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COVER


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OF

R E SU LT S

SERV ICE

SURV E Y 2009

SECR E TA R I AT

The collective behaviour of birds, also known as flocking, is a remarkable sight. Hundreds, sometimes thousands, of individuals participate in the collective actions of their group without the guidance of any central coordination. What results is a naturally occurring pattern of behaviour that is elegant yet formless despite their apparent complexity, flocks demonstrate unity, cooperation and identity. The complex relationships that exist between employees and their work environment are akin to the displays presented by the flock. One of the goals for the Work Environment Survey is to identify meaningful patterns within the complicated attitudes that employees have in and about their organization.


The Public Service Secretariat would like to thank all of the employees who contributed to the Work Environment Survey. By communicating your opinions about the workplace, you are helping departments and central agencies identify human resource challenges. While there are some areas of the work environment that can still improve, the results of this year’s survey are positive and indicate that government is continuing to make progress in ensuring that employees are satisfied and committed in the workplace.


5

Introduction

6

Current Research

7

Research Objectives

8

Questionnaire

10 Survey Results 12 Discussion 14 Conclusion 18 Appendix A 19 Appendix B 24 Appendix C


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INTRODUCTION Exploring the complexity of employee attitudes.

In 2009, the Public Service Secretariat (PSS), in partnership with the Newfoundland and Labrador Statistic Agency (NLSA), conducted a Work Environment Survey (WES) within the core public service. The WES provides executives, managers and organizational planners with information about job satisfaction, organizational commitment, supervision quality, compensation satisfaction and other aspects of employees’ working lives. Understanding employee opinions about the work environment is important because they indicate issues related to employee well-being and organizational functioning. Exploring and discussing these issues can directly impact the direction of human resource management practices in government departments and central agencies.

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CURRENT RESEARCH When too much variety leads to uncertainty.

Over the last decade, the topic of “employee engagement� has emerged as an increasingly important area in human resources. Employees who are engaged at work are thought to be happier, more productive and less likely to leave their job. Despite the overwhelming interest in employee engagement, it has not been defined well. In 2006, a report by The Conference Board identified a dozen unique definitions for employee engagement. As such, the WES does not presume to provide information that is necessarily about employee engagement. However, the topics addressed by the survey are related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment, which are two factors that are thought to affect employee engagement.

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OBJECTIVES The importance of form and function.

The WES serves a number of different functions. Primarily, it was designed to explore various topics that are relevant to the strategic management of human resources in the core public service, such as employee satisfaction and job quality. The WES also helps with the following: - - - -

Identifying organizational strengths and areas for improvement Providing executives, directors and managers with information that supports departmental planning and policy development Supporting the development of corporate human resource management initiatives Giving employees an opportunity to express their opinions about the workplace

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QUESTIONNAIRE An orderly arrangement of ideas. The NLSA mailed 1,865 questionnaires to core public service employees in June, 2009, and collected responses until September, 2009. In cases where employees did not return a completed questionnaire, the NLSA followed-up with a phone call to ensure they had received a survey package. Overall, 909 employees participated in the survey resulting in a 49 percent response rate. Employees were randomly selected and representative of the core public service, which includes all government departments and central agencies. The questionnaire used for the WES asked employees to rate their level of agreement with 73 statements about the work environment. These statements covered a range of workplace issues that included: • • • • • •

Job satisfaction Organizational commitment Quality of supervision Communication satisfaction Co-worker relationships Health and safety awareness

• • • • • •

Strategic orientation Workload Compensation satisfaction Work-life balance Organizational trust Learning and development

Employees rated their level of agreement using a 5-point scale: Strongly Agree

=

5

Somewhat Agree

=

4

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

=

3

Somewhat Disagree

=

2

Strongly Disagree

=

1

Please refer to Appendix A to see a copy of the questionnaire.

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SURVEY RESULTS Finding quality through quantity.

For the purpose of this report, survey results were combined into three general categories: Agree, Neutral and Disagree. For example, “Strongly Agree” and “Somewhat Agree” were combined into a general category called “Agree”. The following table shows how survey results were combined into simpler categories: 5-Point Scale

Response Category

Strongly Agree

Agree

Somewhat Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Neutral

Somewhat Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

With respect to interpreting level of agreement, the following is a general guide focused on the percentage of employees who generally agreed with a statement: Percent Agree

Interpretation

80% or higher

=

Organizational Strengths

60% - 79%

=

Emerging Best Practices

59% or lower

=

Areas for Improvement

Note that percentage totals may fall below or exceed 100 percent due to rounding. Please refer to Appendix B for a report of survey results using the 5-point scale.

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Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is the extent to which employees like or dislike their job. Of course, satisfaction can depend on many different aspects of the work environment such as job tasks, career development opportunities, supervisor and co-worker relationships, communication and workload. The broad nature of job satisfaction makes it an important indicator of organizational management quality. The WES focused on job characteristics as a measure of job satisfaction – specific job characteristics included the meaningfulness of work, job autonomy and knowledge of work outcomes. Employees are more likely to be satisfied overall with their job when they have control over their job and find their work to be meaningful. Most employees agreed they have input and some control over the work they do and that their work is meaningful. Fewer employees, however, agreed there were opportunities for career growth and that innovation was valued in the workplace. Overall, the results indicate that a large majority of employees were generally happy with the work they do.


95%

agree

1. I know what is expected of me in my job.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

2. I have opportunities for career growth within the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador.

neutral

25% 40%

disagree

95%

agree

3. My job is a good fit with my skills and interests.

neutral

25% 40%

disagree

95%

agree

4. The work that I do gives me a sense of accomplishment.

neutral

25% 40%

disagree

95%

agree

5. I am inspired to give my very best.

neutral disagree

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95%

agree

6. My job is challenging in a good way.

neutral

25% 40%

disagree

95%

agree

7. Innovation is valued at my work.

neutral

25% 40%

disagree

95%

agree

8. I have the materials and equipment I need to do my job.

neutral

25% 40%

disagree

95%

agree

9. Overall, I am satisfied with the level of job security I have.

neutral

25% 40%

disagree

95%

agree

10. I know how my work contributes to the achievement of my department’s goals.

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neutral disagree

SEC R E TA R I AT

25% 40%


95%

agree

11. Overall, I am interested in the work that I do.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

12. I have some control over how I do my job.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

13. I have support at work to provide a high level of service.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

14. The work that I do is meaningful.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

15. Overall, I am satisfied with my job.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Quality of Supervision The relationship between employees and their immediate supervisor is thought to be one of the most important aspects of the work environment and a key determinant of job satisfaction, retention and turnover. The development of a positive supervisor-employee relationship requires time and effort and supervisors need to maintain meaningful interactions with employees over time. Relationships that are not maintained are more likely to fall apart when workplace or work-related issues arise. Quality of supervision is the degree to which employees feel valued by their supervisor – key aspects of this relationship included respect, recognition, fairness and open communication. It is important to recognize that quality of supervision addresses interpersonal relationships and does not reflect the work, skills and knowledge of supervisors. The majority of employees agreed they have a good relationship with their supervisor. In particular, many supervisors were described by employees as being respectful, caring and collaborative. However, fewer employees agreed that their supervisor gives them meaningful recognition and feedback regarding their work. Overall, these results suggest that supervisors are receptive, accessible and approachable but that supervisors need to improve how and what they communicate to employees.


95%

agree

16. My immediate supervisor treats me with respect.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

17. I receive meaningful recognition for work well done.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

18. My immediate supervisor manages people effectively.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

19. My immediate supervisor seems to care about me as a person.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

20. My immediate supervisor is a good communicator.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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21. I can disagree with my immediate supervisor on work-related issues without fear of reprisal.

95%

agree neutral

25% 40%

disagree

95%

agree

22. My immediate supervisor assigns work fairly.

neutral

25% 40%

disagree

95%

agree

23. My immediate supervisor gives me useful feedback on my job performance.

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neutral disagree

SEC R E TA R I AT

25% 40%


24. I have opportunities to provide input into decisions that affect my work.

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

25. I am satisfied with the quality of supervision I receive.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Organizational Commitment The relationship between employees and their organization, and whether or not employees stay with an organization, is called organizational commitment. Committed employees are more likely to stay with an organization than those who are uncommitted. Furthermore, committed employees are also more likely to show pride in their employer, be productive in their work and offer extra assistance to others in the workplace. As such, the WES focused on the type of commitment in which employees want to work for their organization. The survey results indicate that most employees in the core public service were committed to the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. These employees were proud of their organization and would prefer to stay even if offered a similar job with a different employer. This result was partially supported by the finding that most employees said they would not look for a new job outside of the organization within the next year.


26. I am proud to tell people that I work for the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador.

27. I would prefer to stay with the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, even if offered a similar job elsewhere.

28. Overall, I am satisfied in my work as a Government of Newfoundland and Labrador employee.

29. I would recommend the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador as a great place to work.

30. I will probably look for a new job outside the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador in the next year.

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

31. I am satisfied with my department

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Communication Satisfaction Communication is the degree to which information is transmitted among individuals or groups and it plays a fundamental role in the operation of an organization. Rather than attempting to measure satisfaction with all of the specific communication practices used in the core public service, the WES focused on the general structures necessary for communication. Specifically, the WES addressed the type, amount and form of communication within departments. Employees indicated that departmental communication was an area for improvement within the core public service. Based on the survey results, it is not apparent that information at the executive-level, and even at the supervisor-level, is always communicated to staff. Adopting employee-oriented communication practices may be one way to increase employee satisfaction in this area.


32. Overall, I am satisfied with the types of information my department communicates to staff.

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

33. Staff meetings are regularly scheduled in my division.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

34. Overall, I am satisfied with the amount of communication my department does with staff.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

35. Essential information flows effectively from senior leadership to staff.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

36. Overall, I am satisfied with the way my department communicates with staff.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Co-Worker Relationships The term “co-workers� generally refers to employees that work in the same division or work unit of a department. Co-worker relationships can be formal and/ or informal. For example, formal co-worker relationships exist when employees must collaborate or share similar work tasks. Informal relationships are typically more personal and often take the form of workplace friendships. In the WES, co-worker relationships refer to the formal and informal interactions that occur between co-workers. Specific aspects of this relationship included workplace socialization, teamwork, helping behaviour and interpersonal communication. The survey results suggest that the vast majority of employees like their coworkers, particularly when teamwork is involved. Although informal socializing is less common (possibly due to work commitments), employees indicate that they have positive working relationships with their co-workers.


95%

agree

37. I often attend social events in the workplace.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

38. My co-workers are good communicators.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

39. I like to socialize with my co-workers in the workplace.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

40. My co-workers and I work well as a team.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

41. My co-workers are helpful to me.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

42. I have positive working relationships with my co-workers.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Health and Safety Awareness Employee health and safety is essential to the core public service. The vast majority of workplace health and safety initiatives focus on preventable illness and accidents. The WES measured the degree to which employees were generally aware of health and safety issues in the workplace. This included awareness of risks and hazards, personal roles and responsibilities, as well as perceived efforts of departments to ensure health and safety. Overall, most employees are aware of workplace hazards and their role in protecting themselves from harm. However, roughly two-thirds of employees thought their department was committed to ensuring their health and safety. Effective internal communications about workplace health and safety initiatives may help employees better understand the roles and responsibilities of departments in ensuring their well-being.


43. I am aware of the risks and hazards of my work environment..

44. I am aware of my role and responsibility for protecting my personal health and safety in the workplace.

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

45. My department seems committed to ensuring my health and well-being.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Strategic Orientation Government departments and central agencies are required to develop strategic plans that outline their goals and objectives for a three-year period. Strategic orientation refers to when employees are aware of and understand the organization’s strategic plan. Several statements were included in the WES to measure strategic orientation, which focused on the “line of sight” between the work of employees and their department’s strategic objectives. Key aspects addressed by the survey included the link between work and organizational outcomes, communication of strategic objectives, awareness of strategic objectives and identification with a strategic plan. Many employees agreed they understood the link between their work and broader departmental objectives but only half of employees expressed familiarity with their department’s strategic plan. Employees should be aware of how their work contributes to strategic outcomes – this might be achieved by regular updates from departments about the progress of the strategic plans. Opportunities for employees to provide feedback about strategic plans might be another way to ensure that they identify with and understand departmental goals and objectives.


46. I understand how my work supports the strategic plan of my department.

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

47. I receive regular updates on my department’s strategic plan.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

48. I am familiar with my department’s strategic plan.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

49. I played a role, whether large or small, in the development of my department’s strategic plan.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Workload Workload is the amount of work required of an employee – it is often discussed in the context of job stress and job performance. Some important distinctions about measuring workload include the difference between perceived and actual workload; the cyclical nature of workload (e.g., preparation of annual budgets and reports); and the difference between amount of work and level of work difficulty. The current measure of workload used by the WES does not account for these distinctions. Instead, the primary focus of the survey is the pace of work (i.e., meeting deadlines, keeping up) and control over workload – these indicators provide a general and limited account of employee workload issues. A number of employees indicated some difficulty with the pace of their work – one-half find it hard to meet deadlines and one-third struggle to keep up with their workload. However, many more employees agreed they have some control over their workload, such as being able to set priorities and manage the amount of work they do. Although the majority of employees said they were generally satisfied with their workload, further research is necessary to understand the nature and prevalence of workload issues among staff.

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95%

agree

50. My workload can make it hard to meet deadlines.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

51. I have some control over the amount of work that I do.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

52. I find it hard to keep up with my workload.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

53. I am able to prioritize my workload.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

54. Overall, I am satisfied with my workload.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Compensation Satisfaction Compensation generally refers to employee salaries, benefits and wage/ salary increases but it also refers to organizational policies regarding pay. The statements used to measure compensation satisfaction for the WES reflected major dimensions of compensation satisfaction such as salary, benefits (e.g., insurance and pension plans) and understanding of how pay is determined. Approximately one-half of employees agreed they were satisfied with their salary, benefits and pension – the same number of employees said they understood how the organization determined their pay. Given the complexities of compensation in large organizations, further exploration is necessary to better understand the perceptions that employees have about their compensation.


95%

agree

55. Overall, I am satisfied with my salary or hourly wage.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

56. Overall, I am satisfied with my organization’s pension plan.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

57. Overall, I am satisfied with my insurance benefits.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

58. I understand how my salary or hourly wage is determined by my organization.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Work-Life Balance Work-life balance refers to the relationship between work and the lives led by employees outside of the workplace. While the term “work” is easy to define – generally, it is paid employment – there is more difficulty in defining “life”. Family-related issues are often the primary focus but life outside of work also includes other areas such as leisure, community and study. Measures included in the WES focused on the interference of work with commitments outside of the workplace (i.e., family and other activities); organizational supports for achieving worklife balance; and general indicators of satisfaction with hours of work and work-life balance. The majority of employees agreed they were satisfied with their hours of work and their work-life balance. However, a large percentage of employees also indicated that their job interfered with responsibilities outside of work. Although many employees seem to experience worklife balance issues, there are supports available within the core public service. Formal supports include human resource policies that enable employees to modify their work schedule. Supervisors can also facilitate employee usage of policies, as well as provide informal supports that require only short-term accommodation to employee work schedules.


95%

agree

59. My work interferes with activities outside out of work.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

60. My work interferes with my time for family and friends.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

61. I have support at work to balance my work and personal life.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

62. Overall, I am satisfied with the number of hours I work.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

63. Overall, I am satisfied with the balance between my work and personal life.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Organizational Trust Organizational trust refers to the trust between leaders and their employees, as well as the trust employees have for the organization represented by their leaders. As such, organizational trust can be affected by impersonal actions taken by the organization in the same way that it can be affected by the personal relationship between leaders and employees. Indicators of trust used for the WES focused on employee perceptions of senior leadership qualities such as altruism, respect, honesty and effective management. About two-thirds of employees agreed that the leaders in their department were respectful, honest and doing a good job of leading the organization. Fewer employees thought that senior leaders looked out for the best interests of employees. Bridging this apparent gap between employees and their leaders may be supported by improving the communication between these two groups.


64. The senior leaders of my department look out for the best interests of employees.

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

65. The senior leaders of my department treat employees with respect.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

66. The senior leaders of my department do a good job of leading this organization.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

67. The senior leaders of my department appear to be honest with employees.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

68. I have confidence in the senior leadership of my department.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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Learning and Development Workplace learning and development has emerged as a major area of practice in human resource management. The WES focused on the level of support employees have to meet their work-related learning and development needs. In addition to organizational support, the survey also addressed job-related training and the role employees have in supporting their own learning and development. Generally speaking, roughly two-thirds of employees said the organization supported their learning and development needs. Departments are encouraged to ensure that all employees have developed their own learning plan in consultation with their supervisor.


69. I get the training and development I need to do my job.

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

70. I have a role in supporting my work-related learning and development needs.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

71. My organization supports my work-related learning and development.

72. My organization helps me achieve my work-related learning and development needs.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

95%

agree

73. Overall, I am satisfied with the learning and development opportunities available at work.

25%

neutral

40%

disagree

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DISCUSSION Talking about the Work Environment Survey

Overall, the 2009 WES results are positive and portray government as an organization where employees are generally satisfied with the work environment. One observation is that each aspect of the organization, such as supervision, co-workers, work-life balance and strategic orientation, can affect overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment although they are not necessarily of equal importance to employees. Another observation is the importance of effective communications to organizational excellence.

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Organizational Strengths Employees generally agreed with statements regarding job satisfaction, organizational commitment, quality of supervision, co-worker relationships and health and safety awareness. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are two areas of particular interest because they are related to organizational outcomes including job performance, retention, employee health, life satisfaction and absenteeism. Unfortunately, there are no measures currently available to assess the impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on these outcomes in the core public service. However, the effects of satisfaction and commitment are documented in numerous studies over several decades – until additional information is collected on the organizational outcomes mentioned above, the 2009 WES results suggest that the work environment of the core public service is reasonably healthy and normal.

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Areas of Improvement The WES is a long-term initiative that supports several areas of government’s Human Resource Management Strategy (“HRMS”) for 2008-11. Broadly speaking, the strategy addresses topics such as attracting qualified workers to government job opportunities, best practices in employee retention and improving public service delivery. Several areas for improvement identified in the survey results have also been identified in the HRMS. These areas include organizational communication practices, employee orientation to departmental strategic plans, compensation satisfaction, workload, work-life balance and support for learning and development opportunities. Some of the actions outlined in the HRMS relate to human resource initiatives including succession planning; employee orientation; performance enhancement; career enrichment; leadership and management development; internal organization communications; and compensation. For example, performance enhancement is a process by which employees discuss work objectives with their employer – this simple interaction enables regular face-to-face communication, improves awareness of the department’s strategic plan, and provides employees with an opportunity to manage their workload. Although the issue of organizational trust is not addressed directly by the HRMS, studies suggest that improving organizational communication practices will positively impact how employees perceive senior leaders. These and other initiatives will help improve the work environment of the core public service.

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Comparing the 2007 and 2009 WES Results The 2009 questionnaire was updated from the questionnaire used in 2007 – this means that a direct comparison to all of the survey results from 2007 is not possible. However, both questionnaires did use a number of statements that were either the same or similar, which allowed for some comparison between the two surveys. For the majority of these shared statements, the level of agreement in 2009 was higher than the level reported in 2007. The increased likelihood of employees to agree in 2009 may be the result of some intentional changes to government’s human resource management practices; the difference may also be from management practices adapting to the work environment. It is also worthwhile to acknowledge that, in some cases, small differences between 2007 and 2009 survey results may be statistical in nature and there is actually no difference at all.

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Listed below are some areas where the reported level of agreement appeared to be substantially higher in 2009 compared to 2007: • • • • • • •

Opportunities for career growth. Access to materials and equipment necessary to do a job. Working relationships with supervisor and co-workers. Recognition and feedback from supervisors. Government as a preferred employer. Regular staff meetings. Satisfaction with salary or hourly wage.

One area where employees were less likely to agree was with respect to strategic orientation. In 2007, about two-thirds of employees agreed they understood the goals and objectives of their department. In 2009, about half of the employees surveyed agreed they were familiar with their department’s strategic plan. The reasons for this difference are unknown but there are several possible explanations. One might be the qualitative difference between the statements that were used in 2007 and 2009. Another possible explanation might be that employee awareness was higher in 2007 because departments had recently developed their strategic plan and initial communications may have increased employee awareness if only temporarily. Please refer to Appendix C for a detailed comparison of 2007 and 2009 survey results.

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CONCLUSION A different perspective.

Survey Results as Supporting Evidence The WES provides an account of factors that are deemed important to organizational understanding. The selective approach of the WES ensures that its results are comprehensive and relevant to human resource management in the core public service. Data from the WES also bridges a significant gap in the type and quality of information currently available. However, the survey provides just a partial view of the organization. In this regard, the survey results can indicate where departmental and corporate efforts ought to be directed but they neither explain the specifics of a problem nor provide a clear solution. Additional research into the nature, cause and consequence of workplace issues will be necessary in order for departments and central agencies to manage human resources effectively. As such, the WES results provide evidence that can support research, planning and development initiatives. Other sources of information that should be considered in conjunction with WES results include: • • • • •

Executive and staff meetings Human resource accountability reports Strategic plans and workforce plans Organizational metrics and measures Relevant articles and books

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Next Steps Renewing the workplace is a long-term goal for the core public service. The WES is one tool that is being used to achieve this goal and the survey results presented here can help departments and central agencies identify areas for improvement in the work environment. However, the survey only serves as a starting point. Improving the communication between leaders, supervisors and employees is one area where departments can have a positive impact on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Of course, effective communication strategies will depend on departmental ingenuity, planning and development. For example, companies are beginning to integrate web-based applications to support information sharing throughout the organization. Departments will need to explore how these and other emerging methods of communication can be used in the workplace. Each department will be provided with a report of departmentspecific survey results and encouraged to share these results. Employees are encouraged to raise workplace issues with their supervisor. In turn, supervisors need to be equipped with the right tools to acknowledge and address workplace issues when they occur. Corporate initiatives, such as succession planning, performance enhancement, as well as targeted learning and develop initiatives, will support departments in improving their work environment.

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