Traq Ltd. 30612 Salem Drive Bay Village, OH 44140
Protected by U.S. Patents 5,524,637; 6,073,489; 6,098,458; 6,308,565; 6,430,997; 6,749,432; 6,765,726; 6,876,496; 7,038,855; 7,359,121 ©Traq Ltd 2009/TRAZER Technologies 2009
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Forward ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 1: TRAZER Summary .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 2: Characterizing and Creating an Accurate Model of Sport ................................................................................................................................................................. 6 3: TRAQ 3D Athlete Development Program ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 15 4: PowerTRAQ ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 5: Unpredictability Training ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 22 6: Sports Injury Prevention ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24 7: TRAZER® Burst Training .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 26 8: TRAZER® Performance Assessments ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 28 9: Key TRAZER Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35 10: The TRAQ 3D Way ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 41 11: TRAZER 2 Sport Simulator ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 65
The TRAQ 3D Team
TRAQ 3D’s founders are the world leaders in the use of 3D computer simulation for the enhancement of health, physical performance, physical and brain fitness. There are currently ten U.S. patents protecting the innovative science and technology behind the TRAZER® computer-‐based simulator that is the core of our Athlete Development Program. All of this science and technology is committed to helping you and your clients achieve their goals!
A Word from Barry J. French, TRAZER® Inventor & TRAQ 3D Co-‐Founder “When developing TRAZER®, we asked if instead of being limited to conventional strength and endurance programs, training drills and coaching observations, athletes could be trained and tested like astronauts and fighter pilots. What if we had a ‘sports simulator’ much like the flight simulators used by NASA and the military? Using the sports simulator would be like putting the athlete inside a giant computer to compete against virtual opponents and graphic simulations specially designed to demand the same visual skills, reaction decisions and movements, agility and quickness of actual game situations. Visual perception, reaction time, acceleration, deceleration, agility, jumping; lateral, diagonal,
forward and backward movement speed, anaerobic power... all would be challenged and measured. The computer would break down every movement into its component parts in essentially real time. The athlete’s efforts would be rewarded with real-‐time feedback and game-‐like scoring. We’d provide a detailed movement skills analysis comparing performance in all directions. Previously undetectable weaknesses and imbalances would be immediately identified. Specially designed simulator-‐based training programs would correct and optimize performance. It could be the tool to develop the ultimate athlete. TRAZER® is that sport simulator; it is the only technology that accurately ‘simulates’ the demands of actual competition. But more than great technology is required to develop the athlete of the future. With TRAQ 3D, we’ve created the specially-‐tuned environment, patented software protocols and programs, service, support and educational programs to fully exploit the power of simulation.”
Movement defines functional capability – from sports to the most basic requirements for independent living Job or sports injuries, arthritis, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, stroke and other neurological disorders and diseases, and simple inactivity whether in children or seniors – all affect movement. And in each case, movement is essential to the full restoration of health. Measurement and enhancement of movement form the core of virtually every rehabilitation or training program. TRAZER allows the clinician, trainer or coach to view disability and capability as a continuum of the capacity for movement. TRAZER is equally applicable to a patient using braces or crutches, or to an elite athlete. Measurement and control of movement and physiological response are the foundation of TRAZER-‐based programs TRAZER’s patented technology merges real-‐time, 3-‐dimensional tracking of body position with simulation technology to deliver game-‐like, interactive simulations controlled by actual body movement. Progressive movement challenges designed to motivate and improve performance can be as gentle as raising a hand or as demanding as a series of reaction-‐timed vertical jumps. TRAZER allows unconstrained, free space movement that can be easily controlled within individual limitations – even by telemetered heart rate. And every movement is precisely measured. This combination of engaging visual motivation, real-‐time visual feedback, computer-‐controlled progression and precise measurement has proved uniquely effective for rehabilitation and training of functional strength and
power, range of motion, balance, coordination, reaction time, movement speed, and cardiopulmonary condition. Reaction time, acceleration, deceleration, stability and control of body movement are key capacity measurements TRAZER’s optical sensing system tracks in real time positional changes of the user’s body core (the pelvic area) in response to interactive, computer generated simulations. Control of one’s core is an important factor in determining skilled, purposeful movement. By measuring this single variable, a real measure of functional performance can be made -‐ that of the user’s ability to successfully navigate his or her environment. Control of the core during domain specific activities in the healthy user with smooth, bell shaped acceleration curves and minimal variability will be indicative of skilled movement. By contrast, injured and poorly trained individuals will exhibit inconsistent velocity profiles and high variability during movement. TRAZER also provides protocols for the user’s upper limbs. TRAZER planned and unplanned stimuli (cues) prompt the user for the desired response, while high-‐speed positional tracking enables real time quantification of such performance parameters as reaction time, power (the product of velocity and acceleration) and moment to moment core position (body Center of Gravity), jump height, etc. TRAZER gives the clinician, coach or trainer the user-‐friendly tools to precisely control the direction, distance and rate the user travels in response to both unplanned and planned movement
TRAZER is the tool to break down complex movement into divisible components Each divisible component of movement is trained and refined using the power of computer simulation, with real time feedback and realistic stimuli that greatly accelerate the learning process. TRAZER exploits the Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID) principle. Beginning with simple, easily performed reactive movement tasks, TRAZER varies the intensity and complexity of the reactive movement activities. The user’s compliance with the exercise prescription determines the rate at which he or she can be progressed. TRAZER protocols range as follows: Low Amplitude Protocols are characterized by low stress displacements of the subject’s body core – these activities do not require the subject to change his or her postural base of support. Emphasis is on balance activities and effective weight shifting. The goal of these protocols is to improve the subject’s ability to maintain equilibrium and control of the center of gravity/mass (body core) within a given stance (feet fixed), and to improve fundamental postural control, with incorporation of cognitive demands with simple movement tasks. Intermediate Amplitude Protocols are provided with the goal of improving symmetry in basic movements by minimizing variability in the movement rate, as well as protocols designed to enhance dynamic balance, agility and proprioception and cardiovascular conditioning. High Amplitude Protocols develop movement skills and strategy. Emphasis is on training reaction and anticipation skills while enhancing the ability to confidently perform complex movements. This phase is characterized by sports and activity specific drills designed to achieve maximal function. The movement skills used
in this phase demand maximal accelerations and decelerations with smooth application of power.
By tracking and controlling key performance and physiological parameters, TRAZER improves safety and provides the feedback that will enhance motivation and compliance. TRAZER’s unique capability to monitor heart rate via telemetry and measure and report caloric energy expenditure during free movement activities provides real-‐time exercise control and motivation. TRAZER can provide individualized motivational targets while automatically limiting the demands of each activity to match the current fitness level of any participant. By offering an exercise environment that is safer and more controlled than the typical fitness environment, and by providing engaging, game-‐like activities that automatically adapt to individual abilities and conditioning, TRAQ 3D creates effective new programs for weight management and wellness, and functional training for demanding sports and work environments as well as safe, enjoyable activities of daily living.
Summary of Key Points •
With TRAZER, reaction time, acceleration, deceleration, velocity, power and moment-‐to-‐moment stance analysis provide key measurements of sport-‐specific movement.
1: TRAZER Summary 4
TRAZER visual stimuli (cues) prompt the client to initiate and execute the desired planned or unplanned movement responses while high-‐speed position tracking enables virtually real-‐time quantification.
TRAZER gives the trainer user-‐friendly tools to control the direction, distance and rate the client travels in response to both unplanned and planned movement cues. TRAZER games, protocols and drills are intended to allow the physiological (CVP/metabolic) and musculoskeletal (joint and musculotendinous force) demands to be limited or maximized by varying these factors.
1: TRAZER Summary 5
Characterizing and Creating an Accurate Model of Sport
Sport Simulation replicates actual competition for training and assessment TRAZER® creates a unique and sophisticated computer sports simulator by replicating the ever-‐changing interaction between offensive and defensive opponents. This fidelity with actual competition enables a global and valid assessment of an offensive or defensive player’s functional, sport-‐specific performance capabilities. An accurate analog of sports for training and testing At the most primary level, sports such as basketball, football and soccer can be characterized by the moment to moment interaction between competitors in their respective offensive and defensive roles. It is the mission of the player assuming the defensive role to “contain”, “guard”, or neutralize the offensive opponent by establishing and maintaining real-‐ time synchronous movement with the opponent. For example, in basketball, the defensive player attempts to continually impede the offensive player’s attempts to drive to the basket by blocking with his or her body the offensive player’s chosen path. By contrast, the offensive player’s mission is to create a brief asynchronous event, perhaps of only a few hundred milliseconds in duration, so that the defensive player’s movement is no longer in “phase” with the offensive player’s. At that moment, with the defensive player “out of position” and in a precarious position, the offensive player’s chances of scoring are improved. The offensive player can create an asynchronous event in a number of ways: he can “fake out” or deceive the opponent by delivering purposefully misleading information, or he can “overwhelm” his opponent
by abruptly accelerating the pace of the action to levels exceeding the defensive player’s movement capabilities. To remain in close proximity to an offensive opponent, the defensive player must continually anticipate or “read” the offensive player’s intentions. An adept defensive player will anticipate the offensive player’s strategy to reduce the offensive player’s options to those that can more easily be contained. This must occur despite the offensive player’s attempts to disguise his or her actual intentions with purposely deceptive and unpredictable behavior. In addition to being able to quickly perceive and interpret the intentions of the offensive player, the defensive player must also possess adequate sport-‐specific movement skills to establish and maintain the desired (from the perspective of the defensive player) synchronous spatial relationship. These player-‐to-‐player interactions are characterized by a continual barrage of useful and purposefully misleading visual cues offered by the offensive player and constant reaction and maneuvering by the defensive participant. Not only does the defensive player need to successfully interpret visual cues “offered” by the offensive player, but the offensive player must also adeptly interpret visual cues as they relate to the defensive player’s commitment, balance and strategy. Each player draws from a repertoire of movement skills which includes balance and postural control, the ability to anticipate competitor responses, the ability to generate powerful, rapid, coordinated movements, and reaction times that exceed those of the opponent. These
sport-‐specific movement skills are often described as the functional or motor related components of physical fitness. Peak acceleration and deceleration – “dueling” for advantage The interaction between competitors frequently appears almost chaotic, and certainly staccato, as a result of their “dueling” for advantage. Continual abrupt, unplanned changes in direction necessitate that the defensive player maintain control over his or her center of gravity throughout all phases of movement to avoid over committing. Consequently, movements of only fractions of a single step are common for both defensive and offensive players. Such abbreviated movements ensure that peak or high average velocities are seldom, if ever, achieved. Accordingly, peak acceleration and power are more sensitive measures of performance in the aforementioned scenario. Peak acceleration of the center of mass can be achieved more rapidly than peak velocity, often in one step or less, while power can relate the acceleration energy to time, making comparisons between players meaningful. Relevant and valid performance testing Valid testing and training of sport-‐specific skills requires that the player be challenged by unplanned cues which prompt player movement over distances and directions representative of actual game play. The player’s optimal movement path should be selected based on visual assessment of his or her spatial relationship with opposing players and/or game objective. A realistic simulation must include a sports relevant environment, as test methods prompting the player to move to fixed ground locations are considered artificial. Nor are test methods employing static or singular movement cues such as a light or a sound consistent with accurate simulations of actual competition in many sports.
Until TRAZER®, no accurate, real time model of the complex, constantly changing, interactive relationship between offensive and defensive opponents engaging in actual competition existed. Accurate and valid quantification of sport-‐specific movement capabilities necessitates a simulation with fidelity to real world events. The importance of simulating game play Only through actual game play can the ability to correctly interpret and respond to sport specific visual cues be honed. However, simulation is uniquely capable of refining and testing the sport-‐specific components of performance that are essential for adept defensive and offensive play. Through task-‐specific practice, athletes learn to successfully respond to situational uncertainties. Such uncertainties can be as fundamental as the timing of the starter’s pistol, or as complex as detecting and interpreting continually changing, “analog” stimuli presented by an opponent. To be task-‐specific, the type of cues delivered to the player must simulate those experienced in the player’s sport. Task-‐specific cueing can be characterized, for the purposes of this document, as either dynamic or static. Dynamic cueing delivers continual, “analog” feedback to the player by being responsive to, and interactive with, the player. Dynamic cueing is relevant to sports where the player must possess the ability to “read” and interpret “telegraphed” information offered by his or her opponent. Players must also respond to environmental cues such as predicting the path of a ball or projectile for the purposes of intercepting or avoiding it. In contrast, static cueing is typically a single discreet event, and is sport relevant in sports such as track and field or swimming events. Static cues require little cerebral processing and do not contribute to an accurate
2: Characterizing and Creating an Accurate Model of Sport 7
model of sports where there is continuous flow of stimuli necessitating sequential, real time responses by the player. TRAZER, by delivering dynamic cueing, contributes to player performance by increasing attentional skills, focus, reaction time, processing and execution. Current test methods In sports science and coaching, numerous tests of movement capabilities and reaction time are employed. However, these do not subject the player to the type and frequency of sport-‐specific dynamic cues requisite to creating the accurate analog of actual sports competition described above.
accelerating the pace or an abrupt change in direction. Consequently, it is believed that the most sensitive indicators of athletic prowess occur during abrupt changes in direction or pace from pre-‐existing movement. All known test methods are believed to be incapable of making meaningful measurements during these periods. The TRAZER® model TRAZER creates an accurate simulation of sport to quantify and train several core performance constructs. TRAZER delivers realistic movement challenges without fixed start and end positions, necessitating continual tracking of the player’s position for meaningful assessment.
For example, measures of straight-‐ahead speed such as the 100-‐meter and 40 yard dash only subject the player to one static cue, i.e., the sound of the gun at the starting line. Although the test does measure a combination of reaction time and speed, it is applicable to only one specific situation (running on a track) and, as such, is more of a measurement of capacity, not skill. In contrast, the player in many sports is continually bombarded with dynamic cues that necessitate constant, real time changes in the player’s movement path and velocity; such continual real-‐time adjustments preclude a player from reaching maximum high speeds as in a 100-‐meter dash. Responding successfully to dynamic cues places constant demand on a player’s agility and the ability to assess or read the opposing player ‘sintentions.
With TRAZER, the virtual opponent assumes the role of either an offensive or defensive player. In the defensive role, the virtual opponent “attempts” to maintain a synchronous relationship with the player in the physical world in terms of tempo and fidelity to the player’s movement vector directions. Controlled by computer to match the capabilities of each individual player, the virtual opponent “rewards” instances of improved player performance by allowing the player to outmaneuver (“get by”) him. In the offensive role, the virtual opponent “attempts” to create asynchronous events to which the player must respond in time frames set by the computer, depending on the performance level of the player. In this case, the virtual opponent “punishes” lapses in the player’s performance, i.e., the inability of the player to precisely follow a prescribed movement path both in terms of pace and precision, by outmaneuvering the player.
There is another critical factor in creating an accurate analog of sports competition. Frequently, a decisive or pivotal event such as the creation of an asynchronous event does not occur from a preceding static or stationary position by the players. A decisive event most frequently occurs while the offensive player is already moving and creates a phase shift by
The virtual opponent delivers dynamic cues that allow for moment to moment (instantaneous) prompting of the player’s vector direction and transit rate. In contrast to static cues, dynamic cues enable precise modulation of the movement challenges, as stimuli are continually provided in real time.
2: Characterizing and Creating an Accurate Model of Sport 8
These cues include continual abrupt, explosive changes of direction and maximal accelerations and decelerations over varying vector directions and distances.
Application of TRAZER® Measurement capabilities to performance enhancement (actual TRAZER measurements defined on pages 29 plus) Several novel and interrelated performance constructs have been characterized and rendered operable by TRAZER’s position-‐sensing hardware and interactive software. The two global constructs are:
Functional cardio-‐respiratory status
Compliance (the defensive role) is the ability of the player to maintain synchronicity (follow) with TRAZER’s virtual offensive opponent. The ability to faithfully maintain a synchronous relationship with the virtual opponent is expressed either as a game score and/or as absolute performance measures of the player’s velocity, acceleration and power. An integral component of such synchronicity is the player’s ability to effectively change directions, i.e., to cut. Opportunity (the offensive role) is the player’s ability to create an asynchronous event at such time as the player assumes an offensive role. The player’s ability to adeptly execute abrupt cuts is essential for creating Opportunity, which is reflected in the player’s ability to score during TRAZER game play. A number of performance capabilities are essential to successfully executing the two aforementioned global roles; some of them include: 1.
Dynamic reaction time
1. Dynamic Reaction Time Dynamic reaction time is defined as the player’s ability to react correctly in response to the virtual opponent’s attempts to create an asynchronous event (a phase shift). It is the elapsed time from the moment the virtual opponent attempts to improve his position (from the first stimulus) and the player’s initial correct movement to restore synchronicity (player’s initial movement along the correct vector path). Dynamic Reaction Time is a measurement of the ability to respond to continually changing, unpredictable stimuli, i.e., the constant faking, staccato movements and strategizing that characterize game play. Reaction time is comprised of four distinct phases: the perception of, and interpretation of, the visual and/or audio cue, appropriate neuromuscular activation and musculoskeletal force production resulting in physical movement. It is important to note that Dynamic Reaction Time, which is specifically measured in this type of protocol, is a separate and distinct factor from rate and efficiency of actual movement which are dependent on muscular power, joint integrity, movement strategy and agility factors. Function related to these physiological components is evaluated in other protocols including Phase Lag and 1st Step Quickness. Faced with the offensive player’s attempt to create an asynchronous event, the defensive player must typically respond within fractions of a
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second to relevant dynamic cues if the defensive player is to establish or maintain the desired synchronous or spatial relationship. With such minimum response time, and low tolerance for error, the defensive player’s initial response must typically be the correct one. The player must continually react to and repeatedly alter direction and/or velocity during a period of continuous movement. Any significant response lag or variance in relative velocity and/or movement direction between the player and virtual opponent places the player irrecoverably out of position. Relevant testing must provide for the many different paths of movement by the defensive player. The stimulus may prompt movement side to side (the X translation), fore and aft (the Z translation) or up and down (the Y translation). In many instances, the appropriate response may simply involve a twist or torque of the player’s body, which is a measure of the orientation.
2. Phase Lag Phase lag (“out of position”) is defined as the elapsed time that the player is “out of phase” with the virtual opponent’s movement. It is the time from the virtual opponent’s initial attempt at creating an asynchronous event to actual restoration of synchronicity by the player with the virtual opponent. In sports vernacular, it is the time required by the player to “recover” after being “out-‐of-‐position” while attempting to guard his opponent. Phase Lag includes dynamic reaction time.
3. Acceleration Acceleration is the player’s 1st step quickness as the player attempts to establish or restore synchronicity (lock into phase) with the offensive
virtual opponent. 1st step quickness is equally important for creating an asynchronous event for an offensive player. Acceleration is defined as the rate of increase of velocity over time and is a vector quantity. In sports vernacular, an athlete with first step quickness has the ability to accelerate rapidly from rest; an athlete with speed has the ability to reach a high velocity over longer distances. One of the most valued attributes of a successful athlete in most sports is first step quickness. Numerous tools are available to measure the athlete’s average velocity between two points; the most commonly employed tool is a stopwatch. By knowing the time required to transit the distance between a fixed start and end position, i.e., a known distance and direction, the athlete’s average velocity can be accurately calculated. But just as an automobile’s zero to sixty-‐mph time, a measure of acceleration, is more meaningful to many car aficionados than its top speed, an average velocity measure does not satisfy interest in quantifying the athlete’s first step quickness. Any sport valid test of 1st step quickness must replicate the challenges the athlete will actually face in competition. This novel measurement construct purports that acceleration is a more sensitive measure of “quickness” over short, sport-‐specific movement distances than is average velocity or speed. This is especially true since a realistic simulation of sports movement challenges, which are highly variable in distance, would not be dependent upon fixed start and end positions. A second reason that the measurement of acceleration over sport-‐specific distances appears be a more sensitive and reliable measure is that peak accelerations are reached over shorter distances, as little as one or two steps. Because the vector distances are so abbreviated and the player is typically already under movement prior to “exploding”, acceleration, power and/or peak velocity are assumed to be the most valid
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measures of such performance. Measures of speed or velocity over such short distances may not be reliable, and at best, are far less sensitive indicators. 1st step quickness can be applied to both static and dynamic situations. Static applications include quickness related to base stealing. Alternatively, truly sports relevant quickness also means that the athlete is able to rapidly change his movement pattern and accelerate in a new direction towards his goal. This type of quickness is embodied by Michael Jordan’s skill in driving to the basket. After making a series of misleading movement cues, Jordan is able to make a rapid, powerful drive to the basket. In situations where the athlete’s movement is over short, sport-‐specific distances that are not fixed start and stop positions, the attempt to compare velocities in various vectors of unequal distance is subject to considerable error. For example, comparison of bilateral vector velocities achieved over different distances will be inherently unreliable in that the athlete, given a greater distance, will achieve higher velocities. And conventional testing means, i.e., without continual tracking of the player, cannot determine peak velocities, only average velocities. Only by continuous, high-‐speed tracking of the athlete’s positional changes in three planes of movement can acceleration or peak velocity be accurately measured. For accurate assessment of bilateral performance, the measurement of acceleration provides a practical means for normalizing performance data to compensate for unequal distances over varying directions since peak accelerations are achieved within a few steps, well within a sport-‐specific playing area.
4. Reactive Cutting Reactive cutting (with emphasis on the ability to decelerate) is a unique indicator of the player’s ability to execute an abrupt change in the direction, i.e., a “cut”, of movement. Cutting can be a directional change of a few degrees to greater than 90 degrees. Vector changes can entail complete reversals of direction, similar to the abrupt forward and backward movement transitions that may occur in soccer, hockey, basketball, and football. The athlete must reduce momentum before attempting an aggressive directional change; this preparatory deceleration often occurs over several gait cycles. Once the directional change is accomplished, the athlete will maximally accelerate along the new vector direction. TRAZER has the unique ability to measure the player’s deceleration capabilities, which is critical to managing athlete development programs. Accurate measurement of cutting requires: •
continuous tracking of position changes in three planes of movement,
ascertaining the angle scribed by the cutting action,
measuring both the deceleration during braking prior to direction change and
the acceleration after completing the directional change.
For valid testing, the cues prompting the cutting action must be unpredictable and interactive so that the cut cannot be pre-‐planned by the athlete, except under specific training conditions, i.e. practicing pass routes in football. It must be sport-‐specific, replicating the types of stimuli the athlete will actually experience in competition. The validity of agility
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tests employing ground positioned cones and a stopwatch, absent sport-‐ relevant cueing, is suspect. With knowledge of acceleration and the player’s bodyweight, the power produced by the player during directional changes can also be quantified.
5. Reactive Bounding Reactive bounding is the player’s ability to jump or bound in response to the virtual opponent. Measured constructs include the player’s dynamic reaction time in response to the virtual opponent’s jumps as well as the player’s actual jump height and/or bound distance and trajectory. Static measures of jumping (maximal vertical jump) can have relatively poor correlation to athletic performance. Dynamic measurements made within the TRAZER simulation provide sports relevant information by incorporating the variable of time with respect to the jump or bound. A jump is a vertical elevation of the body’s center of gravity; specifically a displacement of the CM (Center of Mass) in the vertical plane. A jump involves little, if any, horizontal displacement. In contrast, a bound is an elevation of the body’s center of gravity having both horizontal and vertical components. It is universally recognized that jumping and bounding ability is essential to success in many sports, and that it is also a valid indicator of overall body power. Most sports training programs attempt to quantify jumping skills to both appraise and enhance athletic skills. A number of commercially available devices are capable of measuring an athlete’s peak jump height. The distance achieved by a bound can be determined if the start and end points are known. But no testing equipment other than TRAZER purports to measure or capture the peak height (amplitude) of a bounding exercise
performed in sport relevant simulation. The peak amplitude can be a sensitive and valuable measure of bounding performance. As is the case with a football punt, where the height of the ball, i.e., the time in the air, is at least as important as the distance, the height of the bound is often as important as the distance obtained. Both the high jump and the long jump can be characterized as a bound. Satisfactory measures currently exist to accurately characterize an athlete’s performance in these track and field events. But in these individual field events, the athlete is not governed by the unpredictable nature of game play. Many competitive team sports require that the athlete elevate his or her center of gravity, whether playing defense or offense, during actual game play. Examples include rebounding in basketball, a diving catch in football, a volleyball spike, etc. Unlike field events, the athlete does not know exactly when or where he or she must jump or bound. The timing of a jump or bound is as critical to a successful spike in volleyball or rebound in basketball as is its height. The jump or bound should be made and measured in response to an unpredictable dynamic cue to accurately simulate competitive play. The required movement vector may be known (volleyball spike) or unknown (soccer goalie, basketball rebound). TRAZER tracks in real time the actual trajectory of a jump or bound performed during simulations of offensive and defensive play. To measure the critical components of a jump or bound requires continuous sampling at high rates for the purpose of detecting the peak amplitude of the athlete’s movement, as well as the distance achieved during a jumping or bounding event.
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6. Dynamic Posture Dynamic posture is the player’s body position during defensive or offensive activities. Coaches, players, and trainers universally acknowledge the criticality of a player’s body posture during sports activities. Whether in a defensive or offensive role, the player’s body posture during movement directly impacts the desired outcome. An effective body posture optimizes such performance capabilities as agility, stability and balance, and minimizes energy expenditure. An optimum posture during movement enhances control of the body center of gravity during periods of maximal acceleration, deceleration and directional changes. For example, a body posture during movement in which the center of gravity is (“CG”) “too high” may reduce stability as well as dampen explosive movements; conversely, a body posture during movement that is “too low” may reduce mobility. Without means of quantifying the effectiveness of a body posture on performance, discovering the optimum stance is a “hit or miss” process without objective, real time feedback. Optimal posture during movement can be determined by continuous, high speed tracking of the player’s CG in relationship to the ground during execution of sport-‐specific activities. For each player, at some vertical CG position, functional performance capabilities will be optimized. To determine that position requires means for continual tracking of small positional changes in the player’s CG at high enough sampling rates to capture relevant CG displacements. It also requires a sports simulation that prompts the player to move in actual competition, with abrupt changes of direction and maximal accelerations and decelerations over varying distance and directions.
TRAZER’s protocols have the player striving to maintain CG within a prescribed range during execution of movements identical to those experienced in actual game play. During such training, the player is provided with immediate, objective feedback based on compliance with the targeted vertical CG. Recommended ranges for each player can be based either on previously established normative data, or could be determined by actual TRAZER testing to determine that CG position producing the higher performance values.
7. Functional Cardio-‐Respiratory Status Functional cardio-‐respiratory status is the player’s cardio-‐respiratory status during sports specific activities. In most sports competitions, there are cycles of high physiologic demand, alternating with periods of lesser demand. Cardiac demand is also impacted upon by situational performance stress and attention demands. Performance of the cardio-‐ respiratory system under sports relevant conditions is important to efficient movement. Currently, for the purposes of evaluating the athlete’s cardio-‐respiratory fitness for sports competition, stationary exercise bikes, treadmills and climbers are employed for assessing cardiac response to increasing levels of physical stress. Though such exercise devices can provide measures of physical work, they are incapable of replicating the actual stresses and conditions experienced by the competitive athlete in most sports. Accordingly, these tests are severely limited if attempts are made to correlate the resultant measures to actual sport-‐specific activities. It is well known that heart rate is influenced by variables such as emotional stress and the type of muscular contractions, which can differ radically in various sports activities. For example, heightened emotional stress, and a corresponding increase in cardiac output is often associated with defensive
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play as the defensive player is constantly in a “coiled” position anticipating the offensive player’s next response. For the cardiac rehab specialist, coach, or athlete interested in accurate, objective physiological measures of sport-‐specific cardiovascular fitness, few valid tests have been identified. A valid test would deliver sport-‐ specific exercise challenges to cycle the athlete’s heart rate to replicate levels observed in actual competition. The athlete’s movement decision-‐ making and execution skills, reaction time, acceleration-‐deceleration capabilities, agility and other key functional performance variables would be challenged. Cardiac response, expressed as heart rate, would be continuously tracked as would key performance variables. Feedback of heart rate vs. sport-‐specific performance at each moment in time would be computed and reported. Functional cardio-‐respiratory fitness is a novel measurement construct capable of quantifying any net changes in sport-‐specific performance relative to the function of the cardio-‐respiratory system.
Simulation’s competitive advantages include: •
DELIVERY of both planned and unplanned sport-‐specific cues to elicit realistic movement responses. Unplanned movement demands create completely different movement challenges than do pre-‐planned or controlled movement patterns.
MEASUREMENT of reaction time and movement speed, power, acceleration and deceleration to unpredictable stimuli. This provides a sensitive gauge of the ability and perhaps even propensity for future injury or disability. A primary factor indicative of potential injury or disease is the inability to react and move quickly.
TRAINING and valid TESTING of visual perception, interpretation and reactive decision making functions by providing means for simulating the types of visual cues that elicit reaction movements. The timing and indicated response of each cue must be unpredictable, yet interactive based on moment-‐to-‐moment performance.
To simulate the VISUAL PERCEPTION and SENSORY-‐MOTOR INTEGRATION demands seen in competition, TRAQ 3D incorporates giant display screens for head-‐tracking, eye-‐tracking and peripheral vision skills necessary for success.
DUPLICATION of the neuromuscular and biomechanical stresses of actual game situations and required functional activities.
Summary of Key Points We characterize the core attributes required for success in the power sports as the ability to: •
Make lightning-‐quick reads and to explosively react to the opponent and/or the ball
Move with power, agility, balance and stamina over distances typically of less than two yards
Perform at peak levels for periods (bouts) of explosive movement lasting approximately 10 to 30 seconds, alternating with rest periods of 10 to 30 seconds.
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TRAQ 3D Athlete Development Program
TRAQ’s Athlete Development Program is designed for athletes of all ages who are serious about maximizing their athletic potential. TRAQ 3D employs patented technology and world-‐class programs to radically improve mental and physical performance while building lean muscle mass and improving energy levels. Using a medically-‐based model, the Program uniquely exploits award winning TRAZER Sports Simulation technology and programs to deliver unprecedented results.
“Blending high tech entertainment with exercise science and sports simulation creates a compelling resource for the athlete who demands the best from his mind and body.” -Dr. Alan Davis, MD A big bench press doesn’t make the best player Sports physicians, therapists, trainers and coaches readily agree that it is the athlete with superior reactions, agility and quickness who excels in competition and is less likely to be injured. Scientific strength training is essential of course, but it’s not the big bench press that makes the best tennis player, basketball player or football player.
Straight ahead running is only a small part of performance for most sports. Rather it is the explosive reaction movements, rapid starts and stops, direction changes; lateral, linear, diagonal and backward movement skills that dominate play. Unfortunately, training programs for reaction time, agility, and quickness have always been the hardest to design. And with the exception of simple straight-‐ahead running, results have been virtually impossible to measure objectively. Yet, weaknesses in these capabilities are certainly those most directly related to actual game performance, as well as injuries. In most game situations, the timing and required movement response needed to intercept the ball or to counter an opponent’s actions cannot be predicted. The reality is that the unpredictable nature of sport creates completely different musculoskeletal stresses (pathways) than the pre-‐planned or controlled movement patterns often practiced in conventional training programs. For example, with cone drills, shuttle runs and similar conventional drills, the distance and direction you must move are all known in advance unlike action sports competition. Agility is more about fast hips than fast feet Dr. Michael Yessis has written that ”Most drills that are commonly used to improve agility require lifting the knees up high or making very short changes in direction with the feet. For example, ladder drills are very popular in which your client must touchdown in each segment of a ladder which lies on the floor or higher ladders in which you must step over the
rope and touch-‐down in between. Or, the agility drill may require lifting the leg (more specifically the knee) in order to step over a cone or hurdle as quickly as possible. Sometimes the drill may involve raising the knees to waist level in an alternating manner as quickly as possible. Such drills, however, do not imitate or come close to duplicating what occurs in true cutting actions. The main reason for this is that they do not involve cutting actions. Your client may be excellent at performing the drills but if they do not have the ability to execute a correct cutting action the drill will be of little value. As a result, the common hurdle, cone and ladder drills do not appreciably improve the athlete’s quickness. The athlete may develop faster feet, but not the ability to change direction very sharply and powerfully. He concluded that “Understand that agility involves fast legs not fast feet.” We at TRAQ believe that agility is more about fast hips than fast legs. We train athletes like fighter pilots To train pilots, flight simulators accurately and realistically replicate the demands of flying. Because practicing on a flight simulator is so similar to actual flying, simulator training readily “transfers” to actual flying. The exact same principles apply to TRAQ’s Athlete Development Program!
apparatus could not determine whether your client had regained equal reaction time off their injured leg, or could accelerate, decelerate and stabilize in different directions. Yet, deficits and imbalances in these capabilities can indicate inappropriate training or previously undetected injury, and are certainly the most directly related to actual game performance. TRAZER offers unparalleled testing, training and functional rehabilitation versatility and effectiveness. It provides certain capabilities beyond those of even the most sophisticated biomechanics lab. In rapidly changing environments, you must Sense – Process – Execute The mental calculations your client must make from moment-‐to-‐moment to command the field or court would overwhelm the most powerful computer, yet his brain is expected to make these calculations all the time. Hockey legend Wayne Gretzky volunteered, “Growing up, I was always the small guy; I couldn’t beat people with my strength. My eyes and my mind have to do most of the work.”
For valid testing of sport-‐specific performance capabilities, the tests must replicate the actual demands of competition. For example, how many times in a game does your client actually run a 40 yard dash? For optimal training results, his training must actually transfer to game play.
Peter Vint, a researcher with the US Olympic Committee, commented about superstars Wayne Gretzky, Larry Bird, and Joe Montana, “In any sport, you come across these players… They’re not always the most physically talented, but they’re the best. The way they see things that nobody else sees—it can seem almost supernatural. But I’m a scientist, so I want to know how the magic works.”
Until TRAZER®, there was no widely accepted method for reliable testing or effective training of reaction time, power, acceleration, deceleration, velocity of movement or balance and stability over sport-‐specific distances. Even the most sophisticated strength, power and endurance testing
Because the visual acuity and physicality of the aforementioned superstars were certainly not superior—or perhaps even equal—to their peers, we suggest that the “magic” Dr. Vint refers to is the ability to process: that
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rare ability to calculate on the move, in real-‐time, the complex geometry and physics problems that sports present. Interestingly, elite athletes exhibit memory and perceptual skills comparable with the memory and perceptual skills of people who are accomplished in architecture, chess, and physics. So perhaps sports REALLY ARE “90 percent mental… the other half physical,” as Yogi Berra notoriously claimed. TRAQ’s simulations are the missing link in modern athlete training programs. And as such, they are the future—the bridge that trains the mind on the move, re-‐creating the incredibly complex physical and mental demands of competition to build a superior performer. TRAQ’s collaboration with the world-‐renowned Cleveland Clinic at the Westlake Medical Campus, and with both professional and amateur athletes of all ages and abilities have validated the power of sports simulation. Patented testing capability enables superb assessment and management capabilities Your client’s initial consultation enables you to elicit goals and aspirations so that you can precisely configure TRAZER’s Performance Assessments. With TRAZER’s ability to measure interactive 3D movement capabilities, you can effectively manage the training program. 1.
You’ll take your client’s history to determine whether there are any deficits that would limit full participation in the TRAQ 3D programs. You’ll question them about factors that may affect movement skills and balance, as well as some pertaining to their general health and fitness.
The TRAZER Performance Assessment identifies any specific functional movement deficits and limitations; the testing employed will be specific to the client’s sport.
Using this info, you’ll apply TRAQ programs targeting identified goals, deficits and limitations. Because it is interactive, TRAZER automatically accommodates to your client’s current performance and fitness levels.
As you work together, each aspect of your client’s program will be implemented progressively with TRAZER monitoring moment-‐to-‐ moment performance to determine tolerances and limits. Beginning with simple, easily performed reactive movement tasks, TRAZER varies the intensity and complexity of the interactive challenges. The ability to complete each stage of the program determines the rate at which you will progress the client.
At each step of the way, you’ll closely monitor their heart rate, dynamic stance, and movement speed to more precisely control the activities to ensure safe and effective exercise and maximal results.
You’ll test the client periodically to document progress until their goals are achieved.
Our post-‐program assessment tests will document the effectiveness of TRAQ 3D programs in improving your client’s physical and mental performance capabilities. As such, TRAZER has a unique ability to quantify player potential and detect player weaknesses. For example, if test results show your client has quicker reactions and/or faster movements in certain directions, a change in position to exploit a comparative strength might be of immediate benefit. Of course, in the long run, even more specific TRAZER training to
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achieve reaction and movement skills symmetry would provide greater benefit. TRAZER test results can be forwarded to the physician, physical therapist, or coach if desired. Training and testing the distinct speed components of performance The study “Specificity of Acceleration, Maximum Speed and Agility in Professional Soccer Players” concluded that “acceleration, maximum speed, and agility are specific qualities and relatively unrelated to one another. The findings suggest that specific testing and training procedures for each speed component should be utilized when working with elite players.” At TRAQ 3D, sports simulators are uniquely able to train and measure the major components of sports performance – linear and lateral speed, acceleration and deceleration, agility and vertical power (jump height). Coaches, clinicians and athletes know that pre-‐planned training activities such as agility drills using stationary cones only train and measure a fraction of the capabilities required for success on the field or court – left untested and/or untrained are the most vital SENSE – PROCESS capacities, as well as the ability to EXECUTE in all movement vectors when subjected to unplanned stimuli that occur in real sports. Sports simulation creates a more realistic and productive virtual environment through which physical, physiological, and cognitive capabilities can be accurately assessed and enhanced. Simulation replicates the complex challenges experienced in dynamic and unpredictable action on the field or court without the constraints or risk factors inherent in competition.
Reaction time, mental processing, focus and visual tracking High-‐performance athletes have the almost uncanny ability to focus all these attributes on the task at hand. Your client’s every physical response is the result of a miraculous series of communications involving the senses, brain and thousands of muscle fibers. Your goal is to “wire” the body so that the senses, mind and body work together at maximum efficiency. Unlike “mindless exercise” and monotonous training programs, TRAZER simulations improve the ability to think more clearly, react faster and to move the body more explosively and powerfully during challenging competitive situations. Computer simulation, by delivering realistic cueing, greatly accelerates the learning process by providing you, the trainer, with real-‐time, accurate feedback of critical, previously unavailable performance parameters. With TRAZER, the direction, distance and rate of core body movement can be precisely controlled and then measured to within an inch. Your clients will achieve immediately noticeable performance improvements from brief training periods. These improvements in visual perception and interpretation, movement decision making, neuromuscular activation time, foot movement patterning and speed, and in direction change, acceleration, deceleration and stabilization capabilities will carry over to game situations. TRAQ 3D is developing a large-‐scale database for statistical analysis of data by combinations of age, gender, bodyweight, height, sport, position, competition level and other parameters defined by users.
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Your brain retains movement-‐related info as “motor programs” Body building places its emphasis on the development of specific, isolated muscle groups; by contrast, TRAQ training focuses on refining the global movement patterns necessary for superior agility, speed, reaction time, coordination, balance and stamina. TRAZER protocols train and reinforce efficient complex movement patterns.
Increase lean muscle mass via scientific, functional strength training and proper diet and nutrition
Significantly improve sport-‐specific power and endurance by combining simulation and patented functional power development via progressive overloads (“PowerTRAQ”)
Improve sports vision, which includes anticipation, timing, reaction speed, focus, concentration and court vision using TRAQ 3D Sports Vision Training.
Improve movement efficiency to ensure no wasted movements or unnecessary energy expenditures – efficient movement maximizes results and reduces injuries
Factor in the timing of the competitive season to ensure peaking at the optimal time – which in sports science is call “periodization.
Our Specific Goals for Your Client •
Develop and refine advanced specific-‐movement skills. Emphasis is on their global performance, increasing their ability to react, acceleration and deceleration with power while maintaining balance.
Significantly improve movement consistency by minimizing the variability of movement – this will be accomplished by computer analysis and training of stance during sports simulations
Training as compelling as game play Clients find that TRAQ training offers the interactive challenges of actual sport competition; it engages the body and mind. With competitive training, your athletes will work harder and go farther. Our goals include:
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Buckle up for the ultimate interactive training experience PowerTRAQ training builds incredible sport-‐specific power, speed and stamina; it is an invaluable component of your client’s training at TRAQ 3D. Elastic cables have been valuable tools for rehabilitation and sports enhancement programs. However, before TRAZER, there was no practical way to integrate resistive cables with interactive, sport-‐specific training and provide immediate objective feedback; all of which are essential for the successful management of your client’s TRAQ program. PowerTRAQ provides resistive strength and power training with real-‐time feedback and real-‐world challenges. Specially calibrated elastic cables are attached to a comfortable body-‐worn belt, with the opposite ends secured to the floor at the edges of the TRAZER playing field. In contrast to the use of such elastic cables without simulation or objective measurement, TRAZER training replicates sport relevant movement patterns, and is also uniquely capable of quantifying the effects of such added resistance both in real time and progressively over time.
overstressing joints. Your clients will be able to work harder (and therefore get better faster) with reduced risk of injury and joint and muscle soreness. Kids and adults alike tell us they enjoy the spring-‐like response of the cables.
Effectively Monitoring PowerTRAQ Training Employ the following protocol to monitor your client’s PowerTRAQ Program sessions: •
Test the client’s unloaded (sans PowerTRAQ) performance to establish a baseline.
Add resistance while monitoring your client’s cardiac response, reaction time, and movement speed. Their CG height also provides you with an objective measure of their posture.
Progressively increase resistance based on this measured data.
This enables you to monitor your client’s cardiac response, reaction time, and movement speed during sport-‐specific resistance training. This building of truly usable strength and power is accomplished according to the “specific adaptation to imposed demand principle” (SAID) of training.
Continue to monitor cardiac response and movement speed to increase loads appropriately.
Adjust resistance according to tolerance and to ensure sufficient training time at a given resistance for physiological changes.
Your client’s joints during rigorous training experience the largest resultant forces during braking and abrupt directional changes. Since the elastic cables act to dampen these braking forces, PowerTRAQ builds functional movement capability and cardiovascular conditioning without
Periodically test their movement skills during resistive loading to measure maximum benefits from the resistance.
Continue progression until maximum functional improvement or other specific training goals are achieved.
Test their unloaded (sans PowerTRAQ cables) performance and compare to their initial benchmark.
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We compete in an unpredictable world Athletes, the aging, and those who work in a physically demanding environment are especially vulnerable to the inherent challenges of dealing with the unpredictable. For these populations, successfully responding to the unpredictable translates into success, confidence, safety, security, and a heightened enjoyment of life in general. The cat interfering with the next step, that patch of unseen ice, the tackler on the field—they all impose unanticipated forces on the body that disrupt the planned movement path. Successfully dealing with spontaneous forces or disruptions requires an amazing series of coordinated responses from our incredible bodies. We must instantaneously sense the force or disruption, decide on a response, and execute the proper action—all in a fraction of a second. We’re penalized for a slow response or an improper course of action—sometimes severely. Unpredictable training for predictable improvements in safety and performance The unpredictable becomes knowable by way of our senses—for example, we either see or feel the unexpected cat under our feet. A football player feels the crush of a tackle from behind. In fact, football players are exposed to unpredictable forces on nearly every play. Thankfully, the entire system can be trained to readily deal with the abrupt introduction of unseen forces through “unpredictability training.” Unpredictability training ensures injuries are relatively rare and develops superb responsiveness.
To be relevant or transferable to our world, the training should be measurable, or it would be like shooting baskets without a hoop; we’d never know if we made the shot. Plus, to be as fun as game play, we need to keep score. Finally, our training system must impose on us unpredictable forces while we are responding to unpredictable challenges in our training environment. Obviously, all of this must be done safely, progressively, and in a challenging manner. Of course, no exercise machine at the traditional gym or health club does all of this. But imagine if such an “unpredictability trainer” actually existed. It would energize your brain and your nervous system. It would improve core strength, movement power and speed, and balance and stamina. It would burn calories like nothing else as it sculpts your body. And it would improve your safety and sports performance. But such a training device does exist. It is the product of a decade of leading-‐edge research in simulation, exercise, and sport science and holds 10 U.S. patents. TRAZER® and Unpredictability Training How does it work? During TRAZER training, one, two or three PowerTRAQ bands can be attached to 1 of 4 floor positions to impose disruptive forces while your client moves with the constraints of the elastics. The client experiences alternating unconstrained and imposed forces in nearly each distinct movement leg.
The precise moment of force application during each movement leg is unpredictable to the client, and will therefore progressively train the entire system to successfully deal with events that occur in an unpredictable world. A single PowerTRAQ band (as opposed to multiple bands) heightens TRAZER’s ability to prepare the client for the unpredictable through “asymmetrical vector training.” The patented TRAZER and PowerTRAQ methodologies result in the first and only “Unpredictability Trainer.” Asymmetrical vector training increases the demands on the core for rotational control, and disrupts the neuromuscular system. Abruptly introducing unplanned forces on the body triggers the neuromuscular system to compensate in ways not trained by other methods. Because of the unbalancing effects of the imposed forces, asymmetrical vector training elicits greater core activity and stimulation of the neuromuscular system. Asymmetrical training also produces contra-‐lateral strength and power enhancements (i.e., enhancements on the side of the body opposite the side that’s directly being worked) because of the crossover effects.
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Sports Injury Prevention
There is a well-‐documented need for programs that prevent sports injuries. TRAQ 3D programs are designed to reduce the incidence of lower extremity injuries, specifically knee and ankle injuries. In fact, TRAZER is routinely used successfully for the rehabilitation of knee, ankle and hip injuries. By employing TRAZER protocols, PowerTRAQ resistive training and the principles of Unpredictability Training, TRAQ programs improve client movement mechanics, strength, power and stamina. There is a growing consensus among clinicians that a lack of movement training, or improper biomechanics expose athletes to an increased incidence of knee injuries. Simply identifying and training the proper stance that maximizes performance and minimizes stress can significantly reduce sports injuries. For example, some athletes hold their knees straighter upon landing from a jump or upon braking, thereby increasing the pressure on the knee joint. And during cutting maneuvers, some athletes tend to change direction from a more erect position, which also strains the ACL. Learning to crouch and bend at the knees and hips can reduce the stress on the ACL. Recent studies have demonstrated that serious knee injuries are preventable with specialized agility, jump, balance, and strength training. TRAQ’s simulation-‐based movement training program is designed to improve sport-‐specific movement capabilities, reduce the incidence of lower back and knee injuries, improve cardiovascular fitness and build lean muscle mass.
Teaching of correct mechanics of sports-‐specific movement is an important step for an athlete striving reach his or her genetic potential, or to fully restore mobility after recovery from an injury. Specific knowledge about the correct position for the core (e.g. pelvis) and knees, as well as the coordination of the actions of the upper and lower extremities with the actions of the core is essential. Yet paradoxically, few athlete development programs or coaches actually teach the mechanics of movement, the knowledge that transforms a player with average first step quickness and agility into a champion more resilient to injury. Ancient Arts – Future Science No physical endeavor of mankind has so focused on the refinement of 3-‐ dimensional movement and maximizing the generation of power than has the traditional martial arts. Martial arts masters invest a lifetime perfecting their movement skills to maximize their balance, agility, stability, quickness, reactions, and power, as well as their ability to withstand impact to the body. Many of the principles employed at TRAQ are based on these fundamental principles. Agility is comprised of a series of accelerations, decelerations and abrupt changes in direction. Such movements can be executed with great speed and precision provided the entire body works effectively together. There must be a coordinated, properly sequenced action of the muscles of the torso and the extremities. During vigorous movement such as rapid changes in direction, the muscles of the trunk undergo a series of contractions to give optimum support to
the extremities. Power originates from the rotation of the trunk that begins with the contraction of the lower abdominal muscles which diffuses to the trunk and upper extremities to facilitate the movement of the torso around the central-‐vertical axis of the body.
synchronization of lower extremity movement with the energetic action of the torso and arms further increases the stabilization of the core and lower extremities.
The ancient masters intuitively understood that the core muscles are primarily composed of red, slow contracting fibers that are capable of prolonged, repetitive, low-‐intensity contractions – this is in contrast to the predominately white, fast contracting fibers of the extremities.
Correct Posture •
Feet are parallel and wider than hips, knees are slightly bent, abs pulled in, tailbone/pelvis is tucked into a neutral position.
Slight forward lean to upper body.
The pelvis approaches a posterior tilt, where the back of the pelvis moves down slightly and the front moves up -‐ with a somewhat posterior tilt, the lower abdominals fire with involvement of the quads, and with aggressive movement, perhaps the buttocks.
The arm action reflects demands of the specific sport in a coordinated manner that mimics our natural walking pattern
Increasing Stability and Reducing Knee & Back Injuries Maintaining a correct pelvis tilt synchronized with a fully involved torso and upper extremities will reduce injuries to the lumbar spine (lower back) and knees. A post-‐pelvis tilt fires the quads so that they act to stabilize the knees during aggressive braking and change-‐in-‐direction. And the
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TRAZER® Burst Training
14-‐minute TRAQ Burst Training beats 60 minutes of running—and the research proves it Imagine having your client play just six 20-‐second TRAZER games interspersed with 10-‐second rest periods—play just 2 minutes plus their warm-‐up and cool down for impressive results in six weeks.
But don’t be fooled: 4 total minutes of this type of training can be the most challenging of workouts. Keeping your client motivated is very tough. The key to Burst Training is TRAZER. TRAZER games make this incredibly challenging and productive form of training actually fun, competitive, and satisfying, thus keeping the client charged and motivated.
TRAQ Burst Training is better than conventional aerobic training programs—even better than running at 70% of your client’s aerobic capacity for 60 minutes.
Plus, with PowerTRAQ Strength & Power Protocols, your clients will build lean muscle while actually reducing the physical stress on their joints.
The proof? Dr. Izumi Tabata and his associates at the National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Tokyo found that six weeks of conventional aerobic training improved aerobic capacity by only 9.5%, with no effect on anaerobic capacity . By contrast, this same study showed that with the 14-‐minute workout, even elite athletes improved their maximum aerobic capacity (their ability to consume oxygen) by 14%. And incredibly, they also improved their anaerobic capacity (their ability to maintain a high work load) by 28%. Both endurance athletes and power athletes benefit from TRAQ Burst Training. And Dr. Tabata's research demonstrates that sprint training is up to 50% more efficient at burning fat compared to low-‐intensity training. Moreover, it builds more lean muscle to rev up the metabolism for hours after the training ends. TRAQ Burst Training also improves reaction time, agility, balance, and coordination. Your clients will look better and move better.
CAUTION: Burst Training is not appropriate for all. Those with cardiac or musculoskeletal problems should first consult with their physicians. However, studies have demonstrated that TRAQ Burst-‐type training safely improves anaerobic tolerance better than traditional aerobic training programs for highly functional coronary artery disease patients. Burst Training can be characterized as reactive, anaerobic and ballistic training. We further improve safety and results by: •
Modulating the CV intensity of the exercise via HR monitoring to ensure the client remains within an appropriate work range.
Selecting TRAZER activities that reward the client for well-‐ controlled movement responses in contrast to ballistic responses. The goal is to maximize the training experience while adhering to the heart-‐rate prescription.
The Protocol TRAQ Burst Training consists of six to seven 20-‐second full-‐speed bursts of exercise interspersed with rest periods of 10 seconds. Recommended frequency for your clients is five days per week during a minimum of a six – 8 week cycle. The promising outcomes are reported to be due to the brief rest intervals between bursts. Conventional interval training guidelines prescribe a 1:3 work-‐rest ratio. In contrast, Burst Training’s work-‐rest ratio is 2:1, which can be brutal. The result, however, is a superior form of training. In that other study, Tabata and his colleagues compared their original protocol to a second configuration of intervals that consisted of 30-‐second sprints interspersed with two-‐minute rest periods. Despite the fact that this required subjects to sprint for more time at a higher intensity, the original Tabata Protocol still proved more effective at boosting both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. On paper, the Tabata Protocol offers an efficient means of conditioning, but it is grueling. It was originally developed for Olympic-‐caliber athletes, and Dr. Tabata reported that they were exhausted by the routine. In fact, most subjects were so exhausted they couldn’t complete the seventh set. It is important that your client is mentally and physically prepared to undertake this rigorous training method. For those clients unprepared, it would be prudent to increase the rest periods. Ensure your client properly warms up approximately five minutes prior to Bursting – it is preferable that the warm-‐up be performed on TRAZER just before the TRAZER intervals. A TRAZER cool-‐down after completion of the Burst session is preferable as well.
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TRAZER® Performance Assessments
Brief Summary of the Physics of TRAZER® Hard Data Drives TRAQ’s Personalized Training Programs Before the TRAZER simulator, there wasn’t an effective means to quantify the core components of sport-‐specific game play. And there was certainly no testing model for the complex, constantly changing and interactive relationship between offensive and defensive opponents and the ball. Tests that measure the amount of load that your client can lift are specialized strength measures and do not give any indication of their ability to move adeptly. Of course, their strength capacity and flexibility should not be ignored. But they must be considered for what they are: factors that contribute to the maintenance and enhancement of effective sport-‐specific performance. Tests of isolated joint and limb strength are not reflective of sport-‐specific function; for example, knee strength in one plane of movement does not indicate real-‐world capacity. Measures of straight-‐ahead speed (e.g., the 100-‐meter and 40-‐yard dash) only subject your client to one static cue (i.e., the sound of the gun at the starting line). Although the test does measure a combination of simple reaction time and speed, it can be applied to only one specific situation -‐ responding to a gun and then running straight ahead on a track. Static cues require little thinking and no strategy; they do not contribute to an accurate model of your client’s sport, which demands rapid response to a continuous flow of environmental cues.
By simulating real play and/or competition, TRAZER enables accurate quantification of previously “immeasurable” performance and physiological parameters. Consequently, TRAZER can guide, track, and report your client’s performance in real time and after each training session, providing the feedback necessary to manage your client’s program. These measurements will enable us to identify any previously undetectable weaknesses and imbalances. The data provided allows a more accurate and sensitive assessment of the ability to control and adapt to game situations and the likely response to new physical challenges. Unlike the results of many other tests, TRAZER provides direct, reliable measurements of your actual function, and those measurements are directly transferable to performance on the field or court. Though it is useful to be able to limit demands for training and rehab purposes – accurate, reliable, and valid testing protocols require maximal efforts from your client. Submax efforts are not acceptably reproducible. The only exception to this is a graded exercise test which by definition progressively increases physiological demand. The Force -‐ Velocity Curve Shows that Strength Training has its “Weaknesses” Strength can be defined as the maximum force generated during a movement. One measure of our strength is our maximum squat or bench. Proper strength training is essential to optimizing our sports performance. But like all training protocols, it too has its limitations.
TRAZER’s Measurement of Power
The force-‐velocity curve (see Figure 1) provides some insight regarding such limitations -‐ it clearly illustrates the benefits of combining strength training with sport-‐specific speed training.
Power is a measure of the rate at which you can perform work, defined as the force acting upon a person that causes displacement (movement). Work includes running down the court or lifting a weight. However, work does not account for the amount of time the force acted on the person to cause the displacement. Lifting a weight slowly generates less power (but an equal amount of work) than lifting the same weight faster. The power a person can generate is certainly one of the most important measures of physical prowess. TRAZER’s measurement of power is a unique measure of the ability to execute an abrupt change in direction, that is, the ability to “cut on a dime.”
Power can be explained as adding speed to strength; agility can perhaps be defined as “quickness under control” The force-‐velocity curve depicts the relationship between the force produced by muscle and the speed/velocity of the muscle contraction. Maximal muscle force is generated during a maximal isometric contraction, which, of course, has a zero velocity. As force increases, the speed at which a movement can be executed slows—large forces simply require more time to develop. The time required could be as much as a half second or more. And yet most sport-‐ specific movements are performed at such high velocities that there is insufficient time to develop maximum forces. Foot ground contact times are typically less than a tenth of a second.
Power is more important to an athlete than strength Power is simply our ability to produce force very rapidly. The force-‐velocity curve shows that our greatest power is achieved approximately equidistant between our max power and max velocity for a particular movement. As our power improves, our ability to produce both force (strength) and velocity also improves. Emphasizing the importance of power should not be construed as devaluing strength training. On the contrary, as strength improves, the ability to generate power does so as well. But for an athlete to reach his or her genetic potential, he/she must properly blend strength and sport-‐ specific speed training. Diligently working to increase maximum strength -‐ which primarily improves our ability to generate large forces at slow speeds, results in diminishing returns at some training point.
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Training that increases the rate at which an athlete can produce force directly correlates with success on the field or court.
TRAZER’s Measurement of Reaction Time Great reaction time depends on the recognition of your opponent or the ball, a prompt decision to act and the correctness of the resulting physical action. A novice athlete, for example, may recognize the ball or opponent adeptly, but their inexperience may result in an incorrect decision that produces an inappropriate or inefficient response. TRAZER quantifies your ability to react both quickly and to move in the correct direction to visual and auditory cues mimicking real sports activities. TRAZER measures the elapsed time from the instant each cue is presented until your response in the correct direction.
TRAZER’s Measurement of 1st Step Quickness First Step Quickness is one of the most valued attributes of a successful athlete. In sports vernacular, an athlete possessing “first-‐step quickness” accelerates well. By contrast a high “top end” is a measure of speed. 1st-‐ step quickness often determines who makes the play. 1st-‐step quickness is a component of overall agility, but like reaction time, it is a component that is useful and meaningful to look at separately. Numerous training tools are available to measure your average speed between two points. For example, a stopwatch is used to measure your 100 meter time. Your average velocity between two points is the ratio of the change in your position (how far you traveled) to the time interval it took you to get there (e.g., feet per second or miles per hour).
However, any time your speed/velocity actually changes, the change is measured as acceleration. An everyday example of acceleration is pressing down on your car’s accelerator pedal. Acceleration is the ratio of the car’s change in velocity (in feet per second) to the time (seconds) it took for the change to take place. Therefore, the measurement units are feet divided by seconds squared. st
It is important to note that 1 Step Quickness applies to more than just increasing velocity. Increasing your velocity is acceleration; decreasing your velocity is usually termed “deceleration.” So braking our car -‐ again a change in velocity -‐ is deceleration. Since acceleration occurs whenever you change velocity or your direction of movement, you can see how acceleration can be more valuable for testing of, and training for, agility than speed or velocity is. You may have heard the sports jargon that “speed kills” when referring to the break-‐away speed of a running back or split end, for example. Speed can certainly be dangerous, but acceleration can be a more potent weapon. Here’s another common example, a roller coaster, is thrilling because of its acceleration, not its speed. A roller coaster’s top end seldom exceeds freeway speed limits. Any valid test of first-‐step quickness must not only measure acceleration, it must also replicate the real-‐world cues that actually cause the person to accelerate in the first place. Until TRAZER, acceleration over sport-‐relevant distances and directions in response to real-‐world cues could not be practically measured.
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TRAZER’s Measurement of Movement Speed
TRAZER’s Measurement of Optimal Sports Posture
Velocity is defined as the average speed in feet per second over a specified direction and measured distance.
Dynamic posture is defined as the optimal stance to generate maximum power and stability during game play. TRAZER allows the cueing, tracking and comparison of movement power at different stances. For each user, at some particular dynamic posture, their agility, quickness, stability and balance will be optimized, and unnecessary energy expenditure will be reduced. Certain games and drills can be set up to train and reward maintaining more optimal stance during movement.
TRAZER’S Measurement of Agility Perhaps the most complex and critical movement demand in sport is the requirement to rapidly change direction in response to the unpredictable actions of opponents, teammates, and objects during game play. Similar to tests of reaction time, the cues must be unpredictable so that you can’t pre-‐plan movements. The cues also must be interactive and continuous to simulate the challenges of real sports competition. TRAZER does all of this. TRAZER measures your ability to execute abrupt changes in direction, whether defending or evading. Agility depends on being able to rapidly change the direction of movement and accelerate in a new direction toward a target. This type of quickness (actually acceleration) is embodied by Michael Jordan’s skill in driving to the basket. After making a series of misleading movement cues, Jordan is able to make a rapid, powerful drive to the basket. As we have discussed, most tests of speed/velocity, such as the 40-‐yard dash, are pre-‐planned events. Such tests do not accurately replicate the types of movement challenges faced in real competition. TRAZER, by contrast, measures the ability to execute abrupt and explosive changes in any direction while either evading or guarding a virtual opponent to simulate both realistic offensive and defensive play.
Both the ancient martial arts and modern sports science teach the importance of strengthening and controlling your core. This control is perhaps the single most important factor in determining whether you move effectively. The stance you assume while playing a game determines in no small measure how effectively you actually will play. Proper body posture optimizes your agility, stability and balance and minimizes your required expenditure of energy. This approximate center of your body is often referred to as your “CG” (center of gravity). Effective body core control is essential for everyone. Accomplished athletes exhibit superb control of the body core, which is reflected in their extraordinary balance, power, and agility. An optimum posture during movement enhances control of your body’s center of gravity during periods of maximum acceleration, deceleration, and directional change. For example, a body posture during movement in which your center of gravity is too high may reduce your stability as well as dampen explosive movements; conversely, a body posture that is too low may reduce mobility. Without means of quantifying the effectiveness that a particular body posture has on your performance and getting objective, real-‐time feedback, discovering the optimum stance is a hit-‐or-‐miss process.
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TRAZER’s measurement of your approximate center of gravity (CG) offers the unique ability to determine the stance that will maximize your agility. TRAZER tracks the elevation (height) of your body center during play and compares it to your overall movement power and speed. Recommended ranges can either be based on previously established normative data or can be determined by actual TRAZER testing to determine the CG position producing the higher performance values for you. At some particular height/elevation, your ability to move explosively can be optimized by TRAZER.
be known (volleyball spike) or unknown (soccer goalie, basketball rebound).
Once determined, TRAZER activities can be set to play at the optimum height stance. Training in this way builds strength and reinforces the optimum posture with real-‐time feedback during execution of movements identical to those experienced in actual game play.
Research has shown that assuming a properly loaded stance upon landing effectively dampens landing forces and can significantly reduce the chances of developing future knee problems. TRAZER’s feedback can assist in developing safe and effective jumping skills.
TRAZER’S Measurement of Jump Height
TRAZER’S Measurement of Sport-‐Specific Stamina
The ability to jump and bound is, of course, essential to success in many sports and is also a valid indicator of a body’s overall power. Most sports training programs attempt to quantify a person’s jumping ability to both appraise and enhance athleticism. Many competitive team sports require that you elevate your CG, whether playing defense or offense. Unlike field events, you must time your response, and often you are already moving prior to the jump or bound. In most game play, exactly when or where you must jump or bound is not a pre-‐planned movement.
Currently, stationary exercise bikes, treadmills and climbers are used to evaluate cardio-‐respiratory fitness for sports competition.
The timing of a jump or bound is as critical to a successful spike in volleyball or rebound in basketball as is its height. These should be measured in response to an unpredictable dynamic cue in order to accurately simulate competitive play. The required movement vector may
In most sports competitions, there are cycles of high physiologic demand, alternating with periods of lesser demand. Cardiac demand is also impacted by situational performance stress and attention demands. Performance of the cardio-‐respiratory system under sports-‐relevant conditions is important to efficient movement.
In sharp contrast to jump tests that are pre-‐planned (e.g., running and jumping as high as you can), TRAZER provides a simulated environment where you jump and bound to unpredictable movements of virtual opponents to simulate actual competition. TRAZER actually tracks the path traveled for each of your jumps to measure ground time, jump height, and the quality of the landing.
Though such exercise devices can provide measures of a person’s physical work capacity, they are not capable of replicating the actual stresses and conditions experienced in most sports. Accordingly, these tests are severely limited if attempts are made to correlate the resultant measures to your actual sport-‐specific activities.
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It is well known that a person’s heart rate is influenced by variables such as emotional stress and the type of muscular contractions, which can differ radically in various sports activities. For example, heightened emotional stress and a corresponding increase in cardiac output is often associated with defensive play because the defensive player is constantly in a coiled position anticipating the offensive player’s next response. For the cardiac rehab specialist, coach, or athlete interested in accurate, objective physiological measures of sport-‐specific cardiovascular fitness, few if any truly valid tests are available. Such a test would deliver sport-‐ specific exercise challenges that make the heart rate replicate levels observed in actual competition. Your movement, decision-‐making, execution skills, reaction time, acceleration-‐deceleration capabilities, agility and other key functional performance variables would be challenged. Your heart rate would be continuously tracked, as would other key performance variables. Feedback of heart rate versus your physical performance would be computed and reported. By monitoring your heart rate via telemetry, TRAZER’s exercise challenges are automatically increased or decreased to cycle your heart rate to those levels you will actually experience in a game situation. TRAZER helps to cycle your heart rate as if you were actually competing, to high rates during periods requiring maximum effort and to lower ones during periods of lower demand. After testing, TRAZER can train your cardiovascular system specifically for your chosen sport by providing exercise challenges that simulate those actually experienced on the field or court (e.g., unplanned explosive lateral movements with frequent changes of direction). TRAZER’s Functional Cardiac Evaluation (FCE) measures, calculates, and reports a comparison of heart rate to movement power (functional work
rate) and also provides a trend analysis. The TRAZER FCE has the advantage of being more relevant to the demands that a subject or patient faces in sports, work activities, and other real-‐world environments. The test uses continuous monitoring of heart rate via telemetry while the subject performs exercise challenges that may be gradually increased to a target heart rate level or modulated to cycle the heart rate among target levels.
TRAZER’s Measurement of Balance The position of your body CG or core is precisely and continuously tracked, even in apparently static postures. Balance (sway/instability) is measured and reported as amplitude of displacement in inches or centimeters and frequency of movement oscillations in cycles per second. Simple tests like single-‐leg balance for a fixed time with comparison of right to left side movement when appropriate can be easily performed. By tracking a person in three planes of movement and rotations around these three planes, TRAZER can measure sway and instability during activities that require balance and body control. Whether attempting to follow the tai-‐chi-‐like movements of a virtual teacher or balancing on a moving track in the virtual world, an individual’s variance from perfect movement and stability is precisely measured. These weight-‐bearing activities do not require much exertion; however, balance, stability, proprioception, and coordination act to build core and leg strength.
TRAZER’s Measurement of Dynamic Stability Dynamic stability measurement is an extension of balance testing that looks at the same measurement factors (displacement in inches or
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centimeters and frequency of movement oscillations in cycles per second), but during activities that require dynamic body control. For example, a person can be interactively cued to raise and lower CG while maintaining balance, balance can be disrupted on a deformable or moveable surface or platform, or recovery/maintenance of balance can be measured after a vertical, forward, backward or lateral jump. This type of test is particularly useful for clinicians, but it also can be a meaningful component of a personal trainer’s client evaluation and measurement of progress.
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Key TRAZER Definitions
TRAZER employs optical position sensing means to locate the position of a target (the “beacon”) mounted to the subject’s body in three degrees-‐of-‐ freedom. TRAZER has a sampling rate of more than 300 Hz; sufficiently fast to ensure the absence of perceived lag between the subject’s movement and resultant activity in the computer simulation. This essentially real-‐time recognition and assessment of the client’s movement in 3D space enables accurate quantification of functional performance parameters associated with agility, posture, physical activity, etc. Essential elements of the TRAZER include: 1. the protocols or games that deliver unplanned movement challenges over sport-‐specific distances and directions and 2. Comparative mapping of the player’s movement pattern in 3D space so that the client receives uninterrupted feedback of his performance and, 3. the spatially correct relationship that is maintained between the virtual opponent and the client’s icon that creates a more accurate simulation of game play. TRAZER protocols lead, prompt or induce the client through various tests and exercises so that accurate measurements of unplanned, sport-‐specific activities can be made.
Key TRAZER Definitions Displacement – Displacement is the distance traveled by the body-‐
mounted beacon in the X, Y or Z planes from a fixed reference point. It is also a vector quantity. Each of TRAZER’s measurement
constructs or protocols, discussed below, employ displacements over time in their calculations.
3D Space – 3D space is a specific volume of space, which in this example, is TRAZER’s approx. 10’ by 10’ field, by ceiling height working environment. Any location in 3D space can be described by its X, Y, Z coordinates relative to the fixed reference point or origin/start position that is calibrated at the start of the protocol. That origin point can be defined as X, Y, Z coordinates 0.0.0.
In a three-‐dimensional coordinate system, the X-‐coordinate refers to left-‐right location, the Y-‐coordinate refers to up-‐down location, and the Z-‐coordinate refers to near-‐far location. For example, Sport Posture tracks displacements over time in the Y plane.
Degrees-‐of-‐freedom – Is defined as the axis of translation provided for by TRAZER’s optical sensor. TRAZER’s sensor system provides three degrees-‐of-‐freedom from X, Y, Z translations.
Simulation – Is defined as the use of computer software to model and
analyze the behavior of real world systems, in our case, competitive sports. The simulation depicts a real world system’s behavior; it is animation with a sense of purpose. If the real world system has been modeled accurately and with fidelity, then the simulation will be able to visually demonstrate the performance of the real world system over time.
Physics-‐based Simulation – Uses principles of physics to manage the events being modeled and simulated; the software considers factors such as velocity, speed, displacement, acceleration, deceleration and mass, etc. as objects interact in the virtual world. Most of the proposed TRAZER games and protocols will involve “realistic” interaction between the icon representing the subject and virtual objects such as balls, opponents, etc.
Perceived Exertion Rating – The goal for TRAZER was to burn the
maximum number of calories in the most painless manner. “Painless” in the field of exercise physiology is defined by a Perceived Exertion Rating, where the exercises are subjectively rated on a scale of 1-‐20 based on the relative “discomfort” experienced for a given work load. As may be surmised, game-‐like activities or competitions, where the mind is engaged, result in lower perceived exertion ratings than those activities where TV or music must distract the mind. Weight bearing activities, such as basketball or handball, also typically result in low ratings vs. equipment that supports the body, such as stationary bikes or climbers. The game-‐like format and weight bearing activity contribute to a low Perceived Exertion Rating.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – The energy expenditure necessary to
maintain the normal body temperature and the basic functions of the body at rest (breathing, circulation, smooth muscle contractions, etc.). BMR is expressed in kilocalories or oxygen utilization per square meter of body surface.
Energy Expenditure – During exercise, energy expenditure is often
expressed in kilocalories per kilogram body weight per minute. Cost of exercise is often expressed as a ratio of the energy
expended during exercise to the resting metabolic rate (WMR/RMR or METS), which corrects for differences in body size. Heart rate represents an estimation of energy expenditure from physiologic data, TRAZER estimates from the integral of absolute accelerations of the mass of the body versus time in three planes of movement.
Force – Is defined as "that which changes the state of rest or motion in
matter." Force is expressed in Newtons (N). We apply force when we stop a ball carrier, throw a ball or run down the field.
Work – Is the product of a force and the distance that the force displaces
an object without regard to time. Work is expressed in joules (J). It is calculated as the force in Newtons (N) multiplied by the distance in meters (m). One joule of work is equivalent to one Newton causing a displacement of one meter (1 J = 1 N • 1 m). From Work, we can also derive power.
Power – Is the "rate that work is performed” and is measured in watts
(W). A force of 1 Newton through a displacement of 1 meter during one second is equal to one watt. Power can then be calculated as: force (N) multiplied by distance (m) and divided by time in seconds (s) or as work (J) per unit of time (s). The formula is: Power (W) = [Force (N) Distance (m)/ Time (s)] = Work (J)/ Time (s) Power can be measured for a single event, a series of events or repetitive events/movements such as running. To make a power measurement, the force generated, the distance the force is applied, and the time involved must be known.
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Relevant Equations: • Force (N) x Distance (m) = Work (J) •
Force (N) x Velocity (m/s) = Power (W)
Work (J)/Time (s) = Power (W)
motions of several simple activities into a general blended sequence of movements.
TRAZER Formulae The following section provides a framework for relating TRAZER’s measurement of motion (movement in three planes) to quantify work, and energy expenditure that is required to effect that movement. Quantities such as force, acceleration and power, defined below, are dependent on the rate of change of more elementary quantities such as body position and velocity. The energy expenditure of an individual is related to the movement of the individual while performing TRAZER protocols. To facilitate understanding, a few examples of representative movement patterns are discussed: First, with the beacon placed at the CG point (near the midsection of ��a subject under study), an activity or protocol is delivered by TRAZER’s application program. For example, it may be a simple repetitive motion performed at a uniform pace; it may be a rhythmic motion such as continuous jumping, or it could consist of a side-‐to-‐side motion; any representative movement is satisfactory. In any case, each of these simple examples of TRAZER protocols consists of repetitive bilateral motion along a line. More complex examples of physical activities can be readily constructed by varying the tempo of a repetitive activity or by combining the up-‐down, side-‐to-‐side, and front-‐to-‐back
The concept that a complex motion can be considered as a combination of simple bilateral movements in any of three directions is convenient since we can focus on elementary movements and subsequently add the effects of these simple components. These ideas will be related to the ability to monitor the movement of the individual to measure the resultant energy expenditure. TRAZER’s ability to accurately measure a subject's movement rests on being able to determine his or her position and velocity at arbitrary points of time. For a given point in time, position can be either measured directly or calculated from a previously known position. The updating of position from a previous position requires knowing the velocity at the previous position and the net effect of any forces acting on the individual. Since the forces acting on an individual are often complicated or even unknown, this method of updating the position is often difficult or impossible. Fortunately, TRAZER’s sampling rate is sufficiently fast to allow accurate measurements to be made at very closely spaced intervals of time. Moreover, by knowing an individual's position at arbitrary points along its path the velocity can be calculated, thus avoiding the difficult methods which require knowing the forces acting on the individual. How position can be used by TRAZER to determine velocity along a movement path Given the position of the individual at various instances of time, TRAZER can obtain the velocity in several ways. One method is to choose a point and calculate its velocity as being the result of dividing the distance
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between it and the next point by the time difference associated with those points. This is known as a finite difference approximation to the true velocity. For small spacing between points, it is highly accurate.
where dV is the change in velocity and T is the time interval. Acceleration is expressed in terms of meters per second per second. The accuracy of this approximation to the acceleration is dependent on using sufficiently small intervals between points.
If we let D be the distance between consecutive points and T equal the time period to travel the distance D, then the velocity V is given by the following rate of change formula
As an alternate to using smaller position increments to improve accuracy, more accurate finite difference procedures may be employed. TRAZER obtains positional data with accuracy within a few millimeters over time intervals of approximately .020 seconds, so it does not appear that accuracy will be a concern for activities involving durations of minutes and distances on the order of meters.
V = D/T, where V has the units of meters per second, m/s. In three dimensional space, D is computed by taking the change in each of the separate bilateral directions into account. If we let dX, dY, dZ represent the positional changes between the successive bilateral directions, then the distance D is given by the following formula D = sqrt( dX*dX + dY*dY + dZ*dZ ), where "sqrt" represents the square root operation. The velocity can be labeled positive for one direction along a path and negative for the opposite direction. This is, of course, true for each of the bilateral directions separately. This finite difference approximation procedure can also be used to calculate the acceleration of the object along the path. This is accomplished by taking the change in velocity between two consecutive points and dividing by the time interval between points. This gives an approximation to the acceleration A of the object which is expressed as a rate of change with respect to time as follows:
In contrast to the finite difference approach, the positional data could be fitted by spline curves and treated as continuous curves. The velocity at any point would be related to the tangent to the individual's path using derivative procedures of standard calculus. This would give a continuous curve for the velocity from which a corresponding curve could be obtained for the acceleration of the individual. In any case, the determination of the individual’s acceleration provides a knowledge of the force “F” it experiences. The force is related to the mass M, given in kilograms, and acceleration by the formula F = M*A This is a resultant formula combining all three components of force and acceleration, one component for each of the three bilateral directions. The international standard of force is a Newton, which is equivalent to a kilogram mass undergoing an acceleration of one meter per second per second. TRAZER will require that the individual enter bodyweight (for MASS) and gender prior to playing.
A = dV/T,
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The effect of each component can be considered separately in analyzing an individual's movement. This is easily illustrated by recognizing that an individual moving horizontally will be accelerated downward due to gravity even as it is being decelerated horizontally by air drag. The effects of forces can be treated separately or as an aggregate. This allows one the option to isolate effects or lump effects together. This option provides flexibility in analysis.
calorie actually means a kilocalorie of energy. So, a food calorie is 1000 standard calories. The definition of power and its standard unit of measure Power P is the rate of energy or work production and is given by the following formula P = W/T.
The concepts of energy and work The energy expended by a subject on TRAZER can be separated into two types. One form is useful mechanical work while the other form is the type that shows up as heat. This is because, by nature, nothing is 100 percent efficient. The mechanical work is calculated by multiplying the force acting on the subject by the distance that the subject moves while under the action of the force. The expression for work W is given by W = F*d. The unit of work is a joule, which is equivalent to a Newton-‐meter. The above force is a variable quantity, which means it may be changing with time as the subject moves. Using numerical method techniques, the work can be readily calculated given knowledge of the movement as described above. The units of work are the same as for energy. However, in some instances it is customary and convenient to use a standard calorie for the energy unit, with 1000 calories = kilocalorie, kcal. A kilocalorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water from 14.5 to 15.5 degrees centigrade. The conversion between joules and calories is one kcal= 4184 joules. Also, when speaking of food energy, a
The standard unit for power is the watt and it represents one joule of work produced per second. Direct and indirect methods exist to determine the amount of heat expended by an individual. With a direct method, the individual exercises in an insulated calorimetric chamber in which the heat dissipated by the individual is transferred by convection to a tube of circulating water. The change in water temperature between its entering and exiting the chamber is measured. From this temperature rise, the calories expended can be evaluated to accuracies of less than one percent error. Different individuals performing the same activity expend different amounts of heat due to differences in body mass, gender, conditioning, and other factors. This can be measured directly by the calorimetric chamber method. As indicated above, we can obtain the work done in an activity if we know the motion associated with that activity. Thus, a device which can measure position can be used in conjunction with other measurements to provide comparisons between useful work produced and heat energy discarded during an exercise routine. The efficiency of an individual can be determined using the ratio of useful energy to total energy. Furthermore, a method to calculate work, such as the TRAZER, can
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be calibrated or validated against standard measures of energy expenditure, rate of energy expenditure and efficiency.
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The TRAQ 3D Way
Adhering to a structured, scientifically-‐based Athlete Development Program is essential to the consistent delivery of superior outcomes.
In Summary -‐ Why TRAZER® Sports Simulation?
Provides for over-‐speeding to energize the neurological system •
Uniquely measures, tests and trains performance capabilities that correlate highly to success on the field or court
Delivers reaction-‐based movement challenges with real-‐time feedback
Calculates and delivers protocols to correct bilateral movement differences
Calculates and reinforces optimal stance and proper landing technique
Tests and trains sport-‐relevant stamina using heart-‐rate telemetry
90 degrees – (right/east of calibration position)
Competitive gaming environment improves compliance and tests athlete’s determination pre and post workout
Tracks performance during the athlete’s training cycle
Describing Movement Direction relative to the TRAZER screen: TRAZER delivers 3-‐dimensional movement challenges. Assuming the client begins each TRAZER activity at the center of the TRAZER training field (the “Calibration Position”) facing the TRAZER screen, the direction of movement is based on degrees of the compass. TRAZER’s Performance Report displays results from 8 vectors: 0/360 degrees – (north from calibration position) 45 degrees
180 degrees – (back from calibration position) 270 degrees – (left/west from calibration position)
The value of the PowerTRAQ™ Resistive Training System: Progressively builds sport-‐specific speed, power and stamina Reduces braking forces during explosive change-‐in-‐ direction/decelerations Reinforces proper stance
Uniquely effective for all stages of rehab
PowerTRAQ resistance bands can be attached at the following points on the floor: 0 degrees 90 degrees 180 degrees •
PowerTRAQ Bands are mounted either symmetrically or asymmetrically depending on your client’s present condition, experience and goals.
Primary Training Vectors: (See figure at right.) 1.
LINEAR Training -‐ Forward/back movement – typically 0 and/or 180 degrees movement from the TRAZER Calibration Position
LATERAL Training -‐ Side-‐to-‐side vector movement – typically 90 or 270 degrees from the TRAZER Calibration Position
AGILITY Training -‐ Multi-‐segmental changes-‐in-‐direction – essentially movement to numerous compass points
POWER Training -‐ Vertical movement transgressions
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Program Progression With TRAZER®, each activity’s stress level can be carefully controlled to maximize your client’s potential while ensuring her safety. Our training program will emphasize: Controlled progression of sport-‐specific movement challenges
Jumps (including Bounds) – are core displacements that generate forces of gravity greater than 1 G. Vertical jumps have purely vertical components; Bounds involve both horizontal and vertical components •
Shuttle – is a transit where the body core remains positioned above the feet to insure maximum balance during rapid changes in direction
Strengthening and conditioning for anaerobic power and endurance •
Complex movement patterns -‐ multi-‐planar, multilevel, increasing loading, high repetitions, fast speeds, acceleration/deceleration changes
The intensity will progress as follows: Double leg protocols to single leg protocols Smooth transitions to explosive movements Increased complexity of movement tasks Short to long transit distances/Long to short reaction times •
Greater power and deceleration rates with improved decelerations in both the vertical (landings) and horizontal planes
Four primary body core movements are employed: Shifts/Core Displacements -‐ are short distance core displacements that require that the feet remain substantially fixed in position -‐ shifts include toe raises and partial squats Lunges -‐ are one step core displacements – with one leg advancing in any of eight directions
Nomenclature for PowerTRAQ Resistive Training PowerTRAQ resistance training improves the shortening (concentric), lengthening (eccentric), and stabilizing (isometric) phases of muscle activity to improve agility, speed, power and stamina. Acceleration Training -‐ Over-‐speed training improves the rate at which a body segment moves. For example, the elastic energy stored in a stretched band (increased tension) over-‐speeds the client in a specific movement vector, energizing the neuromuscular system. Deceleration Training -‐ PowerTRAQ is perfect for training the body for the stresses imposed during decelerations, when the involved muscle system is experiencing lengthening contractions (eccentric movement causes lengthening of the muscle). •
Overload -‐ PowerTRAQ provides resistive loading that builds power and speed without inhibiting the client from moving explosively. Assuming proper resistance, PowerTRAQ builds power while enabling sport-‐specific movement velocities and correct biomechanics. Plus it enables the application of resistance along numerous force vectors to recreate sport-‐type movement.
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PowerTRAQ Quadrilateral Training Quadrilateral Training simultaneously applies PowerTRAQ resistance to the client’s core and arms via the addition of hand-‐held bands. The goal is to build core strength, reinforce optimal posture, and elicit complex movement patterns involving upper and lower limbs working in concert, and to increase metabolic demands during TRAZER play. The client should assume and maintain correct posture. Side-‐attached (lateral) PowerTRAQ bands: Protocol Progression: 1.
Maintain hands in guard position (palms facing each other) – this posture is common in many sports such as martial arts, football and basketball – this posture creates some “relaxed tension” thru the core – shoulder blades should be pinched together with shoulders back – proper posture ensures the lower and upper torso are linked
Double punch simultaneously with each core displacement – with the palms facing forward or toward each other – teaches projection of force from the ground/core – for sport-‐specific movement in certain sports such as football, the punching movement can be with an open palm
Overhead Press with palms facing forward – Use low resistance bands
Rear-‐attached PowerTRAQ bands: Protocol Progression as above: 1.
Single punch off the same side (front punch) as the initial step (with rotating core) – palm facing down – develops timing, as the purpose is to maximize power development
Single punch off the back foot (reverse punch)
Double back-‐fist strike starting with arms crossed and palms facing in – a strike with each core displacement
Front-‐mounted bands: Protocol Progression as above with emphasis on the eccentric phase.
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Testing Important cautions about TRAZER II setup and use Make sure no obstacles are in any possible movement path and keep activity area clear. Please refer to your Operator’s Manual for specifications on space requirements for TRAZER II. Use TRAZER only on floor surface appropriate for rapid starts and stops and jumping movements. TRAZER activities challenge balance, agility, coordination and cardiovascular fitness. Ensure appropriate warm-‐up and supervision. Instruct users to maintain movement control and to not over-‐exert. Users attempting new activities should have qualified supervision. TRAZER’s Member Record Database manages all testing and training program data and is used as part of the TRAZER’s progression criteria. An Elite and Normative Database, currently under development, will supply meaningful comparisons.
exception to this is a graded exercise test which by definition progressively increases physiological demand. Test Familiarity For valid testing, the client should be familiar with the Test format and have adequate physical conditioning to safely perform at maximal levels. Prior to testing, the client should first become familiar with the test by performing the test protocol in a controlled manner to become familiar with the cues, their placement, and the spatial relationship between the virtual world and the real world. TRAQ 3D Combine™ TRAZER testing provides a group of standardized activities designed to challenge and assess specific movement skills and functional performance. To run any Test activity: 1.
Select Test Repetitions appropriate for individual fitness level. Note that a repetition is a complete cycle of all movement directions included in a test or activity pattern – an individual directional movement is not a repetition. For optimal data comparison reliability, use the same number of repetitions in future tests.
Click “OK” to start Test. The client should be instructed as follows:
Test results are displayed on the “Performance Analysis Report”, and are stored to client’s data base file, and are available through “Reports.” The client must be logged in to access the TRAZER Test Module.
Test Protocols Maximal Efforts Though useful to be able to limit demands for training and rehab purposes – accurate, reliable, and valid testing protocols require maximal efforts from the subject. Submax efforts are not acceptably reproducible. The only
Move to center calibration position and stand straight at full height to allow system to calibrate and assign CG height. The first target cue will appear after a brief countdown.
React and move quickly left, right, forward and backward to strike orange bumpers. Toe raise to strike white ball or
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jump in jump test or activities. Squat to strike yellow ring. Movements may be just shifting of hips or multiple steps depending on activity.
TRAZER Test Module Valid testing mandates that each Test delivers sufficient repetitions to ensure adequate sampling. LATERAL – TRAZER’s virtual field alternately cues a left lateral and a right lateral target. The client moves as quickly as possible from side to side, impacting the virtual targets as they appear. Proper shuffling technique, foot position, and orientation should be observed. AGILITY – TRAZER’s virtual field displays “targets” in a “T” pattern that must be “impacted” in the order prompted. Each repetition consists of an initial randomized left or right movement, resulting in the execution of a total of 10 T-‐patterns. REACT – The client responds to spontaneous cues in six different directions by shifting the hips, or executing a small half step to the left, right, forward or back, performing a toe raise or slight hop up, and partial knee bend down. The targets are presented in a pseudo random order and require a return to starting position after contact before the next cue is delivered. •
POWER – cues a series of three vertical jumps. React quickly and jump maximally at white ball cue. The client can do either counter-‐movement jumps (drop quickly and jump up) or squat jumps from a selected CG height. If selected, squat to indicate starting CG height. TRAZER’s virtual field presents a Target above the client’s head. The objective is for the client to jump
sufficiently high to impact the Target as rapidly in succession as possible for the duration. Quick, explosive technique should be performed, with minimal ground contact time. It is important for the client to utilize the grid placement in the center of the virtual world field of play as a visual cue to remain centered under the overhead Targets.
Performance Training Drills TRAZER Training Drills provide extensive variations and combinations of challenges to dynamic balance, agility, coordination, functional power, muscular and CV endurance, and sports-‐specific reactions and responses. Drills can also provide accurate, objective data for sports performance and injury prevention screening, and proof of performance enhancement in personal training programs. Essentially, Drills breakdown complex movement patterns into their sub-‐components to be tested and refined. With Drills, you can precisely control the direction, distance and rate traveled by a client in response to TRAZER’s planned and unplanned movement cues. Drills are the foundation – the building blocks for global competitive sport competition. Low Amplitude Drill Activities These Drills are characterized by low stress displacements of the client’s body core. In most instances, these activities do not require the client to change his/her postural base of support. Emphasis is on effective weight shifting, body control and core body strength. Overload may be accomplished by the use of elastic cables, and deformable exercise surfaces that act to perturb balance. Ensure proper warm-‐up prior to any physically demanding TRAZER activities.
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The value of the Drill for the client is often enhanced by having the client observe the Vertical Meter at least during low amplitude activities. For many Drills, the goal is controlled movement with emphasis on smooth transitions, postural control, balance and correct form. For many of the lower amplitude activities relatively high repetitions are advantageous to engrain the movement pattern. Goals for Low Amplitude Activities: Enhance the client’s ability to maintain control of his center of gravity/mass within a given stance during weight-‐bearing activities Improve the client’s fundamental postural control, while combining cognitive demands with simple movement tasks Improve the client’s balance as well as lower limb and core strength •
Provide basic proprioceptive training to improve the client’s balance and weight shifting skills
Enhance the client’s ability to rapidly transition from one position to another – to effectively accelerate and displace the body core, while responding effectively to environmental cues Develop movement strategies and rapid reaction to visual input. Improve symmetry in basic movements, including linear, lateral and dynamic balance by minimizing variability in the movement rate and optimizing Dynamic Posture (most efficient body CG during movement). Emphasis on smooth transitions, especially when cutting/change-‐in-‐direction. Develop advanced, activity/sports-‐specific movement skills, particularly in reaction and anticipation capability. Emphasis is on performance, e.g. fastest reaction time, increasing accelerations, accuracy, etc. Strengthening and conditioning for anaerobic, sport-‐specific endurance •
Complex movements, multi-‐planar, multilevel, increased loading, high repetitions, fast speeds, acceleration/deceleration changes
Intermediate Amplitude Drill Activities Intermediate Amplitude Drills are characterized by higher amplitude, multidirectional activities designed to develop overall movement skills and strategy. Emphasis is on training reaction and anticipation skills while enhancing the ability to confidently perform complex unplanned movements. The movement skills used in this phase begin to elicit near maximal accelerations and decelerations while maintaining control of the body core.
High Amplitude Drill Activities High Amplitude Drills are characterized by plyometric jump training designed to develop overall body power, effective sport-‐specific jumping skills and to reduce knee injuries. Emphasis is on training reaction and anticipation skills by the application of realistic training protocols that develop sport-‐specific power and leaping ability.
Emphasis is more on lateral and linear movement and less on high stress plyometrics/vertical excursions.
Refining the ability to dampen forces during braking/landing is a primary objective of these drills. Proper form is essential, especially the proper knee angle during landing or change-‐in-‐direction.
Goals for Intermediate Amplitude Activities:
Goals for High Amplitude Activities:
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Improve client landing skills to dampen the forces incurred on landing as means to reduce injuries Determine and train the optimal CG that maximizes jumping ability Develop advanced activity/sports-‐specific movement skills, particularly in reaction and anticipation capability. Emphasis is on performance, e.g. fastest reaction time, higher jumps, etc.
CORE SPEED – cues weight-‐shifting, toe-‐raise and knee bend movements with goal of either quick reaction and movement or controlled movement. •
EVADE – cues a series of take off movements followed by cutting movements in the selected directions.
CUT – cues a series of movements in the selected directions.
Operation of Drills Note that default settings have been extensively tested to offer a wide variety of performance challenges applicable to the broadest possible population. Using the defaults as much as possible increases the reliability of comparing test-‐retest data and data among different individuals. The exceptions to this recommendation are the Core Speed and Lunge drills which are designed to be totally customized to each individual’s current performance status. Note that all changes made to options settings for each activity are saved in each individual’s database. Click “Restore defaults” if desired to clear changes.
LINEAR – cues a series of movements in the fore/aft directions.
To run a typical Drill (note that available options vary among activities):
Use jump training to strengthen and condition for anaerobic endurance and power
Drills BOUND – cues a series of bounding lateral jumps with varying lateral distance requirements. Jumps must reach a minimum height, but can be maximal if desired, but the client must maintain body control at all times.
JUMP – cues a series of sub-‐maximal or maximal vertical and/or lateral jumps. Client can do either counter-‐movement jumps (drop quickly and jump up) or squat jumps from a fixed CG height. JUMP/RECOVER – cues a series of movements and jumps with additional special cues designed to train proper landing technique to amortize landing forces. Jumps can be maximal or sub-‐maximal squat or counter-‐movement. LUNGE – cues single-‐step movements with knee bending in selected directions with goal of quick reaction and movement or controlled movement. REACT – cues a series of movements in the selected directions.
Select the general type of movement pattern and/or physical activity by choosing a specific drill.
Select from available movement Directions – left, right, forward, back, diagonal (adds 4 movement directions), up, down, vertical, lateral.
Select Duration (time limit) or Volume (specific number of repetitions, sets and rest period). Note that a repetition is a complete cycle of all movement directions included in drill, not an individual directional movement. For optimal data comparison reliability over repeated trials, use the standard default settings for each drill which are equilibrated and randomized sets.
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Select Sequence – Group (all reps run one direction at a time), Sequential (all directions run in repeated cycle), or Random (all reps for all directions intermixed). Ideally, compare data from only like sequence selections. For most testing applications, unless default is otherwise set, Random is the best choice. Set Movement Scales – This is the distance of each selected directional movement, from simple weight-‐shifting to multiple steps, and from toe raise and squat variances from erect height to maximal vertical jump and lateral bounding height. Enable CG Control if you want to enforce a specific stance during activity from low squat to toe raise. CG feedback and reinforcement can be used to test and train optimal CG height to maximize speed, power, direction change & stability.
Set PAUSE for a delay between repetitions which is desirable for most reliable reaction time measurement. Default settings have optimal Pause selections for most applications.
Click “Show Reports & Save Data” to get Performance Analysis if desired for supervised activities.
Click “Restore defaults” if unsure how to set up drill or if it appears that settings may have been changed inappropriately. Remember that settings may have been purposefully changed for specific clients.
Move to the “base position” and lower body to ready stance. Wait for target cue.
React and move quickly left, right, forward and backward to strike orange bumpers. Toe raise to strike white ball or jump in jump test or activities. Squat to strike yellow ring. Movements may be just shifting of hips or multiple steps depending on activity.
Press “Esc” on keyboard at any time to stop drill which can be immediately started over from setup screen by clicking “OK.”
If Polar® compatible HR monitor is worn, TRAZER beacon telemeters HR to track & report CV response. If “Show Reports & Save Data” was selected, Performance Analysis Report (PAR) will appear at completion of drill. After reviewing the PAR, click “Print” to print report if desired. Click “OK” to return to setup screen. From setup screen, press “Esc” on keyboard or click “Back” to return to Main Menu, or click “OK” to repeat test. •
If “Show Reports & Save Data” was not selected, Score Card appears at completion of drill. Press “Enter” on keyboard to return to setup screen and repeat drill, or press Esc to return to Main Menu.
10. Click “OK” to start drill. Instruct client as follows: 1.
Move to center calibration position and stand straight at full height to allow system to calibrate and assign “0” CG height. Countdown will start when you are in correct calibration position. After countdown, a red disk which is the “base position” for this activity will appear.
Linear Training Notes Drop Steps are single core shifts via dropping either the left or right leg backward (reverse lunge)
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Set TRAZER up for Lunge Drill; movement direction to the rear/back Leg goes back with same side hand going forward Bend knee going back to floor; front knee bends so that shin is perpendicular to the floor. Primary Band Attach Pt. Fore/Aft
Front Steps are single core shifts via stepping forward with either the left or right leg
Use REACT Drill. Explode forward to target in one or two-‐step motion, depending on programmed distance. Swing alternate arm forward to lock into place as you set. Primary Band Attach Pt. Fore/Aft
Use React Drill with Diagonals only
45 Drop & Front Steps – Continuously performance of 45 Drop & Front Steps
Shift & Bump – Select Front/Back – Initially train the right side only. Emphasis is on coordinating hand and feet movement and maintaining proper stance
Shift & Bump – Select Front/Back – Initially train the left side only. Emphasis is on coordinating hand and feet movement and maintaining proper stance
React – Select Front/Back – Increase distance traveled, emphasis synchronizing hands and feet
Drop & Front Steps – Continuously performance of Drop & Front Steps without pause at neutral position Use React Drill with movement distance at 12” and directions at Forward, Back, and Diagonal
45 Drop Step – Step back at 45 degree angle – if left leg moves back, right arm moves forward—Use React Drill with Diagonals only
45 Front Steps – Step forward at 45 degree angle – if left leg moves forward, right arm moves back
Get Back – Select Front/Back -‐ Forward explosion; backpedal to start position
Shuttle – Select Linear/Lateral -‐ Move with choppy steps with no pause between sets, then move more explosively with 2 second pause between sets.
Lateral Training Notes LATERAL SIDE STEPS are shifts of the body core Minimize lean of the body, keep even pressure on both feet
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Don’t lift leg, rather slide
Lateral Speed Test – Further distances; explode side to side. Beginning distances set at 7 – 8” and build up. Work foot transitions – replace front foot with back foot as you leap towards target. Watch height meter and stay as level as possible.
Center core between legs Derive energy from pushing (opposite) leg (simultaneously push/step) Arm action – the arm and leg in the direction of movement both travel in same vector •
To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Initial work in free motion – To warm-‐up for TRAZER, perform lateral weight shifts keeping shoulders over hips, same side arm and leg lock down together
Shift & Bump – Select L R -‐ Work Right side only – perfect hand correlation; work on stance; posterior tilt; contract core; lock entire body in set position.
Shift & Bump – Select L R -‐ Repeat working Left side only – perfect hand correlation; work on stance; posterior tilt; contract core; lock entire body in set position.
Phase 2: “Bottom Drawer” Version: N.B.: Lead leg lowers and loads so you can drive off it when it becomes the back leg. Initial work in free motion – not using TRAZER. Side-‐to-‐side weight shifting – keep shoulders over hips. Moving leg plants; rear leg joins plant leg at 45 – 90 degree angle, (as if squatting to put something in a bottom drawer at your side) ready to sprint further. Hips sink as same side arm and leg lock down together. Shift & Bump: Select L R. Continue as above; work Right side only – perfect hand correlation; work on stance; posterior tilt; contract core; lock entire body in springing position. Shift & Bump: Select L R. Repeat working Left side only – perfect hand correlation; work on stance; posterior tilt; contract core; lock entire body in springing position. Lunge: Set distance to target and depth of squat
Lunge – Set distance to target and depth of squat -‐ Step out and sink; return to standing in center.
React – Select L R. Further distances; synchronize hands and feet
React: Select L R. Further distances; synchronize hands and feet. Again, back knee dips to floor and hips pivot in direction of movement – ready to spring further. •
Lateral Speed Test. Further distances; explode side to side. Work foot transitions – Push off with back leg and explode to opposite side as you cross step over towards target. Hips turn back to
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center as you reach target and set. Watch height meter and stay as level as possible.
Breath with each rep – contract abs & stay centered •
Variations: Remember that cones and ladder drills have value, but it is all about fast hips and fast feet secondarily. Use cones at each phase of movement to step over; keep knees high; arms move in synchronicity with legs. Step-‐overs are in 1 – 2 – 3 time Use cones at each phase to step around; keep feet close during transition; don’t knock over cones Use ladder for full lateral movement; train stutter steps to develop quick feet Use bands as in LINEAR phase to develop balance and power; work braking and re-‐accelerating Use medicine ball for bottom drawer work. Torque torso in direction of movement as you lower the ball towards the floor Use single bands for acceleration. When moving to right, band on left hip; and switch. Start at 10”; progress to 36” •
Use single bands for deceleration. When moving to right, band on right hip; switch. Start at 10”; progress to 36”
Elevations performed in various stances
Attach lateral double band(s)
Perform sets of partial squats of above 6 inches travel -‐ maintain core position
For greater loading use plyo-‐box
For asymmetrical loading, attach a single band
Core Depressions Core depressions from various stances Breath with each rep – contract abs & stay centered Hands either rise up or hands go low and back •
Drops performed in various stances
Make it a game for the Client – have them observe the Vertical Meter, vary the CG start position – observe the resultant effect on jump height.
Power Training Notes Core Elevations Core elevations from various stances
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TRAZER Burst Module The Protocol TRAQ Burst Training Protocol consists of: Six 20-‐second full-‐speed bursts of TRAZER play interspersed with rest periods of 10 seconds. •
specific stamina. The following is a summary of the first four TRAZER Games.
Sport Sims Breakout Goalie Wars
Recommended frequency for your clients is three to five days per week during a minimum of a six – 8 week cycle.
Jump Explosion Re-‐Bound
Lower amplitude versions (less stressful) protocols for athletes early in their conditioning program increase the rest period:
Six 20-‐second full-‐speed bursts of TRAZER play interspersed with rest periods of 30 seconds. •
Six 20-‐second full-‐speed bursts of TRAZER play interspersed with rest periods of 60 seconds.
As discussed earlier, it is essential that your client is mentally and physically prepared to undertake this rigorous training method. For those clients unprepared, it is prudent to increase the rest periods. Ensure your client properly warms up approximately five minutes prior to Bursting – it is preferable that the warm-‐up be performed on TRAZER before the TRAZER intervals. Cooling down on TRAZER after completion of the Burst session is preferable as well.
TRAZER Game Descriptions TRAZER Games are superb for developing visual/spatial awareness, balance, quickness, agility, body control, proper posture, reaction time, recognition/cognition, cutting ability and decision-‐making and sport-‐
Traq Attack •
Mind-‐Body Games 1. 2.
Strias Rocks 3DW Math
TRAZER Games offer 7 Levels of Difficulty to successfully challenge clients from the partially weight-bearing to the elite athlete. Trap Attack – TRAZER’s virtual world presents a floor grid of squares, 4
wide and 4 deep. A red disc appears randomly to indicate the spot
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to which the player must relocate to satisfy the cue. The moment that the player contacts the red disc, it vanishes and reappears elsewhere. With difficulty Level 1, the disc only appears in the central 4 squares of the grid. At difficulty Level 3 and above, the entire field is used. At Level 4, one square in the grid at a time will randomly disappear, requiring the player to either jump over the newly formed hole or to circumnavigate it to avoid “falling through” and losing 4 points. At each subsequent Level, the number of holes appearing increases and the path of play becomes more treacherous.
Breakout – Like the classic computer game “Pong,” the player controls a slender paddle that moves laterally across the bottom of the screen. To start the game action after calibration, the player hops. The ball drops to strike the player’s paddle and ricochets off to impact the wall of bricks. To accelerate game play, jump as the ball leaves the paddle and it will burst through the entire wall.
Jump Explosion – TRAZER’s virtual world presents a conveyer belt positioned above the player that transports balls from the right to left side. Over time, the balls pile up and spill over the conveyer belt and begin to fall to the floor where they explode and result in a loss of points. The player can either position himself beneath the falling balls to intercept them while they fall, or can proactively jump up to intercept them off the conveyor belt or during their fall. At each difficulty Level, the speed and number of falling balls increases.
Re-‐Bound – In this reaction time and agility challenge, the player
controls a square, purple paddle. A tennis ball bounces off a distant wall and hurtles directly towards the player, who must position his paddle to return the ball to the opposite wall. The computer is a formidable opponent; the objective is to minimize the point spread! A quick hip shift by the player puts “English” on the ball and increases the likelihood of a score. The grid lights up when a score is made – whether by the computer or player.
Goalie Wars – TRAZER’s virtual world presents a pair of hands that
appear on the lower edge of the screen. These hands are controlled by the player. The virtual opponent is a robotic “goalie” that faces the player’s virtual hands. The objective is for the player to protect his/her goal which is located behind the virtual hands while simultaneously attempting to score on his virtual opponent’s goal. To score, the player must “fake-‐out” the virtual goalie by drawing him off to one side of the field to create an unobstructed path to the opponent’s goal. The ball is “thrown” by making a violent lunge forward. The velocity of the lunge must increase at each difficulty level in order to successfully release the ball. At the higher difficulty Levels, the goalie exhibits greater artificial intelligence to challenge the player’s skills of blocking and evasion.
Spike Dodge —The virtual world presents a honeycombed wall at the rear of the virtual field that “throws off” balls into the field of play to be intercepted by the player. If the player successfully “hits” a ball, it is returned to the front wall. If the ball is not impacted it
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will land on the floor and must “picked up” by having the player drop his/her center-‐of-‐gravity. The player can hit a ball either when it is in flight, or can “pick it up” off the virtual floor by lunging forward. The number of balls entering the field of play is related to the difficulty Level: at Level 1, one ball at a time floats in; at Level 6, 6 balls and so on. The speed of the balls and the depth of the lunge required to “pick up” balls increases slightly at each Level. Beginning at Level 4, balls allowed remaining on the floor too long without being “picked up” turn into “spikes”. Spikes chase after the player to “zap” him/her causing a loss of points. At each subsequent level, the time the ball is permitted to remain on the floor before becoming a spike decreases. Game scoring matches the Level of Difficulty. For example, Level 1 play awards 1 point per “hit” -‐ Level 5 awards 5 points per “hit”. Conversely, a “miss” subtracts a like number of points from the score. Each completed game generates a Score Card, which is available for later viewing by each client through “Reports”.
laterally to position it. Squat to drop the block into place and stand to lock it there. Strategize by planning your pattern for the blocks rising in the right panel. If you can build a 4 x 4 square, it becomes a “wild card” and each row you fill adjacent to the square is worth 5 points rather than 1.
3DW Math – Challenge your working memory, your depth perception and your agility as you solve math problems with your core movement. A simple math problem appears at the top of the screen. Numbered balls scroll towards the player’s paddle from the horizon. As the player moves in his field of play, the environment shifts, allowing him to derive “location-‐based information” in order to solve the problem. Is that a 5 behind the 2? Fill the left integer, then the right to solve the problem. If the answer is correct, your paddle will flash green. If you miss, the paddle will flash red and the problem will change. Score is based on how quickly and how accurately the problem is solved.
Pong – This is the first multi-‐player TRAZER activity. Each of two players controls a round purple paddle. Position the paddle to intercept your opponent’s ball. Put “English” on the ball by quickly shifting hips as it leaves your paddle. The grid lights with each score – red for your opponent; green for YOU!
Strias Rocks – Just as addictive as Tetris, one of the most addictive
original computer games, TRAZER 2’s Strias Rocks challenges the player to fill the grid row by row by turning and shifting block configurations. Hop to turn the active block 90 degrees. Move
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TRAQ Performance Report
This section lists some of the common measurement parameters of the Performance Report. See the image below for an example of a report.
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CG – Center of gravity. Proper location of the beacon positions the client’s approximate center of gravity.
CG Height – Real time CG height is shown on the feedback bar during
activities. CG is shown as + or -‐ from calibrated height when standing straight as required at start of each activity. This data and the CG height control function that is available on setup screens can be used to identify and train optimal CG height for power speed and stability. Average CG Height is reported for all vectors, but obviously not for Up and Down movements if included in activity.
Average CG Height – Overall Average CG Height (exclusive of jumping movements) for each movement vector is shown as + or -‐ from calibrated height, which is defined as 0.
Best & Average Jump Height – Reported as overall values for complete activity.
Power – In watts per kg of bodyweight -‐ multiply by bodyweight for your client’s power in watts (1 kg = 2.2 lbs).
Average Power – This value is power in watts averaged over the entire activity set taking bodyweight into account.
Reaction Time – Hundreds of seconds from instant target cue appears
until acceleration in correct direction occurs. This measures how quickly your client perceives, interprets and develops muscle forces required to respond to objects, obstacles and sports situations.
Left/Right MV Deficit % – These values are the comparisons of each
major measurement to determine performance differences between movements to the left and right. Calculation assumes the better side is 100% and shows the percentage deficit with the direction of deficit indicated by an arrow. If the arrow points left, movements to the left were lower in overall performance by the indicated percentage.
Max./Avg. Heart rate – Reported for overall activity set. Speed – Average feet or meters per second for overall movements in each specified vector (right, left, forward, back, up, down).
Total Calories – Reported for overall activity set. Total Distance – This is reported as an overall value for the entire activity set.
Total Time – Total time from start to end of activity set. Acceleration –Defined as the maximum acceleration occurring in the sport-‐specific distances after the initiation of movement.
Deceleration – The peak deceleration at the end of the movement just before direction change or braking.
Speed – This is the movement speed in feet/second or meters/second
averaged over all samples of each vector included in the activity. Average is from the initiation of movement to stop movement in each vector. Reaction time delay before start of movement is not averaged into the speed measurement. Speed is reported for all vectors, but not for Up or Down movements.
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Jumping Movements – Jumping Movements are actually calculated as separate movements which won’t factor into some of the other movement calculations, such as Acceleration, Deceleration, Speed, CG height.
Maximum & Average Jump Height – Reported as inches or
To advance the science of performance enhancement requires: That sport simulation deliver to the athlete realistic reaction-‐based cues in 3-‐dimensions (all vectors of movement) Real-‐time measurement of the three most important phases/components of sport-‐specific movement:
centimeters averaged over all jumps in completed activity.
Our Training Model There are several critical points to remember as you learn about TRAQ’s patented approach to training: Superlative performance is more about fast hips than fast feet, yet no other training system provides real-‐time feedback regarding the effectiveness of the hips during execution of sports-‐specific movement 1st step quickness, cutting and agility If you can’t measure something, how do you know if it is getting better or worse? Provided that the stresses to the body can be controlled and measured to ensure proper body mechanics (“perfect practice”) high repetitions are better than low repetitions. TRAZER training has been characterized as a “SwimEx for dry land”. •
No other athlete training instrument measures the critical components essential to the first step or for agility (e.g. reaction time, acceleration & deceleration) nor provide the means for controlling/modulating the imposed stresses associated with explosive movement to maximize results and reduce the incidence of injury.
The ability to module/control the stresses imposed on the athlete during explosive accelerations and decelerations.
The result is a system that facilities the delivery of quality repetitions with surveillance that ensure proper mechanics and the modulating of imposed forces to maximize outcomes with reduced risk of injury. TRAQ Athlete Development is based on our patented capabilities to precisely measure and modulate the forces of braking and acceleration (1st step quickness and braking) during the training process.
Training REACT-‐START-‐STOP-‐CUT Overview
Depending on Band placement, the forces resulting from decelerations (braking) can either be amplified (increase) or reduced (dampened) the forces of braking. By amplifying or dampening the forces, you are able to elicit a higher number of repetitions from the athlete without imposing excessive stress (controlling the physical stress of braking and accelerating.) Dampening the forces allows higher repetitions to be safely performance while adhering to proper movement posture/mechanics. Amplifying the
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braking forces provides a progressive overload to condition the athlete for the rigors of braking and cutting. Responding to TRAZER’s reaction-‐based cues, the athlete explodes forward one to two steps. His effort is rewarded with measurement of reaction time, acceleration and deceleration, as well as velocity and CG elevation. To provide overload (resistance) to build acceleration capability, one of PowerTRAQ’s 6 levels of resistive bands is attached at 180 degrees (directly behind the athlete). Assuming proper loading to ensure that the athlete can maintain proper movement mechanics, each repetition accomplishes the following: 1. 2.
Builds strength, power and speed and sport-‐specific stamina during the acceleration phase. The opposing resistance dampens (reduces) the forces associated with braking (deceleration) to reduce the forces on the athlete’s joints – which enables more quality repetitions without breakdown.
Front Attachment In contrast, a resistive band attached to the front of the athlete: 1. 2.
“Over-‐speeds” the movement, improving the rate the athlete’s core explodes forward, which Increases the forces imposed during braking to train the athlete to deal with the stress of braking – providing incredibly sport-‐ specific eccentric development.
Training Tip – Use caution when increasing resistance to ensure your client can maintain proper movement mechanics Asymmetrical Loading with single band – Linear movement working core strength and balance
Overload to higher band resistance that the client is accustomed •
Rotate to all 4 mounting points
Progress to application of 2 bands – the 2 bands can be at 90 + 270 degrees; at 90 + 180 degrees; at 90 + 0 degrees; at 0 + 270 degrees; 270 + 180 degrees -‐ Bands can be same color/weight or different weights to offset balance and build core strength
Apply 4 bands – for building strength, power and stamina Training Tip – Add upper body bands on either side or from rear clip to intensify load and engage upper body and core
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Example TRAZER®-‐Driven DRILLS
LATERAL DRILL SET – Cues a series of explosive lateral movements/use with and without PowerTRAQ loading. “Lead Leg” is that closest to the target; “Back Leg” is that furthest from the target.
2. One-‐Step Lateral Shuffle for Balance/Stability – Use of single band provides asymmetrical loading to learn to deal with imposition of real world forces
1. One-‐Step Lateral Shuffle – Single step lateral core shifts either right or left TRAZER 2 NAVIGATION: PERSONAL TRAINING – SPORT SPECIFIC LATERAL CORE SHIFT SERIES: PROTOCOLS 1, 2 AND 3 BUILD FOUNDATION FOR MOVEMENT. PROTOCOL 4 ADDS TOOLS. PROTOCOL 5 TRAINS ADVANCED FOOT PLACEMENT.
For lateral movement to the right, push with the left leg while simultaneously lifting the right foot – once the right foot strikes the ground, immediately explode with the left foot to the left target
Don’t laterally lean the body, keep even pressure on both feet
Center core between legs/keep back flat/keep feet equal distance during movement
Derive energy from simultaneously pushing off the back leg and bursting with the lead leg
Arm action –back hand moves to the chin area as forward arm/hand locks down in the direction of movement
Slide the forward foot and balance with bent leg
Move back foot (the foot with resistance) to knee of fixed foot and hold position for X seconds
3. Continuous Lateral Shuffle – Continuously move left & right legs with arm action
4. Continuous Lateral Shuffle to Final (front) Cross Over – Watch count of laterals in upper left bar. Continuous shuffle for prescribed number of movement legs, minus one, and then perform crossover step for the last leg.
5. Lateral Bound with Stabilization – Start on single leg and bound laterally on opposing foot, hold for X seconds and repeat to opposing side. Use ground-‐mounted barrier (such as a cone).
6. Lateral Bound with 3 Hurdles – Move laterally over the hurdles; maintain a proper stance with feet spaced apart. Use arms in natural swinging motion during the movement.
8. Continuous (front) Cross Overs – Move laterally by stepping over the forward leg with the rear leg. As you step, your hips will pivot away from the screen. As you step out with the forward leg,
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hips will shift back to parallel with screen. Repeat until you reach the target and reverse direction.
9. Front Cross Over with Stabilization – Begin at start position
2. Front Step – Single core shifts via stepping forward with either
balancing on lead leg. Cross step over the front of the lead leg with back leg, extend lead leg and balance. Repeat until you’ve reached the target and reverse direction.
the left or right leg
10. Back Cross Over with Stabilization – Begin at start position balancing on lead leg. Cross step behind the lead leg with back leg, extend lead leg and balance. Repeat until you’ve reached the target and reverse direction.
LINEAR DRILL SET – Cues a series of explosive movements fore and aft. Use with and without PowerTRAQ resistance TRAZER 2 NAVIGATION: PERSONAL TRAINING – SPORT SPECIFIC LINEAR CORE SHIFT SERIES: PROTOCOLS 1, 2 AND 3 BUILD FOUNDATION FOR MOVEMENT, ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION. PROTOCOLS 2 & 3 ADD RESISTIVE BANDS TO OVERSPEED ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION. CHANGE UP BAND WEIGHTS AND POSITIONS TO OFFSET BALANCE.
1. Drop Step – Single core shifts via dropping alternating left or right legs backward (reverse lunge)
Bend knee going back to floor; front knee bends so that shin is perpendicular to the floor
Explode forward to target in one or two-‐step motion, depending on programmed distance. Swing alternate arm forward to lock into place as you set.
3. Drop & Front Steps – Continuous performance of Drop & Front Steps without pause at neutral position
4. Balance/Stability Development – Balance with bent knee on one foot -‐ hold position for X seconds
Step and hold with bent knee. Return to center.
5. Linear Explosions – Accelerate forward and back, swinging arms and locking with back arm at chin. Can do single forward/back direction or work on 5 radii.
AGILITY DRILL SET – Cues a series of directional movement change—
use PowerTRAQ loading where appropriate. Work angles so that your core is angled towards center. TRAZER 2 NAVIGATION: PERSONAL TRAINING – SPORT SPECIFIC AGILITY CORE SHIFT SERIES:
Leg goes back with same side hand going forward
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PROTOCOLS 1 & 2 BUILD FOUNDATION FOR MOVEMENT. WORK ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION BY ADDING RESISTIVE BANDS TO OVERSPEED ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION IN PROTOCOLS 3 & 4. CHANGE UP BAND WEIGHTS AND POSITIONS TO OFFSET BALANCE.
1. 45 Drop Step – Allowing hips to shift to 45 degree angle, and keeping them centered over your feet, step back at 45 degree angle – if left leg moves back, right arm moves forward
2. 45 Front Step – Step forward at 45 degree angle – if left leg moves forward, right arm moves back
From start position at back center field, cut randomly left or right.
Attack target by bringing rear knee up and across body in a crossover step and immediately open hips up, planting on the forward foot
Continue crossing the field to each of 3-‐4 diagonal targets until you finish the zig-‐zag pattern in one of the front corners.
Drop lead foot back at a 45 degree angle and backpedal to start position
Complete 4 different zig zag patterns in each set.
3. 45 Drop & Front Steps – Continuous Drop & Front Steps 4. Multiple Angles – Working from an athletic stance, and keeping your center of gravity height as constant as possible, respond to cuing to move to and from center in up to 8 directions.
5. Multi-‐Directional Lunging – Responding to random cues forward and to the sides, lunge to target, return to center.
6. Mini-‐T Drill – From back of field, explode to forward target, then
VERTICAL DRILL SET – Cues a series of jumps and bounds – include PowerTRAQ loading TRAZER 2 NAVIGATION: PERSONAL TRAINING – ��SPORT SPECIFIC VERTICAL CORE SHIFT 1 WORKS BOTH STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE.
randomly left or right. Back-‐pedal to start position.
7. Shuttle Drill – Respond to lateral, forward and backward cues as you move in a box pattern around the perimeter of the field. Reverse direction each set.
8. Linear Lateral Drill – Respond to lateral, forward and backward cues as you move laterally or linearly.
Core Elevations – Core elevations from various stances • •
Breathe with each rep – contract abs & stay centered Hands rise up on elevation, or hands go low and back on squat
Elevations performed in various stances – both squat and counter-‐ movement jumps are performed.
9. Drop Crossover & Cut (Zig Zag) –
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PowerTRAQ Development • • • • • •
Attach lateral double band(s) Perform sets of partial squats of above 6 inches travel – maintain core position Jumps where the feet leave the ground For greater loading use plyo-‐box Use weighted ball, bar across shoulders, or dumbbells to load drills Center mini-‐tramp for multi-‐jumps; add 4 bands to intensify plio work.
3. Jump and Recover – Shift left or right to start position, jump as high as possible, swinging arms up as you rise. Land softly, balls of feet first, and squat to clear ring.
4. Jump – Standing on center start position, jump as high and as fast as possible, with as brief a ground time as possible.
5. Plio Jump with Bands – Center a mini-‐trampoline over the calibration position. With all 4 bands attached to a hip belt, jump as high as possible for time.
6. Bounding – Go to start position at right mid-‐field. Keeping hips Core Depressions – Core depressions from various stances • • •
Breathe with each rep – contract abs & stay centered Hands rise up on elevation, or hands go low and back on squat Drops performed in various stances
1. Core Shifts (Shift & Bump) – Stand tall to calibrate in center of
field. Squat to clear ring, back to standing. Keep butt back, shins vertical, pull knees apart, feet parallel. Don’t let your butt go lower than your knees.
square to the screen, bound laterally 3 times across the field. Up to hit the ball, down on the red target. Switch directions. Work to stay on the mid-‐line.
7. Split Jumps – both continuous and alternating – Jump straight up after an initial squat, centered over the start position. Land in a lunge position; front leg bent with shin vertical, thigh parallel to floor, back leg bent with knee pointed to floor. From this position, spring straight up again, switch feet in mid-‐air, and land with the opposite leg forward in a lunge position. Repeat.
2. Core Shifts 2 (Shift & Bump) – Plié Squats. Stand tall to calibrate in center of field. Squat to clear ring, back to standing. Keep butt back, shins vertical, pull knees apart, feet at a 45 degree angle. Don’t let your butt go lower than your knees.
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TRAZER Burst Module The Protocol TRAZER 2 NAVIGATION: PERSONAL TRAINING – SPORT SPECIFIC
before the TRAZER intervals. Cooling down on TRAZER after completion of the Burst session is preferable as well.
BURST TRAINING 1 -‐ 4
BUILD ENDURANCE AND EXPLOSIVENESS WITH 30 SECONDS OF ACTIVITY; 40 SECONDS OF REST. THEN TRY 30/30. THEN 20/10 FOR MAXIMUM EXPLOSIVENESS AND ANAEROBIC TRAINING.
TRAQ Burst Training Protocol consists of: Six 20-‐second full-‐speed bursts of TRAZER play interspersed with rest periods of 10 seconds. •
Recommended frequency for your clients is three to five days per week during a minimum of a six – 8 week cycle.
Lower amplitude versions (less stressful) protocols for athletes early in their conditioning program increase the rest period: Six 20-‐second full-‐speed bursts of TRAZER play interspersed with rest periods of 30 seconds. •
Six 20-‐second full-‐speed bursts of TRAZER play interspersed with rest periods of 60 seconds.
As discussed earlier, it is essential that your client is mentally and physically prepared to undertake this rigorous training method. For those clients unprepared, it is prudent to increase the rest periods. Ensure your client properly warms up approximately five minutes prior to Bursting – it is preferable that the warm-‐up be performed on TRAZER
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TRAZER 2 Sport Simulator
Powerful tool for athlete development Revolutionary capabilities TRAZER merges patented simulation technologies with exercise science for unprecedented capabilities to measure and train the previously immeasurable key components of sports performance -‐ reaction time, movement speed, power, acceleration and deceleration and dynamic posture (“athletic stance”) over sport-‐specific distances and directions.
Precisely control movement and physiological response Computer-‐controlled athlete progression and precise measurement allow the physiological and musculoskeletal demands to be controlled to maximize results and minimize injuries. Precisely control the direction, distance and rate your athlete travels in response to unplanned movement cues. Capabilities that only TRAZER sports simulators can deliver.
Pre-‐planned drills can’t replicate game play Unpredictable game play creates completely different musculoskeletal challenges than the pre-‐planned or controlled movement patterns inherent with cone drills and shuttle runs.
Practice as you play. Continuous high-‐speed tracking measures the immeasurable TRAZER realistic cues prompt a sport-‐relevant movement response, while high-‐speed positional tracking enables real time measurement of:
For most sports, straight ahead running is a small part of performance Sports physicians, therapists, trainers and coaches readily agree that it is the athlete with the superior ability to React, Start, Stop and Cut who excels in competition and is less likely to be injured.
Reaction Time – Elapsed time to correctly react to game-‐like challenges Start – Measured as acceleration (1st step quickness) Stop – Measured as deceleration (braking) •
Realistic, reaction-‐based training programs are the hardest to design And with the exception of simple straight-‐ahead running, results have been virtually impossible to measure objectively. Yet, weaknesses in these capabilities most directly relate to actual game performance, as well as injuries.
Cut -‐ By tracking the athlete’s body core, TRAZER measures changes-‐in-‐direction. Remember, it’s about fast hips, not fast feet
Determine your athlete’s optimal athletic stance for immediate performance gains. Simultaneously tracking vertical changes in the athlete’s core and horizontal movement speed accurately determines optimal athletic stance. Once determined, real-‐time feedback during TRAZER play reinforces the athlete’s stance for almost immediate gains in their agility, power, balance
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and stamina, while eliminating unnecessary energy expenditures and reducing injuries.
resistance both in real time and progressively over time. Monitor cardiac response, reaction time, and movement speed during sport-‐specific resistance training.
“If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it” British scientist, Lord Kelvin stated the obvious, if you can’t measure something, how do you know if it is getting better or worse? A stop watch provides only a global summary of overall movement capabilities. You need TRAZER’s accurate, detailed and real-‐time reporting to optimally manage hardcore athlete development programs.
Dampen forces on joints during braking and abrupt directional changes. PowerTRAQ bands build functional movement capability and cardiovascular conditioning without overstressing joints. Clients work harder, and therefore get better faster, with reduced risk of injury and joint and muscle soreness. And Kids and adults alike tell us they enjoy the spring-‐like response of the cables.
Quantify player potential and detect player weaknesses Use TRAZER to document and resolve bi-‐lateral movement asymmetries or weaknesses, and to determine player field position.
Train 1st step quickness (“acceleration”) and braking/cutting (“deceleration”) The athlete responds to TRAZER’s reaction-‐based cues by exploding one to two steps in the correct direction. Real-‐time measurements of reaction time, acceleration and deceleration, as well as velocity and CG elevation provide invaluable feedback.
Improve safety and enhance motivation and compliance Track and display key performance and physiological parameters. Motivate and control with display of heart rate and caloric energy expenditure. Provide individualized motivational targets while automatically limiting the demands of each activity to match current fitness level. PowerTRAQ 3D resistive strength and power training with real-‐time feedback and real-‐world challenges. Build sport-‐specific power, speed and stamina with patented TRAZER-‐ based 3-‐dimensional functional resistance. TRAZER combines multi-‐planar resistive cables with sport-‐specific movement and immediate feedback for superior outcomes.
Progressively develop linear 1st step quickness and braking Attach the appropriate PowerTRAQ band at 180 degrees (directly behind athlete) to provide resistance during forward movement. Proper resistance allows the athlete to maintain proper mechanics while building strength, power, speed and stamina during the acceleration phase. This mounting point also provides opposing resistance to reduce the braking forces to minimize stress on the athlete and to enable quality repetitions without breakdown.
Specially calibrated elastic cables are attached to a customized TRAZER Beacon belt, with the opposite ends secured to the floor at four mounting points at the edges of the TRAZER playing field. Quantify the effects of 3D
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Front Attachment of PowerBand Front attachment of single PowerTRAQ band “over-‐speeds” forward movement, and increases braking forces to condition the athlete for sport-‐ specific eccentric development. Asymmetrical attachment of PowerBand Challenge your athlete’s core strength, balance, proprioception and technique via asymmetrical loading. Game play introduces asymmetrical loads on nearly every play. TRAZER Performance Assessment identifies functional movement deficits and limitations Reports total movements in each vector, reaction time, peak velocity, peak power, CG range, distance, movement accuracy. (See performance report on next page.)
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TRAZER®-‐driven, metrics-‐based training programs TRAZER Simulators generate hard data to manage athlete development programs Base every aspect of your athlete development program on hard data. Monitor moment-‐to-‐moment key performance parameters. Objectively determine athlete compliance with your exercise prescription. Implement your program progressively with TRAZER. Begin with unloaded, easily performed TRAZER reactive movement tasks. Vary the intensity and complexity of movement based on TRAZER measurements and athlete tolerance. Complete each stage of the program based on the rate at which your athlete progresses.
Keys to TRAZER’s metric-‐based simulator training: 1.
Use TRAZER to elicit reaction-‐based movements within vector directions – for example, laterals left and right
Rely on TRAZER measurements of initial accelerations and terminal decelerations for each vector leg to assess your athlete’s ability to effectively start and stop
Observe in real-‐time elevational changes to ensure the athlete’s compliance with TRAZER’s determination of his/her optimal athletic stance.
After adequate unloaded warm-‐up, apply PowerTRAQ bands. Increase or reduce acceleration and deceleration forces depending on band placement and training objectives. Precisely deliver resistance in the available vectors -‐ 0, 90, 180 or 270 degrees.
Dampen deceleration forces by imposing resistance in line with the acceleration phase. For example, for accelerations to the
athlete’s right (at 90 degrees), attach a PowerTRAQ band to the athlete’s left side (at 270 degrees). The result is the ability to elicit more repetitions with less stress on the joints. And control the resistance to ensure proper body mechanics for “perfect practice.” 6.
Amplifying the braking forces provides a progressive overload to condition the athlete for the rigors of braking and cutting
Upon completion of each protocol, review the Performance Report to ensure quality repetitions and athlete motivation.
Periodically test the athlete’s unloaded (sans PowerTRAQ) performance to monitor progress.
Increase band resistance while monitoring athlete’s heart rate response, reaction time, and movement speed. Monitor CG height for objective measure of their athletic stance. Continue to monitor heart rate response and movement speed to increase loads appropriately.
10. Adjust resistance according to tolerance and to ensure sufficient training time at a given resistance for physiological changes. 11. Continue progression until maximum functional improvement or other specific training goals are achieved. TRAZER training has been characterized as a “SwimEx for dry land,” as it provides functional loading without the stresses of “dry land” training. Harness the incredible power of sports simulation A decade of research in the use of sports simulation, resulting in 10 U.S. patents, has perfected this breakthrough in athlete development. TRAZER sport simulations require you to react to unplanned movement cues in all directions, just like in real competition. No more pre-‐planned cone drills.
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