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SPORTS AND EPILEPSY OF GAETANO GUGLIELMINO

published by NUKE.YOULIBRO.IT

Dedicated to Professor Henri Gastaut Monaco1915 - Marseille 1995

Acknowledgments Thank you with all my heart my wife Emiliana I've always been close in all these years, and helped me with his love to overcome the


moments of great distress. A special thanks to my friend Lucina who helped me during the writing of this text. Genoa, October 11, 2009

INTRODUCTION •

In this book I talk about my personal experience of sport. And this in a precise optics; ie having regard to 'the impact it has had' epilepsy in my sport.

All we carry is solely and exclusively related to me. I am not a doctor but I hope that from what I have written others can gain inspiration for a more thorough analysis of the interaction between epilepsy and sport.

CHAPTER 1 - Running •

Then we start talking about what made me


think of a great runner. This is the U.S. and more accurately Jeff Galloway's book of the race for beginners. What lit a lightbulb in my brain it was his reflection on what happens after ten minutes that you started the race or, more precisely its race-walk. Takes a step function from the left side than right-brain activation than normal and then all the neurons are called to do the work broadcast of this brain function. Those were years that I was studying. What does it mean? Simply suffering from epilepsy and having been a runner for so long could not be a causal link between the fact that after just over three laps I had an 'absence. Keep in mind that for a lap employed nearly three minutes and that the crisis occurred again in the fourth lap. Then everything fits together. a. Here you will establish a clear link between travel time and absence. Note that in my mind there is an outbreak close to the function of the word. And to this outbreak could be compared to a tiny line of a plant where an electronic chip is melted. The chip is the outbreak. Here's the overload of electricity determined by the passage of brain function from 'one to' another part of the brain


determines the tension that needs to discharge with the onset of a crisis. What do you think? I wish that many are involved in this blog because it can be extremely useful to understand some of the mechanisms that regulate the brain of those with epilepsy. The earlier talk about the role that endorphins play in this process: the drug that our brain naturally produces.

CHAPTER 2 - endorphin And here we are talking about the endorphins. Do not ask me to give you an explanation or medical chemistry. I know is that these are substances that are naturally produced by the


brain in particular circumstances. Are in many ways similar to mild drug. One of the manufacturers in collaboration with the brain cells called RUNNING. And then the endorphins might do well to persons with epilepsy? Probably. But here comes into play a second factor of course has nothing. These are the antiepileptic drugs that are produced artificially. The point is that it might be just the endorphins, the natural character, not to tolerate the drugs. One could then test a real struggle between endorphins and drugs that the patient takes. And this struggle, even more seriously, come on during that passage of brain functions from the left side to right brain. So here is the second factor that facilitates the 'emergence of a crisis in who's trousseau. This is precisely what has happened to me.


CHAPTER 3 - dependence •

Like any good researcher of the past must take into account also the 'opposite of what I said.

If none of the above were true? Or if it were only partially? There is something else and if that might be? In fact a positive aspect of the race is in the fact that the crisis we are in some way but are adjusted in terms of time. Here's another point: sports epilepsy and addiction. Addiction? you ask.Yes. As paradoxical 's epilepsy addictive in those affected. If there is no crisis after a certain period of time is as if my brain to cause one or more of one for this abstinence. The running can then regardless of factors before mentioned and meet this "junkie epilepsy" making him come to a crisis. And 'so? Could, and I say this because when I run with regular crises are wholly or overwhelmingly to merge their periods of practice. This means that they should not suffer


at work or at times of day that could be extremely dangerous. Just think of all 'cross a road. The running I do it all 'inside of a sports field and therefore without the danger of machinery or extraneous factors. I can safely stop at the trackside and return when the crisis ended.

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CHAPTER 4 - state of wellfare A friend of mine, L. from Milan, sent me an email very interesting.

Does appeal to a study appearing in the internet and on benefit-evil endorphins. "It may seem paradoxical but, as noted about the absences, the crisis may be useful to the individual. How else to explain that feeling of well being that ever lived some witnesses have felt after a violent epileptic seizure? The pathophysiology may explain the well-being with the discharge of endorphins, natural opiates true, that the crisis induced within the brain: the fact is that when the crisis are eliminated completely with appropriate treatment, the individual passes an unspecified period of malaise, which oscillates between 'dissatisfaction and the actual depression, which can last for months "

The above only serves to establish a closer connection three endorphins, stroke and seizures. Although in my case the "state of welfare" occurs all 'onset of the crisis and not at the end of it. I well remember a few times


when I gave you, as I ran, welcome to the crisis. After the take action rather unwell. But this could be due to the fact that my crisis are "the lesser evil" and fits? The speech is complicated. •

CAPITOLO 5 - lavoro aerobico CHAPTER 5 - aerobic

In tutti i testi si parla molto di sport aerobici o anaerobici. In these texts is often talked about aerobic and anaerobic sport.

Mi sembra improprio perchè ogni sport a partire dal running può essere svolto in entrambe le modalità. Seems inappropriate because every sport from running can be done in both modes. Se inizio a correre e lo faccio lentamente corro aerobicamente. If I start running and do it slowly run aerobically. Quando accelero e mi avvicino alla mia massima velocità ecco che comincio a lavorare anaerobicamente. They step up and I get close to my maximum speed here is that I begin to work anaerobically. Cosa cambia ai fini dell' insorgere di una crisi? What will change for the purposes of 'onset of a crisis? E' molto semplice: correndo lentamente la crisi insorge dopo i 10 minuti. It 'very simple: running


slowly crisis occurs after 10 minutes. Se corro al doppio della velocità , il tempo di insorgenza si dimezza. If I run twice the speed, time of onset is halved. E' come se il mio cervello mi dicesse: non mi puoi fregare. And 'as if my brain said to me I can not cheat. Ed allora se voglio fare del running ai fini di un benessere generale mi conviene correre lentamente e bruciare quindi grassi. And then if I want to do the running for the general well-being I must run slowly and thus burning fat. • •

CHAPTER 6 - karate and running A comparative study of these two sports is natural for me.

For 15 years I practiced karate, and after I started racing. The work that is done in this' martial art is anaerobic. Shots, rapid succession of different movements and so on. The peculiarity lies in the fact that even the longest of the sequences never lasts more than one or two minutes. There is therefore the time required for the transition of functions from the left and right temporal side of the brain. Are not, in practice, to create currents that are typical of the race instead. And indeed here again


experience the thing myself. I picked up for about six months last year, the practice of karate and I have never had even a crisis.

CHAPTER 7 - not in contradiction production

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The brains of those who 's epilepsy should produce endorphins to' onset of an absence.

The rejection of a crisis leads to loss of production of endorphins. That would generate a sort of withdrawal symptoms? If there is a reduction of brain function in some individuals with epilepsy could not be due to the fact that the brain has activated some sort of mechanism, not to be deprived of his drug? And yet, I have fewer crises during the rest of the day (when I run at night) because my brain knows that in any case will take a dose of your drugs (endorphins) when I run. For this calms down and does not fire for 'onset of absences at other times of the day.


Assume that some of the antiepileptic, synthetic products, but not thwart but would only join in the running, the endorphins produced naturally by the brain. This union would facilitate extremely 's onset of an absence.

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CHAPTER 8 - endorphins, what are

And here's the description from wikipedia of endorphins to me:

The endorphin (or endorphins) is a chemical produced by the brain of an organic nature, endowed


with analgesic properties and physiological properties similar to morphine and opium, but with even wider range of them. The term is composed of two parts: "endo, endogenous substance produced by a reaction and"Orfino "substance similar to morphine. When a nerve impulse reaches the spinal cord endorphins are released in order to prevent further release of these signals . It is present in the tissues of higher animals, and is released under specific conditions and during specific physical activities. . Many research projects are still outstanding by the way, but the consensus is that the endorphins it by means of coordination and control of higher nervous activity, such that one could possibly be correlated with the onset of pathological expressions of behavior, where his issue became uncontrolled. As well as numerous alkaloids derived from morphine, endorphins are able to procure a state of euphoria or drowsiness, more or less intense depending on the amount released. These same effects can be found in the conclusion of a sexual relationship, which probably derives from the typical physical condition related to it. The term "endorphin rush" is used to indicate a feeling of tiredness due to pain or another form of stress.

This description fits perfectly with what happens to me during a session of running. If I have a crisis, in the end I'm in a state of euphoria. If I have a crisis, with a consequent and subsequent production of endorphins, also comes the drowsiness and a strong alteration in the negative, how I was nervous.

CHAPTER 9 – The origin •

Where does a crisis origin? Certainly not from the brain. And in fact I remember when I had the first crisis, they still were not producing absences. What I felt was a strong fear (I was eight years old) who brought me to stick with their backs to the wall. The fear manifested itself in the contractions of


the stomach. Then he climbed up the spine to reach the head and produce a loud ring to it. At that time no one "understood" or wanted to tell me that I was having a crisis. What is certain, however, is the fact that I was denied every sport. From swimming, which I was already at that 'age is a big fan as well as frequent courses of the National Federation. And everything up to fifteen years when it appeared in its fullness the crisis, with the consequent absence. At that time, however, felt the need to resume sports. The first was skiing, with the exception of skiing. It was incredible the number of crises that could have during a session of three hours of practice in that sport. I arrived at 7 or 8 absences. The ski must then be one of those sports, aerobic in nature, resulting in a huge production of endorphins. If I want to go even further I get to say it was my brain, "drugs of epilepsy, which asked me to do a sport to procure his" dose ".


And to "dose" can mean both the crisis itself, as the endorphins that help the 'onset.

CHAPTER 10 - run in company •

How many texts speak of running in the company, with friends or with a group that is on time, or with one person. For me this could be a specific element for the non-occurrence of the crisis. I have rarely had absences running slowly with a person with whom to talk, but never when I 've done with those who had some specific topics of interest to me. And for what reason? It is not possible that in active dialogue maintained the left side of my brain, thus causing an obstacle to that mentioned passage from his left side to right? I believe that is very logical. The use of dialogue and therefore the development of reasoning might be a serious obstacle to the endorphins. As if to detain,


without their free transit from one side to 'another of the brain. Evidence? It is the fact that when my companion and I stopped running continuously, if only for half lap, I have an absence. The brain releases the logical principles dictated by 'use of the word and draws all the endorphins that had quietly accumulated. I no longer have those "watching me" and I doped with a crisis. Then I have to be sad and the moral ground ", but that to justify myself for what I did. As if to say: "I was drugged but this was the 'last time." Even though I know that is not true.

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CHAPTER 11 - buprenorphine Today I contacted an old classmate. Use, of course, a fancy name and called him Luca.

Luke was a drug addict for many years. One of the few if not the 'only one of those I know, to have freed himself from his addiction.


To him I asked one simple question: "What are the drugs that can be used in case of an addiction?". The response was immediate: "psychotropic drugs, morphine, narcan, methadone and buprenorphine. They are all substances that have characteristics, in many ways, similar to those of 'endorphins and too' they generate dependency. And here's the wikipedia definition of buprenorphine.

Opioid CThe term opioid is indicated, in pharmacology, the family of substances that are able to act on specific receptors in the nervous system, which takes its generic name of opioid receptors. The term is often misused to mean, more narrowly, the opioids that can be found opium, a mixture of substances derived from the latex of Papaver somniferum, and their semisynthetic derivatives, the correct term to describe these substances is, however, opioids. •

Pharmacological characteristics

Opioids acting on a family of receptors in the nervous system, both central and peripheral, which includes four subtypes: μ receptors classically named, δ and κ (recently renamed as Opioid-like receptors or ORL-1, 2 and 3) a receptor discovered more recently, the ORL-4. The activation of these receptors leads to a wide variety of effects, which primarily analgesia and sedation, induction of sleep, respiratory depression, central nervous depression, inhibition of gastrointestinal motility and inhibition of the cough reflex. The main field of application is the use of opioid analgesics such as power plants, but not limited to: chemically modifying the morphine to make it unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, we can exploit the peripheral effects of opioids without any manifestation of central effects . The two most striking examples of this kind of changes are dextromethorphan, commonly used in many cough syrups, and loperamide, anti-diarrheal. Among the centrally acting opioid drugs are morphine, pethidine, buprenorphine, butorphanol, fentanyl, the sufetanil, the etorphine, the oxycodone. Other types of drugs are present in America, one out of every hydromorphone, marketed as Dilaudid, which is the most potent molecule of this class of drugs. Another exception is reserved for diacetilmorfina, known as heroin, which is very powerful and very strong ties to the opiate receptors in the brain. In fact, the human brain has


receptors that receive the drug, which means that the human body can produce only a natural opioid is very similar to heroin, although with a different chemical structure and in much smaller doses. Once you cross the receptors heroin turns into morphine, but there is a substantial difference with the latter. In addition to being proportionately more powerful than heroin, despite the morphine, when injected, produces the phenomenon known as flash, or a feeling of intense gratification that lasts for several seconds.

It may then not be far from reality 's assumptions I have made, with regard to my case, with respect to dependence on me from' epilepsy and controlled, in part, with 'year of the race. Or on the other hand the dependence that the race has generated in me, as a stabilizing element.

CHAPTER 12 - other sports •

We return to consider the sport I practiced before the race. If we look at and try a link between them visible, one factor that unites them: the risk. Skiing, not the bottom, it is undeniable that the risk is always present. How many people who have caused fractures or simple trauma or even have died in skiing? I would say a lot. And again in Karate there is a risk posed by the fighting. Another sport that I have practiced for years


was the 'mountaineering. I love driving the car and do it at high speeds. Even swimming in open sea, not those in the pool, I was always attracted. I can not say how big the production of endorphins in each of the sports mentioned. For anyone I have an element of measurement as precise as for the running. All, however, for the risk factor inherent in them, could only lead to greater production, part of my brain, adrenaline. The adrenaline as a neurotransmitter, could not help but release at least the movement of' endorphin all 'internal of my brain? Are of this hypothesis, and that's why I tend, while sporting a practitioner to abandon all sports, except running, which have no or only a low risk factor. Here, then come to my mind, yoga, Tai Chi, the simple activities in the gym or the discus throw. My brain, shortly after practice, analyzes them and decide you do not go well. There is no production of endorphins it releases adrenaline. Then undo the stimulus to their practice because they did not bring his "drug" and the less they facilitate the circulation.


A step forward in the fight for my absences could therefore be represented by their own practice, for example, of Tai Chi. The practical fact, against the "my" will, for over a month, with the abandonment of any other sport. And then, in the 'arc of the last thirty days, I had only two absences. This, against the average, over the past three years, which ranged from a minimum of four to a maximum of seven absences. And also I noticed a mutation in one of two crises: it gave me a state of no one but the inhibition of 'use of the word. The search continues!

CHAPTER 13 - the discus throw •

A very brief reference to the previous post deserves the discus throw. If we analyze the sport is full of items that my epilepsy is not going well, so as to act, in my case, such as insurmountable obstacles to the crisis.


The first factor is given by that sense of security that they represent: the "cage", all 'inside of which launches as well as the platform located inside. The effort is achieved and then strictly anaerobic in nature and would have not lead to the production of endorphins. This sport does not go into what I call so many years: tunnel of crisis. And in fact in the course of two years of practice I have never had any absence. All this should make sense. • •

14 - the tunnels of the crisis I proceed now to analyze what I called "tunnel of crisis."

As such, I mean the short time between when I feel that a crisis is to show when I have the 'absence. At the first sign of crisis triggers a process that is the same as my body and asked me to continue. Hang over the roles that do not allow the crisis to develop. A decisive factor is my will. Here's a simple example: if my brain finds the


strength to pass the 'order to the body to turn around and run clockwise (before I was running in an anti-clockwise) as if I can get up a defense and stop the crisis. But it's hard to be able to do so because once entered the "tunnel" My body wants to "enjoy" the crisis. It 'much more difficult for this to happen when I run on the road. That's because my brain can not afford to stand in stand-by but must continually respond to orders to turn right, left, cross the road, avoid the child playing in front of me, etc.. All these orders remain in full operation, the left part of my brain and not the phenomenon that occurs Jeff Galloway has prompted me to consider talking about the fateful first ten minutes of racing. What happens on the road is like for me, what happens when swimming in the pool, where every 25 or 50 meters I tack or reverse direction. Are like an alcoholic, over a glass of wine. For me it is easier to drink and then regret having done so. I warns, however, that the waiver, as such, is not assimilated into my mind as a victory.


Part of my brain is left without his "dose" and then remains in me, even if in small part, a sense of dissatisfaction.

CHAPTER 15 - Sport and drugs •

I arrived in earlier chapters, the conclusion to be applied to my epilepsy, so that the drugs because the crisis is not controlled by addictive drugs. So does the running. But let's step back. When I started the treatment today, I was completely taken off the crisis for a period of about a year and a half. Then the same crises have begun to emerge, albeit with a much lower frequency. The medications I take are too 'they likely to generate dependency, so that is one of the two falls in the schedule of barbiturates. The crises that I currently can not be the "fake crisis" that the brain generates to satisfy her addiction? At this point, there might just be running the "medicine" to replace those who take and one that naturally generate a number of crises that will enable my addiction by epilepsy to be fulfilled?


It is a 'bold hypothesis? I do not think I can verify it, because to do this I slowly suspend 'use of drugs.And the thought scares me. I do not feel as though far from being able to say that my epilepsy should be treated as an addiction in many ways similar to an addiction.

CHAPTER 16 - fractures in sports •

It 'a fact that the' long-term use of antiepileptic drugs produces a deficiency, the body level of vitamin D.

The same is true for phosphorus and calcium.


Why, then, in the 'arc of recent years, in contrast to what happened to me before, but I brought not one but three fractures. It's not like many years ago when I could ski and drop without worry. For example, in addition to downhill skiing, I do not have to practice combat sports, this is not the risk inherent in them but rather the fact that physical contact can more easily determine in me a break. It 'an indication that has to be directed towards sporting activities where the risk of fractures in any case smaller. And what determines that a clear difference between me and the other athletes. This view has always been hampered by those who claimed that I was equal to all others. I had to find within me the strength to recognize and accept my illness. This is a definite starting point without which I could undertake an evaluation of what I can or can not do well at sport.


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CHAPTER 17 - space and time The only element, of which I have taken into account by applying it to the race track, was the time factor.

I must not forget that I run all 'inside of a welldefined space. Moreover, the crisis when occurring, it does so in the south corner of the track. Curve is bounded by a high green flower bed. Is it not possible that the crisis is aided by a "kind" of storage that my brain has made that very point, and its color? The brain remembers that there's been a crisis and sends pulses that are added to all the factors I considered in previous chapters. "He recalls." From this point on the track racing is negative. Unless they do that sudden reversals of direction of travel of the track, which I had already mentioned.


But such reversals should not be such as to be stored. I should then make them into points and each time several times, and this also raises a barrier that prevents my brain to "remember". Then I could be helpful to run with a stopwatch. I should, however, made in such manner that the reversals are imposed to my brain without any respect for its "memory".

CONTENTS Chapter 1 - Running Chapter 2 - endorphin Chapter 3 - dependence Chapter 4 - state of well Chapter 5 - aerobic work Chapter 6 - karate and running


Chapter 7 - not combat the production Chapter 8 - endorphins (2) Chapter 9 – The origin Chapter 10 - run in the company Chapter 11 - buprenorphine Chapter 12 - Other sports Chapter 13 - discus throw Chapter 14 - the tunnel of the crisis Chapter 15 - Sport and drugs Chapter 16 - fractures in sport Chapter 17 - Space and Time

Profile for toni guglielmino

Sports and epilepsy  

A personal experience

Sports and epilepsy  

A personal experience

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