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1. Atomic Theories (Cont.) 2. Atomic Orbitals Drawing 3. Electron Configuration 4. Designing Your Own Periodic Table 5. Atomic Modelling handout 6. Lewis Structures 7. Molecular Geometry Handout

The above image of two bonded hydrogen atoms was made by the author, Tommy Smith.


Bohr's Model Early 1900s proposed by Bohr ~Explains the role of electrons in bonding ~Fully explains ionic and covalent bonding ~Places electrons in definite energy levels ~Relegates number of valence electrons to specific periods of the periodic table ~Does not explain the shapes of molecules or other abnormalities that result from unevenly shared electrons

Quantum Model Proposed by Einstein, Schroedinger, de Broglie, Planck, Hertz, Maxwell, and Ferni ~Explains shapes of molecules and other abnormalities that result from unevenly shared electrons


Atomic Orbitals

S Orbital

D orbital

P Orbital


Electron Configuration 1. Sulfur: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 1s22s22p63s23p4 [Ne]3s23p4 2. Arsenic: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p3 [Ar]4s23d104p3 3. Cobalt: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑ ↑ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d7 [Ar]4s23d7 4. Phosphorus: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 1s22s22p63s23p3 [Ne]3s23p3 5. Krypton: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6 [Ar]4s23d104p6 6. Iodine: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d10 [Kr]5s24d10 7. Potassium: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 [Ar]4s1


8. Scandium: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d1 [Ar]4s23d1 9. Silicon: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 1s22s22p63s23p2 [Ne]3s23p2 10. Fluorine: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑ 1s 2s 2p 1s22s22p5 [He]2s22p5 11. Zinc: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10 [Ar]4s23d10 12. Cesium: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s1 [Xe]6s1 13. Zirconium: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d2 [Kr]5s24d2 14. Argon: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 1s22s22p63s23p6 [Ne]3s23p6


15. Xenon: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p6 [Kr]5s24d105p6 16. Tellurium: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p4 [Kr]5s24d105p4 17. Strontium:↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s2 [Kr]5s2 18. Manganese: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d5 [Ar]4s23d5 19. Indium:↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p1 [Kr]5s24d105p1 20. Germanium: ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑ ↑ 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p2 [Ar]4s23d104p2


Designing Your Own Periodic Table I. Purpose: To design your own periodic table using information similar to that available to Mendeleev. II. Materials: periodic table, index cards IV. Procedure Fill out data on your cards. Make sure the data is comprehensive enough so someone could figure out the position of each element on the periodic table. Using elements from only periods 1, 2, and 13-17, label each card A-T. Make a key as you label them so that you do not have to solve your own puzzle. Swap cards with another student. Arrange his or her cards as you would expect them to be using the periodic table. When the other student is done check his or her arrangement and have them check your arrangement. Chart your first attempt at arranging the cards and then chart the correct version. V. Data Part A: Index Cards and Key See separate sheet for index cards Group 1

2

13

14

15

16

17

S(N)

P(O)

F(F)

C(P)

K(S) G(Cl)

1 2 Period

3

A(Mg)

4

N(Ga) I(Ge) B(As) Q(Se)

5

L(In) E(Sn) R(Sb) H(Te)

6

M(Tl)

7

T(Bi) O(Po) G(At)

D(Fr)

Part B: Initial Attempt at Organizing Elements Group 1

2

13

14

15

16

17

S

R

1 2 Period

D

3

K

4

G

5

Q

6

N

7

J

B

I

O C

E

F

A P

T

L H

M


Part C: Actual Order of Elements Group 1

2

13

2

D

K

J

3

G

4

Q

14

15

16

17

S

R

1 Period

I B

5 6 7

N

O C

E

F

A

L H

M

P T

VI. Analyze and Conclude 1. Keeping in mind that the information you have is similar to that available to Mendeleev in 1869, answer the following questions. a. Why are atomic masses used instead of atomic numbers? The atomic numbers were unknown at the time. b. Can you identify each element by name? Yes, element A is antimony. Element B is calcium. Element C is germanium. Element D is lithium. Element E is arsenic. Element F is tin. Element G is sodium. Element H is tellurium. Element I is aluminum. Element J is boron. Element K is beryllium. Element L is bromine. Element M is iodine. Element N is cesium. Element O is silicon. Element P is bismuth. Element Q is potassium. Element R is chlorine. Element S is sulfur. Element T is radium. 2. How many groups or families are there in your periodic table? There are seven. 3. Predict the characteristics of any missing elements. When you have finished, check your work using a periodic table. The element in period five, group one will have an atomic mass of about 84-85. The element in period 7, group 1 will have an atomic mass of about 220. The element in group 2, period five will have an atomic mass of about 86. The element in group fourteen period six will have an atomic mass of about 200-210. The element in group 16, period four will have an atomic mass of about eighty.


Lewis Structures 1.

2. 3.

4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.


18. 19. 20.


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