 4–5 is double. The ILFORD MULTIGRADE 600 professional exposing system replaces the standard lamphouse on the most popular professional enlargers, and controls the exposure and contrast. The control unit, power supply and probe complete the system. Contrast range The contrast range of MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper extends to seven full grades of contrast, sufficient to cater for most under- and over-exposed negatives. This contrast range is maintained at very short exposure times. The chart gives the ISO range figures (ISO standard 6846 – 1992) for MULTIGRADE RC Express PF. These figures give a guide to selecting the appropriate paper contrast for a given effective negative density range.

Page 4 of 7

MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper and MULTIGRADE filters Setting 00 0 1 2 3 Range (R) 180 160 120 100 80

4 60

5 50

The above values are representative of those obtained when machine processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations. ISO range figures may be helpful if there is some means of measuring the effective density range of the image as projected on the enlarger baseboard – such as with a photometer. As an example, for a negative with an effective density range of 1.02 log exposure units, multiply this figure by 100 and choose the nearest ISO range figure from the table – in this case 100. Try printing this negative with MULTIGRADE filter 2 on MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper.


MULTIGRADE RC Express PF MACHINE PROCESSING MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper can be processed in all conventional machines for black and white resin coated papers. It is not suitable for activation type processing. Most black and white paper processors are of either the roller transport or leader belt type. MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is fully compatible with both types. Many larger processors use a hot air drying system. MULTIGRADE RC Express PF glossy paper has an excellent gloss finish with this type of dryer. ILFORD 2000RT chemicals are recommended for processing MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper, but all conventional black and white machine processing chemicals can be used. Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packaging. Photochemicals material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD. ILFORD chemicals ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and ILFORD 2000RT fixer/replenisher are designed for machine processing ILFORD and all quality photographic papers. They are supplied as liquid concentrates and are diluted 1+4 to make tank or replenisher solution. They are commonly available in 5 litre units and 2x5 litre packs. Larger sizes are available. For large volume users, a complete bulk delivery package is available of MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper in sacks, along with film processing and paper processing chemicals in 25 litre drums and 205 litre barrels. Setting up processors The time/temperature table below is a guide to setting up processors for MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper using ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and ILFORD 2000RT fixer/replenisher. The processing time and temperature should be checked in the processor. For further guidance, contact your local ILFORD company or distributor.

Suggested development times The preferred temperature range is 20–30°C/68–86ºF. These suggestions are only a guide. Temperature (°C/ºF)

Development time (sec) including transfer time to next tank

20/68 25/77 30/86 35/95 40/104

46 32 22 15 12

These times are for replenished systems with a solution life of up to three months. Replenishment rates will vary with processors, but a guide for developer replenishment is 150–250ml/m2 (14–23ml/ft2)of paper processed. The development times are also for non-replenished systems, with a maximum solution life of seven days. Suggested fixing times The same times and temperatures as for development can be used for fixing. The actual fixing time, however, is shorter, and 20 seconds is ample above 20°C/68ºF. These recommendations are suitable for both replenished and nonreplenished systems. In replenished systems, the replenishment rates will vary with processors, but a guide for fixer replenishment is 300–450ml/m2 28–41ml/ft2) of paper processed. For nonreplenished systems, the maximum paper throughput is 4m2/l (44ft2/US quart) of working strength solution. The maximum silver concentration in the fixer bath can be 4–6g/l. Note If fixing is not complete, then adequate washing is impossible. Washing times The efficiency of the wash and water consumption depends on the processor design and water temperature. As a general rule, wash for at least 15 seconds at temperatures above 5°C/41ºF. Hot air drying Use temperatures up to 85°C/185ºF. ILFORD processors ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher are recommended for use with all ILFORD black & white paper processors. For a moderate throughput of cut sheets, the ILFORD ILFOLAB 2150RC table-top processor is recommended. Dedicated ILFORD 2150XL developer and fixer kits are recommended for use with this processor.

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MULTIGRADE RC Express PF DISH/TRAY PROCESSING MULTIGRADE RC Express PF can be processed in the same way as other resin coated papers. The recommended ILFORD chemicals are ILFORD MULTIGRADE developer, ILFORD ILFOSTOP PRO stop bath and ILFORD RAPID FXER or ILFORD HYPAM FIXER. Processing details are supplied with the chemicals.

SAFELIGHT RECOMMENDATIONS MULTIGRADE RC Express PF can be used with most common safelights for black and white papers. The ILFORD safelights are especially recommended as they generally allow darkrooms to be brighter, but completely safe, for MULTIGRADE RC Express PF and many black and white papers.

AFTER PROCESS TREATMENTS MULTIGRADE RC Express PF responds in the same way as other resin coated papers to the usual techniques of toning, chemical reduction and retouching. It can be mounted using the standard techniques for resin coated papers.

ILFORD safelights are the ILFORD SL1 darkroom safelight or the ILFORD 902 (light brown) safelight filter fitted in a darkroom lamp (for example, the ILFORD DL10 or DL20). A 15W bulb is recommended with these safelights.

PRINT FINISHING MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is compatible with all machines, processes and techniques normally used to cut and pack photographs.

For direct lighting, do not expose the paper to the safelight for more than 4 minutes, and the distance between the paper and the safelight should be a minimum of 1.2m/4f). Other filters can be used, for example, the Kodak OC and the Agfa-Gevaert G7, or the Philips PF710 safelamp. Wedge spectrogram to tungsten light (2850K)

Wavelength (nm)

RECIPROCITY All photographic papers lose speed and contrast at exposures that are very short (less than 1 second) and very long (more than 100 seconds). MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is designed to be used in high speed exposing systems with very short exposures. Speed and contrast loss is minimised at exposures below 1 second. LATENT IMAGE STABILITY No significant change in picture quality will be seen when MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is left for 24 hours after exposure and before processing. This helps to ensure consistent print quality from one end of the paper roll to the other.

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MULTIGRADE RC Express PF

Density

CHARACTERISTIC CURVES

Density

Relative log exposure

Relative log exposure

MULTIGRADE RC Express PF glossy or pearl paper exposed with MULTIGRADE filters 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Developer: ILFORD 2000RT in the ILFORD ILFOLAB MG 2650 processor. STORAGE Unprocessed paper Store unused MULTIGRADE RC Express PF paper in a cool, dry place in its original packaging. Avoid conditions of high temperature and/or high humidity. MULTIGRADE RC Express PF will keep in excellent condition for up to two years when stored as recommended. Prints MULTIGRADE RC Express PF prints which have been processed as recommended in this leaflet will have a more than adequate storage life for most purposes. MULTIGRADE RC Express PF is resistant to the effects of atmospheric pollution on images. However, print life will be shortened in some adverse storage conditions, or if the print is exposed to oxidising gases. It is recommended that prints made for long term display are toned or laminated to protect them from the oxidising gases that are found in many environments. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country.

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ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

99011.GB

December 2001


December 2001

FACT SHEET

MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE PREMIUM QUALITY, WARM TONE, VARIABLE CONTRAST, BLACK AND WHITE PAPER ON A RESIN COATED BASE ILFORD MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE is a premium quality, variable contrast black and white paper which has a warm black image tone on a warm white base. It is especially suitable for toning. MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE has a 190g/m2 resin coated base. MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE is part of the ILFORD MULTIGRADE system and is fully compatible with all existing MULTIGRADE filters and equipment. It is equally suitable for printing from conventional black and white and XP2 SUPER negatives. MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE is available in two surfaces: 1M glossy and 44M pearl. EXPOSURE MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE is designed for use with all enlargers. Safelight recommendations MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE can be used with most common safelights for black and white papers. The ILFORD safelights are especially recommended as they generally allow darkrooms to be brighter, but completely safe, for MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE and many black and white papers. ILFORD safelights are the ILFORD SL1 darkroom safelight or the ILFORD 902 (light brown) safelight filter fitted in a darkroom lamp (for example, the ILFORD DL10 or DL20). A 15W bulb is recommended with these safelights. For direct lighting, do not expose the paper to the safelight for more than 4 minutes, and the distance between the paper and the safelight should be a minimum of 1.2m/4ft. Other safelight filters can be used, for example, the Kodak OC and the Agfa G7, or the Philips PF710 safelamp.

Page 1 of 4

Wedge spectrogram to tungsten light (2850K)

Wavelength (nm)

Contrast range Seven full grades of contrast, in half grade steps, are available on MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE paper when used with the ILFORD MULTIGRADE speed-matched filters. The chart gives the ISO range figures (ISO standard 6846 – 1992) for MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE. These figures give a guide to selecting the appropriate grade of paper for a given effective negative density range. MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE unfiltered has an ISO range of R110. ISO range MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE paper and MULTIGRADE filters Filter 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 Range (R) 190 160 130 110 90 70 50 The above values are representative of those obtained when dish/tray or machine processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations. ISO range figures may be helpful to printers who have some means of measuring the effective density range of the image as projected on the enlarger baseboard – such as with a photometer. As an example, for a negative with an effective density range of 1.32 log exposure units, multiply this figure by 100 and choose the nearest ISO range figure from the table – in this case 130. Try printing this negative with MULTIGRADE filter 1 on MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE paper.


MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE

ISO paper speed MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE paper and MULTIGRADE filters Filter 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 Speed (P) 125 –––––––––-––––– 125 64 64 The above values are representative of those obtained when dish/tray or machine processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations.

Characteristic curves

Density

ISO speed The speed of MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE depends on the filtration used during exposure. MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE unfiltered, has a paper speed of ISO P250.

Relative log exposure

Contrast control Contrast is controlled by using MULTIGRADE hand filters, the new MULTIGRADE 600 equipment, other MULTIGRADE equipment, variable contrast enlarger heads or colour enlarger heads.

The twelve MULTIGRADE filters are numbered 00–5 in 1/2 steps, with the lowest filter number corresponding to the softest contrast. The exposure time for filters 00–31/2 is the same; that for filters 4–5 is double. The ILFORD MULTIGRADE 600 exposing system replaces the standard lamphouse on most professional enlargers. Latent image stability No significant change in picture quality will be seen when MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE is left for a period of 24 hours after exposure and before processing. Dimensional stability MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE has a high dimensional stability. When processed as recommended, sheet size will not vary by more than 0.1% between before and after processing.

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Density

Exposing light sources MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE is designed for use with most enlargers and printers, that is, those fitted with either a tungsten or tungsten halogen light source. It is also suitable for use with cold cathode (cold light) light sources designed for variable contrast papers. Other cold cathode (cold light) and pulsed xenon light sources may give a reduced contrast range. Relative log exposure

MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE glossy or pearl paper exposed through filters 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Developer: MULTIGRADE diluted 1+9. Development: 1 minute at 20°C/68ºF. DISH/TRAY PROCESSING MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE is processed in a similar way to other resin coated papers. Always take care when handling wet MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE prints not to damage the emulsion with tongs. Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packaging. Photochemicals material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD. The image colour of MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE can be varied with the choice of developer and the processing technique used.


MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE Processing summary (intermittent agitation) ILFORD Dilution ºC/ºF Time chemical (min:sec) Development MULTIGRADE 1+9 20/68 1:00 or MULTIGRADE 1+14 20/68 1:30 or BROMOPHEN 1+3 20/68 2:00 or PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 20/68 2:00 Stop bath ILFOSTOP 1+19 18–24/64–75 0:10 or ILFOSTOP PRO 1+19 18–24/64–75 0:10 Fixation ILFORD RAPID 1+4 18–24/64–75 0:30 FIXER or HYPAM 1+4 18–24/64–75 0:30 Washing Fresh, running water –

Above 5/41

2:00

Development See the ‘Processing summary’ for development recommendations. On correctly exposed prints with MULTIGRADE developer 1+9, the image will begin to appear after about 6–7 seconds. The minimum recommended development time for high quality prints is approximately 35 seconds; after this time there is a more gradual image build-up. Overexposed prints developed for shorter times are acceptable for those applications where the highest quality is not required. To give greater control during development, and for economy, the 1+14 dilution of MULTIGRADE developer can be used. The choice of developer affects the image colour of MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE paper. From the ILFORD range of developers, warmest results are achieved with MULTIGRADE and BROMOPHEN developers. MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE paper can also be processed in other high quality dish/tray developers. Stop bath See the ‘Processing summary’ for stop bath recommendations. The use of a stop bath is strongly recommended. A stop bath stops development immediately, reduces the risk of staining (which might not show until after toning) and extends the life of the fixer bath.

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Fixation See the ‘Processing summary’ for fixing recommendations. The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended as it reduces washing efficiency, may impair toning performance and gives a cooler image tone. ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD HYPAM are non-hardening fixers. There is no benefit in extending fixation beyond the recommended time; some loss of print quality might be seen when long fixing times are given due to image etching. Also, long fixing times will affect the image colour of the paper. Washing See the ‘Processing summary’ for washing recommendations. When it is important to obtain a print in the shortest possible time, vigorously wash MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE paper for 30 seconds in running water. Prolonged immersion in water can cause edge penetration and print curl with resin coated papers: for this reason, avoid wet times longer than 15 minutes. Drying A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1+200 with water, will aid even and rapid drying. Optimum quality results will be obtained with the ILFORD series of dryers, for example, the ILFOLAB 1250RC. When a dryer for resin coated papers is not available, remove surplus water from the prints and leave them to dry. At room temperature, prints will dry in 10–20 minutes. Note MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE paper, as with other resin coated papers, should not be glazed/ferrotyped or dried on a drum or flatbed glazer, as this can cause the polyethylene in the paper to stick to the glazing surface. MACHINE PROCESSING MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE paper can be processed in all conventional machines for black and white resin coated papers. It is not suitable, however, for activation type processing. Generally, MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE has a slightly cooler image tone when machine processed in ILFORD chemicals, compared with dish/tray processing.


MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE ILFORD processors ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher are recommended for use with all ILFORD black and white processors. For the ILFOLAB 2150RC table-top processor dedicated ILFORD 2150XL developer and fixer kits are recommended. Other processors This section is a guide to setting up processors for ILFORD resin coated papers using ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher. These are diluted 1+4 to make tank or replenisher solution. These suggestions are only a guide, and the processing cycle should be checked in the processor. For further guidance, contact your local ILFORD company or distributor. Suggested development times The preferred temperature range is 20–30ºC/68–86ºF. Temperature (ºC/ºF) 20/68 25/77 30/86 35/95 40/104

Development time (sec) including transfer time to next tank 46 32 22 15 12

These times are for non-replenished systems, with a maximum solution life of seven days. They are also for replenished systems with a solution life of up to three months. The suggested developer replenishment rate is 150–250ml/m2 (14–23ml/ft2) paper processed. Suggested fixing times The same times and temperatures as for development can be used for fixing. The actual fixing time, however, is shorter, and 20 seconds is ample above 20ºC/68ºF. These recommendations are suitable for both replenished and non-replenished systems. In non-replenished systems, the maximum paper throughput is 4m2/l (44ft2/US quart) of working strength solution. The suggested fixer replenishment rate for replenished systems is 300–450ml/m2 (28–41ml/ft2) of paper processed. The maximum silver concentration in the fixer bath is 4–6g/l.

TONING Toning prints creates an aesthetic effect and, in some cases, can help to protect the print from external contaminants. MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE is receptive to a wide range of toners. Subtle colour changes or more dramatic effects are readily achieved. Especially recommended are polysulphide toners, such as Kodak Brown Toner or Agfa Viradon, and selenium toners. Other toners can be used to create different effects. Follow the instructions supplied with the toner. FINISHING MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE responds in the same way as other resin coated papers to the usual techniques of chemical reduction and retouching. It can be mounted using the standard techniques for resin coated papers. STORAGE Unprocessed paper Store unused MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE paper in a cool, dry place in its original packaging. Avoid conditions of high temperature and/or high humidity. MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE will keep in excellent condition for up to two years when stored as recommended. Prints MULTIGRADE RC WARMTONE prints which have been processed as recommended in this leaflet will have a more than adequate storage life for most purposes. Print life will be shortened, however, in adverse storage conditions, or if the print is exposed to oxidising gases. It is recommended that prints made for display are toned to protect them from the oxidising gases that are found in many environments. However, not all toners protect the image. Toners with a protective effect include selenium, sulphide and polysulphide toners. Other protection methods can be used including silver image stabilisers and laminating. Ideally, prints should be toned before laminating. ILFORD ILFOGUARD laminating and encapsulating films are recommended. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country

Note If fixing is not complete, then adequate washing is impossible. Washing times Wash for at least 15 seconds at temperatures above 5ºC/41ºF. Set the water flow so as to fill the wash tank in 4 minutes or less. Hot air drying Use temperatures up to 85ºC/185ºF.

Page 4 of 4

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

98027.GB.www

December 2001


December 2001

FACT SHEET

MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE PREMIUM QUALITY, COOL TONE, VARIABLE CONTRAST, BLACK AND WHITE PAPER ON A RESIN COATED BASE ILFORD MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE is a premium quality, variable contrast black and white photographic paper with a cool-of-neutral image tone on a cool white base. MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE has a 190g/m2 resin coated base. MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE is part of the ILFORD MULTIGRADE system and is fully compatible with all existing MULTIGRADE filters and equipment. It is suitable for printing all black and white negatives, including chromogenic negatives, such as ILFORD XP2 SUPER. MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE is available in two surfaces: 1M glossy and 44M pearl. EXPOSURE MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE can be used with all enlargers – see Exposing light sources overleaf. Safelight recommendations MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE can be used with most common safelights for black and white papers. The ILFORD safelights are especially recommended as they generally allow darkrooms to be brighter, but completely safe, for MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE and many black and white papers. ILFORD safelights are the ILFORD SL1 darkroom safelight or the ILFORD 902 (light brown) safelight filter fitted in a darkroom lamp (for example, the ILFORD DL10 or DL20). A 15W bulb is recommended with these safelights. For direct lighting, do not expose the paper to the safelight for more than 4 minutes, and the distance between the paper and the safelight should be a minimum of 1.2m/4ft. Other safelight filters can be used, for example, the Kodak OC and the Agfa G7, or the Philips PF710 safelamp.

Page 1 of 4

Wedge spectrogram to tungsten light (2850K)

Wavelength (nm)

Contrast range Seven full grades of contrast, in half grade steps, are available on MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper when used with the ILFORD MULTIGRADE speed-matched filters. The chart gives the ISO range figures (ISO standard 6846 – 1992) for MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE. These figures give a guide to selecting the appropriate grade of paper for a given effective negative density range. MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE unfiltered has an ISO range of R100. ISO range MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper and MULTIGRADE filters Filter 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 Range (R) 180 160 120 100 80 60 50 The above values are representative of those obtained when dish/tray or machine processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations. ISO range figures may be helpful to printers who have some means of measuring the effective density range of the image as projected on the enlarger baseboard – such as with a photometer. As an example, for a negative with an effective density range of 1.22 log exposure units, multiply this figure by 100 and choose the nearest ISO range figure from the table – in this case 120. Try printing this negative with MULTIGRADE filter 1 on MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper.


MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE ISO speed

Characteristic curves

ISO paper speed MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper and MULTIGRADE filters Filter 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 Speed (P) 200 ---------------------------------- 200 100 100 The above values are representative of those obtained when dish/tray or machine processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations.

Density

The speed of MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE depends on the filtration used during exposure. MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE unfiltered, has a paper speed of ISO P500.

Relative log exposure

Contrast control Contrast is controlled by using MULTIGRADE hand filters, the MULTIGRADE 600 equipment, other MULTIGRADE equipment, variable contrast enlarger heads or colour enlarger heads.

The twelve MULTIGRADE filters are numbered 00–5 in 1/2 steps, with the lowest filter number corresponding to the softest contrast. The exposure time for filters 00–31/2 is the same; that for filters 4–5 is double. The ILFORD MULTIGRADE 600 exposing system replaces the standard lamphouse on the most popular professional enlargers. Latent image stability No significant change in picture quality will be seen when MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE is left for a period of 24 hours after exposure and before processing.

Density

Exposing light sources MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE is designed for use with either a tungsten or tungsten halogen light source. It is also suitable for use with cold cathode (cold light) light sources designed for variable contrast papers. Other cold cathode (cold light) and pulsed xenon light sources may give a reduced contrast range. Relative log exposure

MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE glossy or pearl paper exposed through filters 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Developer: MULTIGRADE diluted 1+9. Development: 2 minutes at 20ºC/68ºF. DISH/TRAY PROCESSING To achieve the coolest image colour, a longer development time is needed with MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE than with other RC papers. The remaining processing steps are similar to those for other resin coated papers. Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packaging. Photochemicals material safety data sheets are available from ILFORD. They contain full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals. The image colour of MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE can be varied with the choice of developer and the processing technique used.

Page 2 of 4


MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE Processing summary (intermittent agitation) ILFORD Dilution ºC/ºF Time chemical (min:sec) Development MULTIGRADE 1+9 20/68 2:00 or MULTIGRADE 1+14 20/68 3:00 or BROMOPHEN 1+3 20/68 3:00–4:00 or PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 20/68 3:00 Stop bath ILFOSTOP 1+19 18–24/64–75 0:10 or ILFOSTOP PRO 1+19 18–24/64–75 0:10 Fixation ILFORD RAPID 1+4 18–24/64–75 0:30 FIXER or HYPAM 1+4 18–24/64–75 0:30 Washing Fresh, running water –

Above 5/41

2:00

Note These longer than usual development times are needed to obtain the coolest image colour. Development See the ‘Processing summary’ for development recommendations. On correctly exposed prints with MULTIGRADE developer 1+9, the image will begin to appear after about 10 seconds. Overexposed prints developed for shorter times are acceptable for those applications where the highest quality is not required. However, full development is needed to achieve the coolest image tone. To give greater control during development, and for economy, the 1+14 dilution of MULTIGRADE developer can be used. MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper can also be processed in other high quality dish/tray developers. Note The longer development time means that the capacity of the developer is reduced by half compared with other RC papers. For example, up to 50 20.3x25.4cm(8x10in) MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE prints can be processed in 1l/US quart of working strength MULTIGRADE developer at dilution 1+9. Stop bath See the ‘Processing summary’ for stop bath recommendations. The use of a stop bath is strongly recommended. A stop bath stops development immediately, reduces the risk of staining and extends the life of the fixer bath.

Page 3 of 4

Fixation See the ‘Processing summary’ for fixing recommendations. The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended because it reduces washing efficiency. ILFORD RAPID FIXER and ILFORD HYPAM are non-hardening fixers. There is no benefit in extending fixation beyond the recommended time; some loss of print quality might be seen when long fixing times are given due to image etching. Washing See the ‘Processing summary’ for washing recommendations. When it is important to obtain a print in the shortest possible time, vigorously wash MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper for 30 seconds in running water. Prolonged immersion in water can cause edge penetration and print curl with resin coated papers: for this reason, avoid total wet times longer than about 15 minutes. Drying A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1+200 with water, will aid even and rapid drying. Optimum quality results will be obtained with the ILFORD series of dryers, for example, the ILFOLAB 1250RC. When a dryer for resin coated papers is not available, remove surplus water from the prints and leave them to dry. At room temperature, prints will dry in 10–20 minutes. Note MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper, as with other resin coated papers, should not be glazed/ferrotyped or dried on a drum or flatbed glazer, as this can cause the polyethylene in the paper to stick to the glazing surface. MACHINE PROCESSING MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper can be processed in all conventional machines for black and white resin coated papers. It is not suitable, however, for activation type processing. Although longer than usual development times are recommended when dish/tray processing MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper, standard development times are recommended when machine processing. This is because machine developers are by design more active and robust. However, the image colour of MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE may be less cool in machines with under active, old or heavily seasoned developer. If this occurs, mix up fresh tank developer, and it may


MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE also be necessary to increase the developer replenishment rates. ILFORD processors ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher are recommended for use with all ILFORD black and white processors. For the ILFOLAB 2150RC table-top processor dedicated ILFORD 2150XL developer and fixer kits are recommended. Other processors This section is a guide to setting up processors for ILFORD resin coated papers using ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher. These are diluted 1+4 to make tank or replenisher solution. These suggestions are only a guide, and the processing time and temperature should be checked in the processor. For further guidance, contact your local ILFORD company or distributor. Suggested development times The preferred temperature range is 20–30ºC/68–86ºF. Temperature (ºC/ºF) 20/68 25/77 30/86 35/95 40/104

Development time (sec) including transfer time to next tank 46 32 22 15 12

These times are for non-replenished systems, with a maximum solution life of seven days. They are also for replenished systems with a solution life of up to three months. The suggested developer replenishment rate is 150–250ml/m2 (14–23ml/ft2) paper processed. Suggested fixing times The same times and temperatures as for development can be used for fixing. The actual fixing time, however, is shorter, and 20 seconds is ample above 20ºC/68ºF. These recommendations are suitable for both non-replenished and replenished systems. In non-replenished systems, the maximum paper throughput is 4m2/l (44ft2/US quart) of working strength solution. The suggested fixer replenishment rate for replenished systems is 300–450ml/m2 (28–41ml/ft2) of paper processed. The maximum silver concentration in the fixer bath can be 4–6g/l. Note If fixing is not complete, then adequate washing is impossible.

Washing times Wash for at least 15 seconds at temperatures above 5ºC/41ºF. Set the water flow so as to fill the wash tank in 4 minutes or less. Hot air drying Use temperatures up to 85ºC/185ºF. TONING Toning prints creates an aesthetic effect and, in some cases, can help to protect the print from external contaminants. Try gold or dilute selenium toners to make the image colour of MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper a little cooler. FINISHING MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE responds in the same way as other resin coated papers to the usual techniques of toning, chemical reduction and retouching. It can be mounted using the standard techniques for resin coated papers. STORAGE Unprocessed paper Store unused MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE paper in a cool, dry place in its original packaging. Avoid conditions of high temperature and/or high humidity. MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE will keep in excellent condition for up to two years when stored as recommended. Prints MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE prints which have been processed as recommended in this leaflet will have a more than adequate storage life for most purposes. MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE is resistant to the effects of atmospheric pollution on images. However, print life will be shortened in some adverse storage conditions, or if the print is exposed to oxidising gases. It is recommended that prints made for display are toned to protect them from the oxidising gases that are found in many environments. However, not all toners protect the image. Toners with a protective effect include selenium, sulphide and polysulphide toners. Selenium toner is recommended for protection as it has little effect on the image colour. Other protection methods can be used including silver image stabilisers and laminating. Ideally, prints should be toned before laminating. ILFORD ILFOGUARD laminating and encapsulating films are recommended. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products.Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

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December 2001

FACT SHEET

MULTIGRADE IV RC PREMIUM QUALITY, VARIABLE CONTRAST, BLACK AND WHITE PAPER ON A CHOICE OF RESIN COATED BASES ILFORD MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe and ILFORD MULTIGRADE IV RC Portfolio are premium quality variable contrast papers.

EXPOSURE MULTIGRADE IV RC is designed for use with all enlargers.

MULTIGRADE IV RC has a bright base tint. The image colour remains cool-to-neutral whether viewed in daylight or fluorescent light.

Safelight recommendations MULTIGRADE IV RC can be used with most common safelights for black and white papers. The ILFORD safelights are especially recommended as they generally allow darkrooms to be brighter, but completely safe, for MULTIGRADE IV RC and many black and white papers.

MULTIGRADE IV RC is part of the ILFORD MULTIGRADE system and is fully compatible with all existing MULTIGRADE filters and equipment. It is equally suitable for printing from conventional negatives and from XP2 SUPER negatives. MULTIGRADE IV RC DE LUXE MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe has the standard weight (190g/m2) resin coated base. It is available in three surfaces: 1M glossy, 25M satin and 44M pearl. MULTIGRADE IV RC PORTFOLIO MULTIGRADE IV RC Portfolio has a double weight (250g/m2) resin coated base. It is available in two surfaces: 1K glossy and 44K pearl.

ILFORD safelights are the ILFORD SL1 darkroom safelight or the ILFORD 902 (light brown) safelight filter fitted in a darkroom lamp (for example, the ILFORD DL10 or DL20). A 15W bulb is recommended with these safelights. For direct lighting, do not expose the paper to the safelight for more than 4 minutes, and the distance between the paper and the safelight should be a minimum of 1.2m/4ft. Other filters can be used, for example, the Kodak OC and the Agfa-Gevaert G7, or the Philips PF710 safelamp. Spectral sensitivity MULTIGRADE IV RC was tested unfiltered to produce the following curves at density 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. Equal energy 0.5

1.5

Relative log sensitivity

3.0

1.0

2.0

1.0

400 450 Wavelength (nm)

Page 1 of 4

500

550


MULTIGRADE IV RC

The chart gives the ISO range figures (ISO standard 6846 – 1992) for MULTIGRADE IV RC. These figures give a guide to selecting the appropriate grade of paper for a given effective negative density range. MULTIGRADE IV RC unfiltered has an ISO range of R110. ISO range MULTIGRADE IV RC paper and MULTIGRADE filters Filter 00 0 1 2 3 Range (R) 180 160 130 110 90

4 60

5 40

The above values are representative of those obtained when dish/tray or machine processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations. ISO range figures may be helpful to printers who have some means of measuring the effective density range of the image as projected on the enlarger baseboard – such as with a photometer. As an example, for a negative with an effective density range of 1.32 log exposure units, multiply this figure by 100 and choose the nearest ISO range figure from the table – in this case 130. Try printing this negative with MULTIGRADE filter 1 on MULTIGRADE IV RC paper.

Latent image stability No significant change in picture quality will be seen when MULTIGRADE IV RC is left for a period of 24 hours after exposure and before processing. Contrast control Contrast is controlled by using MULTIGRADE hand filters, the new MULTIGRADE 600 equipment, other MULTIGRADE equipment, variable contrast enlarger heads or colour enlarger heads. The twelve MULTIGRADE filters are numbered 00–5 in 1/2 steps, with the lowest filter number corresponding to the softest contrast. The exposure time for filters 00–31/2 is the same; that for filters 4–5 is double. The ILFORD MULTIGRADE 600 professional exposing system replaces the standard lamphouse on the most popular professional enlargers. Characteristic curves

Density

Contrast range Seven full grades of contrast, in half grade steps, are available on MULTIGRADE IV RC paper when used with the ILFORD MULTIGRADE speed-matched filters.

Relative log exposure

ISO paper speed MULTIGRADE IV RC paper and MULTIGRADE filters Filter 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 Speed (P) 200 –––––––––-––––– 200 100 100 The above values are representative of those obtained when dish/tray or machine processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations. Exposing light sources MULTIGRADE IV RC is designed for use with most enlargers and printers, that is, those fitted with either a tungsten or tungsten halogen light source. It is also suitable for use with cold cathode (cold light) light sources designed for variable contrast papers. Other cold cathode (cold light) and pulsed xenon light sources may give a reduced contrast range.

Page 2 of 4

Density

ISO speed The speed of MULTIGRADE IV RC depends on the filtration used during exposure. MULTIGRADE IV RC unfiltered, has a paper speed of ISO P500.

Relative log exposure

MULTIGRADE IV RC glossy or pearl paper exposed through filters 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Developer: MULTIGRADE diluted 1+9. Development: 1 minute at 20ºC/68ºF.


MULTIGRADE IV RC DISH/TRAY PROCESSING MULTIGRADE IV RC is processed in the same way as other resin coated papers.

Stop bath See the ‘Processing summary’ for stop bath recommendations.

Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packaging. Photochemicals material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD.

The use of a stop bath is strongly recommended. A stop bath stops development immediately, reduces the risk of staining and will extend the life of the fixer bath.

Processing summary (intermittent agitation) ILFORD Dilution ºC/ºF Time chemical (min:sec) Development MULTIGRADE 1+9 20/68 1:00 or MULTIGRADE 1+14 20/68 1:30 or BROMOPHEN 1+3 20/68 2:00 or PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 20/68 2:00 Stop bath ILFOSTOP 1+19 18–24/64–75 0:10 or ILFOSTOP PRO 1+19 18–24/64–75 0:10 Fixation ILFORD RAPID 1+4 18–24/64–75 0:30 FIXER or HYPAM 1+4 18–24/64–75 0:30 Washing Fresh, running water –

Above 5/41

2:00

Fixation See the ‘Processing summary’ for fixing recommendations. The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended as it reduces washing efficiency. ILFORD RAPID FIXER and HYPAM are non-hardening fixers. There is no benefit in extending fixation beyond the recommended time; some loss of print quality might be seen when long fixing times are given due to image etching. Washing See the ‘Processing summary’ for washing recommendations. When it is important to obtain a print in the shortest possible time, vigorously wash MULTIGRADE IV RC paper for 30 seconds in running water. Prolonged immersion in water can cause edge penetration and print curl with resin coated papers: for this reason, avoid wet times longer than 15 minutes.

Development See the ‘Processing summary’ for development recommendations.

Drying A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1+200 with water, will aid even and rapid drying.

On correctly exposed prints with MULTIGRADE developer 1+9, the image will begin to appear after 10 seconds. The minimum recommended development time for high quality prints is 45 seconds; after this time there is a more gradual image build-up. Overexposed prints developed for a minimum of 35 seconds are acceptable for those applications where the highest quality is not required.

Optimum quality results will be obtained with the ILFORD series of dryers, for example, the ILFOLAB 1250RC.

To give greater control during development, and for economy, the 1+14 dilution of MULTIGRADE developer can be used. MULTIGRADE IV RC paper can also be processed in other high quality dish/tray developers.

Page 3 of 4

When a dryer for resin coated papers is not available, remove surplus water from the prints and leave them to dry. At room temperature, prints will dry in 10–20 minutes. Note MULTIGRADE IV RC paper, as with other resin coated papers, should not be glazed/ ferrotyped or dried on a drum or flatbed glazer, as this can cause the polyethylene in the paper to stick to the glazing surface.


MULTIGRADE IV RC MACHINE PROCESSING MULTIGRADE IV RC paper can be processed in all conventional machines for black and white resin coated papers. It is not suitable, however, for activation type processing. ILFORD processors ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher are recommended for use with all ILFORD black & white processors. For the ILFOLAB 2150RC table-top processor ILFORD 2150XL developer and fixer kits are recommended. Other processors This section is a guide to setting up processors for ILFORD resin coated papers using ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher. These are diluted 1+4 to make tank or replenisher solution. These suggestions are only a guide, and the processing cycle should be checked in the processor. For further guidance, contact your local ILFORD company or distributor. Suggested development times The preferred temperature range is 20–30ºC/ 68–86ºF. Temperature (ºC/ºF) 20/68 25/77 30/86 35/95 40/104

Development time (sec) including transfer time to next tank 46 32 22 15 12

These times are for non-replenished systems, with a maximum solution life of seven days. They are also for replenished systems with a solution life of up to three months. The suggested developer replenishment rate is 150–250ml/m2 (14–23ml/ft2) paper processed.

Washing times Wash for at least 15 seconds at temperatures above 5ºC/41ºF. Set the water flow so as to fill the wash tank in 4 minutes or less. Hot air drying Use temperatures up to 85ºC/185ºF. FINISHING MULTIGRADE IV RC responds in the same way as other resin coated papers to the usual techniques of toning, chemical reduction and retouching. It can be mounted using the standard techniques for resin coated papers. STORAGE Unprocessed paper Store unused MULTIGRADE IV RC paper in a cool, dry place in its original packaging. Avoid conditions of high temperature and/or high humidity. MULTIGRADE IV RC will keep in excellent condition for up to two years when stored as recommended. Prints MULTIGRADE IV RC prints which have been processed as recommended in this leaflet will have a more than adequate storage life for most purposes. Print life will be shortened, however, in adverse storage conditions, or if the print is exposed to oxidising gases. It is recommended that prints made for display are toned to protect them from the oxidising gases that are found in many environments. Selenium toner is recommended as it has little effect on the image colour of MULTIGRADE IV RC, but other protection methods can be used including sulphide toning, silver image stabilisers and laminating. ILFORD ILFOGUARD laminating and encapsulating films are recommended. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country.

Suggested fixing times The same times and temperatures as for development can be used for fixing. The actual fixing time, however, is shorter, and 20 seconds is ample above 20ºC/68ºF. These recommendations are suitable for both replenished and non-replenished systems. In non-replenished systems, the maximum paper throughput is 4m2/l (44ft2/US quart) of working strength solution. The suggested fixer replenishment rate for replenished systems is 300–450ml/m2 (28–41ml/ft2) of paper processed. The maximum silver concentration in the fixer bath is 4–6g/l. Note If fixing is not complete, then adequate washing is impossible. ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

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December 2001

FACT SHEET

MULTIGRADE IV FB FIBER PREMIUM QUALITY VARIABLE CONTRAST PAPER ON A FIBRE BASE

MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is part of the ILFORD MULTIGRADE system and is fully compatible with all existing MULTIGRADE filters and equipment. It is equally suitable for printing from conventional negatives and from XP2 SUPER negatives.

Spectral sensitivity MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber was tested unfiltered to produce the following curves at density 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. Equal energy

0.5

3.0

1.0

MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is available in double weight (1K) glossy surface and (5K) matt surface.

1.5

Relative log sensitivity

ILFORD MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is a premium quality variable contrast black and white paper on a 255g/m2 fibre base.

2.0

EXPOSURE MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is designed for use with all enlargers. Safelight recommendations MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber can be used with most common safelights for black and white papers. The ILFORD safelights are especially recommended as they generally allow darkrooms to be brighter, but completely safe, for MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber and many black and white papers. ILFORD safelights are the ILFORD SL1 darkroom safelight or the ILFORD 902 (light brown) safelight filter fitted in a darkroom lamp (for example, the ILFORD DL10 or DL20). A 15W bulb is recommended with these safelights. For direct lighting, do not expose the paper to the safelight for more than 4 minutes, and the distance between the paper and the safelight should be a minimum of 1.2m/4ft. Other safelight filters can be used, for example, the Kodak OC and the Agfa-Gevaert G7, or the Philips PF710 safelamp.

1.0

400 450 Wavelength (nm)

500

550

Contrast range Seven full grades of contrast, in half grade steps, are available on MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper when used with the ILFORD MULTIGRADE speed-matched filters. The chart gives the ISO range figures (ISO standard 6846 – 1992) for MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber. These figures give a guide to selecting the appropriate grade of paper for a given effective negative density range. MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber unfiltered has an ISO range of R100. ISO range MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper and MULTIGRADE filters Filter 00 0 1 2 3 4 Range (R) 170 150 130 100 80 60

5 40

The above values are representative of those obtained when dish/tray processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations.

Page 1 of 4


MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber ISO range figures may be helpful to printers who have some means of measuring the effective density range of the image as projected on the enlarger baseboard – such as with a photometer. As an example, for a negative with an effective density range of 1.32 log exposure units, multiply this figure by 100 and choose the nearest ISO range figure from the table – in this case 130. Try printing this negative with MULTIGRADE filter 1 on MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper. ISO speed The speed of MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber depends on the filtration used during exposure. MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber unfiltered, has a paper speed of ISO P500.

Contrast control Contrast is controlled by using MULTIGRADE hand filters, the new MULTIGRADE 600 equipment, other MULTIGRADE equipment, variable contrast enlarger heads or colour enlarger heads. The twelve MULTIGRADE filters are numbered 00–5 in 1/2 steps, with the lowest filter number corresponding to the softest contrast. The exposure time for filters 00–31/2 is the same; that for filters 4–5 is double. The ILFORD MULTIGRADE 600 exposing system replaces the standard lamphouse on most professional enlargers. Characteristic curves

ISO paper speed MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper and MULTIGRADE filters Filter 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 Speed (P) 200 –––––––––––––– 200 100 100

Relative log exposure

Density

Exposing light sources MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is designed for use with most enlargers and printers, that is, those fitted with either a tungsten or tungsten halogen light source. It is also suitable for use with cold cathode (cold light) light sources designed for variable contrast papers. Other cold cathode (cold light) and pulsed xenon light sources may give a reduced contrast range.

Density

The above values are representative of those obtained when dish/tray processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations.

Relative log exposure

MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber glossy paper exposed through filters 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Developer: MULTIGRADE diluted 1+9. Development: 2 minutes at 20ºC/68ºF.

Page 2 of 4


MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber PROCESSING MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is processed in the same way as other fibre base papers.

Stop bath See the ‘Processing summary’ for stop bath recommendations.

Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packaging. Photochemicals material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD.

The use of a stop bath is strongly recommended. A stop bath stops development immediately, reduces the risk of staining and will extend the life of the fixer bath.

Processing summary (intermittent agitation) ILFORD Dilution ºC/ºF Time chemical (min:sec) Development MULTIGRADE 1+9 20/68 1:30–3:00 or MULTIGRADE 1+14 20/68 2:00–5:00 or BROMOPHEN 1+3 20/68 1:30–3:00 or PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9 20/68 1:30–3:00 Stop bath ILFOSTOP 1+19 18–24/64–75 0:10 or ILFOSTOP PRO 1+19 18–24/64–75 0:10 Fixation ILFORD RAPID 1+4 18–24/64–75 1:00 FIXER or HYPAM 1+4 18–24/64–75 1:00 Washing Fresh, running water –

Above 5/41

60:00

Development See the ‘Processing summary’ for development recommendations. On correctly exposed prints with MULTIGRADE developer 1+9, the image will begin to appear after 35 seconds. Development can be extended up to 6 minutes without any noticeable change in contrast or fog. To give greater control during development, and for economy, the 1+14 dilution of MULTIGRADE developer can be used. MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper can also be processed in other high quality dish/tray developers.

Page 3 of 4

Fixation See the ‘Processing summary’ for fixing recommendations. The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended as it reduces washing efficiency. ILFORD RAPID FIXER and HYPAM are non-hardening fixers. There is no benefit in extending fixation beyond the recommended time; some loss of print quality might be seen when long fixing times are given due to image etching. Washing See the ‘Processing summary’ for washing recommendations. Drying A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1+200 with water, will aid even and rapid drying. After washing, squeegee prints on both sides to remove surplus water. Prints can be clipped backto-back to minimise curl and air-dried at room temperature, or glazed/ferrotyped or heat-dried.


MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber OPTIMUM PERMANENCE The standard fixing and washing recommendations will give excellent print permanence for all commercial needs. When optimum permanence is needed, perhaps for archival storage of prints, the following fixing and washing sequences at 18–24ºC/65–75ºF (including wash water) are recommended using ILFORD WASHAID. Do not add a hardener to the fixer. Be careful not to exceed the capacity of the fixer and not to extend the fixing time as both these make washing more difficult. Optimum permanence sequence Fixation ILFORD RAPID FIXER (1+4) or HYPAM (1+4) intermittent agitation First wash Fresh, running water Washing aid ILFORD WASHAID (1+4) intermittent agitation Final wash Fresh, running water

1min 1min 5min 10min 5min

Optimum permanence sequence with selenium toner Fixation ILFORD RAPID FIXER (1+4) 1min or HYPAM (1+4) 1min intermittent agitation Toning Selenium toner diluted with *min working strength ILFORD WASHAID instead of water, intermittent agitation Rinse ILFORD WASHAID (1+4), 10min intermittent agitation Final wash Fresh, running water 30min

FINISHING MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber responds in the same way as other fibre base papers to the usual techniques of toning, chemical reduction and retouching. It can be mounted using the standard techniques for fibre base papers. STORAGE Unprocessed paper Store unused MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper in a cool, dry place in its original packaging. Avoid conditions of high temperature and/or high humidity. MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber will keep in excellent condition for up to two years when stored as recommended. Prints MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber prints which have been processed as recommended in this leaflet will have a more than adequate storage life for most purposes. Print life will be shortened, however, in adverse storage conditions, or if the print is exposed to oxidising gases. It is recommended that prints made for display are toned to protect them from the oxidising gases that are found in many environments. Selenium toner is recommended as it has little effect on the image colour of MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber, but other protection methods can be used including sulphide toning, silver image stabilisers and laminating. ILFORD ILFOGUARD laminating and encapsulating films are recommended. A wide range of fact sheets is available which describe and give guidance on using ILFORD products. Some products in this fact sheet might not be available in your country.

* Tone the print for the appropriate time to achieve the depth of colour needed.

ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England www.ilford.com

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Datos técnicos