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Technology Insight Report GRAPHENE Graphene with the unique combination of bonded carbon atom structures with its myriad and complex physical properties is poised to have a big impact on the future of material sciences, electronics and nanotechnology. Owing to their specialized structures and minute diameter, it can be utilized as a sensor device, semiconductor, or for components of integrated circuits. The reported properties and applications of this two-dimensional form of carbon structure have opened up new opportunities for the future devices and systems.

Disclaimer: This report should not be construed as business advice and the insights are not to be used as the basis for investment or business decisions of any kind without your own research and validation. Gridlogics Technologies Pvt. Ltd. disclaims all warranties whether express, implied or statutory, of reliability, accuracy or completeness of results, with regards to the information contained in this report. Š 2011 Gridlogics. All Rights Reserved. Patent iNSIGHT Pro™ is a trademark of Gridlogics Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Feedbacks and Comments on this report can be sent to feedback_tr@patentinsightpro.com


Overview Introduction to Graphene Graphene is an allotrope of carbon, whose structure is one-atom-thick planar sheets of sp2-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. The term graphene was coined as a combination of graphite and the suffix -ene by Hanns-Peter Boehm, who described single-layer carbon foils in 1962. Graphene is most easily visualized as an atomic-scale chicken wire made of carbon atoms and their bonds. The crystalline or "flake" form of graphite consists of many graphene sheets stacked together. The carbon-carbon bond length in graphene is about 0.142 nanometers. Graphene sheets stack to form graphite with an interplanar spacing of 0.335 nm, which means that a stack of 3 million sheets would be only one millimeter thick. Graphene is the basic structural element of some carbon allotropes including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. It can also be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the limiting case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2010 was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the twodimensional material graphene".

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Benefits of Graphene Research and development around graphene is moving ahead yielding new forms, new applications and new material based on this unique structure and we take a look into this breakthrough in science and the innovation that surrounds it as it promises to be a large part or small devices of the future.

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Transistors made using these graphenes can work faster than those made of silicon, in electronics. Computer chips should be very much thin in order to work faster and also to use less electricity. As a result, the distance to be travelled by the electrons will be reduced. This can in turn improve the speed of the computer. Since graphene transistors will be small in size, it can be of much use for this purpose. It is possible to produce computer monitors which are having thickness as like a paper and are transparent. Graphene is being used to conduct researches for knowing more about two dimensional materials having special features. Graphene provides scope for researches that can chance the path of quantum physics. When mixed with graphene, plastic also turns as conductor for electricity. At the same time, it would also tolerate heat. Based on this fact, harder mixed materials can be produced in future. Along with having thin shape, they also have quality of expanding. These mixed materials may be used extensively in the making of satellites, air planes, solar panels, cars and others. Graphene will be 98% transparent and at the same time will absorb electricity well. Based on this feature, transparent touch screens, light panels and mobile phones can be made. Because of special structure of graphene, sensitive sensors can be manufactured. They can detect pollution even at the smallest range.

Graphene electrodes can now be flexible and transparent. Image Source: http://www.nature.com/news/2009 /090114/full/news.2009.28.html

Graphene is used in LED's for brake lights, stoplights, flashlights Image Source: http://products.cvdequipment.com/ applications/4/

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Graphene– Insights from Patents Overview Patent filings around Graphene hold great insights into the innovation, research and development within the space. With the help of Patent iNSIGHT Pro, we will analyze the full coronary stent patent data to find answers to the following:     

What does the IP publication trend for Graphene look like and how has activity around filings evolved? Who are the top assignees or key players in graphene? What Graphene properties are used across different application areas? What Graphene properties are used by key Assignees? How is Assignee portfolio spread across different application areas of graphene?

To get a more accurate and all round perspective on these the patent set has been classified into these two categories. By Application Areas    

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Automobiles Chemical Sensors Composite Materials Electronics a) Batteries b) Fuel Cells c) Integrated Circuits d) Light Emitting Diode e) Liquid Crystal Devices f) Lithium-ion Batteries g) Memory Devices h) Solar Cells i) Thin Film Transistor j) Touch Screen Sensors k) Transistors l) Ultracapacitors Graphene Nanoribbons Light Polarization Medical Device a) Graphene Biodevices/ DNA Sequencing Molecular Sensors Spintronics Thermoplastics

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By Properties       

Chemical Properties Electrical Properties Mechanical Properties Optical Properties Physical Properties Structural Properties Thermal Properties The illustration below shows the different categories prepared and the number of records in each. The categorization involved defining a search strategy for each topic and then conducting the search using the Advanced Search capability in Patent iNSIGHT Pro. Details of search strings used for each category are given in Appendix B.

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The Search Strategy The first step is to create and define a patent set that will serve as the basis of our analysis. Using the commercial patent database PatBase as our data source we used the following search query to create our patent set.

(TAC=graphene* or grafeno or graphène or graphén or grapheen)

The query was directed to search through the full text and a patent set of 1862 records with one publication per family were generated. The publications included in the report are updated as of 19th February, 2011.

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Publication Trend What has been the IP publication trend for Graphene?

Patents related to Graphene can be traced back to before 1950, although the number of filings remained relatively low all the way up till the year 2000. Noticeably there was a very large spike in publications for 2010 which saw more than 600 patents published during the year. Just a month and a half into 2011 and we are already seeing around 100 patents. It’s clear that this technology picked up slowly, grew consistently and has now reached new heights and is evidently on an upward trend. How we did it? Once the patents were populated in Patent iNSIGHT Pro, the publication trend chart was generated on a single click using the dashboard tool.

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Top Assignees and their trends Who have been the top assignees or the key players within this industry?

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

SIEMENS AG JANG BOR Z ZHAMU ARUNA SAMSUNG GROUP IBM CORP SANDISK CORP FUJITSU LTD. HITACHI LTD. CANON INC. GENERAL ELECTRIC CO

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THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 2. TOYOTA GROUP 3. ALCATEL-LUCENT INC. 4. HEWLETT-PACKARD CO 5. TEIJIN LTD. 6. XEROX CORP 7. COMMISSARIAT A LENERGIE ATOMIQUE 8. GSI CREOS CORP 9. CASIO COMPUTER CO LTD. 10. PANASONIC CORP

How we did it? Once the patents were populated in Patent iNSIGHT Pro, the assignee clean‐up tools were used to normalize the names. Different cleanup tools were leveraged: • To locate assignees for unassigned records • To clean up records having multiple assignees • To locate the correct assignee names for US records using the US assignments database • To merge assignees that resulted from a merger or acquisition or name change. Please refer Appendix A for more details on Assignee merging. Once the Assignee names were cleaned up, the dashboard tool within Patent iNSIGHT Pro was used to find the top 20 assignees within the given patent set. A visual graph was created based on the results of the top assignees with the number of patents alongside each one. The full Assignee table is available here: http://www.patentinsightpro.com/techreports/0311/List%20of%20Assignees.xls © 2011 Gridlogics. All Rights Reserved. Patent iNSIGHT Pro™ is a trademark of Gridlogics Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Feedbacks and Comments on this report can be sent to feedback_tr@patentinsightpro.com


Assignee Trends Considering cumulative patent filing trends Siemens AG has the most remarkable figures for IP publications for graphene. Interestingly, inventors like Jang Bor Z and Zhamu Aruna also show an increase in terms of IP publications. Sandisk Corp has also made consistent advances in growing their IP portfolio with graphene patents.

How we did it? We applied filters on the filing years using the option provided in the Report Dashboard in Patent iNSIGHT Pro, The graph showing the cumulative filings of top 15 assignees with respect to time was created. The output was created in the form of a line graph to get a visual insight which could display comparisons across the assignees.

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Assignee - Key Statistics Here we summarize key parameters of Top 15 Assignees such as filing trend, Avg. number of Forward citations per record, Top inventors in each Assignee, Top Co-Assignees and Coverage, unique and new technologies of underlying patent families Unique technologies refer to those concepts unique within the selected records only. New technologies refer to the new keywords in recent 3 years, i.e., from 2009 - 2011

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How we did it? First we generated clusters using the auto cluster option provided in the software. These clusters were then used in the Assignee 360° report option to generate new and unique clusters for the top 15 assignees. The generated report was then exported to Excel using the option provided for the same.

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Inventor - Key Statistics Here we summarize key parameters of Top 15 Inventors such as filing trend, average number of forward citations per record, key associated companies and top 5 co-inventors.

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How we did it? In order to compress all the information into a single report, we used the 360 ° series of reports available in the software. From the Inventor 360° report options, we selected the different pieces of information we wanted to include in the singular display and then ran the report. The generated report as then exported to Excel using the option provided for the same.

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Graphene – Properties vs. Application Areas What properties of Graphene are used across different application areas? In the table below, properties with higher number of patent filings have been highlighted with stronger shades of orange. One can see that many patents target the Electrical and Structural properties. We can see that mechanical and optical properties haven’t been used in any of the Automobile applications.

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How we did it? We used the categories created and using the co-occurrence analyzer, we selected the categories and the assignees to be included and then ran the report. The generated report was then exported to Excel using the option provided.

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Assignee Portfolios spread across different properties What Graphene properties are used by key Assignees? The chart reveals which of the key players hold patents assigned for which of the main properties within the patent set. For example, Jang Bor Z and Zhamu Aruna collectively hold maximum records for Chemical Properties. When it comes to innovations around Electrical properties, Sandisk Corp leads the way with 24 out of a total 186 patents for this category, closely followed by IBM Corp.

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How we did it? We first generated a matrix for the US Classes along with the class definitions using the co-occurrence analyzer. The generated matrix was exported to Excel using the option provided. We classified the results by manual research into various properties. Then by using a combination of semantic analysis tools such as the clustering tools and searching tools available in Patent iNSIGHT Pro, patents were categorized under the different properties. Using the co-occurrence analyzer, we selected the categories and the assignees to be included and then ran the report. The generated report was then exported to Excel using the option provided.

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Assignee Portfolios spread across different Application Areas Which assignees hold the maximum inventions across different application areas of Graphene? In the matrix below leading patent holdings within each application areas of graphene have been highlighted with stronger shades of green for larger number of patents within that category. Sandisk Corp dominates patent holdings for “Memory Devices” with 31 out of 56 patent records classified under this application area. Significantly, inventors, Jang Bor Z and Zhamu Aruna jointly head “Composite Materials” with 17 out of 158 records.

How we did it? First the various application areas of graphene were identified by manual research. Then by using a combination of semantic analysis tools such as the clustering tools and searching tools available in Patent iNSIGHT Pro, patents were categorized under the different application areas. Finally a co- occurrence matrix was generated to map the application areas with the assignees to identify which assignees hold the strongest portfolios in which application areas. The generated report was then exported to Excel using the option provided.

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Concepts identified across various Electronic Devices The graphs below highlight key concepts within Electronic devices. We created groups of technologies and using clustering tools key sub topics were generated. These were then exported to Excel and the number of records gathered for each sub topic was then displayed using a bar chart.

Transistors – Related concepts (Please refer to Appendix C, Page 49 for Patent Details) Transistors on a silicon or SOI substrate Carbon-based Detection Process of forming device Source and drain regions Film Power Phase Particles Parallel Lattice Catalytic Implant Mesa Reactive Radiation Predetermined Functional groups Electrical resistance Contact resistance Interface Interactions Exfoliating Point Etching Face Switching Working surface Modulation Thin-film Network Digital Amplifier Gate conductor Programming a nonvolatile memory Graphene-based device is formed Exposed Threshold voltage Heating Nanoribbons Interconnects Quantum Logic circuit Silicon carbide Crystalline substrate Oxide Single layer Forming a trench Silicide layer Nanoscale devices Thin Molecular Graphene sheet Lines Graphitic material Impedance matching Epitaxial graphene Single crystal 0

1

2

3

4

Number of Records

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5


Lithium-ion Batteries – Related concepts (Please refer to Appendix C, Page 31 for Patent Details)

Energy storage Organic material Rate Flake Doped Design Multi-layer Electron emission Synthetic Ionic Display LiFePO4 Hybrid Degrees centigrade Electron-emitting Alcohol-water solution High yield Aqueous solution Application prospects Protective matrix material reinforced Surface area Nano-filament composition Electrochemical cell electrode Plate Vapor grown carbon Hexagonal carbon layers Solid nanocomposite Prelithiated anode active material Conductive agent Negative electrode active Carbonaceous material Conductive additive 0

1

2

3

4

Number of Records

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Batteries – Related concepts

Resistance Reactor Engine STORE Efficiency Raw material Ultrasonic Specified Reactive Nanoscale Interact Hydride Alkaline Laminated Intermediate Capacitors Nanofibers Carbon-based Water soluble Redox reaction Catalyst Preparing a pristine NGP… Secondary Crystalline Conversion Capacitive Membrane Electrolyte contains Bipolar plate Aqueous solution Alkali metal Molecular Mesoporous Carbonaceous Hybrid nano‐filament… Laminar graphite material Electrochemical device Mass Intercalation compound Carbon nanostructures Organic solvent Regarding the solar battery Solid nanocomposite Fluid Exfoliated graphite Hexagonal carbon Power Matrix material 0

1

2

3

4

Number of Records

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Integrated Circuits – Related concepts

Value Thickness Standards Plastic Modulation Manufacturing Specified Organic Cost Processor Input Band gap Patterned Body Printing Micro Chemical Active Single crystal Thin film Detection Pyrolytic carbon or graphene Nano Medium Analyte Gate dielectric Power Field-effect transistors Silicon carbide Logic circuit 0

1 2 Number of records

3

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Fuel Cell – Related Concepts

Glycol Capacity Portion Weight percent Electrode applications Precursor composition Platinum Flexible graphite Substrates Hydrophilic Carbon-based Specific Thermal Molecular Two clad layers Oxygen reduction Lithium ion Current collector Atomic ratio Supercapacitors Removal Electrooxidation Planar outer surface Curing or solidifying Methanol fuel Sheet and the bottom Liquid medium Carbon nano wall Surface area Carbon nanofiber Hydrogen storage Fuel cell vehicle Expanded graphite Electrical power 0

1

2 Number of records

3

4

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Solar Cells – Related Concepts

Stacks Solvent Pressure N-type Organic-inorganic SCALE Plane Medium Source Mixture Electrolyte Intensity level Powder Element a semiconductor compound Replace expensive indium-tin oxide Sheet resistance Low sheet Incident light Conversion efficiency Active layer Dispersible and electrically Laminar graphite material Thermal interface material Dye Wavelength Nanofiber Intercalation compound 0

1 2 Number of records

3

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Memory Device – Related Concepts

Semiconductor device Matrix Portion Stack Substantially Damascene Electrical contact Forming memory cells High resistance Dielectric Access Processor Drain Card Energy Configured Fabricating Transmission Absolute value Memory device Nano Flow Programming a nonvolatile… Modules Code Bit line Microelectronic structure Pressure Triple or quadruple exposure Pillar shaped First spacer pattern Silicide layer Carbon films Resistivity switching storage Reversible resistance-switching Hard mask layer 0 1 2 Number of Records

3

4

Please refer Appendix C for patent details on ‘Lithium-ion Batteries’ and ‘Transistor’

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Appendix A: Key Assignee Normalization Table SIEMENS AG SIEMENS AG AB AND M GMBH MASCHINEN GMBH SAMSUNG GROUP SAMSUNG GROUP THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK FUJITSU LTD. FUJITSU LTD. HITACHI LTD. HASHIZUME TOMIHIRO HEIKE SEIJI HITACHI LTD. ISHIBASHI MASAYOSHI KATO MIDORI OKAI MAKOTO TOYOTA GROUP TOYOTA GROUP HIRAMATSU MINEO HORI MASARU BASF GROUP BASF GROUP AUSTERMANN DORIS DORNBUSCH MICHAEL NARJES HENDRIK BENZ ROLF BRUNNER MARTIN KRISTIANSEN PER MAGNUS ROTZINGER BRUNO ANDERLIK RAINER BENTEN REBEKKA VON HOEFLI KURT VOELKEL MARK WEBER MARTIN BLACKBURN JOHN STUART HEAVENS STEPHEN HUBER GUENTHER JONES IVOR WYNN SCHIERLE ARNDT KERSTIN STACKPOOL FRANCIS STEFAN MADALINA ANDREEA BAYER MATERIALSCIENCE AG BAYER MATERIALSCIENCE AG BIERDEL MICHAEL BUCHHOLZ SIGURD MICHELE VOLKER MLECZKO LESLAW RUDOLF REINER

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WOLF AUREL BEHNKEN GESA HITZBLECK JULIA MEUER STEFAN MEYER HELMUT ZENTEL RUDOLF DERN GESA FUSSANGEL CHRISTEL VOGEL STEPHANIE MITSUBISHI GROUP FRONTIER CARBON CORP MITSUBISHI GROUP VORBECK MATERIALS CORP VORBECK MATERIALS CORP CRAIN JOHN M LETTOW JOHN S REDMOND KATE KRISHNAIAH GAUTHAM VARMA VIPIN SCHEFFER DAN GINNEMAN JR CARL R

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Appendix B: Search Strings Used for Categorization Categorization: Application Areas 1. Automobiles Automobiles (abst to spec) contains (aircraft or aeroplane or 18 results aerospace or aviation or automobile* or vehicle*) and graphene 2. Chemical Sensors Chemical Sensors (abst to spec) contains (chemi* w/3 sensor*) 7 results 3. Composite Materials Composite Materials (abst to spec) contains (composite* or 158 results (composite w/2 material*)) and graphene 4. Electronics Electronics (abst to spec) contains (lithium or batter*) 53 results (abst to spec) contains (lithium w/2 (metal* or 8 results compound*) and batter* or cell*) (abst to spec) contains (fuel w/2 (cell* or 47 results

batter*)) (abst to spec) contains (integrate* w/3 circuit*) or IC (abst to spec) contains ("light emitting diode" or LED) (abst to spec) contains ("liquid crystal display" or LCD) (abst to spec) contains (("lithium-ion" or "lithium ion" or "Li-ion" or rechargeable or secondary) w/2 batter* or cell*) or LIB (abst to spec) contains (memory w/2 (device* or chip* or disk* or drive* or cell*)) (abst to spec) contains (solar or photovoltaic* or photoelectric*) w/3 cell* (abst to spec) contains (("thin film" w/2 transistor*) or TFT) (abst to spec) contains ("touch-screen" or "touch screen" or "touchscreen")

35 results 17 results 13 results 54 results

56 results 38 results 2 results 12 results

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(abst to spec) contains transistor* (abst to spec) contains ("electric double-layer capacitor" or EDLC or supercapacitor* or supercondenser* or pseudocapacitor* or "electrochemical double layer capacitor" or ultracapacitor*)

78 results 24 results

5. Graphene Nanoribbons Graphene Nanoribbons (abst to spec) contains (graphene w/2 12 results nanoribbon* or "nano-graphene ribbon" or GNR or "graphene ribbon") 6. Light Polarization Light Polarization (abst to spec) contains (light w/2 polar*) 4 results 7. Medical Device

aclm contains ("DNA sequence")

Medical Device 1 result

8. Molecular Sensors Molecular Sensors (abst to spec) contains ("molecular sensor" or 1 result chemosensor or "chemo sensor") 9. Spintronics

(abst to spec) contains (spintronic* or magnetoelectronic*)

Spintronics 2 results

10. Thermoplastics Thermoplastics (abst to spec) contains(thermoplastic or 31 results "thermosoftening plastic") and graphene

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Appendix C: Graphene Application Area Patents Lithium-ion Batteries Patents

Patent Number

Title

US20090246625

HIGH PERFORMANCE BATTERIES WITH CARBON NANOMATERIALS AND IONIC LIQUIDS

US20100330423

US20080261116

INTERCONNECTE D HOLLOW NANOSTRUCTUR ES CONTAINING HIGH CAPACITY ACTIVE MATERIALS FOR USE IN RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES METHOD OF DEPOSITING SILICON ON CARBON MATERIALS AND FORMING AN ANODE FOR USE IN LITHIUM ION BATTERIES

Assignees

Filing Date

Abstract

ADA TECHNOLOGIES INC.

2009-03-26

AMPRIUS INC.

2010-05-25

The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithiumion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes V2O5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages energy densities and power densities. Provided are electrode layers for use in rechargeable batteries such as lithium ion batteries and related fabrication techniques. These electrode layers have interconnected hollow nanostructures that contain high capacity electrochemically active materials such as silicon tin and germanium. In certain embodiments a fabrication technique involves forming a nanoscale coating around multiple template structures and at least partially removing and/or shrinking these structures to form hollow cavities. These cavities provide space for the active materials of the nanostructures to swell into during battery cycling. This design helps to reduce the risk of pulverization and to maintain electrical contacts among the nanostructures. It also provides a very high surface area available ionic communication with the electrolyte. The nanostructures have nanoscale shells but may be substantially larger in other dimensions. Nanostructures can be interconnected during forming the nanoscale coating when the coating formed around two nearby template structures overlap.

2008-04-22

A method of modifying the surface of carbon materials such as vapor grown carbon nanofibers is provided in which silicon is deposited on vapor grown carbon nanofibers using a chemical vapor deposition process. The resulting silicon-carbon alloy may be used as an anode in a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

APPLIED SCIENCES INC.

US20100081057

Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE

2009-07-27

US20110033746

Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE

2009-08-10

Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C. Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

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CN101728535

Lithium ion battery conducting material and preparation method and application thereof

BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY

US20100233538

Open porous electrically conductive nanocomposite material

BELENOS CLEAN POWER HOLDING AG

US20100301279

US20110020706

STABLE DISPERSIONS OF SINGLE AND MULTIPLE GRAPHENE LAYERS IN SOLUTION

NEW ELECTRODE MATERIALS IN PARTICULAR FOR RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM ION BATTERIES

BELENOS CLEAN POWER HOLDING AG

BELENOS CLEAN POWER HOLDING AG

2010-03-11

The invention relates to a lithium ion battery conducting material and a preparation method and application thereof. A graphene lithium ion battery conducting material is prepared by adopting a graphite oxide rapid heat expansion method and has high aspect ratio which is beneficial to shortening the migration distance of lithium ions and improving the wetting quality of an electrolyte thereby the rate performance of an electrode is improved; the graphene lithium ion battery conducting material also has high conductivity and can ensure that an electrode active substance has higher utilization ratio and excellent cyclical stability. Compared with a common acetylene black conductive agent under the same using amount the specific capacity of a lithium ion battery cathode constructed by the conducting material is improved by 25-40 percent and the coulomb efficiency is improved by 10-15 percent. In addition the method has low cost simple process high security and low energy consumption and is suitable for large-scale production. Nanocomposits of conductive nanoparticulate polymer and electronically active material in particular PEDOT and LiFePO4 were found to be significantly better compared to bare and carbon coated LiFePO4 in carbon black and graphite filled non conducting binder. The conductive polymer containing composite outperformed the other two samples. The performance of PEDOT composite was especially better in the high current regime with capacity retention of 82 percent after 200 cycles. Hence an electrode based on composite made of conductive nanoparticulate polymer and electronically active material in particular LiFePO4 and PEDOT nanostubs with its higher energy density and increased resistance to harsh charging regimes proved to dramatically extend the high power applicability of materials such as LiFePO4.

2010-05-26

Disclosed is a method for producing colloidal graphene dispersions comprising the steps of (i) dispersing graphite oxide in a dispersion medium to form a colloidal graphene oxide or multi-graphene oxide dispersion (ii) thermally reducing the graphene oxide or multi-graphene oxide in dispersion. Dependent on the method used for the preparation of the starting dispersion a graphene or a multigraphene dispersion is obtained that can be further processed to multi-graphene with larger inter-planar distances than graphite. Such dispersions and multigraphenes are for example suitable materials in the manufacturing of rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

2010-07-22

The method described allows the selection and/or design of anode and cathode materials by n- or pdoping semiconductor material. Such doped materials are suitable for use in electrodes of lithium ion batteries. As one advantage the anode and the cathode may be produced using anodes and cathodes that are derived from the same semiconductor material.

10/30/2009

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US7442358

Flaky carbonaceous particle and production method thereof

CANON INC.

2005-04-25

A carbonaceous particle is provided which comprises a hexagonal flake formed of an aggregate of a plurality of nanocarbons and having a side length of 0.1 to 100 mm and a thickness of 10 nm to 1 mm. Thereby a carbonaceous particle is provided which has an excellent electron emission performance has a high electron conductivity shows excellent characteristics particularly when used for a secondary battery and can suitably be applied to various devices other than a secondary battery as well.

US7819718

Electronic device having catalyst used to form carbon fiber according to Raman spectrum characteristics

CANON INC.

2005-12-13

CN101710619

Electrode plate for lithium ion battery and manufacturing method thereof

CHONGQING UNIVERSITY

2009-12-14

A method of making an electron-emitting device has the steps of disposing a film containing metal on a substrate arranging a plurality of catalytic particles on the film containing metal and heat-treating the substrate on which the plurality of catalytic particles are arranged under circumstance including hydrocarbon gas and hydrogen to form a plurality of carbon fibers. Catalytic particles contain Pd and at least one element selected from the group consisting of Fe Co Ni Y Rh Pt La Ce Pr Nd Gd Tb Dy Ho Er and Lu and 2080 atm percent (atomic percentage) or more of the at least one element is contained in the catalytic particles relative to Pd. The invention discloses an electrode plate for a lithium ion battery and a manufacturing method thereof and particularly relates to the electrode plate for the lithium ion battery taking multi-layer graphene as a conductive agent and a manufacturing method thereof. The electrode plate of the invention consists of a positive electrode or negative electrode active substance the conductive agent and an adhesive. The method comprises the steps of: using the positive electrode or negative electrode active substance the conductive agent and the adhesive as raw materials to obtain electrode slurry through stirring and dispersing and then obtaining the electrode plate through coating drying and tabletting. The conductive agent adopted by the invention has the advantages of high dispersivity high electric conductivity good filling effect and the like; and the method has the advantages of simplicity low production cost and convenient popularization and application. The method can remarkably improve the electric conductivity electrochemical capacity and enhance charge-discharge capability of electrode materials by multiples so the method can be widely applied to the preparation of electrode plates of lithium ion batteries.

2009-12-24

The invention relates to a method for preparing poly organic polysulfide/graphene conductive composite material which is characterized by taking watersoluble sulfonated graphene as a carrier and adopting an in-situ oxidation polymerization method to deposit poly organic polysulfide on the surface of the grapheme so as to prepare the poly organic polysulfide/graphene conductive composite material. The composite material has high conductivity and excellent electrochemical properties and can be used as anode material of lithium secondary batteries.

CN101728534

Method for preparing poly organic polysulfide/sulfonat ed graphene conductive composite material

EAST CHINA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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US20080220329

WO0129916

NEGATIVE ELECTRODE ACTIVE MATERIAL FOR AN ELECTRICITY STORAGE DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME

A METHOD FOR PREPARING A CARBON ANODE FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES

FUJI HEAVY INDUSTRIES LTD.

GABER and SCARON,KEMIJS KI IN and SCARON

2007-08-31

To provide a negative electrode active material for an electricity storage device which has considerably enhanced low-temperature characteristic increased energy density and increased output power. A negative electrode active material is made of a carbon composite containing carbon particles as a core and a fibrous carbon having a graphene structure which is formed on the surfaces and/or the inside of the carbon particles wherein the carbon composite has a volume of all mesopores within 0.005 to 1.0 cm3/g and a volume of the mesopores each with a pore diameter ranging from 100 to 400 Sof not less than 25 percent of the volume of all mesopores.

2000-10-06

According to this method a polyelectrolyte solution appropriate for the formation of the hair-like structure on the surface of the carbon particles is prepared by dissolving 0.1 to 10 g of the polyelectrolyte chosen from proteins cellulose derivatives gums or mixtures thereof in 1L of deionised water under moderate stirring at a temperature of 30 to 100 DEG C; and then 1 to 10 g carbon particles comprising graphenic layers said particles of having dimensions of 1 to 50 mu m and a specific surface of 2 to 50 m2g-1 are mixed under stirring into 1L of the aboveobtained solution preheated to about room temperature kept for 2 to 30 minutes and modified to a pH value of 7 to 9 followed by the filtration through a Nutsch filter; and coating the black cake from the Nutsch filter on a copper sheet and further processing in a conventional manner into an anode for lithium ion batteries. the novel method avoids the use of conventional binders and yields carbon anodes possessing superior properties for the use in lithium ion batteries.

US20090325071

Intercalation Electrode Based on Ordered Graphene Planes

GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS INC.

2008-05-20

CN101562248

Graphite composite lithium ion battery anode material lithium iron phosphate and preparation method thereof

GONG SIYUAN

2009-06-03

An intercalation electrode includes an electron current collector and graphene planes deposited normal to the surface of the current collector substrate. The graphene planes are deposited on the current collector substrate from a carbon-precursor gas using for example chemical vapor deposition. In an embodiment of an anode for a lithium-ion battery the graphene planes are intercalated with lithium atoms. A lithium-ion battery may include this anode a cathode and a non-aqueous electrolyte. In repeated charging and discharging of the anode lithium atoms and ions are readily transported between the graphene planes of the anode and the electrolyte. The invention relates to a graphene composite lithium ion battery anode material lithium iron phosphate and a preparation method thereof. The composite material of lithium iron phosphate and graphene is connected by interface of chemical bonding. The invention also provides the method for preparing the graphene composite lithium ion battery anode material lithium iron phosphate in an in-situ symbiosis reaction mode and the obtained anode material has high tap density and good magnifying performance and is suitable to be used as a anode material of a lithium ion power battery.

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US20020182505

US6881521

US20090047579

US20110012067

Electrode material for lithium secondary battery and lithium secondary battery using the same

Carbon fiber electrode material for lithium secondary battery and lithium secondary battery

Carbon anode compositions for lithium ion batteries

LITHIUM MANGANESE PHOSPHATE/CAR BON NANOCOMPOSIT ES AS CATHODE ACTIVE MATERIALS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES

GSI CREOS CORP

GSI CREOS CORP

GUO JIUSHENG,JANG BOR Z,SHI JINJUN,ZHAMU ARUNA

HIGH POWER LITHIUM S.A.

2002-03-18

An electrode material for a secondary battery has a carbon fiber. This carbon fiber has a coaxial stacking morphology of truncated conical tubular graphene layers wherein each of the truncated conical tubular graphene layers includes a hexagonal carbon layer and has a large ring end at one end and a small ring end at the other end in an axial direction. The hexagonal carbon layers are exposed on at least a part of the large ring ends. Such an electrode material for a secondary battery excels in lifetime performance has a large electric energy density enables an increase in capacity and excels in conductivity and electrode reinforcement.

2002-03-18

A carbon fiber has a coaxial stacking morphology of truncated conical tubular graphene layers wherein each of the truncated conical tubular graphene layers includes a hexagonal carbon layer and has a large ring end at one end and a small ring end at the other end in an axial direction. The hexagonal carbon layers are exposed on at least a part of the large ring ends. Part of carbon atoms of the hexagonal carbon layers are replaced with boron atoms whereby projections with the boron atoms at the top are formed. An electrode material for a secondary battery using the carbon fiber excels in lifetime performance has a large electric energy density enables an increase in capacity and excels in conductivity and electrode reinforcement.

2007-08-17

A lithium secondary battery comprising a positive electrode a negative electrode comprising a carbonaceous material which is capable of absorbing and desorbing lithium ions and a non-aqueous electrolyte disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode. The carbonaceous material comprises a graphite crystal structure having an interplanar spacing d002 of at least 0.400 nm (preferably at least 0.55 nm) as determined from a (002) reflection peak in powder X-ray diffraction. This larger interplanar spacing implies a larger interstitial space between two graphene planes to accommodate a greater amount of lithium. The battery exhibits an exceptional specific capacity excellent reversible capacity and long cycle life.

2009-04-14

The invention relates to a lithium manganese phosphate/carbon nanocomposite as cathode material for rechargeable electrochemical cells with the general formula LixMnyM1-y(PO4)z/C where M is at least one other metal such as Fe Ni Co Cr V Mg Ca Al B Zn Cu Nb Ti Zr La Ce Y x 0.8-1.1 y 0.5-1.0 0.9z1.1 with a carbon content of 0.5 to 20 percent by weight characterized by the fact that it is obtained by milling of suitable precursors of LixMnyM1-y(PO4)Z with electro-conductive carbon black having a specific surface area of at least 80 m2/g or with graphite having a specific surface area of at least 9.5 m2/g or with activated carbon having a specific surface area of at least 200 m2/g. The invention also concerns a process for manufacturing said nanocomposite.

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US20100021819

US20100143798

Graphene nanocomposites for electrochemical cell electrodes

Nano graphene reinforced nanocomposite particles for lithium battery electrodes

JANG BOR Z,SHI JINJUN,ZHAMU ARUNA

JANG BOR Z,SHI JINJUN,ZHAMU ARUNA

2008-07-28

A composite composition for electrochemical cell electrode applications the composition comprising multiple solid particles wherein (a) a solid particle is composed of graphene platelets dispersed in or bonded by a first matrix or binder material wherein the graphene platelets are not obtained from graphitization of the first binder or matrix material; (b) the graphene platelets have a length or width in the range of 10 nm to 10 mum; (c) the multiple solid particles are bonded by a second binder material; and (d) the first or second binder material is selected from a polymer polymeric carbon amorphous carbon metal glass ceramic oxide organic material or a combination thereof. For a lithium ion battery anode application the first binder or matrix material is preferably amorphous carbon or polymeric carbon. Such a composite composition provides a high anode capacity and good cycling response. For a supercapacitor electrode application the solid particles preferably have meso-scale pores therein to accommodate electrolyte.

2008-12-04

A solid nanocomposite particle composition for lithium metal or lithium ion battery electrode applications. The composition comprises: (A) an electrode active material in a form of fine particles rods wires fibers or tubes with a dimension smaller than 1 micro m; (B) nano graphene platelets (NGPs); and (C) a protective matrix material reinforced by the NGPs; wherein the graphene platelets and the electrode active material are dispersed in the matrix material and the NGPs occupy a weight fraction wg of 1 percent to 90 percent of the total nanocomposite weight the electrode active material occupies a weight fraction wa of 1 percent to 90 percent of the total nanocomposite weight and the matrix material occupies a weight fraction wm of at least 2 percent of the total nanocomposite weight with wg+wa+wm 1. For a lithium ion battery anode application the matrix material is preferably amorphous carbon polymeric carbon or meso-phase carbon. Such a solid nanocomposite composition provides a high anode capacity and good cycling stability. For a cathode application the resulting lithium metal or lithium ion battery exhibits an exceptionally high cycle life.

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US20100176337

US20090090640

Process for producing nano graphene reinforced composite particles for lithium battery electrodes

Process for producing carbon anode compositions for lithium ion batteries

JANG BOR Z,SHI JINJUN,ZHAMU ARUNA

JANG BOR Z,ZHAMU ARUNA

2009-01-13

A process for producing solid nanocomposite particles for lithium metal or lithium ion battery electrode applications is provided. In one preferred embodiment the process comprises: (A) Preparing an electrode active material in a form of fine particles rods wires fibers or tubes with a dimension smaller than 1 micro m; (B) Preparing separated or isolated nano graphene platelets with a thickness less than 50 nm; (C) Dispersing the nano graphene platelets and the electrode active material in a precursor fluid medium to form a suspension wherein the fluid medium contains a precursor matrix material dispersed or dissolved therein; and (D) Converting the suspension to the solid nanocomposite particles wherein the precursor matrix material is converted into a protective matrix material reinforced by the nano graphene platelets and the electrode active material is substantially dispersed in the protective matrix material. For a lithium ion battery anode application the matrix material is preferably amorphous carbon polymeric carbon or meso-phase carbon. Such solid nanocomposite particles provide a high anode capacity and good cycling stability. For a cathode application the resulting lithium metal or lithium ion battery exhibits an exceptionally high cycle life.

2007-10-05

This invention provides a process for producing a lithium secondary battery. The process comprises: (a) providing a positive electrode; (b) providing a negative electrode comprising a carbonaceous material capable of absorbing and desorbing lithium ions wherein the carbonaceous material is obtained by chemically or electrochemically treating a laminar graphite material to form a graphite crystal structure having an interplanar spacing d002 of at least 0.400 nm as determined from a (002) reflection peak in powder X-ray diffraction; and (c) providing a nonaqueous electrolyte disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode to form the battery structure. This larger interplanar spacing (greater than 0.400 nm preferably no less than 0.55 nm) implies a larger interstitial space between two graphene planes to accommodate a greater amount of lithium. The resulting battery exhibits an exceptionally high specific capacity an excellent reversible capacity and a long cycle life.

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US20090176159

Mixed nanofilament electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

JANG BOR Z,ZHAMU ARUNA

2008-01-09

US20090186276

Hybrid nanofilament cathode compositions for lithium metal or lithium ion batteries

JANG BOR Z,ZHAMU ARUNA

2008-01-18

US20100120179

Method of producing prelithiated anodes for secondary lithium ion batteries

JANG BOR Z,ZHAMU ARUNA

2008-11-13

This invention provides a mixed nano-filament composition for use as an electrochemical cell electrode. The composition comprises: (a) an aggregate of nanometer-scaled electrically conductive filaments that are substantially interconnected intersected or percolated to form a porous electrically conductive filament network wherein the filaments have a length and a diameter or thickness with the diameter/thickness less than 500 nm (preferably 100 nm) and a length-to-diameter or length-to-thickness aspect ratio greater than 10; and (b) Multiple nanometer-scaled electro-active filaments comprising an electro-active material capable of absorbing and desorbing lithium ions wherein the electro-active filaments have a diameter or thickness less than 500 nm (preferably 100 nm). The electro-active filaments (e.g. nanowires) and the electrically conductive filaments (e.g. carbon nano fibers) are mixed to form a mat- web- or porous paper-like structure in which at least an electro-active filament is in electrical contact with at least an electrically conductive filament. Also provided is a lithium ion battery comprising such an electrode as an anode or cathode or both. The battery exhibits an exceptionally high specific capacity an excellent reversible capacity and a long cycle life. This invention provides a hybrid nano-filament composition for use as a cathode active material. The composition comprises (a) an aggregate of nanometer-scaled electrically conductive filaments that are substantially interconnected intersected or percolated to form a porous electrically conductive filament network wherein the filaments have a length and a diameter or thickness with the diameter or thickness being less than 500 nm; and (b) micron- or nanometer-scaled coating that is deposited on a surface of the filaments wherein the coating comprises a cathode active material capable of absorbing and desorbing lithium ions and the coating has a thickness less than 10 mum preferably less than 1 mum and more preferably less than 500 nm. Also provided is a lithium metal battery or lithium ion battery that comprises such a cathode. Preferably the battery includes an anode that is manufactured according to a similar hybrid nano filament approach. The battery exhibits an exceptionally high specific capacity an excellent reversible capacity and a long cycle life. A method of producing a lithium-ion battery anode comprising: (a) providing an anode active material; (b) intercalating or absorbing a desired amount of lithium into this anode active material to produce a prelithiated anode active material; (c) comminuting the prelithiated anode active material into fine particles with an average size less than 10 micro m (preferably sub-micron and more preferably 200 nm); and (d) combining multiple fine particles of prelithiated anode active material with a conductive additive and/or a binder material to form the anode. The battery featuring such an anode exhibits an exceptionally high specific capacity an excellent reversible capacity and a long cycle life.

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US20100173198

US20100317790

DE10108361

Secondary lithium ion battery containing a prelithiated anode

GRAPHENE COMPOSITE NANOFIBER AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF Modified anode material for lithium secondary battery with non-aqueous electrolyte or polymer gel is based on natural or synthetic carbon material reacted with metal alkyl

JANG BOR Z,ZHAMU ARUNA

2009-01-02

KOREA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

2010-02-25

The present invention provides a lithium ion battery that exhibits a significantly improved specific capacity and much longer charge-discharge cycle life. In one preferred embodiment the battery comprises an anode active material that has been prelithiated and pre-pulverized. This anode may be prepared with a method that comprises (a) providing an anode active material (preferably in the form of fine powder or thin film); (b) intercalating or absorbing a desired amount of lithium into the anode active material to produce a prelithiated anode active material; (c) comminuting the prelithiated anode active material into fine particles with an average size less than 10 micro m (preferably 1 micro m and most preferably 200 nm); and (d) combining multiple fine particles of the prelithiated anode active material with a conductive additive and/or a binder material to form the anode. Preferably the prelithiated particles are protected by a lithium ion-conducting matrix or coating material. Further preferably the matrix material is reinforced with nano graphene platelets. Disclosed are a graphene composite nanofiber and a preparation method thereof. The graphene composite nanofiber is produced by dispersing graphenes to at least one of a surface and inside of a polymer nanofiber or a carbon nanofiber having a diameter of 11000 nm and the graphenes include at least one type of monolayer graphenes and multilayer graphenes having a thickness of 10 nm or less. The graphene composite nanofiber can be applied to various industrial fields e.g. a light emitting display a micro resonator a transistor a sensor a transparent electrode a fuel cell a solar cell a secondary cell and a composite material owing to a unique structure and property of graphene.

2001-02-21

Modified anode material for lithium secondary batteries comprises carbon (C) material e.g. carbon black coke graphite graphene mesophase graphite mesocarbon microbeads of natural or synthetic origin reacted with metal alkyls (I).

LITHIUM TECHNOLOGY CORP

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WO2009153051

US7186474

US7745047

USE OF A SUPERFINE EXPANDED GRAPHITE AND PREPARATION THEREOF

Nanocomposite compositions for hydrogen storage and methods for supplying hydrogen to fuel cells

Nano graphene platelet-base composite anode compositions for lithium ion batteries

MAX-PLANCKGESELLSCHAFT

NANOTEK INSTRUMENTS INC.

NANOTEK INSTRUMENTS INC.

2009-06-19

This application relates to the use of an expanded graphite material prepared by adding C1F3 in liquid form to solid carbon by heating the mixture at a reaction temperature between 22 to 100 degrees centigrade to form intercalated compounds of the formula C2F.xC1F3 and C1Fgas with the C2F being a solid material present in layers and the C1F3 being a gaseous material present between adjacent layers of C2F according to the reaction C (solid) + (x+1/2) C1F3 (liquid) C2F.xC1F3 (solid) +1/2C1F(gas). The method further comprises the step of subsequently heating the intercalated compound to expel the C1F3 gas and to simultaneously form CF4 gas with the gas formation and expulsion serving to expand the structure formed by the C2F layers with the C2F layers changing composition to carbon layers with a percentage of fluorine in the range up to 5 percent said heating temperature lying in the range from 400 to 500 degrees centigrade Such an expanded graphite material is particularly useful in electrochemical devices e.g as an anode in a lithium ion battery or as a catalyst support.

2004-08-03

A core-shell composition for gas storage comprising a hollow or porous core and a shell comprising a nanocomposite. The nanocomposite is composed of an exfoliated layered filler dispersed in a matrix material which provides high mechanical strength to hold a high pressure gas such as hydrogen and high resistance to gas permeation. Alternatively the porous core may contain a plurality of cavities selected from the group consisting of shell-hollow core micro-spheres shell-porous core micro-spheres and combinations thereof. These core-shell compositions each capable of containing a great amount of hydrogen gas can be used to store and feed hydrogen to fuel cells that supply electricity to apparatus such as portable electronic devices automobiles and unmanned aerial vehicles where mass is a major concern. A related method of storing and releasing hydrogen gas in or out of a plurality of core-shell compositions is also disclosed.

2007-11-05

The present invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet-based composite material composition for use as an electrode particularly as an anode of a lithium ion battery. The composition comprises: (a) micron- or nanometer-scaled particles or coating which are capable of absorbing and desorbing lithium ions; and (b) a plurality of nanoscaled graphene platelets (NGPs) wherein a platelet comprises a graphene sheet or a stack of graphene sheets having a platelet thickness less than 100 nm; wherein at least one of the particles or coating is physically attached or chemically bonded to at least one of the graphene platelets and the amount of platelets is in the range of 2 percent to 90 percent by weight and the amount of particles or coating in the range of 98 percent to 10 percent by weight. Also provided is a lithium secondary battery comprising such a negative electrode (anode). The battery exhibits an exceptional specific capacity an excellent reversible capacity and a long cycle life.

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WO2010027336

US6812634

US20100291438

NANOPARTICLE DECORATED NANOSTRUCTUR ED MATERIAL AS ELECTRODE MATERIAL AND METHOD FOR OBTAINING THE SAME

Graphite nanofibers electron-emitting source and method for preparing the same display element equipped with the electronemitting source as well as lithium ion secondary battery

ELECTRODE MATERIAL LITHIUM-ION BATTERY AND METHOD THEREOF

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICA L UNIVERSITY

NIHON SHINKU GIJUTSU KABUSHIKI KAISHA

PDC ENERGY LLC

2009-09-07

The present invention refers to a nanostructured material comprising nanoparticles bound to its surface. The nanostructured material comprises nanoparticles which are bound to the surface wherein the nanoparticles have a maximal dimension of about 20 nm. Furthermore the nanostructured material comprises pores having a maximal dimension of between about 2 nm to about 5 micrometres. The nanoparticles bound on the surface of the nanostructured material are noble metal nanoparticles or metal oxide nanoparticles or mixtures thereof. The present invention also refers to a method of their manufacture and the use of these materials as electrode material.

2001-02-05

A graphite nanofiber material herein provided has a cylindrical structure in which graphene sheets each having an ice-cream cone-like shape whose tip is cut off are put in layers through catalytic metal particles; or a structure in which small pieces of graphene sheets having a shape adapted for the facial shape of a catalytic metal particle are put on top of each other through the catalytic metal particles. The catalytic metal comprises Fe Co or an alloy including at least one of these metals. The material can be used for producing an electron-emitting source a display element which is designed in such a manner that only a desired portion of a luminous body emits light a negative electrode carbonaceous material for batteries and a lithium ion secondary battery. The electron-emitting source (a cold cathode ray source) has a high electron emission density and an ability of emitting electrons at a low electric field which have never or less been attained by the carbon nanotube. The negative electrode carbonaceous material for batteries has a high quantity of doped lithium and ensures high charging and discharging efficiencies. Moreover the lithium ion secondary battery has a sufficiently long cycle life a fast charging ability and high charging and discharging capacities.

2009-06-12

The invention provides an anode comprising a nanocomposite of graphene-oxide and a siliconbased polymer matrix. The anode exhibits a high energy density such as 800 mAhg1 reversible capacity a superlative power density that exceeds 250 kW/kg a good stability and a robust resistance to failure among others. The anodes can be widely used in a lithium-ion battery an electric car a hybrid electromotive car a mobile phone and a personal computer etc. The invention also provides a liquid phase process and a solid-state process for making the nanocomposite both involving in-situ reduction of the graphene-oxide during a pyrolysis procedure.

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CN101462719

Preparation of graphene

PEKING UNIVERSITY

2009-01-16

CN101717083

Graphene and preparation method thereof

PEKING UNIVERSITY

2009-12-29

The invention discloses a method for preparing graphene which belongs to the technical field of chemical synthesis. The method is characterized in that sodium metal and halogenated hydrocarbon are taken as raw materials to react in a solvent in inert atmosphere so as to prepare the grapheme; reaction temperature is preferably between 120 and 400 DEG C and is more preferably between 160 and 360 DEG C; the molar ratio of the sodium metal to the halogenated hydrocarbon is preferably between 1:1 and 100:1 wherein the halogenated hydrocarbon can be added before reaction or during the reaction; and the halogenated hydrocarbon is preferably halogenated C1-4 aliphatic hydrocarbon and halogenated benzene such as tetrachloroethylene hexachlorobenzene trichloroethylene bromobenzene ethylenetetrabromide and the like. The method also preferably performs post-treatment on the prepared graphene so as to improve purity. The method has the advantages of simple equipment easy operation low cost high yield and good product properties can play an important role in the industrial production of graphene and related products such as lithium ion batteries and the like and is broad in application prospects. The invention provides a graphene and a preparation method thereof belonging to the technical field of grapheme synthesis. Nitrogen-doped grapheme can be prepared by using a direct current electric arc method and taking mixed gas of ammonia gas and helium gas as reaction atmosphere. The nitrogendoped grapheme with high yield can be prepared by adopting the preparation method of the grapheme under low pressure and low current and has high production safety. The purity of the prepared grapheme is over 97 percent; by the characterization of a transmission electron microscope the layer number of the prepared grapheme is between 2 and 6 the size of grapheme sheets is between 100 and 200 nanometers and the interlayer spacing is about 0.4 nanometer. The produced nitrogen-doped grapheme has favorable application prospect in catalyst carriers lithium ion batteries conductive thin films and other aspects.

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CN101604750

Preparation method of negative electrode material of lithium ion battery

SHANGHAI JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY

2009-07-09

CN101800302

Graphene nanometer sheetcobaltous oxide composite negative electrode material of lithium ion battery and preparation method thereof

SHANGHAI JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY

2010-04-15

The invention discloses a preparation method of negative electrode material of lithium ion battery; oxidation ultrasonic dispersion vacuum filtration natural air drying are carried out on the crystalline flake graphite using sodium nitrate potassium permanganate and concentrated sulfuric acid to obtain the lithium ion battery negative electrode material namely graphene film with an area of 0.1100 cm and a thickness of 0.1-100 microns. The negative electrode material in the invention has the advantages of high conductivity large reaction area large free expansion space in charge and discharge and adaption to different environments with high charge and discharge rates and the like thus realizing high cycling battery performance high battery specific capacity and swift charge and discharge capabilities of batteries; the reversible specific capacity can maintain above 300mAh-g when charging and discharging with current of 100mAhg.The preparation process of the negative electrode material of lithium ion battery is free of agglomerant conductive agent and metal current collectors thus simplifying production process greatly reducing cost and being applicable to industrialized production. The invention relates to a graphene nanometer sheet-cobaltous oxide composite negative electrode material of a lithium ion battery and a preparation method thereof and belongs to the technical field of batteries. The negative electrode material consists of graphene nanometer sheets and cobaltous oxide wherein the graphene nanometer sheets are distributed on cobaltous oxide particles in a staggering way; the mass fraction of the graphene nanometer sheets is 5 to 90 percent; the thickness of the graphene nanometer sheets is 1 to 50 nanometers; and the particle size of the cobaltous oxide is 10 to 500 nanometers. The preparation method comprises the following steps: dispersing graphite oxide in alcohol-water solution or aqueous solution with ultrasound or stirring; adding cobalt salt alkali and a reducing agent into the mixture and pouring the mixture into a hydrothermal kettle after stirring; performing further sealing and synchronous hydrothermal reaction washing filtering and drying to obtain a graphene nanometer sheet-cobaltous oxide composite; and processing the graphene nanometer sheet-cobaltous oxide composite in the protective atmosphere to obtain the graphene nanometer sheetcobaltous oxide composite negative electrode material. In the invention when the material is charged or discharged by a current of 200mA/g the reversible specific capacity of the material can be stabilized in a range of over 900mAh/g.

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CN101867046

US20090123850

US7150840

Composite anode material of graphene nanoflakes and cobalt hydroxide for lithium ion battery and preparation method thereof

METHOD FOR PRODUCING ANODE FOR LITHIUM SECONDARY BATTERY AND ANODE COMPOSITION AND LITHIUM SECONDARY BATTERY

Graphite fine carbon fiber and production method and use thereof

SHANGHAI JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY

SHOWA DENKO K.K.

SHOWA DENKO K.K.

2010-04-15

The invention provides a composite anode material of graphene nanoflakes and cobalt hydroxide for a lithium ion battery and a preparation method thereof. The anode material is composed of graphene nanoflakes and cobalt hydroxide wherein the graphene nanoflakes are in interlaced distribution on the cobalt hydroxide particles; the mass fraction of the graphene nanoflakes is 10-90 percent and the thickness thereof is 1-50 nanometers; the particle diameter of the cobalt hydroxide is 0.5-30 micrometers. The preparation method comprises the following steps: carrying out ultrasound or stirring on graphite oxide firstly to disperse in alcohol-water solution or water solution; adding cobalt salt alkali and reductive agent to the solution; pouring the solution into a hydrothermal reactor after being stirred; and then sealing reacting filtering washing and stoving the solution. As the anode material charges or discharges in 200 mA/g electric current the reversible specific capacity of the composite material can be stabilized to be above 900 mAh/g.

2006-07-03

The invention relates to an anode for lithium secondary battery comprising vapor grown carbon fiber uniformly dispersed without forming an agglomerate of 10 mum or larger in an anode active material using natural graphite or artificial graphite which anode is excellent in long cycle life and large current characteristics. Composition used for production for the anode can be produced for example by mixing a thickening agent solution containing an anode active material a thickening agent aqueous solution and styrene butadiene rubber as binder with a composition containing carbon fiber dispersed in a thickening agent with a predetermined viscosity or by mixing an anode active material with vapor grown carbon fiber in dry state and then adding polyvinylidene difluoride thereto.

2003-08-27

A graphitized fine carbon fiber comprising a hollow space extending along its center axis and a plurality of graphene sheets wherein the fiber has an end surface comprising a portion of discontinuity in which ends of graphene sheets are not bonded to one another and at least one portion of continuity comprised of at least one group of graphene sheets in which one graphene sheet is bonded to another graphene sheet adjacent thereto.

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CN101800310

EP2237346

US20100308277

Method for preparing graphene-doped anode material for lithium-ion batteries

Electrically conductive nanocomposite material comprising sacrificial nanoparticles and open porous nanocomposites produced thereof

ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE NANOCOMPOSIT E MATERIAL COMPRISING SACRIFICIAL NANOPARTICLES AND OPEN POROUS NANOCOMPOSIT ES PRODUCED THEREOF

SUZHOU INSTITUTE OF NANO TECH AND NANO BIONICS

SWATCH GROUP

SWATCH GROUP

2010-04-02

The invention discloses a method for preparing a graphene-doped anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The main component of the anode material is lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles. The method comprises the following steps of: firstly preparing the graphene graphene oxide and intercalation graphene respectively; secondly doping the mixture of the graphene the graphene oxide and the intercalation graphene in the synthetic material of the lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles or directly mixing the lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles and the intercalation graphene the graphene oxide or chemically reduced graphene after the preparation of lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles; and finally synthesizing the graphene or graphene oxide bridged or lithium iron phosphate nanoparticle-clad material after the treatment of drying filtering eluting redrying and annealing. The lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles prepared by the method of the invention are characterized by the capability of greatly improving electron conductivity and providing the lithium-ion batteries anode material having the advantages of simple processing technique low cost high capacity and safety for lithium-ion batteries.

2009-04-01

Nanocomposits of conductive nanoparticulate polymer and electronically active material in particular PEDOT and LiFePO 4 were found to be significantly better compared to bare and carbon coated LiFePO 4 in carbon black and graphite filled non conducting binder. The conductive polymer containing composite outperformed the other two samples. The performance of PEDOT composite was especially better in the high current regime with capacity retention of 82 percent after 200 cycles. Further improvement can be obtained if the porosity of the nanocomposit is enhanced. Hence an electrode produced from a composite made of conductive nanoparticulate polymer electronically active material and sacrificial polymer wherein the sacrificial polymer has been removed leaving pores has improved electrolyte and ion diffusion properties allowing the production of thicker electrodes.

2010-03-11

Nanocomposites of conductive nanoparticulate polymer and electronically active material in particular PEDOT and LiFePO4 were found to be significantly better compared to bare and carbon coated LiFePO4 in carbon black and graphite filled non conducting binder. The conductive polymer containing composite outperformed the other two samples. The performance of PEDOT composite was especially better in the high current regime with capacity retention of 82 percent after 200 cycles. Further improvement can be obtained if the porosity of the nanocomposites is enhanced. Hence an electrode produced from a composite made of conductive nanoparticulate polymer electronically active material and sacrificial polymer wherein the sacrificial polymer has been removed leaving pores has improved electrolyte and ion diffusion properties allowing the production of thicker electrodes.

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WO2010101936

JP2009151956

WO2010123081

US7094499

METHOD FOR PREPARING UNIQUE COMPOSITION HIGH PERFORMANCE ANODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES

LITHIUM ION SECONDARY BATTERY

CARBON MATERIAL AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING SAME

Carbon materials metal/metal oxide nanoparticle composite and battery anode composed of the same

THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

TOYOTA GROUP

TOYOTA GROUP

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AS REPRESENTED BY THE ADMINISTRATOR OF NASA

2010-03-02

A novel method for preparing unique composition high-performance anode materials with high energy density high power density high stability and excellent cyclability for electrochemical energy storage devices in particular for lithium ion batteries wherein this method and material circumvent and surpass the limitations of those methods and materials currently available.

2007-12-18

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a lithium ion secondary battery having energy density higher than a battery using graphite in a negative active material and cycle characteristics equal to or higher than it. SOLUTION: The lithium ion secondary battery uses a graphene compound including hexabenzocoronene as a base skeleton having 18 C to 144 C [for example general formula (1)] as a negative active material.

2010-04-22

Disclosed is a method for producing a carbon material which is mainly composed of graphenecontaining carbon particles. The method comprises a step in which carbon particles are formed from an organic material by maintaining a mixture that contains the organic material as a starting material hydrogen peroxide and water at a temperature of 300-1 000 degrees centigrade and a pressure of not less than 22 MPa. The method also comprises a step in which the carbon particles are subjected to a heat treatment that is carried out at a temperature higher than the temperature at which the mixture is maintained in the carbon particle formation step. The carbon material produced by the method is useful as an active material for a secondary battery or an active material for an electric double layer capacitor since substances such as ions can easily enter into and exit from the spaces between graphenes in the carbon particles due to the structure of the carbon material.

2003-06-10

A method of forming a composite material for use as an anode for a lithium-ion battery is disclosed. The steps include selecting a carbon material as a constituent part of the composite chemically treating the selected carbon material to receive nanoparticles incorporating nanoparticles into the chemically treated carbon material and removing surface nanoparticles from an outside surface of the carbon material with incorporated nanoparticles. A material making up the nanoparticles alloys with lithium.

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CN101572327

CN101693534

Lithium ion battery adopting graphene as cathode material

Preparation method of single-layer graphene

UNIVERSITY OF TIANJIN

UNIVERSITY OF TIANJIN

2009-06-11

The invention provides a lithium ion battery adopting graphene as a cathode material. The lithium ion battery which is prepared by the low-temperature method and adopts the graphene material as the cathode material includes a metal casing a plate electrode electrolytic solution and a septum wherein active substances used by the anode plate electrode are commonly used anode materials for the lithium ion battery and include lithium cobaltate lithium iron phosphate lithium manganate lithium nickelate a ternary lithium-nickelate-cobaltate-manganate material and the like; and the electrolytic solution is lithium hexaflourophosphate electrolytic solution used by the lithium ion battery. The cathode of the lithium ion battery adopting the graphene material as the cathode material is made of the graphene material. The first discharge capacity of the lithium ion battery adopting the graphene material as the cathode material can reach 400 to 800mAh/g and the first charge discharge efficiency can reach 40 to 90 percent; and after 20 cycles the discharge capacity of the lithium ion battery can still reach 380 to 450mAh/g. The lithium ion battery has the advantages of simple preparation process of the graphene material easy operation and low cost; and the lithium ion battery adopting the graphene as the cathode material has high discharge capacity and favorable cycle performance.

2009-10-09

The invention relates to a preparation method of single-layer grapheme and belongs to the technical field of grapheme preparation. Single-layer graphene oxide is used as raw materials and the invention comprises the following steps: dropwise adding concentrated sulfuric acid according to volume ratio in single-layer graphene oxide water dispersion liquid under the condition of an ice-water bath to prepare reaction liquid with sulfuric acid mass concentration of 70 percent -90 percent; reacting at 60 DEG C-100 DEG C and then diluting with deionized water cooling to room temperature and filtering; washing a filter cake with the deionized water placing the filter cake in a vacuum dryer and drying at 65 DEG C-75 degrees centrigrade to obtain black grapheme. The invention has the advantages of low raw material cost no poisons or damages and simple operation and is suitable for mass production. The prepared singlelayer grapheme can be used in micro electronic elements lithium ion batteries fuel batteries nano reinforced composites and other fields and has wide application prospects.

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CN101794874

Electrode with grapheme as conductive additive and application thereof in lithium ion battery

UNIVERSITY OF TIANJIN

2009-08-25

The invention relates to an electrode with grapheme as conductive additive and application thereof in a lithium ion battery. 1 to 30 percent of graphene active substance is added into positive pole active substance; or grapheme which is 1 to 30 percent of the active substance in percentage by weight is added into negative pole active substance. The assembled lithium ion battery is the lithium ion battery with the positive pole added with graphene conductive additive and the negative pole the same with the negative pole of the traditional industrial lithium ion battery or the lithium ion battery the positive pole of which is the same with the positive pole of the traditional industrial lithium ion battery and the negative pole added with the graphene conductive additive or the lithium ion battery with the positive pole and the negative pole simultaneously added with the graphene conductive additive. The invention significantly improves the high-power charge and discharge properties as well as the charge and discharge efficiency and the cycle life of the battery; and researches have shown that the charge and discharge properties of the lithium iron phosphate of the grapheme which is 10 percent of the active substance in percentage by weight are close to or better than the charge and discharge properties of the lithium iron phosphate which contains 20 percent of conductive carbon black.

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Transistor Patents Patent Number

Title

Assignees

Filing Date

US7858990

Device and process of forming device with pre-patterned trench and graphene-based device structure formed therein

ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES INC.

2008-08-29

US20100051907

Devices including graphene layers epitaxially grown on single crystal substrates

ALCATEL-LUCENT INC.

2009-10-01

WO2010059153

NONVOLATILE NANOTUBE DIODES AND NONVOLATILE NANOTUBE BLOCKS AND SYSTEMS USING SAME AND METHODS OF MAKING SAME

BERTIN CLAUDE L,GHENCIU ELIODOR G,MANNING MONTGOMERY H,NANTERO INC.,RUECKERS THOMAS

2008-11-19

Abstract A graphene-based device is formed with a trench in one or more layers of material a graphene layer within the trench and a device structure on the graphene layer and within the trench. Fabrication techniques includes forming a trench defined by one or more layers of material forming a graphene layer within the trench and forming a device structure on the graphene layer and within the trench. An electronic device comprises a body including a single crystal region on a major surface of the body. The single crystal region has a hexagonal crystal lattice that is substantially lattice-matched to graphene and a at least one epitaxial layer of graphene is disposed on the single crystal region. In a currently preferred embodiment the single crystal region comprises multilayered hexagonal BN. A method of making such an electronic device comprises the steps of: (a) providing a body including a single crystal region on a major surface of the body. The single crystal region has a hexagonal crystal lattice that is substantially lattice-matched to graphene and (b) epitaxially forming a at least one graphene layer on that region. In a currently preferred embodiment step (a) further includes the steps of (a1) providing a single crystal substrate of graphite and (a2) epitaxially forming multilayered single crystal hexagonal BN on the substrate. The hexagonal BN layer has a surface region substantially latticematched to graphene and step (b) includes epitaxially forming at least one graphene layer on the surface region of the hexagonal BN layer. Applications to FETs are described. A high-density memory array. A plurality of word lines and a plurality of bit lines are arranged to access a plurality of memory cells. Each memory cell includes a first conductive terminal and an article in physical and electrical contact with the first conductive terminal the article comprising a plurality of nanoscopic particles. A second conductive terminal is in physical and electrical contact with the article. Select circuitry is arranged in electrical communication with a bit line of the plurality of bit lines and one of the first and second conductive terminals. The article has a physical dimension that defines a spacing between the first and second conductive terminals such that the nanotube article is interposed between the first and second conducive terminals. A logical state of each memory cell is selectable by activation only of the bit line and the word line connected to that memory cell.

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US20100127243

BI-LAYER PSEUDO-SPIN FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR

BOARD OF REGENTS THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS SYSTEM

2009-11-24

US20100224998

Integrated Circuit with Ribtan Interconnects

CARBEN SEMICON LTD.

2009-06-25

WO2009158552

PATTERNED INTEGRATED CIRCUIT AND METHOD OF PRODUCTION THEREOF

CARBEN SEMICON LTD.

2009-06-26

EP2230633

Neural network circuit comprising nanoscale synapses and CMOS neurons

COMMISSARIAT A LENERGIE ATOMIQUE

2009-03-17

A bi-layer pseudo-spin field-effect transistor (BiSFET) is disclosed. The BiSFET includes a first and second conduction layers separated by a tunnel dielectric. The BiSFET transistor also includes a first gate separated from the first conduction layer by an insulating dielectric layer and a second gate separated from the second conduction layer by an insulating layer. These conduction layers may be composed of graphene. The voltages applied to the first and/or second gates can control the peak current and associated voltage value for current flow between top and bottom conduction channels and interlayer current voltage characteristic exhibiting negative differential resistance. BiSFETs may be used to make a variety of logic gates. A clocked power supply scheme may be used to facilitate BiSFET-based logic. An integrated circuit (IC) includes an interconnect system made of electrically conducting ribtan material. The integrated circuit includes a substrate a set of circuit elements that are formed on the substrate an interconnect system that interconnects the circuit elements. At least part of the interconnect system is made of a metallic ribtan material. The present invention relates generally to the field of integrated electronics. More specifically the present invention relates to patterned graphene-like carbon-based integrated circuits and methods of production thereof. Methods of photo- electron-beam projection extremeultraviolet and imprint lithographic patterning and also several thermal patterning methods are disclosed in the present invention. The invention relates to a neural network circuit comprising nanoscale devices (411-415 421425) acting as synapses and CMOS circuits (201 202) acting as neurons. It finds a particular interest for computing circuits and systems involving complex functions or handling of huge amounts of data. Comparing with the existing proposals this architecture promises small die area high speed thanks to massively parallel learning and low power. The nanoscale devices (411-415 421-425) comprise two terminals and are connected to row conductors (221 222) and to column conductors (231-235) in a matrix-like fashion. A CMOS circuit (201 202) is connected at one end of each row conductor (221 222). An electrical characteristic between the two terminals of each nanoscale device (411-415 421-425) is able to be modified by a signal applied to the second terminal. The neural network further comprises for each row conductor (221 222) means (401 402) for preventing the electrical characteristics of the nanoscale devices (411-415 421-425) connected to the considered row conductor (221 222) from being modified by a signal applied to the second terminal of said nanoscale devices.

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Flexible transparent and self-supporting multi-layer film for e.g. organic LED device has organic and inorganic layers whose thicknesses are chosen such that total thickness of film is greater than or equal to ten micrometers

COMMISSARIAT A LENERGIE ATOMIQUE

2009-03-16

WO2009156539

METHOD FOR OBTAINING FULLERENES AND FULLERENES THUS OBTAINED

CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE INVESTIGACIONE S CIENTIFICAS,INST ITUTE OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH OF CATALONA ICIQ,INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE TECNOLOGIA AEROESPACIAL INTA

2009-06-18

US20100214012

ELECTRONICSTRUCTURE MODULATION TRANSISTOR

CORNELL UNIVERSITY

2010-02-23

US20100122976

THERMISTOR WITH 3 TERMINALS THERMISTORTRANSISTOR CIRCUIT FOR CONTROLLING HEAT OF POWER TRANSISTOR USING THE THERMISTORTRANSISTOR AND POWER SYSTEM INCLUDING THE CIRCUIT

ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICA TIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE

2009-10-29

FR2938375

The film (1) has an outer layer (4) and inorganic layers (12 22 32) respectively formed on organic polymeric layers (11 21 31). One of the organic layers form a film face that is delaminated with respect to a rigid silicon/glass substrate (2). The face is made of transparent polymer having reduced adhesion with the substrate. The organic and inorganic layers have thicknesses respectively ranging between 2 and 20 micrometers and between 20 and 200 micrometers and chosen such that total thickness of the film is greater than or equal to 10 micrometers to allow the delamination of the face. The outer layer is made of transparent conductive oxide such as indium tin oxide and zinc oxide or a compound chosen from graphene monolayer composite carbon nanotube and transparent conductive oxide/metal/transparent conductive oxide structure composites. An INDEPENDENT CLAIM is also included for a method for fabricating a flexible transparent and selfsupporting multi-layer film. The invention describes a method for producing fullerenes and heterofullerenes based on the dehydrogenation of organic precursors by means of the catalytic action of a highly reactive monocrystalline material for example Pt(III). The fullerenes are produced on curved surfaces (nanoparticles) or on sheets of the catalytic material and the fullerenes can be released subsequently for future uses. In addition sheets bearing adhered fullerenes may be used as molecular electronic devices for example as an electron donor in diodes molecular transistors photovoltaic cells or optical limiters wherein C60 forms the active layer. An electronic structure modulation transistor having two gates separated from a channel by corresponding dielectric layers wherein the channel is formed of a material having an electronic structure that is modified by an electric field across the channel. Provided are a thermistor with 3 terminals a thermistor-transistor including the thermistor a circuit for controlling heat of a power transistor using the thermistor-transistor and a power system including the circuit. The circuit includes: a thermistor-transistor which comprises a thermistor having a resistance decreasing with an increase in temperature and a control transistor connected to the thermistor; and at least one power transistor which is connected to a driving device to control a supply of power to the driving device wherein the thermistor-transistor is adhered to one of a surface and a heat-emitting part of the at least one power transistor and is connected to one of a base a gate a collector and a drain of the at least one power transistor to decrease or block a current flowing in the at least one power transistor when the temperature of the at least one power transistor rises so as to prevent the power transistor from heating up.

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US20100258787

FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR HAVING GRAPHENE CHANNEL LAYER

ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICA TIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE

2009-12-29

US20100285639

Devices With Graphene Layers

GARCIA JORGE MANUEL,PFEIFFE R LOREN N

2010-07-19

US7327000

Patterned thin film graphite devices and method for making same

GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH CORP

2005-12-14

GLOBALFOUNDRI ES INC.

2008-08-29

WO2010071633

Device and process of forming device with device structure formed in trench and graphene layer formed thereover SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURE HAVING AN ELOG ON A THERMALLY AND ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE MASK

US20090218563

NOVEL FABRICATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM WELL HETEROSTRUCTU RE DEVICES

US7858989

HEWLETTPACKARD CO

2008-12-16

HITACHI LTD.

2008-02-28

Provided is a field effect transistor including a graphene channel layer and capable of increasing an on/off ratio of an operating current by using the graphene of the graphene channel layer. The field effect transistor includes: a substrate; the graphene channel layer which is disposed on a portion of the substrate and includes graphene; a first electrode disposed on a first region of the graphene channel layer and a portion of the substrate; an interlayer disposed on a second region of the graphene channel layer which is apart from the first region and a portion of the substrate; a second electrode disposed on the interlayer; a gate insulation layer disposed on a portion of the graphene channel layer the first electrode and the second electrode; and a gate electrode disposed on a portion of the gate insulation layer. A method includes an act of providing a crystalline substrate with a diamond-type lattice and an exposed substantially (111)-surface. The method also includes an act of forming a graphene layer or a graphene-like layer on the exposed substantially (111)-surface. In a method of making graphite devices a preselected crystal face of a crystal is annealed to create a thin-film graphitic layer disposed against selected face. A preselected pattern is generated on the thin-film graphitic layer. A functional structure includes a crystalline substrate having a preselected crystal face. A thin-film graphitic layer is disposed on the preselected crystal face. The thin-film graphitic layer is patterned so as to define at least one functional structure. A graphene-based device is formed with a substrate having a trench therein a device structure on the substrate and within the trench a graphene layer over the device structure and a protective layer over the graphene layer. Fabrication techniques include forming a trench in a substrate forming a device structure within the trench forming a graphene layer over the device structure and forming a protective layer over the graphene layer.

A semiconductor structure includes a substrate a thermally and electrically conductive mask positioned upon the substrate and an epitaxial lateral over growth (ELOG) material positioned upon the thermally and electrically conductive mask. A device employing a quantum well structure having a pattern that is defined by a photolithographically patterned top gate electrode. By defining the active area of the quantum well structure by the patterning of the top gate electrode there is no need to pattern the quantum well structure itself such as by etching or other processes. This advantageously allows the active are of the quantum well structure to be patterned to a very small size without the damaging edge effects associated with the patterning of the quantum well structure itself.

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US20100270512

GRAPHENE GROWN SUBSTRATE AND ELECTRONIC/PHO TONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS USING SAME ELECTRICALLY CONNECTED GRAPHENE-METAL ELECTRODE DEVICE AND ELECTRONIC DEVICE ELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT AND ELECTROOPTICAL INTEGRATED CIRCUIT USING SAME

US20100200839

HITACHI LTD.

2009-11-24

HITACHI LTD.

2010-04-26

US20100200840

GRAPHENEBASED TRANSISTOR

IBM CORP

2010-04-22

US20100301336

Method to Improve Nucleation of Materials on Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes

IBM CORP

2009-06-02

A graphene-on-oxide substrate according to the present invention includes: a substrate having a metal oxide layer formed on its surface; and formed on the metal oxide layer a graphene layer including at least one atomic layer of the graphene. The graphene layer is grown generally parallel to the surface of the metal oxide layer and the inter-atomic-layer distance between the graphene atomic layer adjacent to the surface of the metal oxide layer and the surface atomic layer of the metal oxide layer is 0.34 nm or less. Preferably the arithmetic mean surface roughness Ra of the metal oxide layer is 1 nm or less.

An device according to the present invention comprises: graphene; and a metal electrode the metal electrode and the graphene being electrically connected the following relationship of Eq. (1) being satisfied: coth (r GP r C S) 1.3 Eq. (1) where rGP (in units of / micro m2) denotes the electrical resistance of a graphene layer per unit area rC (in units of micro m2) denotes the contact resistance per unit area between the graphene layer and a metal electrode and S denotes the contact area (in units of micro m2) between the graphene layer and the metal electrode. A graphene layer is formed on a surface of a silicon carbide substrate. A dummy gate structure is formed over the fin in the trench or on a portion of the planar graphene layer to implant dopants into source and drain regions. The dummy gate structure is thereafter removed to provide an opening over the channel of the transistor. Threshold voltage adjustment implantation may be performed to form a threshold voltage implant region directly beneath the channel which comprises the graphene layer. A gate dielectric is deposited over a channel portion of the graphene layer. After an optional spacer formation a gate conductor is formed by deposition and planarization. The resulting graphene-based field effect transistor has a high carrier mobility due to the graphene layer in the channel low contact resistance to the source and drain region and optimized threshold voltage and leakage due to the threshold voltage implant region. Techniques for forming a thin coating of a material on a carbon-based material are provided. In one aspect a method for forming a thin coating on a surface of a carbon-based material is provided. The method includes the following steps. An ultra thin silicon nucleation layer is deposited to a thickness of from about two angstroms to about 10 angstroms on at least a portion of the surface of the carbonbased material to facilitate nucleation of the coating on the surface of the carbon-based material. The thin coating is deposited to a thickness of from about two angstroms to about 100 angstroms over the ultra thin silicon layer to form the thin coating on the surface of the carbon-based material.

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US7811906

Carbon-on-insulator substrates by inplace bonding

IBM CORP

2009-11-04

US20100084697

NOVEL CAPACITORS AND CAPACITOR-LIKE DEVICES

KOPP THILO,MANNHAR T JOCHEN DIETER

2009-09-30

An in-place bonding method in which a metal template layer under a carbon layer is removed while the carbon layer is still attached to a substrate is described for forming a carbon-oninsulator substrate. In one embodiment of the in-place bonding method at least one layered metal/carbon (M/C) region is formed on an insulating surface layer of an initial substrate structure. The at least one layered M/C region has edges that are bordered by exposed regions of the insulating surface layer. Some edges of the at least one layered M/C region are then secured to a base substrate of the initial structure via a securing structure while other edges are left exposed. A selective metal etchant removes the metal layer under the carbon layer using the exposed edges for access. After metal etching the nowunsupported carbon layer bonds to the underlying insulating surface layer by attraction. A capacitor and capacitor-like device or any other device showing capacitive effects including FETs transmission lines piezoelectric and ferroelectric devices etc. with at least two electrodes of which at least one electrode consists of or comprises a material or is generated as electron system whose absolute value of the electronic charging energy as defined by the charging-induced change of Ekin+Eexc+Ecorr exceeds 10 percent of the charging-induced change of the Coulomb field energy of the capacitor according to E Ecoul+Ekin+Eexc+Ecorr. Therein E is the energy of a capacitor and Ecoul Q2/2 Ccoul Q2d/(2 0 x A) A is the area of the capacitor electrodes d is the distance and 0x the dielectric constant between them. Ecorr describes the correlation energy Ekin the electronic kinetic energy and Eexc the exchange energy of the electrode material. Particularly in miniaturized devices Ecoul is becoming so small that by using certain materials or material combinations for the capacitor Ekin Eexc and/or Ecorr provide significant contributions to E. Preferred are materials with strongly correlated electron systems such as perovskites like La1-xSrxTiO3 YBa2Cu3O7-d vanadates such as (V1xAx)2O3 with A Cr Ti materials with free electron gases of typically low densities such as Cs Bi or Rb or of materials the carrier density of which is reduced by diluting these materials in other materials with smaller carrier densities metals like Fe or Ni materials with van-Hove singularities in the electronic density of states such as graphite or Bechgaard salts or even or 2D-electron gases generated by graphene or by heterostructures such as the electron gases generated at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 or ZnO/(MgxZn1-x)O multilayers and more.

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US7838809

Nanoelectronic differential amplifiers and related circuits having carbon nanotubes graphene nanoribbons or other related materials

LUDWIG LESTER F

2008-02-19

US20100295119

VERTICALLYORIENTED SEMICONDUCTOR SELECTION DEVICE FOR CROSS-POINT ARRAY MEMORY

MICRON TECHNOLOGY INC.

2009-05-20

US7824741

Method of forming a carbon-containing material

MICRON TECHNOLOGY INC.

2007-08-31

Small-signal and other circuit design techniques realized by carbon nanotube fieldeffect transistors (CNFETs) to create analog electronics for analog signal handling analog signal processing and conversions between analog signals and digital signals. As the CNFETs exist and operate at nanoscale they can be readily collocated or integrated into carbon nanotube sensing and transducing systems. The resulting collocation and integration may be at or adequately near nanoscale. One embodiment implements an analog differential amplifier having transistors which include carbon nanotubes electrical contacts and insulating material. The differential amplifier may be used in isolation or as an element of an operational amplifier. Negative feedback may be used to implement a wide range of analog signal processing functions and to provide conversions among analog and digital signals. In some cases an entire analog differential amplifier is implemented with a single carbon nanotube. A vertical semiconductor material mesa upstanding from a semiconductor base that forms a conductive channel between first and second doped regions. The first doped region is electrically coupled to one or more first silicide layers on the surface of the base. The second doped region is electrically coupled to a second silicide layer on the upper surface of the mesa. A gate conductor is provided on one or more sidewalls of the mesa. A method includes forming ionic clusters of carbon-containing molecules which molecules have carbon-carbon sp2 bonds and accelerating the clusters. A surface of a substrate is irradiated with the clusters. A material is formed on the surface using the carbon from the molecules. The material includes carbon and may optionally include hydrogen. The material may include graphene. The material may form a monolayer. The molecules may include one or more material selected from the group consisting of graphene carbon allotropes ethylene and hydrocarbon molecules containing ethylenic moieties. A fused region may be formed in the substrate as an interface between the substrate and the material. The clusters may have diameters of at least 20 nanometers and may be accelerated to an energy of at least 0.5 keV.

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WO2009085015

FUNCTIONALISED GRAPHENE OXIDE

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

2009-01-03

US20100127312

GRAPHENE DEPOSITION AND GRAPHENATED SUBSTRATES

NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

2009-11-25

PRESIDENT AND FELLOWS OF HARVARD COLLEGE

2008-09-12

REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

2010-06-17

US20100327847

US20100320391

High-Resolution Molecular Sensor PHOTODIODE AND OTHER SENSOR STRUCTURES IN FLAT-PANEL XRAY IMAGERS AND METHOD FOR IMPROVING TOPOLOGICAL UNIFORMITY OF THE PHOTODIODE AND OTHER SENSOR STRUCTURES IN FLAT-PANEL XRAY IMAGERS BASED ON THINFILM

A functionalised graphene oxide and a method of making a functionalised graphene oxide comprising: (i) oxidising graphite to form graphite oxide wherein the graphene sheets which make up the graphite independently of each other have a basal plane fraction of carbon atoms in the sp2-hybridised state between 0.1 and 0.9 wherein the remainder fraction comprises sp3-hybridised carbon atoms which are bonded to oxygen groups selected from hydroxyl and/or epoxy and/or carboxylic acid; and (ii) exfoliating and in-situ functionalising the graphite oxide surface with one or more functional groups such that functionalisation of the surface is effected at a concentration greater than one functional group per 100 carbon atoms and less than one functional group per six carbon atoms. The functionalised graphene oxide is dispersible at high concentrations in appropriate solvents without aggregating or precipitating over extended periods at room temperature. Methods devices systems and/or articles related to techniques for forming a graphene film on a substrate and the resulting graphene layers and graphenated substrates are generally disclosed. Some example techniques may be embodied as methods or processes for forming graphene. Some other example techniques may be embodied as devices employed to manipulate treat or otherwise process substrates graphite graphene and/or graphenated substrates as described herein. Graphene layers and graphenated substrates produced by the various techniques and devices provided herein are also disclosed. A solid state molecular sensor having an aperture extending through a thickness of a sensing region is configured with a sensing region thickness that corresponds to the characteristic extent of at least a component of a molecular species to be translocated through the aperture. A change in an electrical characteristic of the sensing region is measured during the molecular species translocation. The sensor can be configured as a field effect transistor molecular sensor. The sensing region can be a region of graphene including an aperture extending through a thickness of the graphene. A radiation sensor including a scintillation layer configured to emit photons upon interaction with ionizing radiation and a photodetector including in order a first electrode a photosensitive layer and a photon-transmissive second electrode disposed in proximity to the scintillation layer. The photosensitive layer is configured to generate electron-hole pairs upon interaction with a part of the photons. The radiation sensor includes pixel circuitry electrically connected to the first electrode and configured to measure an imaging signal indicative of the electron-hole pairs generated in the photosensitive layer and a planarization layer disposed on the pixel circuitry between the first electrode and the pixel circuitry such that the first electrode is above a plane

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ELECTRONICS

including the pixel circuitry. A surface of at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode at least partially overlaps the pixel circuitry and has a surface inflection above features of the pixel circuitry. The surface inflection has a radius of curvature greater than one half micron.

DE1244951

Schaltung zum Einblenden von mindestens zwei Messlinien

ROHDE AND SCHWARZ

1965-04-03

US20080312088

Field effect transistor logic circuit including the same and methods of manufacturing the same

SAMSUNG GROUP

2007-12-27

US20090294759

Stack structure comprising epitaxial graphene method of forming the stack structure and electronic device comprising the stack structure

SAMSUNG GROUP

2008-08-29

US20100090759

Quantum interference transistors and methods of manufacturing and operating the same

SAMSUNG GROUP

2009-09-23

US20100187588

SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY DEVICE INCLUDING A CYLINDER TYPE STORAGE NODE AND A METHOD OF FABRICATING THE SAME

SAMSUNG GROUP

2009-08-07

None Provided are a field effect transistor a logic circuit including the same and methods of manufacturing the same. The field effect transistor may include an ambipolar layer that includes a source region a drain region and a channel region between the source region and the drain region wherein the source region the drain region and the channel region may be formed in a monolithic structure a gate electrode on the channel region and an insulating layer separating the gate electrode from the ambipolar layer wherein the source region and the drain region have a width greater than that of the channel region in a second direction that crosses a first direction in which the source region and the drain region are connected to each other. Provided are a stack structure including an epitaxial graphene a method of forming the stack structure and an electronic device including the stack structure. The stack structure includes: a Si substrate; an under layer formed on the Si substrate; and at least one epitaxial graphene layer formed on the under layer. A quantum interference transistor may include a source; a drain; N channels (N2) between the source and the drain and having N1 path differences between the source and the drain; and at least one gate disposed at one or more of the N channels. One or more of the N channels may be formed in a graphene sheet. A method of manufacturing the quantum interference transistor may include forming one or more of the N channels using a graphene sheet. A method of operating the quantum interference transistor may include applying a voltage to the at least one gate. The voltage may shift a phase of a wave of electrons passing through a channel at which the at least one gate is disposed. Provided is a semiconductor memory device including cylinder type storage nodes and a method of fabricating the semiconductor memory device. The semiconductor memory device includes: a semiconductor substrate including switching devices; a recessed insulating layer including storage contact plugs therein wherein the storage contact plugs are electrically connected to the switching devices and the recessed insulating layer exposes at least some portions of upper surfaces and side surfaces of the storage contact plugs. The semiconductor device further includes cylinder type storage nodes each having a lower

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electrode. The lower electrode contacting the at least some portions of the exposed upper surfaces and side surfaces of the storage node contact plugs.

US20090258135

Method of making nonvolatile memory cell containing carbon resistivity switching as a storage element by low temperature processing

SANDISK CORP

2008-08-07

US20100157651

Method of programming a nonvolatile memory device containing a carbon storage material

SANDISK CORP

2008-12-18

US20100176366

Nonvolatile memory cell including carbon storage element formed on a silicide layer

SANDISK CORP

2009-01-14

US20100271885

Reduced complexity array line drivers for 3D matrix arrays

SANDISK CORP

2009-04-24

A method of making a nonvolatile memory cell includes forming a steering element and forming a carbon resistivity switching material storage element by coating a carbon containing colloid. A nonvolatile memory cell includes a steering element located in series with a storage element where the storage element comprises a carbon material. A method of programming the cell includes applying a reset pulse to change a resistivity state of the carbon material from a first state to a second state which is higher than the first state and applying a set pulse to change a resistivity state of the carbon material from the second state to a third state which is lower than the second state. A fall time of the reset pulse is shorter than a fall time of the set pulse. A nonvolatile memory cell includes a storage element the storage element comprising a carbon material a steering element located in series with the storage element and a metal silicide layer located adjacent to the carbon material. A method of making a device includes forming a metal silicide over a silicon layer forming a carbon layer over the metal silicide layer forming a barrier layer over the carbon layer and patterning the carbon layer the metal silicide layer and the silicon layer to form an array of pillars. A method of biasing a nonvolatile memory array. The nonvolatile memory array includes a first and second plurality of Y lines a plurality of X lines a first and second plurality of two terminal memory cells. Each first and second memory cell is coupled to one of the first or second plurality of Y lines and one of the plurality of X lines respectively. Substantially all of the first plurality and second plurality of Y lines are driven to a Y line unselect voltage. At least one selected Y line of the first plurality of Y lines is driven to a Y line select voltage while floating remaining Y lines of the first plurality of Y lines and while driving substantially all of the second plurality of Y lines to the Y line unselect voltage.

2008-05-27

A method of programming a nonvolatile memory cell includes applying at least one initialization pulse having a duration of at least 1 ms followed by applying plural programming pulses having a duration of less than 1 ms. The cell includes a steering element located in series with a storage element and the storage element includes a carbon material.

US7859887

Multilevel nonvolatile memory device containing a carbon storage material and methods of making and using same

SANDISK CORP

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FORMING ACTIVE CHANNEL REGIONS USING ENHANCED DROPCAST PRINTING

SNU R&DB FOUNDATION

2009-10-23

US20100307900

Active Skin for Conformable Tactile Interface

SUNGKYUNKWAN UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION FOR CORPORATE COLLABORATION

2010-06-01

US20100182216

Adaptive Impedance Matching Circuit and Method for Matching for Duplex Operation Standards

TDK CORP

2010-01-22

US20100265003

IMPEDANCE MATCHING METHOD

TDK CORP

2010-04-14

US20100155710

An active region or channel for printed organic or plastic electronics or polymer semiconductors such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is obtained by using an enhanced inkjet drop-cast printing technique. A two-liquid system is employed to achieve the direct growth of well-oriented organic crystals at the active region of channel. Highperformance electrical properties exhibiting high carrier mobility and low threshold voltage are obtained due to the proper orientation of molecules in the grown crystal in a highest mobility direction due to the absence of grain boundaries and due to low trap densities. The hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions between the liquids utilized which results in the fabrication of low-cost and mass-producible printable electronic devices for applications in flexible displays electronic signages photovoltaic panels membrane keyboards radio frequency identification tags (RFIDs) electronic sensors and integrated electronic circuits. Disclosed is an active skin including: a tactile sensor substrate which includes a first film including a dielectric elastic material and formed with a plurality of sensing points and a pair of first electrodes respectively formed on upper and lower sides of the sensing point; a tactile actuator substrate which includes a second film including a dielectric elastic material and formed with a plurality of actuating points and a pair of second electrodes respectively formed on upper and lower sides of the actuating point; and an insulating layer which is interposed between the tactile sensor substrate and the tactile actuator substrate and couples the tactile sensor substrate and the tactile actuator substrate. With this a tactile sensor and a tactile actuator are integrated so that there is provided an interactive tactile interface to not only feel like a humans skin but also actively move like a muscle. A method for the impedance matching of front end circuits to antennas in mutually different transmission and reception frequency ranges is specified. A suitable matching circuit is furthermore specified. The impedance matching in a transmission frequency range is determined such that an excessively poor impedance matching in a reception frequency range is prevented in this case. An impedance matching method which is used to save electrical energy by virtue of the fact that the method switches between modes for controlling impedance matching and modes for regulation of the impedance matching depending on the situation. An algorithm which on the basis of control signals from an external circuit environment controls or regulates the impedance of a variable-impedance circuit element is implemented in a logic circuit LC.

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US7772059

Method for fabricating graphene transistors on a silicon or SOI substrate

US7842955

Carbon nanotube transistors on a silicon or SOI substrate

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INC.

US20100084631

Phase-controlled field effect transistor device and method for manufacturing thereof

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INC. THE PROVOST FELLOWS AND SCHOLARS OF THE COLLEGE OF THE HOLY AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY OF QUEEN ELIZABETH NEAR DUBLIN

US20100273060

HIGHTHROUGHPUT SOLUTION PROCESSING OF LARGE SCALE GRAPHENE AND DEVICE APPLICATIONS

THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

2008-01-16

2010-02-04

2009-09-17

2009-01-14

A method of fabricating graphene transistors comprising providing an SOI substrate performing an optional threshold implant on the SOI substrate forming an upper silicon layer mesa island carbonizing the silicon layer into SiC utilizing a gaseous source converting the SiC into graphene forming source/drain regions on opposite longitudinal ends of the graphene forming gate oxide between the source/drain regions on the graphene forming gate material over the gate oxide creating a transistor edge depositing dielectric onto the transistor edge and performing back end processing. A method of forming a single wall thickness (SWT) carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor with a controlled diameter and chirality is disclosed. A photolithographically defined single crystal silicon seed layer is converted to a single crystal silicon carbide seed layer. A single layer of graphene is formed on the top surface of the silicon carbide. The SWT CNT transistor body is grown from the graphene layer in the presence of carbon containing gases and metal catalyst atoms. Silicided source and drain regions at each end of the silicon carbide seed layer provide catalyst metal atoms during formation of the CNT. The diameter of the SWT CNT is established by the width of the patterned seed layer. A conformally deposited gate dielectric layer and a transistor gate over the gate dielectric layer complete the CNT transistor. CNT transistors with multiple CNT bodies split gates and varying diameters are also disclosed. A phase controllable field effect transistor device is described. The device provides first and second scattering sites disposed at either side of a conducting channel region the conducting region being gated such that on application of an appropriate signal to the gate energies of the electrons in the channel region defined between the scattering centres may be modulated. A method of producing carbon macromolecular structures includes dissolving a graphitic material in a solvent to provide a suspension of carbon-based macro-molecular structures in the solvent and obtaining a plurality of the carbon macro-molecular structures from the suspension. The plurality of carbon macro-molecular structures obtained from the suspension each consists essentially of carbon. A material according to some embodiments of the current invention is produced according to the method of producing carbon macro-molecular structures. An electrical electronic or electro-optic device includes material produced according to the methods of the current invention. A composite material according to some embodiments of the current invention has carbon macro-molecular structures produced according to methods of producing carbon macro-molecular structures according to some embodiments of the current invention. A hydrogen storage device according

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to some embodiments of the current invention has carbon macro-molecular structures produced according to methods of producing carbon macro-molecular structures according to some embodiments of the current invention. An electrode according to some embodiments of the current invention has carbon macromolecular structures produced according to methods of producing carbon macro-molecular structures according to some embodiments of the current invention.

WO2009158117

CHEMICAL MODULATION OF ELECTRONIC AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF GRAPHENE

WO2009059193

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR FORMING DEFECTS ON GRAPHITIC MATERIALS AND CURING RADIATIONDAMAGED GRAPHITIC MATERIALS

THE TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK

2008-10-31

BEAM ABLATION LITHOGRAPHY

THE TRUSTEES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

2007-07-13

US20100009134

THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

2009-05-29

Compounds compositions systems and methods for the chemical and electrochemical modification of the electronic structure of graphene and especially epitaxial graphene (EG) are presented. Beneficially such systems and methods allow the large-scale fabrication of electronic EG devices. Vigorous oxidative conditions may allow substantially complete removal of the EG carbon atoms and the generation of insulating regions; such processing is equivalent to that which is currently used in the semiconductor industry to lithographically etch or oxidize silicon and thereby define the physical features and electronic structure of the devices. However graphene offers an excellent opportunity for controlled modification of the hybridization of the carbon atoms from sp2 to sp3 states by chemical addition of organic functional groups. We show that such chemistries offer opportunities far beyond those currently employed in the semiconductor industry for control of the local electronic structure of the graphene sheet and do not require the physical removal of areas of graphene or its oxidation in order to generate the full complement of electronic devices necessary to produce functional electronic circuitry. Selective saturation of the p-bonds opens a band gap in the graphene electronic structure which results in a semiconducting or insulating form of graphene while allowing the insertion of new functionality with the possibility of 3-D electronic architectures. Beneficially these techniques allow for large- scale fabrication of electronic EG devices and integrated circuits as they allow the generation of wires (interconnects) semiconductors (transistors) dielectrics and insulators. Systems and methods are disclosed herein for forming defects on graphitic materials. The methods for forming defects include applying a radiation reactive material on a graphitic material irradiating the applied radiation reactive material to produce a reactive species and permitting the reactive species to react with the graphitic material to form defects. Additionally disclosed are methods for removing defects on graphitic materials. Provided are beam ablation lithography methods capable of removing and manipulating material at the nanoscale. Also provided are nanoscale devices nanogap field effect transistors nano-wires nano-crystals and

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artificial atoms made using the disclosed methods.

ATOMICALLY PRECISE NANORIBBONS AND RELATED METHODS

THE TRUSTEES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

2009-06-01

WO2010059687

A SEMICONDUCTOR FOR MEASURING BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES,UNIVE RSITY OF MARYLAND BALTIMORE COUNTY,UNIVER SITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK

2009-11-18

US20080030352

Methods and systems for gas detection

TYCO INTERNATIONAL LTD.

2007-02-20

WO2009149005

Disclosed are atomically precise nanoribbons formed by gradient-driven catalytic etching of crystalline substrates to produce edges formed along specific crystallographic axes by thermally-activated particles. Also provided are related methods for fabrication of these nanoribbon structures. Further provided are devices and related methods for power generation and for detection of specific targets using the disclosed structures. An apparatus and method are disclosed for electrically directly detecting biomolecular binding in a semiconductor. The semiconductor can be based on electrical percolation of nanomaterial formed in the gate region. In one embodiment of an apparatus a semiconductor includes first and second electrodes with a gate region there between. The gate region includes a multi-layered matrix of electrically conductive material with capture molecules for binding target molecules such as antibody receptors DNA RNA peptides and aptamer. The molecular interactions between the capture molecules and the target molecules disrupts the matrixs continuity resulting in a change in electrical resistance capacitance or impedance. The increase in resistance capacitance or impedance can be directly measured electronically without the need for optical sensors or labels. The multi-layered matrix can be formed from a plurality of singlewalled nanotubes graphene or buckeyballs or any kind of conductive nanowire such as metal nanowires or nanowires made from conductive polymers. Methods and systems for detecting potential fire related conditions are provided. The system includes a sensor that includes a carbon-based nano-structure the sensor exhibiting an electronic property that varies in response to a presence of a predetermined gas indicative of a potential fire related condition and an evaluation unit communicating with the sensor for analyzing the electronic property to determine whether the potential fire related condition exists.

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US7633386

Amplifier for multiuse of single environmental sensor

TYCO INTERNATIONAL LTD.

2006-01-18

US20090140801

Locally gated graphene nanostructures and methods of making and using

UNIVERSITY OF COLUMBIA

2008-10-31

US20110017979

HIGHPERFORMANCE GATE OXIDES SUCH AS FOR GRAPHENE FIELDEFFECT TRANSISTORS OR CARBON NANOTUBES

UNIVERSITY OF COLUMBIA

2010-07-19

A detection system in which a single sensor is employed to detect an extensive range of a parameter. The output signal from the sensor is fed to the input of the electrical circuit having a feedback loop wherein the electrical circuit has a non-linear transfer characteristic. The nonlinear transfer characteristic is achieved by changing the behavior of the feedback loop of the electrical circuit at a predetermined level of input signal. The output of the circuit has a proportional relationship with the input until the input signal reaches this predetermined value whereupon the behaviors of the feedback loop changes and the relationship of the output to the input of the circuit changes. While the input signal is above the predetermined value the output of the circuit has a linear but disproportionate relationship with the input at a gradient different to that when the input signal is below the predetermined value. Further the behavior of the feedback loop changes to create a knee point in the response between the proportional and the linear parts of the characteristic. In this way an overall non-linear transfer characteristic is produced by the electrical circuit the transfer characteristic having with a well-defined knee point. The resolution of input signals below the knee point may be greater than the resolution of signals above the knee point. A locally gated graphene nanostructure is described along with methods of making and using the same. A graphene layer can include first and second terminal regions separated by a substantially single layer gated graphene nanoconstriction. A local first gate region can be separated from the graphene nanoconstriction by a first gate dielectric. The local first gate region can be capacitively coupled to gate electrical conduction in the graphene nanoconstriction. A second gate region can be separated from the graphene nanoconstriction by a second gate dielectric. The second gate region can be capacitively coupled to provide a bias to a first location in the graphene nanoconstriction and to a second location outside of the graphene nanoconstriction. Methods of making and using locally gated graphene nanostructures are also described. An apparatus or method can include forming a graphene layer including a working surface forming a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) layer upon the working surface of the graphene layer and forming a dielectric layer upon the PVA layer. In an example the PVA layer can be activated and the dielectric layer can be deposited on an activated portion of the PVA layer. In an example an electronic device can include such apparatus such as included as a portion of graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) or one or more other devices.

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US20100025660

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES METHODS OF MANUFACTURE THEREOF AND ARTICLES COMPRISING THE SAME

UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT

2009-07-31

US20100237336

NANOTUBE ENABLED GATEVOLTAGE CONTROLLED LIGHT EMITTING DIODES

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA RESEARCH FOUNDATION INC.

2008-09-10

US20090174435

MonolithicallyIntegrated Graphene-NanoRibbon (GNR) Devices Interconnects and Circuits

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA

2008-10-01

Disclosed herein is a device comprising a source region a drain region and a gate layer; the source region the drain region and the gate layer being disposed on a semiconductor host; the gate layer being disposed between source and drain regions; the gate layer comprising a first gate-insulator layer; a gate layer comprising carbon nanotubes and/or graphene. Disclosed herein too is a method comprising disposing a source region a drain region and a gate layer on a semiconductor host; the gate layer being disposed between the source region and the drain region; the gate layer comprising carbon nanotubes and/or graphene. Embodiments of the invention relate to vertical field effect transistor that is a light emitting transistor. The light emitting transistor incorporates a gate electrode for providing a gate field a first electrode comprising a dilute nanotube network for injecting a charge a second electrode for injecting a complementary charge and an electroluminescent semiconductor layer disposed intermediate the nanotube network and the electron injecting layer. The charge injection is modulated by the gate field. The holes and electrons combine to form photons thereby causing the electroluminescent semiconductor layer to emit visible light. In other embodiments of the invention a vertical field effect transistor that employs an electrode comprising a conductive material with a low density of states such that the transistors contact barrier modulation comprises barrier height lowering of the Schottky contact between the electrode with a low density of states and the adjacent semiconductor by a Fermi level shift. The invention discloses new and advantageous uses for carbon/graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) which includes but is not limited to electronic components for integrated circuits such as NOT gates OR gates AND gates nanocapacitors and other transistors. More specifically the manipulation of the shapes sizes patterns and edges including doping profiles of GNRs to optimize their use in various electronic devices is disclosed.

2010-02-25

This document describes graphene-containing platelets and methods of exfoliating graphene from a surface. The method comprises facilitating exfoliation by treatment with proteins. In an embodiment the proteins adhere to the surface of graphene and then the produced platelets may contain a graphene layer and a protein layer on the surface of the graphene layer. Electronic devices containing such platelets are also described.

WO2010097517

GRAPHENECONTAINING PLATELETS AND ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND METHOD OF EXFOLIATING GRAPHENE

VALTION TEKNILLINEN TUTKIMUSKESKU S

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US20100302337

HEATING ELEMENT INCORPORATING AN ARRAY OF TRANSISTOR MICRO-HEATERS FOR DIGITAL IMAGE MARKING

XEROX CORP

2009-05-29

The exemplary embodiments disclosed herein incorporate transistor heating technology to create micro-heater arrays as the digital heating element for various marking applications. The transistor heaters are typically fabricated either on a thin flexible substrate or on an amorphous silicon drum and embedded below the working surface. Matrix drive methods may be used to address each individual micro-heater and deliver heat to selected surface areas. Depending on different marking applications the digital heating element may be used to selectively tune the wettability of thermo-sensitive coating selectively change ink rheology selectively remove liquid from the surface selectively fuse/fix toner/ink on the paper.

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Summary Graphene patents can be traced back to the 1950’s and research and development around graphene has emerged in the last 3 years 2008, 2009, 2010 indicating that research in this space has just taken off to a new level and going by the current trend is only likely to climb even higher from here. Overall, the research and development work related to graphene appears to be a highly active and growing one that can only be expected to increase in the near future.

About Patent iNSIGHT Pro Patent iNSIGHT Pro™ is a comprehensive patent analysis platform that allows you to accelerate your time-to-decision from patent analysis activities. Designed from inputs by experienced patent researchers, Patent iNSIGHT Pro easily blends into your existing Research workflow. Patent iNSIGHT Pro is used by leading legal services, Pharmaceutical & biotech, electronics companies and research organization across US, Europe, South America and India with more than 180 end users. Patent iNSIGHT Pro is developed and marketed by Gridlogics, a research driven IT Company specializing in providing intellectual property analysis and visualization solutions to aid R&D and corporate strategy. Gridlogics is headquartered in Pune, India and has a sales presence in Delhi, Mumbai and USA. For more information: Visit us at: www.patentinsightpro.com Or call us at: 1-408-786-5524 Or mail us at: Have a comment on this report? Mail us at feedback_tr@patentinsightpro.com

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Sources & References  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene http://www.bloggerspoint.com/extraordinary-featureswide-range-graphene-andre-giem-constantine-novosolevbroke-concepts-expectations/

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Graphene Patents Analysis Report