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Biodiversità e sviluppo sostenibile „

Tavola rotonda per le quinte classi del Liceo Scientifico St. “Cosimo De Giorgi” – Lecce 9.2.2012 ‹

Contributi


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Contributi alla Conferenza di Rio+20 ‹

Metodo per uno sviluppo sostenibile

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IUCN

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WWF

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UE + MS UNCSD

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Petition Educators for sustainable societies

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Santa Sede

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USA


DISCORSO  SUL  METODO  PER  PROGETTARE  UNO  SVILUPPO  SOSTENIBILE:  contribuiamo  a  costruire  un  percorso   verso  RIO+20  

  Conservazione   della   biodiversità,   cambiamenti   climatici   e   sviluppo   sostenibile   sono   grandi   tematiche,   interconnesse   in   un   contesto   ecologico,   entrate   nell’agenda   politica   internazionale   e   nella   quotidianità   della   vita   della   gente.   Le   Nazioni   Unite,   20   anni   dopo   la   Conferenza   di   Rio   sulla   Biodiversità   del   pianeta   Terra  e  cogliendo  le  difficoltà  del  tempo  che  viviamo,  hanno  rilanciato  l’iniziativa  per  una  nuova  Conferenza   di   Rio   (Rio+20;   4-­‐12   Luglio   2012,   Rio  de  Janeiro)  sul  tema  più  ampio  della  Sostenibilità  in  cui  fare  il  punto  di   successi  ed  insuccessi  nella  politica  ambientale  e  definire  un  progetto  di  mondo  possibile.       La  partecipazione  italiana  a  questa  iniziativa,  garantita  al  livello  più  alto  del  governo  e  dell’Amministrazione   Centrale,   vuole   essere   sostenuta   con   un   contributo   di   idee   ed   azioni,   cui   seguano   elaborazioni   e   comportamenti,   dal   numero   più   ampio   delle   componenti   della   società   civile,   attraverso   età,   sessi,   condizioni  economiche  e  sociali,  sensibilità  e  culture.  Le  società  scientifiche,  le  associazioni  ambientaliste,  i   consorzi   ed   altre   componenti   associative   sono   componenti   della   società   civile   che   per   loro   natura   istitutiva   possono   dare   un   contributo   importante   in   termini   di   contenuti,   partecipazione   ed   integrazione.   In   tale   contesto,  l’  Università  del  Salento  e  la  Società  Italiana  di  Ecologia  (SItE),  collaborano  per  attivare  sui  territori   momenti   di   discussione   che   affrontino   con   la   più   ampia   partecipazione   di   competenze,   sensibilità   ed   interesse   i   problemi   di   metodo   intrinsecamente   connessi   alla   problematica   dello   sviluppo   sostenibile   per   progettare  una  vera  sostenibilità  trasversale  a  continenti  e  generazioni.       E’   un   problema   di   metodo   perché   quello   che   stiamo   attraversando   è   un   passaggio   di   fase   tra   un   mondo   ricco  di  risorse  in  rapporto  alle  nostre  richieste  ed  un  mondo  sovra-­‐sfruttato  (fonte  Millennium  Ecosystem   Assessment,  2005)  e  con  risorse  limitanti.  E’  ragionevole  chiedersi  se  nel  passaggio  di  fase  serva  un  nuovo   paradigma  che  definisca  comportamenti,  richieste  ed  economie  compatibili  con  la  possibilità  di  realizzare   un   sogno,   difficilmente   realizzabile   altrimenti:   migliorare   continuamente   le   nostre   condizioni   di   vita   in   un   sistema,   la   Terra,   la   cui   disponibilità   di   risorse   è   limitata.   Non   possiamo   dire   che   questo   momento   di   passaggio   sia   inatteso;   già   alla   fine   del   Settecento   Thomas   Robert   Malthus,   demografo   ed   economista   inglese,   aveva   intuito   come   la   crescita   delle   società   umane   non   sarebbe   potuta   continuare   all’infinito   (Malthus,   1978;   An   Essay   on   the   Principle   of   Population)   ma   solo   oggi   crisi   energetica,   economica   ed   ambientale   mettono   in   dubbio   le   nostre   capacità   di   sviluppo   e   la   possibilità   di   migliorare   o   anche   di   mantenere   uno   standard   di   vita   a   cui   siamo   abituati.   C’è   un   denominatore   comune   nelle   crisi   che   oggi   viviamo  e  nella  interpretazione  che  ne  aveva  dato  Malthus  più  di  duecento  anni  fa,  l’incapacità  dell’uomo  di   gestire  il  suo  ruolo  di  consumatore  all’interno  della  biosfera.       A   livello   Regionale   e   locale,   l’Università   del   Salento   e   la   SItE,   in   collaborazione   con   altri   partner,   stanno   promuovendo  in  Puglia  ed  a  Lecce  una  serie  di  iniziative  ispirate  alla  trasversalità  generazionale,  partendo   dal  mondo  della  scuola  e  dell’associazionismo.  Nello  spirito  della  partecipazione  la  struttura  organizzativa   delle   iniziative   proposte   per   la   contribuzione   a   un   documento   regionale   e   nazionale   di   posizione   verso   RIO+20   ha   una   componente   ‘bottom   up’,   aperta   alle   proposte   ed   agli   interventi.   La   lista   degli   interventi   programmati  è  quindi  un  libro  aperto  cui  tutte  le  organizzazioni  interessate  possono  aggiungere  iniziative   comunicandone   l’interesse   alla   segreteria   organizzativa   (Prof.   Alberto   Basset   –   Università   del   Salento   –   alberto.basset@unisalento.it)              Alberto  Basset,  ordinario  Ecologia  Università  del  Salento/Presidente  eletto  SItE  

  Agenda  Preliminare:  

21   Dicembre   2011     –   Liceo   Scientifico   Banzi   (9.30-­‐11.00)   –   Tavola   Rotonda   con   professori   e   studenti   sul   tema  della  sostenibilità   19  Gennaio  2012  –  Rettorato  Sala  Conferenze  (9.30  –  13.00)  –  Workshop  co-­‐organizzato  con  l’Ambasciata   di   Francia   su:   Ecologia   e   Cambiamenti   Climatici:   adattamenti   ai   cambiamenti   del   clima  in  un’ottica  di  sostenibilità.  


IUCN’s POSITION PAPER ON THE FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

IUCN Position Paper

IUCN Position Paper

IUCN’s POSITION ON THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RIO 2012 CONFERENCE, June 2012

Effective Governance for Sustainable Development: Lessons from Nature Nature is our life support system, benefiting all and vulnerable to the actions of all. Nature is local and global, requiring public participation in decision-making at all levels. Nature cuts across all sectors, yet most decisions affecting nature are made in silos by stakeholders with limited knowledge of the combined impact on nature. Governance of the three pillars of sustainable development (environment, economic, social) is still not integrated, four decades after the Rio Summit. According to the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002) “good governance within each country and at the international level is essential for sustainable development”. For the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) , the concept of good governance includes not only clear direction, effective performance and accountability, but also rests on strong ethical components such as fundamental human rights and values, including fairness, equity and meaningful engagement in and contribution to decision-making. Taking lessons from the interaction of nature and people, IUCN believes that governance for sustainable development should follow three principles: a) Inclusive and integrated decision-making, giving civil society an effective role in decisions on environmental, social and economic sustainability; b) A bottom-up / community-led approach, based on subsidiarity of decision-making and nested governance, i.e. empowering decisions at the lowest appropriate level supported by effective governance at higher levels; and c) A rights-based approach to environmental governance, which protects the rights of the weakest and most vulnerable and enforces responsibilities for sustainability. 1) Inclusive and integrated governance Governance of natural resources and sustainable development is shaped by norms, institutions and processes that determine how power and responsibilities over the resource are exercised, how decisions are taken, and how citizens – men and women – participate in development and the management of natural resources. The quality of these decision-making processes is one of the most important determinants of sustainable development. Sharing power, responsibility and benefits in natural resource management, as well as strengthening governance arrangements, including legal entitlements, to make decisions more transparent, inclusive and equitable, are good for people, for biodiversity and for sustainable development.

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature): Framework for Sustainable Development - October 2011

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IUCN’s POSITION PAPER ON THE FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Coherence in national level decisions on the different dimensions of sustainability is an essential precondition for coherence at the regional and global levels, thus enabling global organizations to become relevant to local action. Overcoming fragmentation in the institutional framework and in decision-making is a prerequisite for sustainable development. At the global level, there is still much to be done to strengthen linkages and to ensure coherence among organizations working to enhance sustainability. The World Trade Organisation´s Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE) provides a good example since it has contributed to identifying and promoting the relationship between trade and the environment, with a view to promote sustainable development. While greater simplicity is needed in the international institutional framework, interagency coordination bodies and mechanisms, such as the UN’s Environmental Management Group, can and should increase coherence in their deliberations.  IUCN calls on national and local governments to support efforts to address fragmentation and to strengthen the global institutional framework for sustainable development among others through: o o

o o o o

Building the capacity of, and linkages between concrete programs for inclusive and integrated governance ; Promoting synergies between the Multilateral Environment Agreements (MEAs) at the institutional and programmatic levels by enhancing coordination between UN bodies and environmental treaties around specific issues or clusters; Facilitating the streamlining of MEA reporting requirements and scientific assessment needs ; Rationalizing the meetings of MEAs and subsidiary bodies; Enhancing the presence of the environment within the UN system; and Promoting a strong, credible and accessible science base and policy interface, such as the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), and securing sufficient funding for this purpose.

2) Subsidiarity and “nested governance” IUCN emphasizes the need to empower and strengthen local governance systems, as they are closer to the ecosystems and the livelihoods of the people who depend on them. Global, regional and national structures need to apply a bottom-up approach and respond to local needs. In line with the principle of subsidiarity, international governance structures can and should play a vital role in empowering local decisions on sustainable development since they are part of an international network of governance levels. At the national level, central governments must empower local governance structures including through the provision of adequate financial and human resources, and by allowing for their meaningful involvement in decision-making processes. IUCN believes that such a model of “nested governance”, linking decision-making processes at multiple levels, has proven to be most appropriate and effective. Governance institutions at all levels – local, national, regional and global – should be mutually reinforcing. As one moves from the local to the global, interests and agendas tend to get more aggregated. The challenge of nested governance is to maintain the agendas at a level of relevance that is mutually reinforcing. Still, decisions must be made at the right level, as in the case of transboundary biomes and bioregions, which require regional level governance to achieve effective management of natural resources. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature): Framework for Sustainable Development - October 2011

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IUCN’s POSITION PAPER ON THE FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

National governments should cooperate with neighboring countries in order to address environmental issues that cannot be solved at the local and national level. At the global levels, efforts should be focused on responding closely to regional, national and local needs through, for example, capacity-building, the provision of scientific information, knowledge management or facilitating the transfer of technology. ďƒ˜ In the context of subsidiarity and nested governance for sustainability, IUCN calls on governments to: o o

Decentralize to local and community levels whenever this is effective and feasible; and Encourage and develop partnerships with neighboring countries to strengthen regional cooperation and address transboundary issues.

3) A rights-based approach to good governance, placing civil society at the centre of the institutional framework for sustainable development Governance for sustainability is about people. It is essential to adopt rights-based approaches to conservation and natural resource management, including through the implementation of Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (access to information, participation in decision-making and access to justice) to advance open, inclusive, transparent decision-making and promote accountability at all levels. Adopting a rights-based approach implies focusing on the need for civil society to exercise its right to access relevant information, to participate in decision-making processes and to have access to justice. Such an approach means taking into account the rights of those people whose human health and wellbeing can be affected by unsustainable development, such as forced resettlement, exclusions, economic and cultural impoverishments, impacts on livelihoods through contamination, droughts resulting from climate change, unregulated extraction of natural resources, etc. The rights-based approach also acknowledges the particular vulnerability of women, indigenous peoples and marginalized groups. Underpinning the rights-based approach is the obligation of States, individuals and all actors of civic life to exercise their citizenship responsibly and sustainably. The sum of individual rights and obligations constitutes a system of accountability with human rights-related responsibilities of state as well as nonstate actors, including the private sector, financial institutions, development banks, NGOs and environmental organizations. In the context of accountability, corruption is a major challenge in the governance of sustainable development. Corruption is one of the main sources of unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, unequal distribution of wealth and, simply, poverty. The need for transparency to fight corruption is of paramount importance. The rights-based approach (and Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration) includes rights, to ensure that procedures designed to provide access to information, public participation and administrative proceedings are respected and properly implemented.

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature): Framework for Sustainable Development - October 2011

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IUCN’s POSITION PAPER ON THE FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

This approach can also build capacity for self-organization and enhance the sense of ownership which, accompanied with the appropriate level of decentralization, will make societies more resilient to environmental degradation, climate change or other threats. IUCN is currently drafting a rights-based approach policy.  IUCN calls on national and local governments to: o o o

Implement the Bali guidelines on national legislation and to include Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration within their statutes, rules of procedures or regulations; Renew their commitment to regional conventions relating to the promotion of access to information, public participation and access to justice, such as the 1998 Aarhus Convention; Ensure the enforcement of rights and responsibilities, by inter alia: − Facilitating access to information, e.g. through the drafting or sharing of impact statements to ensure accountability: − Developing international and/or national courts for environmental issues; and − Broadening the functions of existing courts to include environmental issues.

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature): Framework for Sustainable Development - October 2011

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IUCN’s POSITION ON GREEN ECONOMY FOR THE RIO 2012 CONFERENCE

IUCN Position Paper

IUCN Position Paper

IUCN’s POSITION ON GREEN ECONOMY FOR THE RIO 2012 CONFERENCE, June 2012

Transitioning to a Green Economy: Building on Nature

Nature-based Solutions for a More Balanced Global Economy The global economy has grown and changed considerably since the 1992 Earth Summit. It has seen a drastic rise in social inequalities and environmental degradation and has not helped societies achieve sustainability. Today, as governments around the world struggle to address rising public debts and unemployment rates, it is becoming clear that economic growth driven by a ubiquitous pursuit of efficiency gains and profits is no longer possible. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) believes that it is high time for countries to act collectively on the widely shared objective of reforming the economy so that it supports – and does not undermine – poverty reduction, ecosystem functions, and sustainable development. In the face of climate change, growing water scarcities, rising prices for food and energy, accompanied by an increasingly unstable and risk-laden global economy, the notion of transitioning to a ‘Green Economy’ has become increasingly relevant. These changes need to be ambitious and far-reaching, and should be elaborated in consultation with civil society, through platforms such as IUCN’s World Conservation Congress. 1  IUCN strongly urges all governments to engage in a global transition towards a Green Economy, by:

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Developing nationally-appropriate reforms to economic planning, accounting, finance, and infrastructure development in order to eradicate poverty, sustain ecosystems, and deliver sustainable development;

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Providing enabling conditions within which private sector leadership and innovation can flourish and which provide strong signals that favor small-medium sized green enterprises and that marginalize wasteful, inequitable and unethical practices; and

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Making full use of the solutions that nature offers to tackle global challenges, such as climate change, food insecurity, natural resource scarcities and biodiversity loss, recognizing that investing in nature-based solutions will improve the resilience, equity, and overall sustainability of our global economy.

The next World Conservation Congress will be held in Jeju, Republic of Korea, September 6-15, 2012 IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature): Position Paper on Green Economy- October 2011

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IUCN’s POSITION ON GREEN ECONOMY FOR THE RIO 2012 CONFERENCE

Resilience, Equity, and Natural Capital In order to steer society towards sustainability, IUCN believes that urgent action is needed to make governments, institutions, and markets more responsive and adaptive to economic, social and environmental changes. In today’s rapidly changing world, resilience stands out as a particularly essential condition for sustaining economic development. The transition to a Green Economy needs to ensure that our economic systems are not only striving for efficiency, but that they also aim to build greater resilience into the social and ecological fabric that supports their sustainability. A more resilient global economy needs to complement competitiveness with inclusiveness and diversity. The growing inequalities and power imbalances of our economic systems are not only unjust, but inherently unsustainable. A Green Economy transition must make economic development more inclusive and equitable. Promoting greater equity should become an overriding principle of a Green Economy transition. Hence, Green Economy policy frameworks must strengthen local-level capacities, skills, and institutions and should support participatory governance systems based on multi-stakeholder engagement, and particularly the engagement of women and vulnerable groups, as stated in IUCN’s position paper on institutional framework for sustainable development. Resilience also highlights the socio-economic significance of sustainable ecosystem management by underlining the strong dependency that humans have on natural resources and ecosystem services. A truly resilient economy preserves and enhances its natural capital and invests in the restoration of landscapes to support local as well as global livelihoods. Resilient economies enhance the quality of life, and optimize the delivery of ‘regulating’ ecosystem services (e.g. water filtration, carbon and nutrient cycling, storm mitigation). A nature-based economy is one which thrives on these ecosystem services by empowering those communities who depend directly on natural resources and processes. Indigenous communities in general – and women in particular, often play a central role in the management of natural resources. A Green Economy needs to recognize and value their role as stewards of our precious natural capital and biophysical systems.  IUCN urges governments to consider resilience, equity, and natural capital as three fundamental pillars of the transition to a Green Economy. Placing Nature at the Centre of a Green Economy Transition There is no one-size-fits-all model for designing an effective Green Economy. In today’s globalized and highly interdependent economy, solutions require systems-based approaches to improving sustainability. This means going beyond a sectoral approach and single-mindset solutions, but rather developing solutions that embrace the complexity and interconnectedness of the global economic system. Current discussions have tended to place a strong emphasis on one specific aspect of the problem: reducing our carbon footprint. While the focus on low-carbon development and resource efficiency is critical, and ongoing efforts to develop low-carbon action plans are a major step forward, they do not go far enough. Most importantly, they do not address the more fundamental problem, which is the unsustainable way in which our natural resources are managed. Water scarcity, food insecurity, energy dependency, biodiversity loss, and climate change are all manifestations of the urgent need to improve society’s appreciation of the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature): Position Paper on Green Economy- October 2011

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IUCN’s POSITION ON GREEN ECONOMY FOR THE RIO 2012 CONFERENCE

value of our planet’s precious natural systems which cannot be extended beyond their limited carrying capacity.  IUCN is committed to support the development and deployment of nature-based solutions 2 to greening the economy, and strongly encourages governments and businesses to keep nature at the centre of the debate to ensure that society can thrive on healthy ecosystems to achieve sustainability. Nature-based Solutions to Greening the Economy The capacity that humans have to thrive on the ecosystems they depend upon for their well-being represents a fundamental building block for strengthening socio-economic resilience. IUCN firmly believes that any transition to a Green Economy must be squarely centered on maintaining the biophysical processes that societies depend upon for their livelihoods. IUCN therefore urges governments to apply nature-based solutions to their Green Economy policies and actions through two main areas of intervention: 1) Mainstreaming environmental values into the economy, and 2) Investing in ecosystem services as natural forms of infrastructure. Mainstreaming Environmental Values IUCN joins those who recognize GDP as an inaccurate and insufficient indicator of human wellbeing, and expresses its willingness to support governments, and others, in the development of alternative measures of economic prosperity, building notably on efforts to go ‘beyond GDP’ 3. The recognition of the inherent value of vital public goods, such as biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides, and the incorporation of these values into decision making, is absolutely essential to building a Green Economy. Although there has been significant progress in strengthening the economic case of natural capital, notably through the global study on The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), more work is needed in order to make sure that the main lessons learned are adequately integrated into policy and practice. An important forthcoming challenge will be the effective integration of ecosystem values in economic accounting systems. This is a commitment that several governments have already taken through Agenda 21 (Chapter 8, section D) “Establishing Systems for Integrated Environmental Accounting”) and through the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity with its twenty ‘Aichi Targets’ adopted in 2010 in Nagoya by the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. IUCN believes that, by meeting Target 2 of the Biodiversity Strategic Plan, i.e. “By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems”; governments will make a considerable step towards measuring the transition towards a Green Economy. The Global Partnership for Wealth

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IUCN considers that an intervention is a nature-based solution if it features the following principles: i) the intervention delivers an effective solution to a major global challenge using nature; ii) it provides biodiversity benefits in terms of diverse, well-managed ecosystems; iii) it is cost effective relative to other solutions; iv) the rationale behind the intervention can be easily and compellingly communicated; v) it can be measured, verified and replicated; vi) it respects and reinforces communities’ rights over natural resources; and vii) it harnesses both public and private sources of funding. 3 Drawn from the work of the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission. For more information, please visit: http://www.stiglitz-senfitoussi.fr/documents/Survey_of_Existing_Approaches_to_Measuring_Socio-Economic_Progress.pdf IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature): Position Paper on Green Economy- October 2011

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IUCN’s POSITION ON GREEN ECONOMY FOR THE RIO 2012 CONFERENCE

Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (WAVES) 4 offers a strong foundation for further strengthening this important area of work. In order to go further in correcting markets and implementing the deep changes needed for an effective transition to a Green Economy, governments must also comply with Target 3 of the Biodiversity Strategic Plan, i.e. “By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts…” Government support for destructive and inherently unsustainable enterprises, such as overfishing and the extraction of fossil fuels, needs to be phased out and shifted towards activities which ensure a utilization of natural resources that is sustainable and which generates employment (e.g. sustainable energy, waste management and recycling, ecosystem restoration, sustainable agriculture and forestry, etc.).  IUCN urges governments to take concrete measures to honour their commitment to implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, and in particular targets 2 and 3, which are key objectives of the transition to a Green Economy.  IUCN urges governments to re-examine their economic indicators to identify those which can more faithfully and rigorously reflect the status of human wellbeing, and to make sure that the full value of biodiversity and ecosystem services is reflected in national accounts and associated fiscal and planning policies. Investing in Ecosystem Services The transition to a Green Economy needs to be built on a stronger appreciation of the role of healthy ecosystems in supporting local livelihoods as well as providing investment opportunities for business. Although their economic significance is commonly underappreciated, ecosystem services are essential for achieving resilient and productive food, water and energy systems. They represent the direct and indirect benefits that humans derive from biodiversity, such as the pollination of plants, the cycling of nutrients, and the regulation of water flows. Maintaining the capacity that our surrounding environment has to provide ecosystem services is particularly important for those communities and societies that are most vulnerable to risks, such as those heavily affected by a changing climate (e.g. flooding, droughts, sea-level rise, storm damage, etc.). Biodiversity and ecosystems play a particularly critical role in supporting water infrastructure. Conventional water investments, however, too often ignore the economic importance of water basins and ecosystems as natural infrastructure. Natural infrastructure can be defined as the stock of ecosystems providing services needed for the operation of the economy and society that complement, augment or replace the services provided by engineered infrastructure. The traditional and cumulative practices of building hard engineering structures to support failing slopes, prevent beach erosion or contain river systems, are not necessarily improving the integrity of the ecosystem. In fact, they might be impairing the ability of ecosystems to deliver critically needed services. Our economies need to support the people who manage their resources sustainably. Addressing the tragedy of hunger and malnutrition, which affects close to one billion people worldwide, will require the deployment of economic systems based on productive and resilient food systems. Improving 4

For more information, please visit: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/ENVIRONMENT/0,,contentMDK:22877286~pagePK:210058~piPK:210062~theSitePK:244381,00.htm l IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature): Position Paper on Green Economy- October 2011

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IUCN’s POSITION ON GREEN ECONOMY FOR THE RIO 2012 CONFERENCE

agricultural support services for women, who play a central role in supporting food security, is one example of the type of investment needed to strengthen the resilience of our socio-economic systems. In relation to energy, many of the solutions towards a low-carbon economy depend on coastal, river, and forest ecosystems as sources of energy. IUCN urges governments to not only reduce the impact of energy production on the environment, but also ensure they maintain nature’s ability to provide sustainable and renewable sources of energy, for instance by conserving and restoring upstream forest ecosystems that regulate water flows used for hydroelectric power. Overall, investments in strengthening food, water, energy and human security need to recognize the importance of using innovative solutions thinking to find the right balance between natural and built infrastructure. Given the right policy frameworks, investments made in building resilience through natural infrastructure are highly cost-effective, due notably to the multiple benefits (low maintenance costs, alternate and diverse livelihood sources, carbon sequestration), its multi-functionality (ecosystems respond to many needs i.e. water and energy supply, food security as well as touristic/leisure-related activities, etc.) and the opportunity it provides for poverty reduction.  IUCN urges governments to support investments in natural infrastructure and ecological restoration and to facilitate the creation of jobs through the development of markets which value the regulatory services provided by ecosystems.  IUCN urges governments to meet Target 11 5 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and to use protected areas as a means of preserving the ecosystem services that are enjoyed in the broader landscapes and seascapes.  IUCN urges governments to adopt and implement the recommendations made following the midterm review of the Hyogo Framework for Action 6 notably ensuring that national development strategies do not increase exposure to risks, using reconstruction and recovery following a disaster as catalysts for change promoting an integrated approach to development which jointly addresses climate change adaptation and mitigation, disaster risk reduction, and ecosystem management and restoration.  IUCN strongly encourages governments to develop appropriate economic tools, incentives, and policies, including Payments for Ecosystem Services, in order to fully account for the benefits of ecosystems and water/food/energy security for livelihoods and sustainable development.

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Target 11: By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes. 6 http://www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/publications/v.php?id=18197 IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature): Position Paper on Green Economy- October 2011

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UNCSD RIO+20 WWF INPUT 31 October 2011

SUMMARY Vision The UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in June 2012 presents world leaders with an opportunity to deliver a new, internationally agreed vision that embeds social equity, economic and environmental sustainability into our model of development. We urge Parties to seize this moment along the following principle elements.

Green Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication Manage natural capital sustainably: Ensure that national development strategies take full account of the state of natural assets and ecosystems and their role in sustaining human well-being and economic activity; actively invest in their conservation and enhancement to avoid a devastating and irreversible global crisis; Go beyond GDP: Develop a new standard indicator to measure environmental performance alongside GDP and use it, along with human development indices, to provide a more accurate reading of the state of our economies and to incite preservation of the natural environment and more equitable development; Full-cost accounting: Devise rules whereby the full environmental costs of production and consumption are internalised into accounting models in order to address the causes rather than simply the symptoms of environmental loss; Transparent certification schemes: Expand, support and standardise certification schemes that are multi-stakeholder and science-based to move toward sustainable consumption and production; Set up an investment vehicle to facilitate the transition to and implementation of green economies through upfront funding for leapfrogging technologies, technology cooperation, and retrofitting programmes, notably using innovative finance.

Institutional Frameworks for Sustainable Development Integration of the three pillars of sustainable development: WWF supports the creation of a Sustainable Development Council to coordinate, consolidate, advance and ensure the crosssectoral integration of sustainable development at the highest level of decision-making; Page 1 of 14


Strengthen the environmental pillar by upgrading UNEP to a Specialised Agency with a mandate to support and ensure compliance of all MEAs; Better embed sustainable development criteria in existing International Financial Institutions in order to promote genuinely sustainable investments.

1. INTRODUCTION WWF’s Living Planet Report shows that humanity is already using fifty percent more natural resources than the earth can regenerate in a year. Furthermore, high income regions use five times the amount of natural resources than those of the lowest income countries. We are living beyond the Earth’s means and are distributing these unsustainable proceeds inequitably: the poorest countries and communities bear a disproportionate share of the negative effects of the growing global demand for resources while industrialised nations enjoy most of the benefits. Future generations will face resource scarcities and environmental degradation not of their making that will increasingly lead to conflict and insecurity. The growing number of urban poor that will live in tomorrow’s cities adds additional urgency to finding sustainable and equitable development paths. The UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) 2012 presents world leaders with a stark choice: they can tinker around the edges of global development as we know it today or they can lift our ambitions by delivering a new, internationally agreed vision for development that catalyses fundamental changes in our economies towards more social and economic equity and environmental sustainability where humans live in harmony with nature. This vision will require deliberate choices and targeted public and private investment not just to decouple development from increased natural resource use, but to actively preserve, enhance, and effectively manage the world’s natural resource base and the ecosystem services on which human wellbeing depends. It will also require purposeful investment development that enhances the capacity of the poor to move out of poverty and fulfil their rights and needs for access to resources, financial assets, energy, water, food, housing, health, and education. Solutions towards sustainable economies should be founded on a number of key principles: Managing natural capital in equitable ways by rewarding those who provide ecosystem services and protect biodiversity; Setting up appropriate frameworks to achieve food, water and energy security for a growing global population and ensure that consumption patterns and production systems are within planetary boundaries; Providing economic incentives to foster environmentally and socially responsible development, notably through full cost accounting and an indicator that goes beyond GDP; Fostering effective governance built on inclusive processes and broad participation and with international and regional cooperation among governments and between the public and private sectors and civil society; Page 2 of 14


Investing in human and natural capital, especially in developing countries and rural communities and promoting reform to secure equitable access to natural resources and sustainable use.

2. GREEN ECONOMY WWF seeks to promote green economies which value and effectively govern natural resources to safeguard the natural world while promoting pro-poor growth and employment. WWF believes that more equitable greener socio-economic models and instruments would promote human wellbeing, distribute the world’s wealth and natural resources more equitably within planetary boundaries and provide people with clean water, energy and food for present and futures generations.

2.1

Food, Water and Energy Security for all

The poor management and regulation of natural assets and ecosystems leads to increasingly frequent and severe regional and global crises and is a major factor behind food, water and energy insecurity and threatens global, regional and local stability. Rio+20 comes at the right moment to deliver a new framework to address the interlinkages between these common challenges.

2.1.1

Managing natural capital

Long-term food, water and energy security are contingent on the sustainable and equitable management and conservation of the world’s natural capital: forests, wetlands, grasslands, savannas, oceans and coasts, freshwater systems, biodiversity, mineral resources. To better secure the rights to natural resources for future generations and ensure adequate security for all, Rio+20 Parties should: Significantly strengthen and invest in government processes responsible for the allocation and sustainable management of resources, for example by land-, sea- and water-use planning within and between countries, as well as on the high seas; Encourage investment in restoring the ecological and natural resource base of our economies, for example eroded soils, degraded water bodies, degraded forests and savannas, overexploited fish stocks and degraded lands; Preserve and protect ecosystems that provide key ecosystem services necessary to achieve food, water and energy security; Prioritise the rehabilitation of degraded, abandoned or underperforming lands rather than farming in new areas. This requires reversing erosion and degradation through the construction of terraces and the planting of trees and grasses, rehabilitating waterways and cleaning up pollution; Halt and reverse forest loss: preserving forests is a sound investment in order to sustainably provide goods (food, medicine, timber, construction materials, etc) and services (preserving watersheds, stabilising soil and preventing erosion, etc) as well as significantly contributing to

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greenhouse gas emission reduction. Investing in the REDD+ mechanism under the UNFCCC offers a unique opportunity towards greening the economy; Promote sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services in industrial and other economic process, through research, appropriated knowledge, law and technology development; Strengthen government planning and management of cities as urban context offers a still largely untapped potential for radically reducing the human footprint, given that three-quarters of humanity is expected to live in cities by 2050. A sustainable and equitable footprint necessitates promoting pro-poor conservation measures to support the diversification of rural incomes, including to: Transform current unsustainable agricultural systems by closing nutrient cycles, increasing resource efficiency and eliminating unsustainable practices that harm the environment and lead to biodiversity loss; Promote best management practices and knowledge transfer in order to reduce impacts and expand production knowledge that helps maintain and restore healthy ecosystems; Invest in support to small sustainable farmers in developing countries for measures that maximise their potential contribution to food and water security, environmental protection, and climate adaptation. Measures would include access to markets, knowledge and information along with well-designed technological assistance to increase the productivity of smallholders.

2.1.2 Water Security Freshwater is a vital natural resource in all areas of sustainable development and the functions and services provided by freshwater ecosystems underpin food and energy security. As we get closer to the end of the International Decade for Action 'Water for Life' 2005-2015 and start preparations for 2013 as the International Year of Water Cooperation, the time is right to follow through with water-related commitments and account for emerging priority areas for further action. To support and ensure water availability in adequate quantity, quality and timing for people and nature, in an equitable and sustainable manner and in the context of climate change and variability, Parties at Rio+20 should: Govern and manage water on the basis of natural rather than political boundaries, and within the framework of integrated, participatory river basin management. Build responsible and capable institutions and capacity for integrated water resources management and allocation which includes consideration of the multi-level governance of freshwater resources, within and between countries, including the conservation of critical catchment areas that often coincide with high conservation value forests and wetlands; Reiterate a commitment to sustainable and equitable transboundary water cooperation, on the basis of a comprehensive and solid system of international water law and adequate, well-funded joint management institutions, so as to enable the integrated, system-wide management and sustainable use of rivers, lakes and aquifers shared by two or more countries; Page 4 of 14


Realise water-related

commitments under the

2002 Johannesburg Plan of

Implementation, including the adoption of integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans, paying special attention to water demand management, and the development and employment of more efficient water supply technologies and infrastructure; Fully incorporate water into the relevant national and international legislative, institutional and planning frameworks that are outside the water sector, but may have an impact on freshwater resources; Invest in integrated programming between freshwater conservation and WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene): Well-designed and implemented WASH projects contribute to improved environmental conditions, just as the conservation and sustainable management of freshwater provides for the maintenance of key ecosystem functions and services on which millions depend for clean water supply, flood control, food, and numerous others; Protect and restore freshwater ecosystems, including through the maintenance and/or restoration of environmental flows and aquifer levels, so that such ecosystems can sustain biodiversity and their functions and services that are vital for human health, livelihoods, well-being and security; Restore and safeguard ecosystems that provide essential services related to water, including along rivers, around lakes, in mountains and steep slopes and in coastal areas, such as headwaters, floodplains, flooded forests, wetlands, aquifers’ recharge zones, riparian vegetation, and mangroves, as per Target 14 of the CBD Strategic Plan; Protect and responsibly manage forests: the world still loses 13 million hectares of forests every year, yet many of the world's largest cities rely on drinking water from protected and well managed forests. Maintaining the benefits provided by forests for future generations requires governments to take measures to reverse the ongoing trend of forest loss; Mitigate cities’ water footprint, increase urban resilience to climate change and variability, and reduce water risks in urban settings, including through the protection of ecosystems upstream and their functions and services, such as water regulation and filtration. In view of the vital role of water in climate change mitigation and adaptation, and that it is fundamentally through water that the effects of climate change are being and will be felt, recognize water as a cross-cutting topic in UNFCCC negotiations and implementation; Acknowledge the transboundary and global dimensions of climate change in relation to water. The UN Watercourses Convention is the only MEA adopted as a follow-up to the Earth summit 1992 that has not yet entered into force. This is increasingly problematic as water crises become increasingly recognised as a crisis of water governance at all levels. WWF therefore calls on all Rio+20 Parties to Join and effectively implement the UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (UN Watercourses Convention) as a global framework guiding and supporting transboundary water cooperation, including in the context of climate change. Entry into force of the UN Page 5 of 14


Watercourses Convention is vital for enabling its integration with existing water-related MEAs, thereby facilitating their implementation. Manage inland water ecosystems so that water availability, flows, connectivity, and quality are adequate to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. In order to achieve this, leaders should agree to the following objectives by 2020: 20% increase in total food supply-chain efficiency; reduce losses and waste from field to fork; 20% increase in water efficiency in agriculture; more nutrition and crop per drop; 20% increase in water use efficiency in energy production; more kWh per drop; 20% increase in the quantity of water reused; 20% decrease in water pollution.

2.1.3 Food security Ensuring food security requires the conservation of natural resources and biodiversity through comprehensive and effective frameworks. Governments can advance global food security at Rio+20 by setting up the following enabling conditions: Increase efficiency in the food system by reducing waste in the production and distribution of food; Address the inequitable distribution of natural resources by actively promoting changed consumption patterns in high-income countries, including more balanced diets, which are less rich in meat, fish and dairy; Help break the link between food prices and oil prices by encouraging more diversified production and consumption as well as reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers; Provide greater protection and support for inland water fisheries and fisheriesdependent livelihoods and investing in sustainable fishing practices and policies to prevent, control or reverse overexploitation; Reduce the footprint of the agriculture sector by making sustainable food production central to development and encouraging the treatment and re-use of wastewater for agricultural purposes; Take into account the food-water nexus, especially in a changing climate, with water availability becoming increasingly unpredictable and extreme water events, such as floods and droughts, more frequent and intense; reduce the pressure on land and water resources from agriculture; Develop frameworks to limit urban sprawl and promote urban agriculture and sustainable waste water management to support peri-urban agriculture, thus increasing urban food security and reducing waste of land, water and nutrients Conserve natural habitats such as forests that harbor the genetic origins of many of today’s agricultural staples and commodities, as a form of insurance against future disease resistance and as reservoirs for future breeding and crop development. Page 6 of 14


2.1.4 Renewable energy for all Access to energy is a vital component of economic and human development. In order to deliver clean, reliable and affordable energy to the greatest number, including in rural areas, renewable energy offers the best solution for long-term development. To ensure access to reliable and affordable energy for all, at Rio+20 leaders should: Increase investment by at least US$ 35 billion worldwide in developing countries in renewable energy capacity and international cooperation on the development, transfer and dissemination of technologies designed to facilitate energy-efficient, resource-efficient, and low carbon economic development that adhere to sustainability standards. Focus on supplying people in rural areas with greater access to reliable, affordable and sustainable energy supplies; With aid agencies and investors, commit to provide technical and financial support in renewable energy systems and projects including community-owned ones; enhance grid policies to link the urban poor with power supply from existing sources while focusing on decentralised and mini-grid systems for the many rural poor and villages; Commit to invest into sustainable biomass supply such as multi-purpose agroforestry, efficient and clean cookstoves, biogas digesters and solar thermal heat supply; Adopt, enforce and comply with laws, regulations, policies and standards on sustainable hydropower, including with respect to biodiversity conservation, cross-sectoral integration, and public participation in decision-making, and whether they apply to the siting, design and operation of single plants, or as requirements or guidance for basin-wide planning; Promote economy-wide national planning, to enable the integration of large mainstream investment flows, rather than a project-by-project approach on the sidelines of core development strategies and decisions. At Rio+20, leaders should specifically commit to the following objectives by 2030: Secure access to sustainable and affordable modern energy services; Develop and implement national low and zero carbon action plans, including national specific renewable energy and energy efficiency frameworks; Reduce global energy intensity by 40%; Have at least 40% of renewable energies in the global energy mix.

2.2

Enabling conditions

A green economies approach embraces the management and governance of natural capital to maintain ecosystem services as well as the equitable access to and sharing of resources within the sustainable limits of the planet without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. A green economies approach should fit within and be coherent with the three pillars of sustainability. An emphasis on green economies recognises that change needs to occur at the level of economic incentives.

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2.2.1

Beyond GDP

Gross Domestic Product has long been considered as a general indicator of progress for countries. Although economic flows are an important facet of development, GDP fails to adequately capture a country’s true performance and wealth flows as it does not take account of damage to or depletion of ecosystems and natural resources or human wellbeing. Rio+20 represents an opportunity for Parties to move toward a standard set of metrics for an indicator to measure environmental performance alongside those already existing for the economy (GDP) and social (HDI) pillars of sustainable development; Such an indicator of environmental performance would aim to measure annual changes in and flows of natural capital such as air, forests, freshwater and biodiversity. Rio+20 should reach agreement on a deadline to endorse common methods and practices, with a view to producing global standards so nationally defined indicators can be comparable at the international level and with appropriate tools for monitoring and assessment; This can build upon existing initiatives such as UNEP’s TEEB initiative (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity), the UN’s System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA), the World Bank’s Global Partnership for Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services (WAVES) and the Living Planet Index as well as national programmes.

2.2.2

Fiscal, regulatory and legal policy

Through their fiscal, regulatory and legislative powers, governments create the rules within which market forces operate and by which communities live. The recent financial crisis has shown that inadequate regulation and misallocation of capital can have devastating impacts on human enterprise and well-being. At Rio+20, governments have a particular opportunity to commit to making better use of the fiscal, regulatory and legal tools at their disposal in order to better embed the three pillars of sustainability criteria in market valuations. This will enable structural change that is inclusive, generates employment, enhances wellbeing and reduces inequities. Governments should: Eliminating all subsidies that undermine sustainable development, particularly those underpinning fossil fuel use, unsustainable agriculture and fisheries, taking appropriate action to offset this measures’ regressive impact. This process would include transparent, annual reporting and review and result in elimination by 2020 at the latest: Fossil fuels: Agree to phase out all subsidies to the fossil fuel industry in a planned agenda to 2020, first aiming to eliminate all subsidies to production, then to consumption of fossil fuels. Governments should also use this opportunity to earmark this significant saving toward investments in clean renewable energy with access for all; Agriculture: Agree to phase out of all subsidies that encourage unsustainable farming and deforestation and agree to phase out subsidies to damaging ranching practices. The current subsidy system should be transformed to provide incentives for the development of, and transition to, environmentally sound agricultural practices and adequate compensation for conservation services; Page 8 of 14


Fisheries: Agree to put an end to all forms of subsidies that encourage destructive fishing practices, growth in fishing fleet size and fishing effort, including fossil fuel subsidies for fishing vessels and all vessels engaged in supporting fishing by 2017. By 2014, establish an institutional framework using the redirected funds to effect innovative financing mechanisms that will pay for the transition from depleted to recovered fisheries, ensuring that overall fishing effort is reduced to match sustainable fishing opportunity. Mandate better integration of social and environmental externalities, including environmental risk and the polluter pays principle, in standard accounting and reporting practices for both business and governments, so that these costs can be reflected in market valuations and environmental impact assessments; Ensure that sustainability and footprint criteria guide public procurement; Ensure the establishment and compliance with legal frameworks for the sustainable use of natural resources; Use tax measures to favour the sustainable production and sourcing of goods and commodities by industry, including food crops, dairy, beef, seafood, timber, pulp, cotton, biofuels, palm oil, and soy; Develop regulations that commit and support city governments to deliver and implement ambitious plans to minimise urban area’s food, water and energy footprint while improving access, inclusion and needs satisfaction for the poor.

2.2.3

Certification

Empowering producers to produce sustainably and providing consumers sustainable products, certification is a key component of sustainable development. Certification schemes assist with the movement to green economies by protecting ecosystems. Governments can help transition to sustainable production by: Expanding support for certifications that use a multi-stakeholder, science-based approach and operate with a transparent system allowing for certification and trade of goods; and further, commit to develop certifications based on these principles for goods that are currently not covered; Ensuring these mechanisms bring together governments, business and civil society in order to foster certification criteria clearly grounded in science; Ensuring that implementation, evaluation and monitoring of certification standards are open and transparent, inclusive and democratic in a way consumers and producers can trust, and develop and enforce mechanisms for supporting achievement of certification by sustainable producers, including smallholders, in the developing world.

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2.3

Funding for transition

The financial payoffs of transitioning to green economies, though significant, sometimes lay in the mediumand long-term and require upfront costs. Such upfront funding should be made available to help finance and implement the transition to green economies and be an integral part of Rio+20.

2.3.1 New Investment Vehicle Rio+20 can setup a public-private investment vehicle to finance projects to transition communities to green economies. Such an investment vehicle would aim to: Scale up and catalyse new and additional sources of funding, from both public and private funding with a view to raise the capital necessary to transition to green economies; Finance leapfrogging technologies and refitting programmes with a view to capture the increased returns inherent in economies that better address social and environmental concerns; Invest in the food, water and energy nexus, particularly on technology cooperation. Rio+20 is also an opportunity to make significant progress on the establishment of the Green Climate Fund, which could become a part of the new investment vehicle to fund the transition to green economies. The following key principles should apply to both the Green Climate Fund and the new investment vehicle: Streamline and harmonise the numerous existing funds building upon the Paris Aid Effectiveness Declaration and setting up coordination platforms to better handle the fragmented financial landscape by simplifying the application processes for funding; Ensure a fair allocation of funding between sectors, countries and regions; Facilitate direct access to funding for National Implementing Entities, including by fostering capacity-building for the accreditation of new Implementing Entities in the LDCs; Set up a balanced governance system between donor and recipient countries, with the objective of funding priorities on the basis of country-led initiatives; Ensure the effective engagement of stakeholders (governments, business, civil society); civil society organisations should be involved in decision-making process related to the selection of the Board, the selection of funding priorities and projects, and through clear and transparent reporting; Establish and use social and environmental safeguards for the implementation of projects, with a specific attention to the vulnerabilities and needs of local communities, women and indigenous people.

2.3.2 New innovative sources of finance Public sources of funding need to be updated and enhanced in order to help fund sustainable development. Rio+20 can catalyse this by notably agreeing to: Introduce a global Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), with revenues raised being earmarked for implementing Rio+20: Auction allowances or a levy on emissions from the international maritime and aviation transport sectors (so called “bunkers�) providing guidance to the IMO and ICAO to: Page 10 of 14


End the Chicago Agreement not to tax aircraft fuel for international flights; Support the establishment and access to financial assets for rural and urban poor by means of alternative schemes of financial services (micro-credit; credit unions, etc).

3. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The reform of institutional arrangements for sustainable development should be promoted with renewed emphasis on Principle 10 of the 1992 Rio Declaration. Transparency, access to information, public participation in decision-making, accountability and access to justice are fundamental and necessary elements for effective and legitimate governance. WWF encourages a process of wide and inclusive consultation and promotes social inclusion with full participation of civil society, local communities including indigenous people and private sector that results on good understanding of local, national and regional conditions upon which development scenarios can be built. Reform should also include principles such as social inclusion, transparency, policy regulation and enforcement.

3.1.

Governance

The objective of any reform to the intitutional frameworks for sustainable development should be to help deliver green economies by ensuring adequate monitoring, review and implementation of sustainable development measures. Any reform of institutional frameworks should address all level of governance: global, regional, national and local. WWF generally supports the following functions.

3.1.1 Creating a Sustainable Development Council (SDC) At Rio+20 leaders should ensure the effective integration of the social, economic and environmental pillars and coordinate synergies with the UN agencies with sustainable development mandates across the UN system through the creation of a Sustainable Development Council (SDC). A SDC could be created by upgrading the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and by strengthening the Sustainable Development mandate of ECOSOC. The SDC would sit above and coordinate the existing sustainable development structures. The creation of a SDC would not require amending the UN Charter and has a precedent in the establishment of the Human Rights Council. The key functions of the SDC would include: Maintaining a global registry of commitments on sustainable development to oversee country commitments – contextual by country –, review compliance and guide gradual increases in commitments with active engagement of civil society; Coordinating, consolidating and advancing sustainable development objectives across the UN system; Ensuring integrated discussions between new and emerging issues such as economic security, water, security, climate security, energy security, food security and natural disasters. The SDC should be granted authority to bring agenda items to the Security Council; Page 11 of 14


Integrating sustainable development principles in UN development policy-making and operational activities; Implementing previously made commitments on sustainable development by greater emphasis on support, enforcement and monitoring of compliance through stronger accountability mechanisms for the states concerned to respect their engagements; Reviewing, monitoring and promoting enforcement and compliance of Sustainable Development Goals through strong accountability mechanisms for the states concerned to respect their commitments; Ensuring the creation of National Sustainable Development Councils as agreed at the Rio Earth Summit and raising their political profile through cross-sectoral ministerial representation reporting to the Head of State/Government and active engagement of civil society and the private sector; Putting in place joint action plans, establishing multi-stakeholders committees (relevant government sectors, national conventions focal points, private sector, indigenous and local communities and civil society organisations) and supporting concrete pilot projects; Building and sharing knowledge of inter-linkages and solutions to food, water and energy scarcity issues as well as disaster prevention and response. An SDC would benefit from having: A decision-making process with an equal representation of major donors, recipient countries as well as civil society represented on the governing body; Country representation at the highest political level of the cross-sectoral ministerial committee; Membership of International Financial Institutions to increase UN system-wide coherence;

3.1.2 Upgrading UNEP Parties should support upgrading UNEP to a specialised agency (UN Environment Organisation) reporting directly to the General Assembly. This enhanced structure would consolidate existing institutions and strengthen the environmental pillar by giving it equal political weight to social and economic pillars within the UN system (for example: ILO, WHO WMO). Key functions of an upgraded UNEP would be to: Provide the UN authoritative voice on environment by developing, defining and driving implementation of global environment priorities ; Bring coherence to the proliferation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) by creating synergies in governance approaches; put greater emphasis on enforcement and monitoring of compliance to MEAs through stronger accountability mechanisms. This can be done by clustering MEAs under an upgraded UNEP; Make recommendations for financing priorities in particular for capacity building and technology transfer efforts for the environment; Page 12 of 14


Ensure strong environment expertise in the UN country offices to assist in the mainstreaming and implementation of environment issues in development, poverty reduction and economic activities. Build national capacity by working with UNDP or other appropriate agencies to employ country-based environment specialist staff; Spot emerging trends and identify scenarios for multilateral and institutional response. To be most legitimate and credible, the upgraded UNEP should have: Universal membership and civil society represented on the governing body; Stable and predictable funding through assessed contributions rather than voluntary donations and convene processes to ensure that the policies and commitments are properly resourced so the objectives can be met in the timeframe; A decision-making process with a balanced representation of member states and civil society on the governing body.

3.1.3

Greening of Economic, Trade and Financial bodies

Existing economic, trade and financial decision-making bodies should be mandated to: Better incorporate sustainable development parameters in the existing International Financial Institutions, particularly in terms of funding, operations, strategic plans, objectives and implementation; Include representation of the SDC and upgraded UNEP on the governing body of each of the International Trade and Financial Institutions; Grant the SDC and upgraded UNEP with trade-related mandates, objectives and obligations with permanent observer status in all relevant economic and financial decision making bodies; Increase funding levels and pursue further reforms to strengthen the efficiency of the Global Environment Facility.

3.1.4

Ocean Governance

Governments need to address the drivers behind the current decline in marine resources and habitats that if left unchecked will seriously jeopardize food security: the lack of integrated governance arrangements of the oceans and the lack of flag state responsibility to implement internationally negotiated treaties related to the use of the oceans and their dwindling resources. Governments should address these by agreeing to: Convening as a matter of urgency an intergovernmental conference under United Nations auspices on strengthening high seas governance, with a clear and specific mandate to: Agree to a comprehensive package of governance reforms that fulfils states’ commitments under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and other relevant international agreements for the effective conservation and protection of the marine environment and marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction, on a precautionary and integrated basis, including ensuring full and effective control of vessels, especially by flag states;

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Establish a mechanism that will deliver, by 2017, the identification, designation and effective management of a fully comprehensive, adequate and representative system of high seas marine protected areas, including no-take reserves; Agree to require periodic strategic environmental assessment for all sectoral uses in all regions and to require prior environmental impact assessment for each user with a view to delivering ecosystem-based integrated oceans management; Ensure that a system is established for adequate assistance to enable developing states to fully and equitably participate in and implement the elements above. Merging the UNGA Oceans and the UNGA Fisheries Resolutions into one genuinely omnibus Ocean Resolution, to ensure all maritime sectors are regulated through this one overarching agreement with a view to avoiding sectoral isolation and to delivering integrated oceans management. Initial discussions to this end could take place within the UNGA Open Ended Working Group on Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction. Strengthening cooperation through INTERPOL with a view to ensuring civil and criminal offences at sea, including environmental crime in all its forms, are effectively prevented and prosecuted and, where necessary, agree to ensure relevant activities are regarded as sufficiently serious offences to warrant INTERPOL’s involvement in international pursuit of offenders. Of particular concern is the need to recognise that: both the wildlife and pollution aspects of environmental crime need to be broadened to explicitly include marine aspects; marine living resources crimes are serious; the involvement of transnational organised crime is widespread; and poor working and living conditions amount to the serious crime of trafficking in persons.

3.2 Sustainable Development Goals It is essential to bring a robust and ambitious framework into force after the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) expire in 2015. A post-2015 framework needs to tackle the structural causes of inequality within and between countries, and target poor governance, unfair trade systems, environmental degradation, and climate change. The new framework should better capture the integrated development challenges to the environment and should be benchmarked for all countries. The process to develop a new set of goals and targets should be a consultative process. For these reasons WWF supports: The concept of Sustainable Development Goals, including linking ecosystem health (water management, energy, food production, agriculture and ranching, marine and fisheries, footprint reduction) to development objectives; The principle that SDGs are complementary to MDGs and bring added value to the work on post-2015 framework for MDGs; Any agreed set of SDGs should have universal targets, for both developing and developed countries. For further information please contact: Susan Brown: sbrown@wwfint.org or Adrian Dellecker: adellecker@wwfint.org Page 14 of 14


UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (RIO + 20) Rio de Janeiro, 4-6 June 2012 Contribution by the European Union and its Member States to the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs


I.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION The European Union (EU) and its Member States consider that the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), to be held in Rio de Janeiro on 4-6 June 2012, offers a unique opportunity for our mutually interdependent world to secure renewed political commitment to sustainable development at all levels. The Conference will also provide an opportunity to assess the progress made to date, identify remaining implementation gaps and address new and emerging challenges since the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002. The EU and its Member States are putting forward the present contribution in response to the invitation from the Second Preparatory Committee of Rio+20 to provide inputs and contributions in writing by 1 November 2011 for inclusion in a compilation document to serve as a basis for the preparation of the "zero draft" of the outcome document. Our contribution focuses on the two main themes of Rio+20, i.e. green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication (GESDPE) and the institutional framework for sustainable development (IFSD), as means of achieving the objectives of the Conference. While some progress has been made in advancing sustainable development over the last decades, around 1.4 billion people, mostly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, still live in extreme poverty and one sixth of the world’s population is undernourished. Unsustainable economic growth has increased the stress on the earth's limited natural resources and on the carrying capacity of ecosystems, with 60% of the world's natural resources already being used unsustainably or at their limit. Many environmental problems have not been solved and have become more acute, and economic, social and environmental problems are closely linked. Rio+20 should include democratic development and respect for human rights to achieve sustainable development at every level and recognize democracy, the rule of law, transparency and accountability as means of meeting social, economic and environmental challenges, as well as the importance of gender equality and the vital role that women have in achieving sustainable development. Rio+20 should focus on strengthening the coherence and enhancing the linkages between the environmental, economic and social dimensions of sustainable development and contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 and of other relevant internationally agreed goals in the context of major UN conferences, in particular Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. In this context, the two themes of Rio+20 offer promising ways to tackle remaining challenges.

Rio+20 should accelerate and broaden the world-wide transition towards a green economy that promotes sustainable development and contributes to poverty eradication around the world. The EU and its Member States consider that a green economy offers win-win opportunities to all countries, regardless of the structure of their economy and their level of development. Green economy is more than the sum of existing commitments: it has the potential to lead us to a new development paradigm and a new business model where growth, development and environment are seen as mutually reinforcing each other. Increasing resource efficiency, promoting sustainable consumption and production patterns, tackling climate change, protecting biodiversity, combating desertification, reducing pollution as well as using and managing natural resources and ecosystems in a sustainable and socially


responsible manner are both requirements and key vehicles in ensuring a just transition to a green economy. The EU and its Member States consider that strengthening international environmental governance is central to the pursuance of sustainable development, and that the necessary reform of the IFSD also requires a bottom-up perspective, drawing on lessons learned at all levels. The EU and its Member States support a forward-looking and focused political document capable of giving renewed impetus to sustainable development. In order to do that, Rio+20 needs to agree on a shared vision for change, able to deliver results within agreed time frames. The EU and its Member States consider that the agreed political document should be supported by operational outcomes that should include a green economy roadmap with specific goals, objectives and actions at international level as well as a package of reforms which includes transforming the UNEP into a specialized UN agency for the environment, leading to a strengthened international environmental governance (IEG) as part of a more balanced and effective IFSD. In spite of implementation efforts by governments and non-State actors in all countries, implementation barriers such as low political priority for integrated decision-making, missing or conflicting targets and measures or insufficient coordination between ministries still remain. In order to address implementation gaps, we need to promote integrated strategies, public interest, awareness and participation, good governance and coordination and cooperation mechanisms between government departments and between government, local government, civil society and the private sector. The key role of the private sector in the transition to sustainable development needs to be recognized and made full use of. The experience and solutions found among the largest generation of young people in history will be important for Rio+20. The EU and its Member States therefore consider the involvement of young people as agents for change vital for a successful outcome of Rio+20 and for the continued implementation process. With a view to strengthening intergovernmental action, we propose to build a new alliance with stakeholders through their enhanced participation in the decision-making, implementation and follow-up of Rio+20 outcome, as well as by launching sustainable development initiatives, networks and innovative partnerships at all levels. We acknowledge that funding for the implementation of sustainable development policies and actions will have to come from a variety of sources, both public and private. A joint approach by traditional donors, emerging economies, international financial institutions (IFIs) and the private sector is needed, addressing the 'silo' approach to channellng funds and ensuring a more effective identification and use of existing resoures, as well as mobilisation of available and innovative sources of finance. The EU and its Member States remain strongly committed to playing an active and constructive role in the preparatory process of Rio+20 with a view to contributing to a successful outcome.

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II.

GREEN ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ERADICATION a.

Introduction

1.

A just transition to a green economy will speed up the implementation of existing sustainable development commitments and help address the implementation gaps, while being fully committed to respect for human rights and gender equality and contributing significantly to eradicating poverty. It will improve environmental justice and reduce inequalities, environmental scarcities and the stress on ecosystems by investing in and preserving natural capital, securing sustainable and efficient use of resources and addressing social concerns, while maintaining competitiveness. Democracy, transparency, good governance and accountability are essential means of meeting social, economic and environmental challenges and protecting people's right to live in a healthy environment, in dignity, and free from hunger and from fear of violence, oppression and injustice. A sustainable, green economy will provide goods and services to all and supports access to food, energy and sanitation for all. Education for sustainable development, including awareness-raising and consumer information, is of primary importance in changing behavioural patterns.

2.

The transition to a green economy has great potential to promote long-term sustainable growth, create decent jobs and hence eradicate poverty, focussing on inclusiveness and avoiding equity gaps. The need for a just transition to a sustainable system of production and consumption that results in lower pressures on natural resources and the environment while improving the quality of life, prosperity and social well-being is now widely recognised. This requires that economic development be oriented to remain within the regenerative and absorptive capacity of the planet and contribute to eradicating poverty by shifting consumption and production patterns onto a sustainable path. Various green-economy tools and defining necessary measures will help all stakeholders to implement the policies and actions needed to achieve sustainable development. The transition to a green economy will be a global challenge, which both developed countries and developing countries should embark on with ambitious national and international action. A commitment to open markets is important. The transformation to a green economy should not be used to introduce new trade barriers.

3.

To strengthen the linkages between social and economic areas, strategies at all levels should address all sectors in a horizontal way with a view to benefiting from crosssectoral policy coherence while maintaining competitiveness. To this end, framework conditions should be established, primarily at national and sub-national level, making use of policies and actions able to establish favourable regulatory frameworks and a level playing field for green markets such as fiscal incentives, emissions trading, gradual elimination of subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the environment and are incompatible with sustainable development, green public procurement, the promotion of eco-innovation and clean technology, green entrepreneurship, knowledgebuilding schemes, etc. Social policies to reconcile social goals with economic policies are also necessary. These initiatives should build on good governance, a dynamic and innovative private sector, efficient regulation, reduced bureaucracy and market instruments. Ratification of the relevant ILO conventions is of utmost importance to ensure that growth is not only economically and ecologically sustainable, but also fair, just and equitable, taking into account social issues and contributing to poverty eradication.


4.

The EU and its Member States emphasise the importance of improving resource efficiency and sustainable material management through full implementation of lifecycle assessment and of management of Low Carbon Development Strategies as agreed in Cancun. It is important to reflect environmental externalities in prices for resources and services and apply negative incentives with regard to negative external costs and diseconomies, and to encourage activities with positive external effects.

5.

International action should be promoted and existing commitments reaffirmed in key sectors such as water, food and agriculture, fisheries, forestry, energy, the marine environment and chemicals, as well as in areas relating to the sustainable management and restoration of natural resources and ecosystem services and the sustainable management of waste along with both climate-change mitigation and adaptation processes. The aim is to foster favourable framework conditions for sustainable development, preserving and - where necessary - restoring natural capital and securing the functions of ecosystems, hence ensuring benefit to all and contributing to poverty eradication, social development and environmental integrity.

6.

Special efforts are needed to enable poor people to participate in, contribute to, and benefit from economic development. People who live in conditions of poverty and social exclusion are more directly dependent on (local) natural resources and ecosystem services. As key actors they should have a vital role in a green economy which promotes decent work with effective respect for fundamental principles, rights at work, social development, full freely chosen and productive employment for both women and men and combats child labour and forced labour by taking into account the implementation of the International Labour Standards and the ILO Declaration on Social Justice for a fair Globalization with a view to integrating social development through global sustainable development. Improved water resource management and access to safe food, water, sustainable and affordable energy, shelter, basic sanitation, education, infrastructure, health and jobs with decent working conditions for the poor are central issues for sustainable development, as these are fundamental rights for everyone. In this regard, the vital role of women in achieving sustainable development needs to be underlined.

b.

A key role of the private sector

7.

Through (fair) trade, investment, public-private partnerships and research and innovation, the private sector and civil society play key roles in delivering green growth and promoting sustainable consumption and production, inter alia through corporate social responsibility and technology diffusion. Private sector activities involving promoting and adopting a sustainable business model in their supply chain and including environmental and social concerns in their investment decisions, will make a concrete contribution to a green economy roadmap. The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and the global framework for social responsibility, the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, the Global Compact 10 Principles, the ISO 26000 standard on social responsibility and the Global Reporting Initiative are important tools in this respect that should be recalled and used in the Rio follow-up by the private sector. Further opening up markets for sustainably produced goods and services would boost trade in key technologies. The prospects of a global market, rather than regional or local markets, would also strengthen incentives for firms to invest in R&D.


c.

Proposals for operational outcomes: elements of a green economy roadmap

8.

In order to give renewed impetus to sustainable development, Rio+20 needs to agree on a shared vision for change that can help to put the world on track towards sustainable development and is able to deliver results within agreed time frames. The main operational outcomes of Rio+20 should include a green economy roadmap with deadlines for specific goals, objectives and actions at the international level as a significant contribution to sustainable development and poverty eradication.

9.

For the green economy roadmap, the EU proposes a number of actions as outlined in this document. This includes a capacity development scheme for voluntary country-specific and, where appropriate, region and sector-specific actions and a limited number of crosscutting and thematic international actions that contribute to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication in a specific area.

10.

At Rio+20, the acknowledgement and encouragement of voluntary national commitments and actions by State actors as well as stakeholders to achieve a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication should also take place as to ensure a bottom-up approach and the shaping of innovative partnerships.

11.

The proposals made are not meant to be final proposals; they should rather be considered as a contribution to the international dialogue on the outcomes of the Rio+20 conference. The EU and its Member States are interested in sharing and exchanging ideas and look forward to further suggestions on the outcomes of the conference.

d.

Proposals for cross-cutting actions

Measuring progress - models and indicators Deliverables 12.

Further develop and strengthen indicators complementing GDP that integrate economic, social and environmental dimensions in a balanced manner. • Such an approach should include the selection of headline indicators reflecting several aspects of sustainable development (e.g. a “dashboard” of indicators). • Indicators for sustainable development which have been elaborated since 1992 should be revised and validated through a participatory process of peer review and public discussion including different stakeholders. Specific indicators could be used in conjunction with goals, if these were to be decided at Rio+20. To implement work on indicators, support needs to be given to the on-going UN process of establishing environmental accounts.

13.

Provide global outlook and assessments on energy, water, food and other resource areas, based on a partnership of international and UN organisations. • The aim is to publish a new World Resources Outlook [by 2015], akin to the first IPCC report and building on other relevant reports. This would consider the links between natural resources and climate change, and help assess global, national and sub-national needs for the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication. Such a partnership should build on and extend the work of the UNEP Resource Panel.


Rationale 14.

To accelerate and broaden the world-wide transition to a green economy that promotes sustainable development and contributes to poverty eradication, goals may be developed and set at different levels. Such goals would require measurable and steerable indicators. For the further development of sustainable development indicators, existing initiatives should be analyzed and built upon. Indicators should be developed in keeping with the commitments made by the international community in Agenda 21 and the JPoI.

15.

Aiming at a set of indicators is in line with ongoing initiatives. The commitment of CBD Parties in Nagoya in 2010 to incorporate the value of biological diversity into national accounting and reporting systems provides an impetus and rationale for actions aimed at better integration of natural resources and ecosystem services into planning and povertyeradication strategies. In addition, extensive international work has been conducted in recent years on measuring progress and wellbeing, including the deliberations by the OECD, Stiglitz Commission and many others.

16.

Any new metrics need to add empirically sound value to the ongoing discussion and should be proportionate, reasonable and affordable and take into account existing work and data availability. To assure compatibility, differentiated benchmarks should be developed at international level according to countries' development priorities.

Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Deliverable 17.

Establish a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP (10YFP), as elaborated in the negotiations in the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, based on Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.

Rationale 18.

SCP patterns are key driving forces in achieving a just transition to green economies worldwide in a context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, and in promoting competitive, inclusive economies delivering full and productive employment and decent work for all and fostering efficient social protection systems.

19.

The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation called for the development of a 10 YFP in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards SCP in order to promote social and economic development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems.

20.

Current unsustainable patterns of consumption and production put a heavy stress on ecosystems and on critical life-support systems, and impact on the quality of life and social well-being.

21.

Since Rio, substantial efforts have been made by governments and major groups to promote SCP patterns in all countries, and a number of developed countries have been taking the lead in accordance with the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities� (CBDR). All these efforts have created new economic opportunities in both developed and developing countries which can be drawn upon.


22.

The 2010/2011 CSD cycle highlighted the readiness of the international community to take action to accelerate this shift and to establish this 10YFP.

Capacity development scheme Deliverable 23.

Establish a capacity development scheme - with input from the UN system, International Financial Institutions, bilateral and multilateral donors and the private sector - to provide country-specific advice, and, where appropriate, region and sector-specific advice to all interested countries on the transformation to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication and to assist them in accessing available funds -

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In the spirit of the bottom-up approach, it would be up to the interested countries themselves to specify the policy areas to focus on, based on their national priorities and institutional arrangements and respecting national differences. This capacity-development scheme would rely on enhanced coordination between existing structures and a more efficient, better-coordinated use of existing resources. The task of improving coordination between existing structures would be mandated to those reformed and strengthened IFSD structures decided on at Rio+20. A coherent approach would be facilitated, taking into account, inter alia, the MDGs Acceleration Framework and the ongoing work on poverty-reduction strategies and national sustainable development strategies. The work on the Low Carbon Development Strategies and Plans and national strategies for mitigation and adaptation actions (NAMAs) will be an essential component of this effort. Furthermore, green economy capacity development should go hand in hand with efforts to foster good governance and anticorruption policy. In order to enable interested countries to choose from a menu of possible actions and best practices, a toolbox or best-practice guide could be compiled, providing information about appropriate legal, economic and other instruments and policies designed to help all key actors accelerate the transition to a green economy. This will also enable the sharing of national and regional experience of green economy policies. Management of natural resources should build on transparency and accountability, taking into consideration people in poverty and marginalised groups. An ambitious but realistic timeframe for each country seeking advice would help with implementation. For example, all interested countries should be matched to the actors most appropriate to provide the country-specific advice and should have received such advice by 20XX (date to be specified). The essential implementation steps should be completed by 20XX (date to be specified).


Rationale 24.

At present, the support provided by the UN system, International Financial Institutions, bilateral and multilateral donors and the private sector is not sufficiently coordinated to effectively accelerate the worldwide transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication. A stronger, more efficient and betterintegrated multilateral architecture for sustainable development is needed in order to undertake this coordination effort, in line with what Delivering As One is promoting within the UN. The scheme described above, implemented by reformed and strengthened IFSD structures, would enable the UN system to deliver coordinated, demand-driven advice effectively and thereby drive substantial change.

Research and scientific cooperation Deliverables 25.

Establish a mechanism for international research cooperation on major sustainable development challenges. The mechanism would aim to provide a robust knowledge base on sustainable development issues, including the basis of measurement. It would provide regular reporting based on the latest knowledge of the scientific community. The mechanism would build on and work in synergy with existing scientific panels and bodies. Work should start by 2013. In the longer term the mechanism could promote research and innovation programmes in different sectors, jointly with the private sector and other actors.

26.

Strengthen the development and implementation of GEOSS to include sustainable development aspects Starting in 2013, develop a long term strategy for the second implementation phase of GEOSS (2015-2025) that would review and reinforce those elements relevant to sustainable development and create linkages across GEOSS's social benefit areas.

Rationale 27.

Unprecedented levels of scientific and technological cooperation are needed to overcome the major global challenges of the 21st century. Much information is available, but it is fragmented, and there is a need for a mechanism to systematically collect and process existing knowledge into authoritative and comprehensive reports on key sustainable development and green economy issues. This knowledge should be made freely available to the scientific community and policy makers, businesses and the public at large.

28.

GEOSS, Global Earth Observation System of Systems, was founded as a follow-up to Rio+10. It is an example of how research cooperation has already substantially progressed towards meeting the needs for long-term global information as a basis for decision-making. GEOSS combines national, regional and global earth observation data and infrastructures to build global datasets necessary to understand and predict the functioning of the earth systems. In the future, there is an opportunity to channel GEOSS information and data to support sustainable development decision making.


Innovative finance and subsidies Deliverables 29.

Launch an international process to promote the role of innovative and private instruments of finance, including by highlighting their importance in areas such as climate change and biodiversity, and stress the role of the Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Development.

30.

Ensure commitments to gradually eliminate subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the environment and are incompatible with sustainable development, complemented with measures to protect poor and vulnerable groups, inter alia by expansion of existing G20 and APEC commitments regarding the rationalization and phasing out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies in the medium term to all UN Member States and timely implementation of the strategic goal and targets on subsidies harmful to biodiversity set out in “The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020� decided in Nagoya 2010.

Rationale 31.

Innovative instruments of finance are likely to play a far more prominent role in international financing for development in the near future. In December 2010 UN Resolution A/RES/65/146 was adopted; it stressed that innovative mechanisms of financing can make a positive contribution in assisting developing countries to mobilise additional resources for development on a stable, predictable and voluntary basis.

32.

In the area of climate change, emissions-trading schemes or levies on international aviation and maritime transport are examples of pricing carbon emissions. The Report of the Secretary-General's High-level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing (UN AGF) and the G-20 report on mobilizing climate finance may be flagged as a reference in this respect. In the area of biodiversity, innovative financial mechanisms also have an important role to play, as is reflected in CBD COP 10 decisions for instance.

33.

A recent study by the OECD found that removing consumer subsidies for energy over the next decade would reduce global greenhouse gases emissions by over 10 per cent in 2050.

e.

Proposals for actions in specific areas

Water Deliverables 34.

Strengthen the implementation of internationally agreed goals for water and sanitation and expand commitments and initiatives addressing the following main aspects: -

Renewing the commitment made at the Rio+10 Conference to the development and implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management at national level and for joint management of transboundary waters.


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35.

Continuing commitment and support to accelerate access to sanitation and safe drinking water for all (MDG7) within reasonable timeframes, as well as other water-dependent MDGs. Proposing a new commitment to reduce water pollution from households, industrial and agricultural sources and promote water efficiency and the use of wastewater as a resource, particularly in expanding urban and peri-urban areas. Building on international partnerships on water and sanitation (such as the EU water initiative) and reinforcing the involvement of economic actors as well as participation of stakeholders, including people in poverty, marginalized groups and in particular women, who play a central role in water management at local level. Scaling up investments and developing innovative financing mechanisms in the areas of water resources and ecosystems, sanitation infrastructure, water policy reform, prevention of water-related risks due to global changes, and the uptake of relevant new technologies to improve resource efficiency.

Promote international initiatives and partnerships to better address the "water/energy/food security nexus", involving economic actors and promoting appropriate goals and concrete initiatives to foster action. This could create synergies with other initiatives such as the “Sustainable Energy for all” initiative or the “Global Soil Partnership”.

Rationale 36.

By 2030, in a business-as-usual scenario, humanity's demand for water could outstrip supply by as much as 40 percent. This could cause increasing public health costs and could hinder economic development, lead to social and geopolitical tensions and cause lasting environmental damage. The world lags seriously behind in meeting the MDG target for sanitation. Water and sanitation are also closely linked to all other MDGs especially in poverty and hunger reduction and access to energy and health, all of which require water and the development of the water sector.

37.

Pressures on natural resources are challenging the effectiveness of conventional planning and decision-making. Trying to meet demand through single-sector approaches in response to what are inherently interlinked processes limits our ability to provide basic water, food and energy services to the poorest. New approaches are needed to address inter-dependencies across the water, energy and food sectors.

Food and Agriculture Deliverables 38.

Promote investments in food security by improving access to local and global agri-food markets for (small-scale) farmers, with special attention to women (e.g. by establishing a scheme).

39.

Establish schemes that expand public-private partnerships and facilitate multistakeholder and certification initiatives to promote sustainable, climate-smart and high-productive agriculture and agri-food chains and markets.


40.

Strengthen cooperation of International Organizations dealing with the issue of food security and support, inter alia implementation of the 2004 Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security.

41.

Promote the implementation of the planned Voluntary Guidelines for the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security under the FAO Committee on World Security.

Rationale 42.

Today, over one billion people live in hunger and 2 billion people have a chronic lack of nutrient-rich food. The world population will grow to 9 billion people by 2050 and food consumption patterns in emerging economies are changing fast. According to the FAO, food production and productivity have to increase by about 50% or more on the existing land area. The efforts must focus on enlarging the sustainable agricultural production capacity and increasing the quality of food.

43.

For the promotion of a high-production, sustainable agriculture, it is necessary that all stakeholders in the agri-food chain cooperate to improve access to local and global agri-food markets for farmers, with special attention to women. Business, primary producers, governments, traders, retailers and consumers each have different possibilities and responsibilities which need to be pooled in order to achieve sustainable agriculture and food security. Multi-stakeholder initiatives are best practices which facilitate sustainable agriculture through dialogue between the relevant stakeholders in the agri-food chain. These initiatives promote more equitable investment contracts as part of more sustainable business models. While the EU recognizes that private sector involvement and investment (by small holders as well as large entities) are essential to improve food security and support responsible investments, safeguards against undesirable social and ecological impacts of investments are also necessary.

44.

It is however important to bear in mind that, according to UNEP (2009), enough food for 10 billion people is already produced. The problem is that half of this food is spoiled or thrown away as garbage. The raw material and food produced is thus harvested and consumed in an inefficient way and distributed unequally. In addition to high-production agri-food-chains it is important to give attention to more efficient and equal consumption of food and raw materials.

Sustainable energy Deliverables 45.

Build on the Sustainable Energy for All initiative (SE4ALL) launched by the Secretary-General, including its concrete goals Provide universal access to a basic minimum level of modern energy services for both consumption and production uses by 2030. Pursue the SE4ALL goal of doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030 through promoting the development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies in all countries.


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Increase efforts to improve energy efficiency at all levels with a view to doubling the rate of improvement by 2030. Develop an accountability framework including timelines and benchmarks for progress and for tracking the provision, delivery and results of stakeholder commitments.

46. Promote mechanisms for international dialogue and cooperation on developing and exchanging sustainable energy technologies between countries and between the public and the private sectors. Rationale 47.

Energy services can provide crucial support to both social and economic development, thereby strongly influencing developing countries' ability to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). For the 1.4 billion people without access to electricity and the 2.7 billion people in the world without clean cooking facilities, electrification or the availability of clean cooking fuels can reduce poverty, improve health conditions, and increase standards of living.

48. The 2030 global targets proposed under the SE4ALL Initiative are likely to form the basis of a new energy partnership between developed and developing countries. However, more discussion is needed internationally on the definition of modern energy services, as well as on the global CO2 emissions likely with such targets. 49.

In this context, continued development and dissemination of sustainable energy technologies has an important role to play, while at the same time fostering synergies with international efforts and actions to combat climate change. Renewable energy and energy efficiency have the potential to contribute to social and economic development, ensure security of supply as well as to mitigate climate change and provide environmental and health benefits

50.

Existing mechanisms for technology transfer that could be further developed and improved are for instance the new Technology Mechanism as decided in Cancun and IRENA.

Forestry Deliverables 51.

Promote progress on REDD+ and FLEGT initiatives at all levels.

52.

Promote horizontal policy frameworks as well as market instruments that effectively slow, halt and reverse deforestation and forest degradation and promote the sustainable use and management of forests, as well as their conservation and restoration. This should unleash the full potential of forests for sustainable development and improve the resilience of forest ecosystems to environmental risks and disasters. Initiatives under this heading would address the following key issues:


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53.

Promote public-private partnerships and strengthen dialogue and information flow between science and practice along the whole value chain. This would focus on innovation in the field of new forest-based products and responsibility for forest management that takes climate change, biodiversity and other global challenges, (such as water scarcity, poverty, hunger, and employment) into account. Step up efforts to address gaps in valuation of forest goods and services and to mainstream forest values in national policy making processes. Ensure transparency of value chains and markets for bio-based forest products and services through the enhanced use of certification systems and schemes for improved market access and consumer acceptance. Promote benefits for people through setting up legal and policy frameworks for the participation of forest rights holders groups and other stakeholders in decision- making, and in the design of benefit sharing mechanisms.

Further develop the existing monitoring of the state of forests and harmonise reporting on sustainable forest management, forest function and forest condition for multipurpose usage with a focus on international reporting obligations by relevant international conventions and agreements. Support efforts of the FAO and GEOSS to strengthen and further develop remote sensing services for global forest monitoring.

Rationale 54.

Forests provide a variety of goods and services that support human well-being and poverty reduction, contribute to long-term social and economic development, and reduce environmental risks and ecological scarcities. They provide income and subsistence to hundreds of millions of people. Over 1.6 billion people depend on forest goods and services for subsistence. Sustainable Forest Management is an essential dimension of the green economy of many tropical countries, improving livelihoods and food security, eradicating poverty and strengthening the resilience of forest ecosystems. The Global Objectives on Forests, adopted at the UNFF session in 2006, should be important guiding principles in partnerships that discourage deforestation and safeguard forest ownership and user rights, especially for poor, forest-dependent communities and indigenous populations. The UNEP Green Economy Report highlights the need for further action on sustainable forest management, protected forests, payments for ecosystem services (PES and REDD+), reducing deforestation, recreation, forest certification, afforestation, agri-forestry and good governance and policy-making.

Soil and sustainable land management Deliverables 55.

Enhance and foster the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification as a global policy and monitoring framework.

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Promote partnerships and initiatives for the safeguarding of soil resources for future generations such as the Global Soil Partnership (GSP) proposed by the FAO.


57.

Promote scientific studies and initiatives aimed at raising wider awareness of the global economic benefits of healthy and productive land and soil such as the Economics on Land Degradation (ELD) Initiative.

Rationale 58.

The global dimension of soil degradation needs the be acknowledged internationally, because protecting, restoring and managing soils has an effect on biodiversity, forests, climate change, and thus the quality of soil can have an underlying influence on the ability to achieve MDGs targets.

59.

The policy response to date in many cases has been limited to national actions, by laws on soils and national programmes and policies: the UNCCD is the only existing normative framework for soil and sustainable land management, providing those countries which are parties with a common instrument and a coordinated global response to these issues.

60.

The UNCCD recognizes the needs of the most vulnerable populations and the poorest countries and can help find the tools to make land use in agriculture, energy and forestry sustainable and to achieve food security.

61.

The Global Soil Partnership has the objective of addressing soil and land degradation at global level by improving global soil governance, soil data collection, validation, reporting and monitoring; establishing guidelines and indicators, and promoting targeted soil research. The ELD initiative aims to carry out a comprehensive assessment of land degradation that looks at both the costs of failing to prevent further land degradation and the economic benefits of addressing it through sustainable land management policies.

Marine Environment – oceans Deliverables 62.

Ensure a commitment by those UN Member States that have not yet done so to become parties to UNCLOS.

63.

Agree to launch the negotiation of a new implementing agreement under UNCLOS for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity, in particular addressing marine protected areas, environmental impact assessments and the access to and benefits of sharing genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ).

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Ensure a commitment to deliver and continue to support a more meaningful UN Regular Process for global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment, including socio-economic aspects.


65.

Promote a holistic and integrated approach to the governance of oceans, seas and coasts by all States including through the development of cross-sectoral policy tools. Such an approach should include conservation and management measures and address cumulative environmental impacts, in areas within and beyond national jurisdiction, in a way that is coherent, compatible and without prejudice to the rights and obligations of all States under UNCLOS.

66.

Develop a global action plan to combat marine litter and pollution.

67.

Recognize the significant economic, social and environmental contribution of coral reefs to island and coastal States, including by promoting regional cooperation on the model of the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI), and encouraging the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI).

Rationale 68.

Marine ecosystems are central to human well-being as a source of several important ecosystem services and the sustainable management of oceans and seas, including sustainable fisheries, is essential to achieve the goals of a "blue" economy in terms of sustainable economic growth, poverty eradication and job creation with decent working conditions. However, as economic activity increases in the oceans, pressures on coastal and marine ecosystems also increase, thus calling for an integrated, eco-system based management of human activities. An adequate prevention strategy is needed to counter the vulnerability of coastal States to the negative impacts of incidents directly related to maritime and coastal activities.

69.

UNCLOS is the legal framework regulating all human activities in the oceans but some States are still not parties to this Convention. A new implementing agreement for UNCLOS is necessary to operationalize the provisions in UNCLOS with regard to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction, in particular questions on marine genetic resources, marine protected areas and environmental impact assessments. There is also a need to take forward the Regular Process for global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment, which was agreed on at the WSSD and is now being gradually implemented by the UN system. Ensuring the sustainable management of the oceans, seas and coasts requires reinforced application of an ecosystem-based approach supported by adequate tools to work across different sectoral policies affecting the oceans, seas and coasts. The increasing threats of marine pollution and litter require a global answer.

70.

Coral reefs are essential to Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and several coastal countries. They provide direct economic benefits (fisheries, tourism, biodiversity), contribute to natural-disaster protection, sustainable coastal management, and are a rich and unique ecosystem, directly threatened by climate change, with high social and cultural value. Regional cooperation on the basis of the Regional Seas Convention is the relevant level for promoting best governance and mobilizing resources and commitments by State and non-State actors as shown by CTI. Created in 1994, ICRI is recognized (UNGA 2010 resolution on coral reefs) as the leading international initiative on coral reefs advocacy, uniting both developed and developing countries which are co-chairing it.


Fisheries Deliverables 71.

Confirm existing commitments and step up all actions envisaged under paragraph 31 of the JPOI to achieve sustainable fisheries in particular the universal adoption of the UN Fish Stocks Agreement (UNFSA). This includes: restoring and maintaining stocks at levels that can produce Maximum Sustainable Yield, ratification of the UN Fish Stocks Agreement, adoption and implementation of modern fisheries management principles such as the ecosystem and precautionary approaches as well as the need to improve scientific knowledge in order to base measures on the best available science, improved cooperation between States including through effective Regional Fisheries Management Organisations and other Regional Conventions, the reduction of fishing overcapacity and the reduction of significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems.

72.

Eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing by developing a common approach to combat it and by adopting and implementing effective tools including through the ratification of the FAO Agreement on Port State Measures Agreement and other relevant international agreements.

Rationale 73.

Despite targets previously agreed at Johannesburg and the adoption of measures by States and Regional Fisheries Management Bodies, the status of global fish stocks as reported by the FAO has continued to deteriorate. IUU fishing accounts for a large portion of the catch for some species and contributes to the failure of management and conservation measures. It penalises fishermen who play by the rules by giving an unfair advantage to those who ignore rules. The FAO Agreement complements the duties of flag States to ensure that their vessels do not participate in IUU fishing, and aims to block the movement of IUU-caught fish into ports and onto national and international markets. Currently, together with the EU, only three States have ratified the FAO Agreement, which requires 25 parties to the Agreement for entry into force.

Biodiversity conservation and sustainable use: Investing in natural capital for a Green Economy Deliverables 74.

Strengthen the mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem services in policies and decision-making processes at international, regional and national levels, including through promoting the valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the economy and encourage investments in natural capital through appropriate incentives and policies which support a sustainable and equitable use of biological diversity and ecosystems. The aim is to protect and enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services.


75.

Establish in this context an International Partnership amongst governments, international organisations, NGOs, financial actors and private companies to share and promote best practices relating to 'Investing in Natural Capital'. Initiatives under this heading would address the following key issues: -

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measuring natural capital (statistics and trends, indicators, research and development, valuation of ecosystem services); integrating physical and monetary natural capital values in accounting and reporting systems at national and international level (e.g. System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA), ecosystem accounting, economic and social progress reports, accounting and reporting rules for businesses); promoting incentives and policies to encourage investment in natural capital (market-based instruments and innovative financing instruments for ecosystem protection and restoration, promoting business models that integrate risks and opportunities relating to biodiversity and ecosystem services).

Rationale 76. The study on the Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) has demonstrated the strong links between the protection and enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystems on the one hand and economic opportunities and poverty alleviation on the other. Healthy ecosystems provide materials vital to rural livelihoods and increase the resilience of communities to climate change as well as to water and food insecurity. Progress in this area requires the valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services and the integration of these values into policies, decision-making and economic processes. Currently, the value of natural capital is not fully reflected either in statistics and accounts or in markets and policies. Opportunities for investing in natural capital are not seized, even when they could provide prosperity and jobs with decent working conditions. 77. There are a number of national and international initiatives relating to the specific individual steps needed to promote investment in natural capital including TEEB and the World Bank's "Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services" (WAVES). Specific activities to be undertaken under IPBES may also be of relevance in this context. A new impetus in Rio+20 would help to advance and synthesise these initiatives and promote best practices in developed and developing countries.


Chemicals Deliverables 78. Strengthening and building on the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), to step up efforts towards a more robust, coherent, effective and efficient international regime for chemicals throughout their lifecycle. Taking into account increasing and shifting global production and use of chemicals as well as trade in products containing chemicals, the WSSD commitments on chemical management should be strengthened, and their implementation better monitored, in order to reflect the developing knowledge base as well as new policy approaches recognising the need for greater transparency and industry responsibility. Further international efforts should build on and strengthen the multi-sector, multi-stakeholder dimension of SAICM, and further develop and broaden ongoing efforts to increase coordination and cooperation within the chemicals and waste cluster, ensuring that hazardous substances that have been identified as being of global concern can be addressed rapidly through agreed processes. Sustainable and adequate long-term funding will be important. In this connection, the EU and its Member States will give consideration to UNEP's forthcoming proposals on financing to assist developing countries with sound chemical and waste management and seeks an integrated approach that combines nationally mainstreaming such management, including in national development strategies, involving the private sector and providing external support for the incremental costs of achieving global environmental benefits. 79. Further develop and broaden ongoing efforts to increase synergies and coordination and cooperation within the chemicals cluster and the waste cluster. Rationale 80. Compared to the ambitions established at the WSSD, progress has been uneven and insufficient, making it likely that the WSSD chemicals target will be missed. Information on chemical hazards remains incomplete and scattered, and the international system fragmented. 81. Many developing countries have a chronic lack of capacity for sound management of chemicals. Unsound management of chemicals throughout their lifecycle can lead to the contamination of air, water and soil, leading to increased human exposure and associated risks to health and the ability to work and make a living. Chemical pollution also negatively affects the natural resource base which is fundamental to economic development. Chemical management is closely related to waste handling, since reuse and recycling become difficult if products contain hazardous chemicals. Sustainable management of materials and waste Deliverables

82. Foster the development of policy and planning instruments enhancing resource efficiency and encouraging waste prevention, minimisation, reuse and recycling, based on the polluter-pays principle and extended producer responsibility (e.g. take-back schemes, fee systems), enabling better resource allocation and improved conditions for the poor.


83. Improve the quality and reliability of waste-related data and indicators for better inventories, monitoring, implementation, policy development and general access to information. 84. Promote public - private partnerships aiming to enhance capacity and technology for environmentally sound waste management, based on international standards, as well as to mobilize financial resources and investment, while ensuring coherence and avoiding duplication with already existing partnerships and other relevant work at international level. Rationale 85. Sustainable management of materials and waste is expected to generate substantial economic, environmental and social benefits, which include natural resource and energy saving, creation of new businesses and jobs, biological treatment such as digestion or compost production supporting agriculture, energy production from non-recyclable waste, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, contributions to equity and poverty eradication. Sustainable recycling requires improved information on the presence of chemicals in products during the entire life cycle in order to enable risk management and for the consumers to choose greener products and a more sustainable lifestyle. Improved health, avoidance of health costs, avoidance of water and soil contamination, and the consequent cost of alternative water supply and of soil remediation are also important benefits. Greening the waste sector implies: avoidance of waste through sustainable community practices; the eco-conception and the minimisation of waste generation through the lifecycle approach; design for recycling remanufacturing, reuse or recycling of waste into usable products, then recovery of materials and energy from nonrecyclable waste; treating any remaining unusable waste in an environmentally friendly or in the least damaging way; and integrating informal waste collection and recycling into formal, better-regulated systems, following environmental guidance, labourprotection measures, as well as the recognition of women’s needs and roles in “green job� creation programmes. It is essential to move towards a recycling society, that productively uses what is now discarded, through environmentally sound effective and efficient management of waste. Sustainable urban development Deliverables 86. Mobilise a renewed process at local level in order to ensure that urban development is sustainable by integrating in the work of the whole UN system the agenda for sustainable urban development as well as the good practices, lessons learned and partnerships implemented by cities. 87. Promote an integrated and holistic approach to building sustainable cities 88. Support the scaling up of successful experiences as a means to achieve sustainable development and eradicate poverty globally.


Rationale 89. It has been reported that cities accommodate more than half of the world’s population and that they are experiencing rapid spatial expansion leading to the emergence of megacities, mega-urban regions and increasing spatial and social fragmentation, poverty and inequality. Furthermore, globalization, climate change, rising urban insecurity and crime, increasing destruction of human settlements by disasters and conflicts of natural or human origin, and rising informality within cities all pose major challenges that should be the object of renewed global attention. 90. A just transition to a green economy therefore cannot be achieved without a strong involvement of cities. They have several means of action arising from their responsibilities in the fields of urban governance, transport, city planning and social services. Cities create added value (wealth) and increase investment capacity, which is essential for changing production processes. 91. Urban governance is key for an effective response to local needs but also for solutions to social, economic and environmental concerns at the global level. 92. The setting up of partnerships between local officials and economic actors optimizes funding and makes it possible to better use the opportunities offered by the action plans to combat climate change with a view to economic development and social concerns.

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III. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Introduction / background 1.

Governance structures are crucial in helping to deliver sustainable development, green our economies and eradicate poverty. However, current arrangements for Sustainable Development Governance are not effectively responding to the challenges before us.

2.

Despite the commonly recognized inter-linkages between poverty, natural resource use and ecosystem degradation, fragmentation, lack of co-ordination between UN agencies and the international financial institutions (IFIs), and silo-type responses still occur . At the same time, effective mechanisms for monitoring or ensuring implementation of agreed commitments need to be enhanced. Current governance arrangements are very complex but nevertheless often lack coherence. Over the last 4 decades, well over one hundred multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) have been concluded and around 50 UN bodies have the environment as part of their remit. They are also resource- heavy: it was estimated by the UN Joint Inspection Unit that the cost of the International Environmental Governance (IEG) system in 2006 was $US 1.6bn.

3.

Against this background, it is clear that governance arrangements in all three pillars of sustainable development need to be strengthened, better coordinated and made more coherent. We need to ensure that the economic, social and environmental dimensions work closely together. The Rio+20 Conference provides a unique opportunity for forward- looking IFSD discussions contributing to better implementation and greater integration of sustainable development at all levels and in all countries.

4.

The recent economic and financial crisis offers an opportunity for global collective rethinking to facilitate a transition to a green economy, including improving institutional tools to accelerate the implementation of sustainable development.

5.

The EU and its Member States have identified the following broader considerations and key functions we expect to see reflected in and performed by an improved institutional framework for sustainable development post Rio+20 and which are relevant for consideration at all levels. Improvements are needed in -

political leadership and direction; high-level visibility and political clout for sustainable development topics coherence and co-ordination, by taking a systemic approach to interlinked issues with environment, social and economic impacts, such as food security, climate change, unemployment, social protection, competitiveness etc; and an interdisciplinary approach to policy analysis, i.e. by applying balanced and coherent assessment techniques, by ensuring that reports on cross-cutting issues are produced collaboratively and presented by institutions jointly; and through support of joint efforts in areas such as outreach and consultation,


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effectiveness and efficiency, i.e. build on existing institutions, improve synergies between existing processes, avoid duplication, eliminate unnecessary overlaps, maximize effective use of financial resources, reduce administrative burdens, avoid proliferation of sub-groups and meetings etc; transparency and accountability i.e. strengthen the co-operation and communication between institutions and stakeholders. participation, i.e. ensure better utilization of the expertise and resources of all stakeholders including non-state actors (from civil society and the private sector) and especially women; flexibility and risk management, i.e. improved capacity for quick responsiveness and evidence-based analysis– especially in light of newly emerging issues and in periods of crisis. decision-making through an efficient mix of regulatory and market-based instruments, scientific evidence base through more integrated and inter-disciplinary scientific research and reports. progress monitoring and review i.e. clear goals and objective setting, capacity transfer, knowledge building etc.

6.

It will be important, as a general principle, that the options that are being put forward are practical and take into account financial, structural and legal implications. New arrangements should make clear improvements upon existing arrangements, enable more efficient use of existing resources and funds, and be able to promote work on sustainable development metrics.

7.

Implementation should be streamlined into the various options for reform, in particular by facilitating the implementation of national and sub-national sustainable development policies and strategies through policy exchange or peer reviews to promote implementation of national strategies for sustainable development, as well as practical and action-oriented guidance and advice and capacity building by the UN System and by bilateral, and multilateral donors. The role of business and civil society in the implementation phase is key, and can be promoted by establishing partnerships and networking platforms.

8.

There is a strong functional link between IFSD and the other theme of Rio+20 “a Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication". In addition to effective rules and regulations, and adherence to them , properly functioning global markets also need effective multilateral institutions. The strengthening of international governance structures for sustainable development will help the transition to a green economy. Long-term economic resilience is dependent on sustainable use of natural resources. We need to reflect on which UN agencies and bodies could best support, and by what means , the transition towards a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication in compliance with the framework of UN reform.


Global Sustainable Development Governance 9.

Reinforcing the architecture for sustainable development governance at the global level will require, in particular, strengthening of and better co-ordination and coherence between the UN organizations responsible for sustainable development in order to ensure better linkages between the three pillars and to improve implementation of existing commitments. This will also require reinforcing and mainstreaming environmental issues in a balanced manner.

10.

During the preparatory process for Rio+20 a number of reform options have been suggested. These include, inter alia, reform of the United Nations General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and the possible establishment of a Sustainable Development Council. The position of the EU and its Member States on all these reform options remains open and we welcome the views of others on how to best achieve an ambitious outcome for IFSD at Rio+20. The outcome of the joint Executive Committee on Economic and Social Affairs (EC-ESA) study on IFSD will serve as an important source of information for comparing the various options, for assessing possible interrelatedness and interdependence between options and for evaluating the extent to which options would fulfil the required functions.

11.

Governance aspects of the economic and social pillars of sustainable development must be taken into account as well. There is a need to ensure strong involvement in and coherence between the activities of the International Financial Institutions, especially the World Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund, the regional development banks, G20, and the World Trade Organization in regulating global trade.

12.

Initial/preliminary considerations by the EU and its Member States on some of the options put forward for global sustainable development governance reforms are set out below. These options are not mutually exclusive and could be pursued as a combination of options. ƒ As the main deliberative organ of the UN, the UN General Assembly provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion and political guidance at the highest level. The main aim should be to ensure that sustainable development issues are mainstreamed on its agenda, thereby effectively providing overall political direction to the implementation and review of the UN’s sustainable development work. Consideration could be given to the practice of scheduling high-level meetings and thematic debates that are interactive and inclusive in nature as important tools for facilitating in-depth discussion on current issues of critical importance.


ƒ

ECOSOC has a pivotal role to play in ensuring coherence, coordination and implementation in the area of sustainable development through its mandate on 2 of the three pillars, high-level coordination with the UN specialized agencies, funds and programmes, its link with the Bretton Woods Institutions and its oversight role vis-à-vis the functional commissions. Different options could be considered for strengthening the way it performs this function, including: -

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ƒ

Using the coordination segment of ECOSOC as an effective way of strengthening integration, monitoring implementation of decisions/resolutions on sustainable development, including those coming from its functional commissions, as well as fostering coherence and coordination across the UN system. The ECOSOC Spring meetings “Special high-level meeting of ECOSOC with the Bretton Woods institutions, the World Trade Organization and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development” provides an opportunity to build upon for strengthening the link with the Financial Institutions and the UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB); Using the ECOSOC operational activities segment to promote mainstreaming of decisions/resolutions on sustainable development into programmes of UN agencies and funds which would translate into concrete actions on the ground; A possible revision of the roles and division of responsibilities of the ECOSOC and the CSD as regards sustainable development.

20 years after the Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD) was created, there is broad agreement that the role of the CSD needs to be reviewed. As it stands, CSD no longer delivers a satisfactory dialogue with the governing bodies of implementing entities, is unable to support the incorporation of decisions into UN country-level assistance frameworks, and lacks the authority for an effective integration of the three pillars of sustainable development. Different scenarios could be considered for improving the effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility of activities currently performed by the CSD, including: -

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Enhancing and strengthening the CSD by endowing it with a sharper, more focused, balanced and responsive engagement with a more limited set of issues, resulting in a more strategic and manageable approach, as well as an enhanced implementation of its decisions. Reorienting its role by focusing on the part of its mandate in support of sustainable development partnerships and dialogue and removing its ‘negotiation’ function Enhancing the review dimension of the CSD by facilitating voluntary peer review mechanisms for progress monitoring using best practice and/or establishing linkages with regional level peer review mechanisms. Abolishing the CSD, and transferring those functions that should be continued to another organ within the UN system.


The establishment of a Sustainable Development Council under the UNGA has been highlighted as a way to improve the UN’s work on Sustainable Development. The key function of such a body could be to improve visibility of Sustainable Development topics. However, considerations about the possible establishment of a Sustainable Development Council must avoid any concrete or potential overlap in the functions and mandates of existing organizations. ƒ

A Special Envoy or Representative could be the high-level voice and advocate for sustainable development with various policy makers at the national level and could promote an integrated approach in the UN system and at country level.

13.

Another key aspect of a improved IFSD pertains to interagency improvements. Policy coordination needs to be strengthened and the coordinating mechanisms such as the CEB, the UN Development Group (UNDG), the Environmental Management Group (EMG) and others made more effective in support of sustainable development. In order to strengthen the integration of environmental issues into the activities of the various UN organs, the EMG should become more closely linked to the CEB. This could be ensured by, for example, integrating it into the CEB. In order to enhance ownership of the EMG, a rotating chairmanship could be considered.

14.

Fragmented support from the international system for national-level implementation should be avoided. UN Country Teams need to improve their support for sustainable development implementation at the national level. The delivery of services needs to become more efficient and effective. Lessons learned from the “System Wide Coherence” exercise and “Delivering as One (DaO)” as well as from cross-sectoral approaches such as the “Poverty and Environment Initiative” and UNAIDS can provide valuable input for the discussions on IFSD. In this regard, the EU looks forward to the results of the independent evaluation of the “delivering as one” pilots, to be presented in May 2012. The DaO model could be further developed to help strengthen sustainable development at the national level. Organizations engaged in practical implementation, as well as governments where the UN is present on the ground, are encouraged to come forward with and articulate observations that may advance the discussions on the IFSD.

International Environmental Governance (IEG) 15.

Reinforcing the architecture for sustainable development governance at the global level will also make it necessary to reinforce the environmental pillar in a balanced manner.


16.

Strengthening of IEG forms a crucial part of the strengthening of overall sustainable development governance. The EU has been a keen supporter of the growing consensus for strengthening the environmental pillar and supports the overall conclusions on system-wide responses for strengthening IEG as debated within UNEP, including: 1. Science-policy interface 2. System-wide strategy for the environment, 3. Synergies between compatible MEAs 4. Global environmental policy making and finance 5. System-wide capacity building framework for the environment 6. Strategic engagement at the regional level.

17.

Setting up system-wide responses would also entail creating activities that span all three dimensions of sustainable development and would thus ground IEG within the wider IFSD architecture.

18.

The EU and its Member States actively support the incremental improvements of IEG that were identified in the Nairobi-Helsinki process and consider that they should be rigorously implemented. Our views are set out more fully in paragraph 19. Furthermore, the EU and its Member States are convinced that, at the same time, more ambitious and broader reform is necessary to respond to the fundamental problems of the current system. A key outcome of Rio+20 should therefore include the upgrading of UNEP into a Specialized Agency for the Environment as part of the reform of IFSD, and our detailed views on this are set out in paragraph 20 below.

19.

With regard to synergies among compatible MEAs, the EU and its Member States believe that the work on streamlining and reinforcing the MEA system needs to be accelerated. While respecting the autonomy of different MEAs, there is much scope for making their administration more effective through inter alia, coordination, cooperation and avoidance of duplication – thus creating a better platform for securing coherent and focused political oversight and leadership, thereby freeing up resources for better implementation and for promoting favourable conditions for green growth. Such synergies could include cooperation and coherence with regard to financial aspects. If the political will exists among Parties, the MEA system can be streamlined and reinforced. Rio+20 may provide the momentum for all of us to commit to and kick-start such reforms and strengthened synergies between MEA’s, for example: ƒ The EU and its Member States welcome the work already undertaken to improve the co-operation and co-ordination between the chemicals and waste cluster and consider that more work in this area could be undertaken for, e.g., significant steps towards further advancing cooperation and coordination between new and existing instruments within the chemicals and waste cluster, where a future proof governance structure and an integrated approach to financing options need to be key components.


ƒ We also welcome further efforts for enhancing synergies between the biodiversityrelated Conventions, international and regional agreements and other relevant bodies, which, without prejudice to their specific objectives or mandates, and with a view to, inter alia, considering joint activities and identifying areas for Partydriven collaboration regarding biodiversity, climate change, land degradation and ecosystem based approaches, would support the transition to a green economy. ƒ We also note the need to strengthen coordination between the three ‘Rio Conventions’ (the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, and the UN Convention to Combat Desertification) and promote joint activities for Party-driven collaboration on ecosystem -based "win-win-win" solutions. 20.

The EU has over the years developed its thinking on IEG. The 2005 Council Conclusions from EU Heads of State and Government support ‘the establishment of a UN agency for the environment, based on UNEP, with a revised and strengthened mandate, supported by stable, adequate and predictable financial contributions and operating on an equal footing with other UN specialized agencies. This agency, based in Nairobi, would make it possible to develop the environmental dimension of sustainable development in an integrated and consistent manner, and would cooperate closely with multilateral agencies, each using its comparative advantages to best effect.”

21.

The EU view of a UN Specialised Agency for the environment is as follows: Pursuant to Articles 57 and 63 of the UN charter, a Specialised Agency of the UN (a “World Environment Organisation or “United Nations Environment Organisation”) would be established as the global body for the environment with its seat in Nairobi. It would be based on the models of some of the existing, medium-sized UN specialised agencies such as the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), or the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). General objective It would be recognized as the leader on matters relevant to the environment and would perform a coordination function with regard to other UN bodies. It would represent "the UN voice for the Environment", and be a designated body with a strong mandate so that the UN response to the outstanding issues in the area of environment reflects the size of the challenges. The added value of a Specialised Agency over an enhanced UNEP would be: ƒ an adequate position within the UN system to fulfil the tasks that governments have, in 1972, entrusted to a body too low in the UN family to exert its influence;. ƒ better positioning to help developing countries reinforce capacity and environmental policies. Mandate and key functions of the Specialized Agency The Specialised Agency would: ƒ Be the designated agency of the United Nations system on environmental issues. ƒ Have a clear policy advice and guidance function as well as authority on assessment and early warning on the global environment. ƒ Build strong links between science, policy and decision-making to support evidence-based and coherent decision-making inside and outside the UN.


ƒ Offer specific capacity building and technical assistance to countries to assist in the process of implementing international environmental norms, standards, guidelines, or guidance. It would respect the principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action, and be in line with the SystemWide Coherence and "Delivering as One" initiatives. It would also have to fully respect the Bali Strategic Plan (amended as necessary to take into consideration the establishment of the Agency).This country support will pass via its regional centres not own -country offices, and also through close institutional links with other UN bodies that would make it possible to work through existing institutions in their efforts to achieve compliance and enforcement of environmental law, taking into account the specific needs of developing countries. Although not a resident agency, an Agency would support UN Country Teams when developing the UN Country Assessments and Development Assistance Frameworks. ƒ Promote the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development within the UN system by building on efficient coordination mechanisms within UN system , such as the strengthened EMG. ƒ Identify and bring new and emerging global environmental issues to the political agenda so as to be responsive to challenges as they arise. For example, it is not enough to focus international action solely on climate change- related issues: swift responses are also needed to problems such as loss of biodiversity, land degradation and sound chemical and waste management, management of natural resources or disaster -risk reduction. ƒ Develop global, regional and thematic environmental outlooks and contribute to environmental outlooks at the country level to support the transformation of economies from the perspective of a sustainable development. ƒ Disseminate environmental information worldwide, raise awareness and mobilize public opinion on critical environmental issues. Achieve strong and visible dialogue/advocacy on environmental issues involving major companies and the business world at large. ƒ Give guidance for better environmental performance by integrating normative environmental policy into UN operational activities. In this context, provide regional level technical and technological support to focal-points pursuant to MEAs. ƒ Undertake efforts to improve efficiency and effectiveness of MEAs at national, regional and international levels. ƒ Enhance synergies among existing MEAs where this is feasible and desirable, as one way of making implementation more efficient and effective. Contribute to ensuring that any new MEAs are truly synergistic and future- proof instruments. Facilitate the creation of synergies between the MEAs and other relevant international treaties. ƒ Provide support to MEA secretariats in technical, logistical and programmatic areas in a synergetic way. A well-resourced and fully -equipped "environment house" should be able to provide the professional services that Parties need to efficiently implement MEAs. ƒ Have a role in enhancing coherence and political oversight of global environmental finance.


ƒ Ensure an open political decision-making process and enhance transparency through the involvement of civil society and the private sector. Similarly, the matter of giving citizens a more powerful voice at global level should be addressed: reinforced governance structures are needed to make sure that the voice of citizens is heard in international, national and local decision- making. There are several ways to enable broad, innovative participation on the part of the various stakeholders, and to move beyond the current model where civil society has limited, unsatisfactory opportunities to participate. Funding ƒ Its funding basis needs to be “adequate, predictable, and stable”. The Agency could therefore work inter alia with assessed contributions as one of its funding sources ƒ The widening of the funding basis to include other sources is essential. ƒ No new funding structures would be set up as part of the creation of such an Agency. ƒ The agency would play a role in the necessary efforts to dovetail financial streams for the environment, including the GEF. It would continue to fulfil UNEP's existing mandate to provide policy guidance, and cooperate with the COPs of the Conventions which are the competent bodies for the financial mechanisms of the Conventions. This will be part of a better realignment of the multilateral policy making and the international funding mechanisms. ƒ The Agency would be created through the transformation or upgrading of UNEP so cost evolution can be followed and controlled gradually. ƒ The Agency would moreover provide cost savings if the administrative and financial functions for both some of the MEAs and the Agency are successfully streamlined. Relation with the MEAs ƒ Resolving in a mutually supportive and balanced way the relationship between the Specialised Agency and the MEAs is central to resolving the issue of the creation of an Agency. ƒ The Agency would provide guidance and cooperate in this respect with the COPs of the Conventions. ƒ The legal autonomy of the conventions would be fully respected. ƒ Formulas would be worked out, without creating new structures, to closely associate MEAs with the Agency, their high- level presence at the decision making bodies being one example. Multilevel SD governance: the role of regional, national, subnational and local authorities 22.

The strengthening of IFSD needs to be addressed across multiple levels of governance. Regional, national, sub-national and local- level institutions are at the forefront when it comes to dealing with the challenges and opportunities related to the implementation of sustainable development. Promoting effective institutions and appropriate framework conditions at these levels should be recognized as an indispensable complement to efforts aimed at strengthening IFSD at global level. Taking into account lessons learned, proposals should build further on the valuable work that is already taking place, notably with regard to the implementation of sustainable development policies and strategies (National Sustainable Development Strategies (NSDS)), Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS), Local Agenda 21), the work of local governments and the work of intersectoral coordination structures.


23.

Regional cooperation and South-South cooperation is a powerful tool for bridging the gap between the global and national levels of sustainable development decisionmaking and implementation. UN regional commissions have a role to play in facilitating technical assistance, regional coordination, mobilizing financing and implementation.

24.

Overarching sustainable development strategies are key instruments for the implementation of sustainable development commitments at regional, national or subnational level. Rio should provide incentives to countries or regions which already have such strategies in place for updating the existing strategies and ensuring that all relevant line ministries and stakeholders are involved in this process. Countries without national sustainable development strategies or poverty reduction strategies in place could be provided with the supportive measures (including mechanisms to secure public and private funding) necessary for developing and implementing the strategies that will allow them to tackle in a holistic manner the complex and interrelated economic, financial, environmental, climate and social crises and challenges.

The role of non-state actors 25.

One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development is broad public participation in decision-making. The IFSD package, therefore, should include measures that encourage and facilitate an active and meaningful involvement of all major groups and stakeholders as central actors in both policy development and implementation. Possible measures could include: ƒ

ƒ

26.

The promotion of dynamic partnerships and flexible alliances aimed at ensuring an efficient and effective participation of major groups and stakeholders, acknowledging in particular the role of business and the private sector, nongovernmental organizations and trade unions. Promoting and strengthening national Sustainable Development Councils (as set out in Agenda 21) composed of stakeholders from the different major groups that are active in pushing forward the sustainable development agenda. Integrative and trans-disciplinary in nature, Sustainable Development Councils can be seen as a model for efficient and effective multi-stakeholder involvement.

Similarly, reinforced governance structures are needed to make sure that the voice of citizens is heard in international, national and local decision -making.


28th October 2011 FROM: Educators for Sustainable Societies Around The World - Rio +20 Petition - 1st November 2011 TO: United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development Secretariat Email: dsd@un.org UN-DESA, DC2-2212 2 UN Plaza New York, NY 10017

Dear United Nations, We are writing with the support of million educators who still believe in the opportunity to have a better world for us and the future generations. We are participants of local and global initiatives looking for Sustainable Societies with Global Responsibility as a task of all citizens of this planet, but specially of leaders who have been appointed to respond in full measure to the present situation of the world. With this purpose we include the Open Letter written by educators from different continents in the context of Rio+20 process.. This letter is specially directed to leaders who can make the difference for a sustainable world recognizing the importance of long life learning education for sustainability for individuals and organizations .

www.tratadodeeducacaoambiental.net 2nd Journey on International Environmental Education OPEN LETTER FROM EDUCATORS for a just and happy world! Rio +20 in the transition to Sustainable Societies. We, educators from all over the world, now when our Planet once again brings forth the major issues that were addressed in Rio 92, we reaffirm our adherence to the principles and values expressed in planetarian documents such as Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility, the Earth Charter, the Charter of Human Responsibilities, the Rio Declaration, among others. (1) But it is not enough just to reaffirm! Plethora of theoretical references enlighten us, its the principles, values, policies and action plans proposed in the cited documents must truly out of


paper, despite of the "development", that has kept 80% of humanity apart of the minimum conditions of life in Culture of Peace, with environmental and social justice. (2) It is unacceptable that we still have wars, spending on weapons, a billion hungry and miserable, lack of clean water and sanitation for huge portions of humanity. It is unacceptable violation of human rights (gender diversity, ethnic, generational, social and geographical conditions), the loss of species diversity, culture, language and genetics, greedy gains, urban violence and all forms of discrimination and projects of oppressive power. (3). The human manifestations in several countries for the overthrow of dictators of all kinds are indicators of the need for new proposals for organization of 7 billion humans. It is evident that governance and governability of the planet must be in the hands of local communities in which there must be the overall responsibility for the common good of humans and non humans and all natural systems and life support. (4) We need to learn and practice other ways of making public policy from the communities, and State policies require to be committed to quality of life. Therefore, it is urgent to strengthen the processes educators committed to human emancipation and political participation in building sustainable societies, where every human community feel committed, active and included in the sharing of wealth and abundance of life on our planet. (5) The carrying capacity of Mother Earth is nearing its limit, due to the mode of occupation, production and consumption irresponsible of capitalism, which has become the global economical model, and now also features the Green Economy speech. For us, whatever concepts or terms used, the essential is that the socioenvironmental vision is always ahead. Building Sustainable Societies in Global Responsibility is based on the values of life to which the economy must serve. (6) Sustainable Societies are made of environmentally educated citizens in their communities, where they decide for themselves and from their own needs what it means Green Economy, Sustainability, Sustainable Development, Climate Change and many other concepts that can be moved away of their original meaning or motivation - which is the transition for another world possible - , being co-opted o coined to serve the hegemonic liberal rationality. Each community can see and feel beyond words and semantics, while maintaining its course towards the planetary union, tracing its own history. (7) Retake and to appropriate locally of these concepts under the force of the Planetary Identity empower learning communities, from the practice of dialogue, the sense of belonging and manifestations that are necessary to Well Being and individual and collective happiness. In these practices the essence of the spiritual dimension emerges as a radical practice of ethical valorization of life, respectful care to all living things, conecting hearts and minds through love. It is a process that empowers the individual to the practice of dialogue with oneself, with others, with the planetary community as a whole, restoring a sense of citizenship and overcoming the separation between society and nature. (8) It must then ask: where is the role of Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility? The answer in the XXI century can be only one: in the center. In the center of daily life, of education management, policy management, economic and environmental management. Thus, environmental education is consolidated into another world, with environmental and social justice, ensuring the development of an effective participatory democracy that can assure the social, cultural and spiritual development of communities, as well as its social control. (9)


We want to establish and strengthen local and planetary action plans, which focuses an education able to unravel the structures of class and power between people, nations and institutions that currently exist on our planet Earth. (10) Educating ourselves for Sustainable Societies means situate ourselves in relation to the current global system, to reshape our presence in the world, leaving the comfortable position of neutrality. Because education is always based on values, there will never be neutrality in education, whether formal, non-formal, informal, face or distance learning. (11) Educators from all over the world agree that the way to real sustainability can be done by various currents or tracks which are based on values and principles that link to sustainability. Transformative Learning, Ecoliteracy, Popular Environmental Education, Ecopedagogy, Gaia Education, Environmental Educ-Action are some of them. All these currents have in common to bring contributions to the construction of new models of society, and all remind us of the need to develop knowledge, awareness, attitudes and skills necessary to participate in the construction of these new models, integrating them into our way of being, of producing, of consuming and belonging. (12) More than ever we claim for an education able to arouse admiration and respect for the complexity of life support, with the utopia to build sustainable societies through the ethic of care to protect the bio and socialdiversity. In making this educational process, the transdisplinarity intrinsic to socio-environmental education leads to interaction between the various areas of science and technology and the different manifestations of popular and traditional knowledge. This allows the integration of existing knowledge and production of new knowledge and new social and environmental actions while carrying out the Dialogue between Wisdom and Care as High Technology in the Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility. (13) 2nd Journey on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies – Rio+20 Brazilian Institutions (Executive Secretary of the Journey) : Instituto ComSol, Instituto ECOAR; Instituto Paulo Freire; Instituto ComSol; REBEA - Rede Brasileira de Educação Ambiental; Instituto Ipanema; Centro de Educação Ambiental de Guarulhos; OCAESALQ;Instituto Ipanema International Institutions ( International Facilitator Group) : Centro de Saberes e Cuidados Socioambientais da Bacia do Prata; ASPBAE – Association of Education Centers from Asia and South Pacific; Siglo XXIII(El Salvador) ; ICAE-nternational Council for Adult Education; REPEM – Red de Educación Popular entre Mujeres de América Latina; World Spíritual University Brhama Kumaris. Partnership of: the Brazilian Ministry of Environment and Brazilian Ministry of Education. Local Governments of Guarulhos/SP, Suzano/SP, Americana/SP, São Carlos/SP, Rio de Janeiro RJ; Governments of the States of Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro; IEA-USP; ITAIPU Binacional.

August-september 2011 **************************************************************************************************** PS:


As educators we fully support and reinforce the demands of young people around the world already sent to the UN: - First, we need all world leaders to recognize the urgency of the current situation. They need to understand and inform their own people about the dangers of not acting to move us toward a green economy and a more sustainable future. Youth are worried about the inequity and corruption that contribute to the overtaxing and mismanagement of critical natural resources and ecosystems and undermine the basis for ensuring decent livelihoods for the next generation. The United Nations should urge presidents and prime ministers from every nation to commit as early as possible to come to Rio and to initiate their preparations for the Earth Summit. - Second, world leaders must deliver more in Rio than another agenda with lofty goals for a distant future. Over the last half-year, young people meeting around the world have called out the weak implementation of scores of existing treaties and action plans adopted at previous summits. These young people are demanding that the next Earth Summit instead generate specific commitments to real actions from governments at all levels, corporations, communities and civil society groups. I agree, and the United Nations should ensure that we are holding everyone accountable for their promises. - Third, governments and corporations need to commit to major new investments in education, employment and empowerment of young people in the transition to a green economy bases on social justice.We cannot wait another generation for sustainability; the world's young people need their leaders to act now�. Our Open Letter is a collective work done by educators from all over the world. 27th October 2011 2nd International Journey for Sustainable Societies - Rio+20


25 East 39ú St¡eet, New Yorlc NY 10016 Phone (212) 370-7885 Fax (2r2) 370-9622 e-mail: offìce@hol¡seem ission.org

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The Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See to the United Nations presents its compliments to the Bureau for the Preparatory Process of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development and has the honor to submit the following input for the pÌeparations of the Rio+20 outcome document: addressing the overarching pillars of environmental, economic and social development, a human centered approach, as reflected in the first principle of the original Rio Declaration, must form the foundation for all development policies. The centrality of the human person and the promotion of the dignity and wofih of all persons without

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distinction are fundamental in order to avoid a reductionist approach which views the human person as an obstacle to development. States must work to promote true human development through the recognition of the need for integral development which values all of its aspects: environmental, economic, social, ethical, moral and spiritual.

In the area of environmental development, we must start from the foundation that the environment is God's gift to everyone and thus the human family has a responsibility to.serve as a steward of creation to ensure that our use of the environment takes into account the impact of our actions on future generations, especially on the poor and the least ploteoted. Through the recognition and promotion of intra-generational and inter-generational solidarity we can better ensure that development does not come at the expense of the poor a¡d the least fortunate in society. In our discussions on 1¡s ftio+2O outcome document, we must work to ensure that all peopie have access to clean air, water and 1and, and to assist those States and peoples who lack access to these most basic of resources.

Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Developmenl United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development-Secretariat LiN-DESA DC2-2212 2 IIN Plaza NewYork,NY 10017 Fax: 1-272-963-1257 Æ{tyr

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exercising our role as stewards of creation we must avoid the false thinking, consistently disproven, that views increasing populations as the cause of environmental degradation needing to be countered by population reduction. This view not only seeks to replace a human centered approach to development with one which places the environment as the center of development policy, but also fails to recognize that those countries whose population's growth aÂĄe stagnant or falling, are often the same countries whose patterns of consumption and growth are the driving forces behind environmental degradation. Our discussion on the Rio+20 outcome document must reject this logic and instead replace it with environmental policies which respect the human person and work to ensure the rights of all people to life's most basic resources,

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namely clean air, water, land, nutrition, safe sanitation and shelter. Just economic development policy must also recognize the rights of the human person and the indispensable responsibility to promote the common good. Such development must take into account both the material well-being of society and the spiritual and ethical values which give meaning to material and technological progress.

The international community is confronting an ongoing challenge to the existing economic order as countries face difficult decisions in addressing national budgets while at the in some cases, economic conĂ?action. The ongoing economic crisis has been driven in large part by ideas which place utilitarian and individual self-interest above, and sometimes at the expense of, the broader community. That is why a renewed commitment to the indispensable role of human-centered ethics in economic decision makine is necessary in order to promote a more effective and sustainable economic development. For too long financial systems and economic models have sought only to find ways to increase profits aÂĄd financial capital without having taken into account whether these new models and programs would be just and promote the common good. In order to break this cycle of financial boom and bust, economic policy makers must therefore place human centered ethics at the heart of frnancial and economic planning. same time addressing the challenges of stagnation and,

The promotion of economic development requires also renewed commitment to global solidarity which recognizes the universal nature of goods and the responsibilities we have to one another. Through the transfer of technology, access to an equitable and just global trade system, fulfillment of official development assistance promises, greater use of innovative financing mechanisms for development and reassessment ofthe global financial governance structures, we can work to create a more fratemal and just global community. This solidarity must also take into account the need to address growing inequities within society and between States in order to promote just and equitable f,rnancial and economic policies. In the end, economic policies must be judged not on their ability to generate wealth for a select few but on how well the poorest and the least fortunate in society are fairing. This


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prefetential option for the poor meets the moral demands of social justice and sustainable peace and development. The Rio+20 Conference also provides an opportunity for States to begin the discussions on how States can work together to create more effective international financial and economic govemance structures. In an interconnected world where financial and economic failures have consequences in all comers of the globe it is no longer tenable for States to look only inward when developing economic policies. A new govemmental structure, guided by the overarching need to respect human dignity, must place itself at the service

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States for the promotion

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the common good.

In order to be effective and just, such a govemmental structure must not be seen as an opportunity to consolidate decision making into one body which dictates to States and communities or be seen as a means by States to exert political or economic authority over each other. Rather, such a body must work to promote the very conditions which make economic advancement and opportunity a reality for all people and States and must consist of different levels of actors which work together to assist one a¡other in fulhlling their individual and joint responsibilities. This requires respecting the p¡tnSipþ-Af-$þflda{ty and assisting individual States and communities in making the necessary reforms to their social, economic, ecological, political and legal systems so that they are able to address the need for sustainable energy supplies, develop social protection floors a¡d provide solutions to address the specific needs of both the urban and rural poor.

While environmental and economic development provide the technical structures necessary for society, social development seeks to address the social structures and social institutions necessaty to promote people's welfare. At the hearl of such social structures is the need to provide support for the family. The family is the fundamental unit of society and the place where chiidren first learn the skills and virtues needed within society, vr'here the elderly a¡d disabled are given care and where social, spiritual and personal development ìs first nurtured. It is therefore of utmost imporlance that policies and programs created during the upcoming Rio +20 Conference recognize that without legal, political a¡d economic support for the family, attempts to address broader economic development will remain elusive. The Holy See also believes that in order to promote social development, States and the pfivate sector must work together in order to provide full and decent employment for all or, in other words, to realize the riqht to work. Decent work provides persons with the living wage necessary to suppofi themselves and their family and with an ability to contribute their talents to the betterment of society. Access to decent work provides the most effective tool in fulfilling the goal of poverty eradication.


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In every comer of globe, social development increasingly needs to address the issue of migration. People from around the world continue to cross national borders in the search for better social, economic and political opporlunities. The particular needs of migrants, especially irregular immigrants, require policies and programs which respect their dignity, protect them from economic and sexual exploitation, and respect the right of families to stay together, address their social and spiritual needs and work to integrate them into their new communities for they are members of our same human family. The Holy See believes that the upcoming United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio will provide an opportunity for States to work together to address these concerns and many others in order to draw up a framework for a more just, equitable and sustainable future for the global community. The Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See to the United Nations avails itself of this opportunity to renew to the Bureau for the Preparatory Process of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development the assurances of its highest consideration. New York, 31 October 201 1


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE NEXT TWENTY YEARS UNITED STATES VIEWS ON RIO+20 SUBMISSION TO THE UNITED NATIONS ON NOVEMBER 1, 2011 OUR VISION The United States welcomes the opportunity to join the global community and engage representatives from across society to chart a course for the future of sustainable development. At the upcoming UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) we aspire to explore ways to better integrate the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development, building on the successes of the 1992 Earth Summit and the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. Since we last convened, world population has risen to 7 billion and is expected to increase to 9 billion by 2050, with many still living on less than $2.00 a day. Rio+20 must prioritize resource productivity and efficiency as ways to promote sustainable development. At the same time, global institutions have shifted to recognize the rise, roles, and responsibilities of major emerging economies. Within this new landscape, we recognize that sustainable development is not a luxury; it is a necessity for countries at all stages of development. The Obama Administration has set a strong foundation and trajectory for enhancing sustainability and building a green economy at home and abroad. Our Global Development Policy recognizes that sustainable development offers a promise of long-term, inclusive, and enduring growth that builds on accountability, effectiveness, efficiency, coordination, and innovation. Rio+20 should seek to make governments around the world more transparent and accessible, to better engage citizens, and to build new networks across all sectors of our societies. The role of women and youth is also fundamental to securing a sustainable future. We recognize that sustainable development offers pathways out of short-term disruptions, such as financial shocks, and long-term challenges, such as climate change. We are also committed to spurring developments in science and innovation through the use of incentive systems; investments in education, the workforce, and basic research; and promoting innovative, open, and competitive markets, supported by strong protection for intellectual property rights and transparent, science-based, regulatory approaches and standards. Respect for international obligations as we chart a future course for sustainable development is also critical. At Rio+20, the global community should re-energize action on sustainable development through a concise, political statement that focuses on actionable high-level messages. Each conference participant should also come to Rio with their own “compendium of commitments� that describes in detail how the individual groups or coalitions of participants will undertake action to help build a sustainable future. The meeting itself should be a marketplace of ideas, and we look forward to presentations, side events, and the launch of networks and initiatives during the civil society days and the Conference that advance inclusive action on sustainable development. In this submission, we highlight three key messages that speak to the evolving sustainable development agenda: 1


• • •

THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT: CLEAN ENERGY AND URBANIZATION THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT: ECOSYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT THE INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT: MODERNIZING GLOBAL COOPERATION

These key messages guide the U.S. approach to Rio+20, building on the global transformation that has taken place since 1992. For the first time in recorded history the majority of people live in cities and coastal areas; our “natural infrastructure” is being used more intensively and straining our global capacity; and advances in technology are revolutionizing the way we connect, interact, and take cooperative action that is more inclusive of all stakeholders to address sustainable development challenges. Leading up to the Conference, the United States will come forward with our commitments that describe the national, regional, and global actions we propose for collaboration and partnership in each of these areas.

THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT: CLEAN ENERGY AND URBANIZATION Clean Energy, New Infrastructure, and Access for All Energy is a critical component of development, and it is essential that new supplies of energy are generated and delivered in a commercially viable and environmentally sustainable manner. Modern energy services are critical to creating economic opportunities to allow people to rise out of poverty, advance prospects for education and health services, and address climate change. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. Development aid alone is grossly insufficient to meet the need. The challenge, therefore, is for the global community to scale up investments in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy access by creating a commercial landscape that demonstrates a return on capital and attracts private sector investments to underserved areas and populations. To achieve this, governments must put in place enabling policies and regulatory frameworks, and target public resources carefully, to leverage private capital, reduce the risk and cost of capital, stimulate innovation, and create competitive and viable markets for electricity and energy. Also important are programs for reducing the energy consumed by buildings, vehicles, equipment, and appliances. We should work to accelerate development and dissemination of clean energy, efficiency, and conservation technologies; and remove market distortions, including phasing out fossil fuel subsidies and barriers to trade in environmentally friendly goods and services; and leverage private finance through public agencies, for example the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the Export-Import Bank, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs). Through forums such as the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate and the Clean Energy Ministerial governments can work together to catalyze greater global cooperation. We are committed to enhancing existing institutions, mobilizing complementary networks from across the private sector, and sharing best practices with a diverse network of actors.

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Urbanization and Sustainable Cities In the future, the majority of global population growth will live in cities. Cities are major consumers of resources, and also centers for job creation, making them the front line of a green economy. Opportunities abound to modernize service delivery, especially for underserved communities. This includes: deploying green technologies and services; prioritizing green infrastructure and buildings; protecting and restoring green spaces; creating more housing opportunities; reducing emissions, resource use and waste; and making more sustainable urban system and land use decisions. Coordination of place-based policies can enhance transportation choices, improve air and water quality, reduce waste, maintain reliable water and energy supply, advance public health and awareness, enhance disaster preparedness and response, increase climate resilience, use public resources more efficiently, help mobilize private investment, and strengthen local decision-making. Cities offer opportunities for capturing cross-cutting efficiencies, for example across water and energy systems, with joint strategies for resource management and public-private finance. Such sustainable urban development not only improves the health and wellbeing of current residents and businesses, but can also create jobs and attract new business. As part of our cooperative efforts on the new sustainable development agenda, the United States has developed domestic cross-agency partnerships to integrate environment and infrastructure funding decisions and has also expanded our global cooperation to launch initiatives, for example the recently agreed U.S.-Brazil Joint Initiative on Urban Sustainability (JIUS). These kinds of efforts provide concrete examples of the components necessary to build greener economies and smarter cities through public-private partnerships, cross-agency and international collaboration, and improved networks across sectors that can help cities mobilize financial and other support for sustainable urban development activities. We are committed to expanding these partnerships bilaterally and multilaterally, to demonstrate the benefits of a green economic pathway for rapidly urbanizing communities. Water Systems Water is both an essential and finite resource, and sustainable development is not possible without water security. The provision of adequate water supply and sanitation services generates substantial benefits for social well-being, the economy, and the environment. In many places throughout the world, the treatment and transport of water is a significant consumer of energy, and water scarcity is becoming a limiting factor in energy production. We need to work to better manage hydrological variability, incentivize sound water resources management through policy and regulatory reform and better access to information, and increase the productivity of water resources by improving both efficiency and reuse. Sustainable Manufacturing and Environmental Goods and Services A green economy is also built on sustainable manufacturing, industrial efficiency, open trade and investment policies, and consumer-driven demand for environmental goods and services. Consumers include not just households, but also business-to-business supply chains, retailers stocking and marketing green products, as well as local and national governments, who through public procurement 3


policies represent a major market force in promoting sustainable manufacturing and green products. Governments at the national and sub-national level can achieve these goals through an array of regulatory strategies, economic and fiscal instruments, eco-innovation incentive programs, voluntary partnerships and standards, and various information-driven initiatives. We also see important opportunities to promote greener products and markets using science based life-cycle data systems and tools, and to expand international knowledge hubs to support cleaner production and sustainable green chemistry. Importantly, sustainable manufacturing, recycling, and remanufacturing, for example of used electronics, are important sources of green jobs and we should seek opportunities to ensure that workers benefit from the green economy. Human Capacity and Green Jobs The development of human capacity is essential to achieving broad-based economic growth, building strong, sustainable communities, promoting social well-being, and improving the environment. Workers must have the skills and protections necessary to participate in and benefit from the green economy. New sustainable energy and infrastructure developments, sustainable approaches to disaster preparedness and response, energy and resource efficiency, recycling, and agricultural and natural resources conservation are examples of areas that can provide jobs and economic growth while protecting the environment. Because the growth of green industries can be limited by a shortage of trained professionals, collaboration among government, industry, non-profits, and academia is critical to build human capacity to meet local and global demand.

THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT: ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture Access to adequate, safe, and nutritious food is a necessary precondition to economic and social development. Nearly 1 billion people suffer from chronic hunger, and more than 3.5 million mothers and children under the age of five die annually as a result of malnutrition. In order to meet the food security needs of a world population of 9 billion expected in 2050, global food production will have to increase by 70 percent to feed the hungry and account for the increase in population. This will require, in part, intensifying production on existing agricultural lands and expansion into grasslands, savanna and forests. Sustainable intensification of agricultural production is required to meet the multiple challenges of growing more food within a constrained natural resource base, and mitigating and adapting to climate change. In order to increase yields with fewer inputs and smaller impacts on the environment, we need both innovative agricultural technologies and improved understanding of agricultural systems, as well as integrated resource management of our terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. A range of innovations will be needed, including, but not limited to crop improvements, soil conservation, biotechnology, integrated pest management strategies, agro-forestry, and ecologically-based management systems that require investments in research and science. Improving access to information about best practices, enhancing interactions among farmers and experts through education and extension 4


advisory systems, and increasing the use of connection technologies, such as cell phones, can help to meet these challenges. We also support country-owned, multi-stakeholder networks to promote rural development, integrated ecosystem planning, and sustainable agricultural intensification through initiatives, such as the U.S. Government’s Feed the Future, and efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Oceans, Coasts, and Fisheries Healthy oceans and coasts and their resources are necessary for global prosperity. Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture practices also play an essential role in ensuring global food security and a green economy. We support reducing excess fishing fleet capacity, including pressing for elimination of fisheries subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and overfishing; maintaining or restoring fish stock harvest to levels that do not exceed maximum sustainable yield; increasing transparency in fisheries regulation, management, and enforcement; implementing and sharing sustainable aquaculture practices; and combating illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing (IUU), and destructive fishing practices. Ocean acidification and changes in sea level are emerging issues that endanger the survival of individual marine species and entire marine ecosystems, increasing the vulnerability of coastal communities. Due to the global and connected nature of the oceans, the need for international collaboration and transparency is clear. Given the importance of data and assessments in oceans management, we support implementation of an international observing network for ocean acidification; we also support increased international collaboration on observation and research, including through the Process for the Assessment of the Marine Environment, and the Global Ocean Observing System to better understand and predict the changing conditions on the marine environment, biodiversity, and food security. Further, we support integrated, ecosystem-based, and science-based conservation and management, including: the use of spatial planning; addressing land- and ocean-based sources of pollution; and the continued establishment of marine protected areas. Ecosystem Services and Natural Resource Management The planet’s natural ecosystems and biodiversity are key assets for economic growth and human wellbeing. Ecosystem services – such as fresh water, soil production and stability, pollination, coastal protection, and carbon sequestration– provide the “natural infrastructure” essential to sustainable economic growth and poverty alleviation and serve as “safety nets” for many of the world’s most vulnerable people. Our natural ecosystems also provide multiple economic goods worth many billions of dollars, such as food, feed, fuel, timber, fish, and raw material for medicine, agriculture, and industry, as well as the basic subsistence, cooking, and heating of billions of people, and important social and cultural benefits. Two central challenges to ensure sustainable uses are: to develop and implement ecosystem-based management and planning approaches, and for markets and government policies to adequately recognize the values of biodiversity and ecosystems. While there is no one metric used today that goes “beyond GDP,” an important first step towards better characterization of market externalities –such as depletion of natural resources or negative public health outcomes–is for national governments to systematically quantify, monitor, and assess our natural capital. Rio+20 should 5


prioritize the ability of all countries to monitor and assess their own environment and integrate social, economic, and environmental information to inform the development decision making process. Further, we should continue to work together on methodologies to move closer to achieving multi-dimensional measures of wealth.

THE INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT: MODERNIZING GLOBAL COOPERATION Making New Connections: Linking Governments, Communities, and Businesses for Action The second theme of Rio+20, Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development (IFSD), speaks to how participants in the Conference and broader networks of stakeholders can achieve the goals of sustainable development. We have new and evolving means to stimulate international action that go beyond traditional models for global cooperation centered on government to government meetings and formal institutions. The rapid uptake and use of social media and connection technologies is making the world a more inclusive place and the power of connectivity can transcend the walls of traditional institutions. These advances can help achieve more rapid action on sustainable development, at lower cost, with more inclusive stakeholder participation ranging from women, youth, and civil society groups to non-government organizations, small businesses, large industries, and private sector finance institutions. These new technologies can be harnessed by countries at all stages of development to address sustainable development challenges, including in the areas of agriculture, health, environment, and economic growth. Governments should strive to create the enabling environments to allow innovation to flourish and to spur greater investment in the development and application of ground breaking technologies to solve global challenges. This February, the United States will host a conference on “Rio+2.0: Bridging Connection Technologies and Sustainable Development” as one way to identify strategic opportunities to generate solutions to specific challenges. The world’s youth have an enormous stake in the outcomes of Rio+20 and can play a powerful role in defining the next generation of sustainable development using the technologies of the future. There is also a strong case for the inclusion of women as a vital source of economic growth. Every individual has the opportunity to be a contributing and valued member of the global marketplace—globally, we must support removing barriers that have prevented youth and women from being full participants in the economy and unlocking their potential as drivers of economic growth. Transforming Traditional Institutions At the 1992 Earth Summit, leaders recognized the importance of transparent, participatory decisionmaking at the national level. These dialogues focused on brick-and-mortar institutions. Today, technology is making it easier for governments to share information with the public and for the public to hold decision makers accountable to realize the promise of Principle 10 through diverse and diffuse networks. The Rio+20 Conference is an opportunity to further enhance these efforts – for all 6


participants to share best practices on good national governance and explore cooperative actions to deepen implementation through formal institutions and informal networks. The UN system needs to identify a focal point to efficiently bring together the environmental, economic, and social elements of sustainable development. We see an opportunity to reform and modernize existing institutions, such as the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), in a manner that engages the entire UN system and provides the UN with cohesive, government-driven policy guidance on sustainable development, a vehicle for engaging civil society, non-government, and private sector stakeholders, and a coordination mechanism to track overall progress. Multilateral diplomacy has been enhanced by the growth of smaller and more flexible global arrangements and partnerships such as the G20, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and other regional fora that complement work taking place in the UN, Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs), and International Financial Institutions (IFIs). All of these international and sub-regional entities play a critical role in advancing sustainable development and must work closely with national actors to help integrate the three pillars of sustainable development and translate policy and political will into action. The development and adoption of strong environmental and social safeguards to avoid, minimize, or mitigate potentially adverse environmental or social impacts of investments exemplifies the type of activity that MDBs can help promote alongside UN institutions, especially in areas with significant donor and lender engagement, such as fragile states. Any new institutional reform must also engage IFIs and MDBs centrally to create opportunities for greater progress through coordinated action. Strengthening International Environmental Governance (IEG) We agree that the UN needs a body through which governments can cooperate to recommend environmental policies, promote best practices, and build national capacity for governance, monitoring, and assessment. That institution – the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) – already exists and at Rio+20 we need to work together to strengthen it within the UN system to assure a viable environmental pillar that can meet 21st century demands. We do not believe that alternative proposals for a new statutory institution on the environment will strengthen environmental governance or solve any of the problems that we all recognize persist. We think the more effective course is to focus intellectual and financial resources on strengthening existing institutions that have already proven their worth and avoid the distraction of trying to set up something new and untested. At Rio+20, we want to pursue reforms to increase UNEP’s stature and capacity to contribute to sustainable development commensurate with the importance we attach to these issues. Reforms might include seeking universal membership in UNEP, under appropriately-altered governance structures; enhancing UNEP’s leadership within the UN system on implementation and science; and strengthening UNEP’s ability to assist countries committed to good governance and science-based decision-making in a manner that creates positive spillover into the economic and social domains of development. These reforms can also improve UNEP’s operational efficiency by streamlining administrative arrangements of key multilateral environment agreements. 7


These international efforts must be supported by a strong foundation of national environmental governance. Systematic and coordinated efforts to assess and build national governance capacity – enhancing transparency, public participation in decision making, accountability, and institutional arrangements for effective implementation and enforcement – are critical to establishing a sound foundation for sustainable development. These efforts should be promoted at all levels by improving coordination among existing national and international institutions, including environment, finance, trade, development, and energy ministries, among others. Informing Decisions, Catalyzing Action, and Measuring Progress Efforts to help countries obtain and provide environmental information to their citizens and global experts are important contributions to Rio+20. For sustainable development to take hold, policies must be based on sound science and reliable data. With advances in technology, it is now quicker and less costly to collect, monitor, assess, and disseminate data. Countries need to have the capacity to monitor the environment and to integrate that data with economic and social development plans. The United States is cooperating internationally through other fora to share environmental information and promote the use of compatible data systems so that we can better identify where we are achieving sustainable outcomes and where work still remains to be done. In this vein, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), if structured correctly, could be a useful means to assess progress, catalyze action, and enhance integration among all three pillars of sustainable development. Any goals that we might set should go beyond measuring traditional assistance and towards data-driven and evidence-based tracking of intermediate and end outcomes that are realized through all sources of investment in the green economy. We believe the concept of sustainable development goals is worthy of consideration at Rio+20, and that the discussions at Rio+20 can inform ongoing and future deliberations about the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as we approach 2015. INSPIRING FUTURE GENERATIONS The 1992 Conference on Environment and Development was a landmark event. Rio+20 marks a new foundation for engaging the global community and building the greener and more inclusive economies, smarter cities, and advanced institutions and networks that will define the future. Achieving these goals will require new ways of working with diverse stakeholders and communities at all stages of development. The United States stands ready to collaborate, innovate, and realize the promise of sustainable development for the next 20 years and beyond.

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