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Tramwav 1 1c
Baldwin Locomotive Works, Burnham, Parry, Williams 6c Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
Leland Stanford Juni■ University
NOT TO BE TAKEN OUT OF THE LIBRARY.
MOTORS ^ STEAM
CITY AND SUBURBAN
BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, BURNHAM, PARRY, WILLIAMS & CO., PHILADELPHIA, U.S.A. (CABLE ADDRESSâ€”BALDWIN, PHILADELPHIA.)
PRINTED BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY, PHILADELPHIA. 1890.
Steam Traction for Tramways
Four-Wheels-Coupled and Rear Pony-Truck Motors
10, 1 1
Four-Wheels-Coupled and Front and Back Truck Motors .
Special Types of Motors Steam Cars
12, 13 14
General Description of Motors and Steam Cars .
List of Roads using Motors and Street Cars
Results in Service
Relative Advantages of Motors and Street Cars
In the following pages are presented illustrations of Noiseless Steam Motors and Steam Street Cars for city and suburban railways, with full particulars of their plan, dimensions, weight, tractive power, and estimated cost of operation. The motors and steam cars described can be made for any gauge of track ordinarily used, either narrow or broad. All important parts of the motors and steam cars are accurately made to gauges and templates ; they are, therefore, interchangeable in machines of the same class. This system of manufacture also enables us to supply, either with the machines or at any future time, any parts needed for repairs.
Such parts are made to the same
gauges and templates as were originally used in the construction of the motor or steam car, and in this manner the expense of repairs is reduced to a minimum, and the maintenance of motive power is attended with the least possible inconvenience.
is only necessary to give the name or number of the motor or steam car or the " construction" number on the builder's plate, and describe the part which is required, to insure its being furnished from the works at the shortest notice, guaranteed to fit in place. The delivery of motors or steam cars at any point which can be reached by rail or vessel will be included in contracts if desired. In ordering these machines the following particulars should be given : First. Gauge of track,â€”viz., the exact distance between the rails. Second. Steepest grade; sharpest curve; steepest grade in combination with curve; sharpest curve in combination with grade. Third. The weight and kind of rails used.
Where other than the ordinary T-rails
are used, a sketch showing a section of the rail is desirable. Fourth. The fuel to be burned. 3 . .
BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.
Fifth. The distance from level of rail to centre of couplings of the cars which are to be drawn. Sixth. The mark, name, or number, and style of painting desired on the motor or steam car.
The loads stated in the tables are calculated on the basis of ten pounds per gross ton for frictional resistance, and are invariably exclusive of the resistance due to curves.
The calculations also assume in each instance track
and cars to be in good condition.
The loads stated for level track are based
upon a theoretical or absolute level, but as such a track is seldom found in practice, reasonable allowance must be made for the figures stated for load on a level.
PARRY, WILLIAMS & CO., Baldwin Locomotive Works, PHILADELPHIA, U. S. A.
STEAM TRACTION FOR TRAMWAYS.
Humanity and self.interest alike have for many years called for an efficient form of power applicable to street railways. Much thought has been devoted to this end. Systems have been proposed to be operated by soda or by other chemical agents, by gas, compressed air, electricity, endless cables, and steam. Of these, the soda, gas, and pneumatic systems have not been brought to such practicable shape as to lead as yet to any extensive trials. Electricity is a power from which much is expected, but as yet it cannot be said to be entirely satisfactory. The electrical current is not, in its present development, the silent and reliable servant desired. That highly. charged electric wires are dangerous is becoming so generally recognized that their use may be regarded as contrary to sound public policy. The storage battery system is expensive in first cost, and the extent of deteriora tion of the storage.cells, with use, is uncertain. The endless cable, on account of its great expense, is applicable only to lines of large traffic. Steam alone has been demonstrated on any wide scaleâ€”in the United States alone on a mileage of more than 160,000 milesâ€”to be efficient, reliable, and economical. But as many of the attempts which have been made to adapt it to the requirements of city railways have been unsatisfactory, the following questions naturally present themselves. Is steam a safe, desirable, and economical substitute for animal power on city passenger railways ? Can it be as easily controlled as other forms of power in use ? Is its presence in city streets necessarily objection able? Can street railways be operated by steam motors as acceptably to passengers and to those living on the streets occupied ? Where has steam been tried ? What has caused the failure of some and the success of other of these attempts ? It is intended in this pamphlet to answer these questions as fully as possible with facts and figures derived from the actual performance of these motors. Steam motors are now in use on nearly seventy.five cily and suburban roads. The steam motors referred to are, in fact, locomotives of suitable dimensions, but with the objectionable features of the ordinary locomotive eliminated as far as the most approved modern appliances make possible. A house, or cab, covers the entire machine, concealing the motion of the machinery, and giving the motor much the appearance of an ordinary horse car. An exhaust.chamber which may be constructed in the form of a tubular condenser is provided, by which the noise of the steam from the cylinders is muffled or deadened, so that on all ordinary grades little or no " puffing" sound is heard. The steam from the safety.valves, cylinder.cocks, and brake is diverted into the same chamber, and thus prevented from making a noise or becoming visible. From the exhaust.chamber or condenser, as the case may be, the steam passes through the smokebox, where it is partially superheated, and escapes from the stack like hot air, and not as white vapor. It is thus rendered invisible in ordinary weather. In damp weather, however, when the hoi steam is quickly chilled and condensed after emission from the stack, some steam will show. By using anthracite coal or coke as fuel, no smoke is generated. The use of steam.power is at this time so thoroughly understood that it seems superfluous to allude to the immunity from accident now enjoyed, where care is used in construction and intelligent supervision is exercised in the use of steam.boilers, and this notwithstanding the great increase in the number of steam.boilers in use. The boilers of the motors are constructed in the most approved manner, of the best quality of steel, of unusual thickness, so that their safety is assured beyond a doubt, notwithstanding any probable deterioration from time or corrosion. Wilh the safety appliances provided, and with ordinary care, the accidents peculiar to the use of steam are" practically impossible. s
BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.
The construction and working of the steam motors are calculated to make them much safer in operation than cars drawn by horses. There are no horses in front to obstruct the engineer's view, and the steam brake can be applied more quickly, and is much more effective, than the windlass brake as usually worked by one hand on a horse car. Curves as short as are ordinarily employed on street railways can be passed without difficulty. The motors have been run on roads having curves as short as 25 feet radius. There is no liability of a motor to leave a track which is kept in ordinarily good repair. The motors are also admirably adapted for working on steep grades. A frequent cause which has impaired the success of steam tramway engines heretofore has been the effort to use engines and boilers of inadequate power. Designers of tramway engines have reasoned thai as two horses, with an occasional helper, are able to haul a loaded car, an engine capable of developing, say, twice three.horse power will not only be able to do the work required, but have the surplus power occasionally desirable. Expe rience has indicated that the energy temporarily exerted by a pair of horses during the few seconds occupied in starting a car, or in hauling it over a steep grade, is many times greater than the power they can put forth continuously, and it is also much more effective when applied directly to the ground than through the medium of the rods and wheels of a motor. In the use of sieam on tramways, as elsewhere, satisfactory and economical performance can be had only by having boiler and machinery of ample dimensions, with reserve power in excess of that which is likely to be demanded for ordinary work. The first attempts at steam motors were by geared engines, and the result was unsatisfactory from that cause. Motors are occasionally designed and offered at this time, in which the principle of gearing is employed. It has, however, been abundantly demonstrated that the communication of power to the axles by gearing is objectionable as causing loss of power by friction, and as being noisy in operation and expensive in wear and tear. The use of crank axles, on account of their liability to break, has also been a fruitful source of dissatisfaction. It cannot truthfully be said that any of the systems of tramway traction in their present stage of develop ment fulfil all the requirements of an ideal motive power; but it may reasonably be claimed that the system of steam tramway motors is accompanied by as few disadvantages as any of its competitors for public approval. As the endless cable has met with as much favor as any of the systems in practical operation, comparisons with it are more likely to be made than with any other system, and such a comparison may here be profitably drawn. From careful observation of both systems, it is confidently stated that no difference exists between them in regard to frightening horses. A spirited horse will take fright at anything which is to it mysterious, unusual, or unexplained. A car moving along the street without visible means of propulsion is to it a mystery, and therefore to be feared. After seeing it a few times, however, its fear wears away, it becomes accustomed to it, and passes it without notice. The trouble from frightening horses, as has been proved in many instances, is always more serious in anticipation than in reality, whatever the system of propulsion. The cable car and steam motor require the same motions to stop them : one motion to release the grip or to close the throttle, another to apply the brake. But these operations can be much more quickly and easily performed on the motor than on the car. No greater exertion of strength is required on the part of the engineer than to open and close a couple of well.balanced valves, and the operation is instantaneous ; but the gripman must first release the lever applying the grip, and then, by means of a hand.wheel or another lever, apply the brakes. An appreciable time is required for both these operations, and the force of the braking power is dependent on the volition and physical strength of the gripman. The brake of the motor always applies the maximum braking power, limited only by liability to slide the wheels. The steam motor, with its car attached, occupies somewhat more space in the street than a cable car of equal capacity; but this objection applies only to crowded streets of cities, where street space is valuable. That it has any importance is disproved by the fact that on most roads where the cable system is in operation, as in Chicago and Philadelphia, it is usual to couple two or more cars into a train, without causing special objection.
7 On suburban lines, on lines occupying streets of moderate traffic, and on lines in small towns no objection is likely to be raised to the use of motors on this score. An important advantage possessed by the motors is that the cars can be heated in winter by steam from the motor. It is true, that in certain conditions of the atmosphere, the use of motors is accompanied by some show of steam, and, when drawing very heavy loads on steep grades, some noise of the exhaust becomes audible; but these objections are no more serious than those incident to other systems. The cable has its own peculiar objec tions, which are quite as important. It requires a slot in the centre of the streets which is sometimes wide enough to catch and break carriage.wheels of narrow tread. Calks of horseshoes become fastened in it, resulting in injury to the horses. The strips of iron forming the slot make the footing of horses using the same track most insecure, especially in winter, when concealed by snow. The constant rumble and clatter of a cable are likely to frighten horses on the same street, and are most annoying to those living near it, until they have become accustomed to the sound. The cable grip has, at times, a habit of obstinately refusing to "let go," and again it will, with equal obstinacy, refuse to "take hold." Both faults are likely to result in serious accident. The trench containing the cable is a sink, collecting rain and filth, and may become obnoxious and prejudicial to health. If accident occurs to a steam motor, the motor can be removed from the track and another can take its place without interruption to traffic. One or more spare motors can be kept ready for service, to take the place of any subject to accident or requiring repairs. If accident occurs to any essential part of the complicated system making up the plant of a cable railway, the entire traffic must stop until repairs can be completed, the cars over the entire line stopping without explanation and without warning to the passengers, whose prompt and certain transit may be of the utmost consequence, and who have no means of knowing whether the delay may be for five minutes or five hours. It is to be regretted that it is not possible here to present a comparison of the actual cost of running and repairs of both systems. In view of the enormous first cost of the cable system, with its correspondingly large yearly interest account, the enormous wear and tear of a moving cable several miles in length, with the wear and tear and lubrication of the friction.wheels on which it must run, the cost of fuel, operation and maintenance of the expensive machinery at central stations, the wear and tear of grips and rolling.stock, added to the wages of gripman for each car, nearly as great as those paid the engineer of the steam motor, it seems obvious that the cost of operating a cable line must largely exceed that of one of equal traffic operated by steam motors. This being true where the traffic is considerable, how much more is it the case in our smaller cities and towns, where smaller traffic and smaller receipts must be counted upon. It is, indeed, on roads of the latter description that the motor system will be found especially desirable. Motors can be run over existing tracks without alteration ; the lines can be equipped and operated with them with less expense than by any other system ; they can run as fast as may be desirable; they can, on special days, or whenever occasion requires, haul several cars each, greatly increasing the earning.power of the roads; they present as few objections as any other system of proved practicability, and it only remains for their advantages to become more generally known to insure their very general introduction.
BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.
The object of this design is to furnish an efficient form of steam motor which can satisfactorily take the place of horse.power within city streets, and yet occupy little or no more room. Its compactness makes it especially suitable where it is desired to avoid, as far as possible, the appearance of a train of cars. In this type of motor the entire weight is carried on the driving.wheels, and is utilized for adhesion. It is therefore well adapted to service on steep grades. Although motors of this plan are not intended for fast speed, the driving.wheels are spread somewhat farther apart than is usually the case in four.wheeled locomotives, in order to obviate, as far as possible, the tendency to a galloping or plunging motion incident to short wheelbase locomotives, when running at other than slow speed. As shown above, the tank is placed on the engine frames back of the cab. It is cut out in the middle to allow entrance to the cab at the back, and its appearance, looking from the rear, is nearly U.shape. This position of the tank gives a large roomy cab, and allows the engineer an unobstructed lookout in all directions. Entrance to the cab is also made at the front end by a door placed each side of the boiler. These doors are hinged on the inside in such a manner as to keep closed or open at any desired distance. To conceal the motion of the side.rods, apron.boards are hinged to the cab. body which hang down far enough to hide the rods when in their lowest position. As ample reserve power is a condition necessary to noiselessness, the figures given in these tables as the maximum tractive power of the motors are estimated without reference to entire suppression of noise. With lighter loads or on easier grades, the motors are nearly noiseless. The loads stated are exclusive of the resistance of curves, and assume track and cars to be in good condition.
NARROW-GAUGE TRAMWAY MOTORS. FOUR-WHEELS-COUPLEU. General Design Illustrated on Page 8. Dimensions, Weights, and Tractive Power of Four Sizes of Motors of this Pattern.
4 io 4 4.1 1 4.14 4.l6
C 8x12 C 9x12 c IO x 14 c II x 16
Diam. Capiat; Weight of Wheel- of Tank in Driving. base. for Working Wheels. Tatar. Order. Gallons. Pounds. Indies.
3• 31 35 35
Ft. 5 5 7 7
/». 6 6 0 0
150 200 250 300
13,000 17,000 21,000 26,000
LOAD IN TONS (OF 2240 POUNDS, OF CARS AND LADING. ON A GRADE OF 1 per cent,, 2 per cent., 3 per cent., 4 per cent., 5 per cent.. 6 per cent., On a or or or or or or Lore!. 52ft Feet 105ft Foet 158ft Feet 211ft Feet 264 Feet 316.8 Feet per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile 250 330 400 500
70 95 120 150
40 55 65 85
25 18 IO H 25 18 •4 35 40 23 18 3° 29 22 54 39 Minimum suitable weight of rail in pounds per yard : Class 4.10J4 C, 16 to 20 lbs. ; Class 4.11 C, 20 to 35 lbs. ; Class 4.14 C, 25 to 30 lbs. ; Class 4.16 C, 30 to 35 lbs.
BROAD-GAUGE TRAMWAY MOTORS. FOUR-WHEELS-COUPLEI). General Design Illustrated on Page S. Dimensions. Weights, and Tractive Power of Eight Sizes of Motors of this Pattern.
4.10^ c 4.11 C 4.14 C 4.16 C 4.18 C 4.20 C *4.22 C *4.24 C
Capacity Weight Cylinders. Diam. of Wheel. of Tank in Diam. Driving. for Working Stroke. Wheels. base. Water. Order. Inches. Inches. Gallons. Pounds.
8x12 9x12 IO x 14 II x 16 12 X 16 13 X 22 14 x 24 15 x 24
31 31 35 35 35 44 44 44
Ft. 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 7
In. 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0
150 200 250 30O 40O 500 70O 850
15,000 18,000 22,000 28,000 33.000 42,000 52,000 60,000
LOAD IN TONS (OF 2240 POUNDS) OF CARS AND LADING. ON A GRADE OF 1 per cent., 2 per cent., 3 per cant,, 4 per cent., 5 per cent , 6 per cent., On a or or or or or or Level. 52ft Feet 105 ft Feet 158ft Feel 211ft Feet 264 Feet 316.8 Feet per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. 290 350 425 545 640 820 1000 1150
85 IOO 125 160 185 240 300 345
45 57 70 90 105 135 170 195
30 37 45 58 68 85 108 125
20 27 33 42 49 60 79 90
'5 20 25 31 36 45 58 65
12 15 20 24 28 35 45 52
*The larger classes, viz., 4.22 C and 4.24 C, are especially intended for switching and freight service through the streets of cities. Dimensions : Length of body, from 9 to 12 feet Length over all, from 14 feet to 18 feet 6 inches. Height from rail to top of raised roof, from 9 feet 11 inches to 12 feet 1 inch. Minimum suitable weight of rail in pounds per yard : Class 4.10^ C, 20 lbs. ; Class 4.11 C, 25 lbs. ; Class 4.14 C, 30 lbs. Class 4.16 C, 35 lbs. ; Class 4.18 C, 40 to 45 lbs. ; Class 4.20 C, 45 to 50 lbs. ; Class 4.22 C, 50 to 60 lbs. ; Class 4.24 C, 50 to 60 lbs.
BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.
NARROW-GAUGE TRAMWAY MOTORS. FOUR-WHEELS-COUPLED AND PONY-TRUCK. Dimensions, Weights, and Tractive Power of Four Sizes of Motors of this Pattern. 1 Weight in Working LOAD IN TONS (OF 2240 POUNDS) OP CARS AND LADING. Thee base. Order. Pounds. Capacity Cylinders. Diam. of ON A GRADE OF of Tank Diam. Driving. Spread for CLASS. 1 per cent. 2 per cent. 3 per cent. 4 per cent. 5 per cent. 6 per cent. On all On a Stroke. Wheels. of Water. Total. Driving. Level. or or or or or or Inches. Inches. Total. Driring. Gallons. 52ft Feet 105 ,"â€ž Feet 158ft Feet 211ft Feet 264 Feet 316.8 Feet Wheels. Wheels per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile /.'/. In. Ft. In. 22 15 IO 9 6 3 9 200 I/.OOO 13,000 230 65 6.ioj4 C 8x12 3' 7 35 14 28 20 10 C 9X12 31 10 0 4 0 250 20,000 16,000 290 80 45 23 16 11 6.14K C 10 x 14 35 io 6 4 0 300 26,000 20,000 345 95 54 33 17 23 6.16^ c II x 16 35 11 8 4 6 400 34,000 25,000 475 135 45 75 33 Dimensions : Length of body, 9 feet to 13 feet 3 inches. Length over nil, from 18 feet to 25 feet. Height from rail to top of raised roof, from 10 feet to n feet. Minimum suitable weight of rail in pounds per yard : Class 6.10^ C, 16 lbs. : Class C, 20 lbs. ; Class 6.i4â€˘.j C, 25 lbs. ; Class 6.i6J^ C, 30 to 35 lbs. Where considerable speed is required, a pony.truck can be added to obviate any tendency towards a plunging or galloping motion, which there may be when four.wheeled motors are run at rapid speed. The type will then be as shown on this or opposite page. As the pony.truck has a swinging bolster and radius.bar, the motor is enabled to traverse curves of short radius with ease. Greater fuel.space and water.capacity can be provided than in the four.wheeled motors. Longer runs are thus made possible, and motors of this design are, therefore, better adapted to service on suburban and other roads where rapid speed and long runs are desirable. As the weight is distributed over six wheels, and four of the six are equalized together, no excessive weight is concentrated upon any one point. The wear upon the track is, therefore, less than with a four.wheeled motor of equal weight. As, however, in this type of motor a part of the weight is carried by the pony.truck and is not utilized for adhesion, it is not so powerful as the four.wheeled motors of the same aggregate weight. Motors of this type are used more largely than any other. Curves of 38 to 50 feet radius are traversed without difficulty.
NO/SELESS MOTORS AND STEAM STREET CARS.
BROAD-GAUGE TRAMWAY MOTORS. FOUR-WHEELS-COUPLEI)
Dimensions, Weights, and Tractive Power of Seven Sizes of Motors of this Pattern.
Cylinders. Diam. Stroke. Inches.
8 x 12 9x12 10 x 14 II X if) 12 X 18 13 x 18 14 x 20
Whee [base. Diam. of Driving. Spread Wheels. of Inches. Total. Driving. Wheels. 31 3' 35 35 39 39 42
Ft. 7 9 9 10 10 11 12
hi. Ft. ° 4 6 4 8 4 5 4 6 5 6 5 6 5
In. O 6 6' " 0 0 6
Capacity of Tank for Water. Gallons.
200 250 300 400 500 500 600
Weight in Working Order. Pounds.
LOAD IN TONS (OK 2240 POUNDS) OP CARS AND LADING. ON A GRAD8 OP On all On a 1 per cent, 2 per cent, 3 per cent, 4 per cent, 5 per cent. 6 per cent or or Total. Driving. Level. or or or or Wheels. 52ft Peel lOSft Peel 158ft Feel 211ft Peel 264 Peet 316.8 Feet per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile. per Mile, per Mile.
19,000 15,000 24,000 20,000 30,000 23,000 34,000; 26,000 38,000 32,000 48,000 3S,ooo 55,000 46,000
290 3«5 445 500 620 735 890
80 no 125 145 180 210 255
28 39 44 5o 63 74 90
20 28 31 35 45 52 64
,0 •5 C 16 6.i6^C 18 f>.i%y3 c 25 6.20^ c 28 6.22^ C 35 Dimensions : Length of body, from 9 feet 2 inches to 14 feet. Length over all, from 16 feet 8 inches to 28 feet. Height from rail to top of raised roof, from 10 feet 3 inches to 12 feet. Minimum suitable weight of rail in pounds per yard: Class 6.to^3 C, 20 lbs. ; Class 6.11^ C, 25 lbs.; Class 6.14^ C, 30 lbs.; Class 6.16^ C, 30 to 35 lbs. ; Class 6.l8''3 C, 40 lbs. ; Class 6.2o'"3 C, 45 to 50 lbs. ; Class 6.22 J3 C, 50 to 60 lbs. 45 60 70 80 IOO "5 ■45
14 20 22 25 33 37 46
In the design illustrated on this page, the tank is set far enough hack on the engine frames to admit of entrance at the side, between it and the cab.body. This gives a shorter cab, and the apparent size of the motor is reduced. This is an advantage where the steepness of the grades, or other conditions of service, are such as to require the use of motors of the larger classes in city streets. Where the climate is such, however, as to make it desirable to extend the cab to the tank in order to afford greater protection when firing, the entrance for the larger classes of motors can be arranged by side doors, in the same position as the side entrances shown in the above illustration. In both designs, entrance to the front or cylinder.end is effected by a door each side of the boiler.head.
Although motors of the type described on pages 10 and II are so generally used to run in either direction without turning, they are not perfect double.enders. The pony.truck is of value in guiding around curves only when it is running ahead of the motor, or, in other words, when the motor is running backward. While the truck is of value under these conditions, it is to some extent detrimental on curves of short radius when the motor is running forward, or with the cylinders ahead. In this case, the tendency of the back truck is to increase the angle which the driving.wheels form with the rails when curving. To obviate this objection and to provide for other conditions of service, another type is required. This requirement is met by the form of motor illustrated above, where a truck is provided at each end. This is known as the "DOUBLE.ENDER" TYPE. This type of motor is offered as most suitable for running both ways without turning, where the traffic requires high speed. Each pony.truck has a swinging bolster and radius.bar, and is equalized with the adjacent pair of driving.wheels. One truck is centre.bearing, the other has side.bearings. The motor, therefore, has lateral stability, which would be wanting were the equalization centre.bearing throughout. It will ride smoothly and all the wheels will find a bearing on uneven track. The truck at each end enables the motor to traverse short curves with facility, and relieves the flanges of the driving.wheels from excessive friction. As the total weight of this type of motor is distributed over a greater wheelbase than that of the types described in the preceding pages, it is especially suitable for service where the weight per foot of wheelbase is limited, or where the rails are light. The proportion of weight carried on the driving.wheels can be regulated by shifting the position of the equalizing.beam fulcrum between each truck and the adjacent pair of driving.wheels. As the greater weight of this plan of motor is obtained, to a considerable extent, by increased boiler.capacity, it is well adapted to high speeds, or to the more economical use of steam at slower speeds. If preferred, the tank can be placed over the rear truck, in the same manner as in the motors illustrated on the preceding pages.
XO/SELESS MOTORS AND STEAM STREET CARS.
NARROW-GAUGE TRAMWAY MOTORS. Four-Wheels-Coupled and Front and Back Truck. General Design Illustrated on Page 12. Dimensions, Weights, and Tractive Power of Four Sizes of Motors of this Pattern.
Cylinders. Diam. Stroke. Inches.
Ditm. of Driving. Spread Wheels. of Inches. Total. Driving. wheels. Ft. In. Ft. 1604 16 8 4 a; 5 17 6 5
Capacity of Tank for Water. Gallons.
Weight in Working Order. Pounds.
LOAD III TONS (OF 2240 POUNDS) OF CABS AND LADING. ON A GRADE OF On tin a 1 percent. 2 percent. 3 per cent. 4 per cent. 5 per cent. 6 per cent. Total. Driving. Level. or or I or or 52 ft Feet 105ft Feet 158ft Feet 211ft Feet 264 Feet 316.8 Feet Wheels. per Mile, per Mile. per Mile. ' per Mile, per Mile, per Mile.
300 jo.oooj 20,0001 375 ! 4OO 40,000 27,000 500 ] 450 46.000 3i,ooo| 575 ' 55° 52.000] 38,000' 725 ! Minimum suitable weight of rail in pounds per yard : Class 8.14^ C, 25 lbs. ; Class 8.20^ C, 45 to 50 lbs.
8.I4X 8.1614: 8.18X 8.20)i
C C] C1 C
10 x 11 x 12 x 13 x
14 16 18 20
35 35 42 4.?
1 in 148 170 210
60 80 <>.; "5
.?<> 49 57 72
25 34 39 5°
»7 24 27 35
12 17 19 2(1
Class 8.16^ C, 35 lbs. ; Class 8.18^ C, 40 lbs. ;
BROAD-GAUGE TRAMWAY MOTORS. Four-Wheels-Coupled and Front and Back Truck. General Design Illustrated on Page 12. Dimensions, Weights, and Tractive Power of Five Sizes of Motors of this Pattern.
8.14X 8.i6^ 8.18X 8.20# 8.22X
c C C C c
Weight in Working LOAD IN TONS (OF 2240 P3UNDS) OF CARS AND LADING. Wheelbase. Order. Pounds. Diam. of Capacity Cylinders, . . . ON A GRADE OF Tank Diam. D"™g.. Spread ( of t„ 1 per cent. 2 per cent. 3 per cent. 4 per cent. 5 per cent. 6 percent. On J Ona Stroke. Wheels. °f Water. Inches. Total. Driving. Gauons Total. ! Driving. Level. 52ft Feet 105ft Feet 158ft Feet 211ft Feet 264 Feet 316.8 Feet Wheels. Wheels. per" Mile, per Mile, per Mile, per Mile, per Mile, per Mile. /"'/. In. Ft. In (, 300 32,000 20,000 375 109 24 16 10 x 14 35 II 59 35 32 22 II .(t>t) 43,000] 27,000 5i5 145 ii x 16 ] 35 47 79 '5 o 450 48,000! 32,000 615 •75 58 40 28 20 12 x 18 42 95 o (>oo 53,000 38,000 725 210 "5 25 13 x 20 42 49 34 70 t. 7' , 1 58,000 44,000 850 245 •35 84 14 x 20 45 4^ 59 3'
Dimensions : Length of body, 12 feet 9 inches to 13 feet 3 inches. Length over all, from 23 feet 9 inches to 24 feet 6 inches. Height from rail to top of raised roof, from 11 feet 7 inches to 12 feet 9 inches. Minimum suitable weight of rail in pounds per yard : Class 8.14^ C, 25 lbs. ; Class 8.i6j.^ C, 35 lbs. ; Class 8.18^ C, 40 lbs. ; Class 8.20^ C. 45 to 50 lbs. ; Class 8.22 C, 50 to 60 lbs. As ample reserve power is a condition necessary to noiselessness, the figures given in the above tables as the maximum tractive power of the motors are estimated without reference to entire suppression of noise. With lighter loads, or on easier grades, the motors are nearly noiseless. The loads stated are exclusive of the resistance of curves, and assume track and cars to be in good condition.
BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.
In addition to the types described in the preceding pages, special designs are made to suit special conditions of service. Where a motor is required heavier than the rails will sustain without injury, when the weight is con centrated upon two pairs of driving.wheels, the weight can be brought within the required limits per axle by distributing it over more than two pairs. Three pairs of driving.wheels can be adopted, and the entire weight of the motor utilized for adhesion. This type is shown by the engraving above. In this plan the maximum power and greatest weight admissible on the rails are obtained, while the wheelbase is kept within proper limits for service on the short curves incident to street railways. If a longer wheelbase is required in order to attain high speeds, one or more trucks can be added, as in the case of the four.coupled motors described in preceding pages.
NOISELESS STEAM STREET CARS. General Design Illustrated on Page /j. DIMENSIONS. Cylinders Diameter of driving.wheels . Weight in running order (in. eluding 20 passengers), about Length of car body ....
8 x 10 inches. 31 inches. 21,000 pounds. 15 feet 4 inches.
Length over all Height from rail to top of raised roof Spread of driving.wheels . . Seating capacity
22 feet 6 inches. 9 feet 11 inches. 6 feet 6 inches. 20 persons.
In most cases this plan of steam car answers well, but it is impracticable to extend the car body without objectionably increasing the overhanging weight front and back of the wheels. To overcome this objection some cars have been constructed with two pairs of driving.wheels placed somewhat closer together, and a leading pony. truck in front of the driving.wheels and as close as possible to the boiler. The passenger compartment of the steam car can thus be lengthened in order to give a seating capacity for thirty or more persons. The necessary length of wheelbase to prevent a galloping or plunging motion is thus obtained without any increase in the rigid wheelbase, the pony.truck wheels being free to conform to the curvature of the track.
PREVENTION OF HEAT. In the steam car, ihe boiler being localeil at the front end, it becomes important to prevent the heat from com municating with the interior of the car in warm weather. An arrangement, which is covered by patent, effectually accomplishes this result in the following manner : two air.tight partitions, with ample provision for circulation of air between them, are interposed between the passenger compartment and the engine.room. In addition to this the boiler itself is covered with wood, and finally with sheet iron. 15y means of these precautions, it is believed that all tendency towards communicating either the heat or smell of the boiler is entirely done away with. The cylinders are outside of the car body and not under the floor of the car, and hence no heat or steam can be communicated from them to the passenger department. ADAPTATION OF STEAM CAR MACHINERY TO EXISTING CARS. It will be seen from an examination of the following illustration that the machinery, wheels, and boiler of the steam street car are entirely independent of the car body, being connected to and carried by a strong channel iron frame. On this framework the car body rests, and is held in position by bolts passing through cross braces. It is apparent, therefore, that existing car bodies can be utilized in adopting steam in place of horses. The framework can be made of any required dimensions to suit car bodies, and the machinery, with wheels, framework, boiler, etc., will be supplied without car bodies if desired.
CUT SHOWING MACHINERY AND FKAMEWOKK OF THE STEAM STREET CAE BEFORE THE CAE BODY 'S F'.ACED IN POSITION.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF MOTORS AND STEAM CARS.
As the same features of construction are observed in the methods of using and applying steam in the several forms of separate motors and steam cars, the following details are common to all of these machines:
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT. The materials used in the construction of the motors and steam cars are, steel for the boilers, fireboxes, tires, and wrist.pins; charcoal iron for the flues; and hard, well.seasoned wood fur the house or cab. Each machine is equipped with two approved injectors, each of sufficient capacity to supply the boiler when the motor or steam car is hauling its maximum load. A headlight at each end and a steam or lever brake are provided. Each machine is also supplied with all necessary tools, consisting of oil.cans, tallow.pot, gong, wrenches, chisels, hard and soft hammers, shovel, jackscrews, etc. PLAN. In the design and construction of the motors the appearance of an ordinary locomotive is avoided, and the features which would make ordinary locomotives objectionable in the streets of a city are as far as possible eliminated. The essential principles of construction are, however, in accordance with regular locomotive practice. The boiler of the motors is of the horizontal or locomotive type, while that of the steam cars is of the vertical type. The working steam.pressure is usually 130 pounds per square inch. The driving.wheels are steel.tired, and are coupled by side rods. The machinery consists of two outside horizontal cylinders, communicating motion by connecting.rods taking hold of wrist.pins on the outside of the wheels. The arrangement of these parts, as also the details of the eccen trics, links, and valve motion are the same as in ordinary locomotives. Alt wearing parts of machinery are made of steel, case.hardened iron, or bronze metal; larger journals are provided to give ample wearing surface, and special reference is had to durability, so as to reduce to a minimum the liability of any part to get out of order, even under the severest service.
FUEL AND WATER. A tank, with sufficient capacity for a run of from eight to tsvelve miles, supplies the feed.water. The replenishing of the fire can be done mostly at the end of each run.
17 NOISELESS EXHAUST. An exhaust.chamber is provided by which the noise of the exhaust steam is muffled or deadened, so that on all ordinary grades little or no puffing sound is heard. The discharge from the safety valves, cylinder cocks, and vacuum brake ejector (if one is used) is also muffled by being diverted into the exhaust chamber. The devices to secure these results are covered by patents taken out by these works.
CONDENSATION. Air condensers have been used to a considerable extent on tramway motors in Europe and elsewhere. They are by some considered useful for the purposes of partially condensing the steam exhausted from the cylinders, and more effectually muffling the noise of the exhaust. In response to the demand for an appliance of this character, a compact and effective form of condenser has been designed. This consists of a series of small copper pipes, placed transversely underneath and between the cylinders. It is so arranged that the motion of the motor creates a circulation of air around and among the pipes through which the exhaust steam is conducted after it has been exhausted from the cylinders, prior to its escape through the exhaust.nozzle into the smoke stack. The amount of condensation can be regulated by the surface presented in contact with the air. This appliance more effectually muffles the noise than the simple exhaust.chamber referred to above. While it is of value in preventing show of steam, it involves complication and some increase in the consumption of fuel. Without the condensers the motors meet all ordinary requirements, and they are not therefore applied unless specified. Where special reasons exist for their use, they will be furnished at some additional expense.
PREVENTION OF SMOKE. The firebox can be adapted to the combustion of either coke or anthracite coal. By the use of either of these as fuel, no perceptible smoke is produced. Bituminous coal can, of course, be used, if desired, but will necessarily show smoke. PREVENTION OF SHOW OF STEAM. The boiler is constructed in such a manner that, with proper management of the fire, little or no steam is shown when the motor or steam car is in operation. The steam escapes from the stack like hot air and not as a white vapor. It is thus rendered invisible in ordinary weather.
BRAKES. A powerful steam.brake, or lever.brake if preferred, is attached, which is convenient to the engineer and easily and quickly worked. In case of emergency, the motion can also be almost instantly checked by reversing the engine. By either means the machine with car attached can be stopped in less than half the time and space required by a horse car. In the operation of those cars, the danger of accident is increased from the fact that the horses are in front of the car, and, to some extent, obstruct the driver's view of the track. The engineer of a motor or steam car has an unobstructed view of the track, and can bring the machine to a stop so quickly that liability to accident is greatly reduced. A steam.brake on the motor or steam car is sufficient to control one attached car on ordinary grades. For steep grades or for suburban service, the vacuum or other form of continuous brake applying to each car is more
18 effective, because of the much greater braking.power available and the uniformity of application, and the distribu tion of the wear and tear over a greater number of wheels. Furthermore, it places within the control of the engineer the entire system of brakes throughout the train. CURVES. Curves as short as are ordinarily used on street railways arc traversed without difficulty. The four.wheeled types have been successfully run on roads having curves of 25 feet radius. The 6^.C type is run on curves of from 38 to 50 feet radius. The smaller classes of the 8^.C type are suitable for curves of 60 to 75 feet radius, and the larger classes on curves of 75 to 100 feet radius. While these are the minimum curves practicable, the importance of adopting the greatest possible radius of curvature is obvious. There is no liability of the steam motor or car to leave a track which is kept in ordinarily proper condition.
SPEED. Eight to fifteen miles per hour, according to the condition of the track, with one or more cars attached, can be readily made by these machines. Hence a given distance can be traversed in much less time than a horse car. The motor can stop and start more quickly than horses, and is so readily controlled that passengers can be discharged or embarked in much less time. Furthermore, on ascending grades where horses are brought to a walk, steam can maintain its speed of 8, 10, or 12 miles per hour, as the case may be. Without, therefore, actually running any faster when in motion in the crowded streets of a city, the motor can make appreciably belter lime. A smaller number than of horse cars, therefore, can do the same service, and the number of cars can be materially reduced. The speed at which the motors can be run gives them an important advantage over horses when running through suburban or sparsely.settled districts, where greater speed is not unobjectionable, but desirable. HEATING PASSENGER CARS. A portion of the exhaust steam can be utilized to heat the cars comfortably in cold weather. PROTECTION OF THE MACHINERY FROM DUST. The machinery is, as far as possible, enclosed or otherwise sufficiently protected from mud, dust, sand, etc. ECONOMY OF LIGHT MOTORS AS COMPARED WITH HORSES. As one of these machines can draw two or three cars on a level track or easy grades, and, where the circumstances permit, can be run at a speed of from 12 to 15 miles per hour, it is apparent that it can do the work of 20 to 30 horses. One engineer only is required, no matler how many cars are drawn, and the brakes on any number of attached cars can be operated by the engineer from the motor, by steam or other power brake. The first cost of real estate and buildings for stables and storage of hay and feed, the yearly expense for insurance, taxes, and repairs of same, and for hostlers and attendants will be in a great measure saved. Sheds of one.fourth or one.fifth the size required for stables will answer for housing the steam motors. The following elements are to be considered as conducing to the economy of operating a line with motors or steam cars as compared with horses : 1st. The capacity of steam cars for greater speed, enabling a smaller number of cars to do the same service. 2d. The capacity of the steam car or motor to draw one or more additional cars, by which its earnings may be
[9 doubled or trebled wilh only a slight increase in the consumption of fuel ; and, 3d. The saving in real estate and buildings requisite for stables, storage of feed, etc. In respect to the greater speed of steam cars, it should be remarked that this can be effected without increasing the rate of speed in the crowded streets of a city. Some saving of time can be effected even here, however, by the ability of the steam car to stop and start more quickly than a horse car, and to maintain its speed on ascending grades ; but a very great saving of time can be effected on the suburban parts of the line by the possibility and desirability of a much higher speed than horse cars can attain. SAFETY IN OPERATION. The construction and working of both steam car and motor are calculated to make them much safer in operation than cars drawn by horses. The motion is controlled by a powerful brake, operated either by steam or by a lever, placed within convenient reach of the engineer and easily worked. Where desired to actuate continuous brakes on the cars a vacuum or air brake can be substituted, and the entire system of brakes throughout the train brought within control of the engineer. In an emergency, the motion can also be almost instantly checked by reversing the engine. By these means, the motor, with car attached, can be stopped in less than half the lime and distance required by a horse car. The engineer has an unobstructed view in all directions, and can control the machine wilh surprising efficiency. The motors are adapted to run equally well in either direction without turning. The weight of a motor for working ordinary grades is not greater than that of a heavily.loaded horse car, and no undue wear of track is involved by its use. In this connection, we subjoin a paragraph from a prominent technical journal, giving the experience of the writer on this point : " One very important feature is the perfect control exercised by the engineer over the motion of the car. The powerful brakes—both steam and hand—enable the stoppage to be almost instantaneous. Upon one occasion we were riding in the 'Baldwin,' and after reaching the less thickly populated section of West Philadelphia, the speed was increased to about three times that of the horse cars, or about 18 or 20 miles per hour. It becoming necessary to stop for a passenger, the brake was applied, and much to our surprise the car was stopped within little more than its (nun length. This shows that, even wilh a much higher rate of speed than that of the horse cars, the steam cars are far less dangerous than the lalter, notwithstanding that this point was one of the most strongly urged against the use of steam on crowded streets."—American Manufacturer.
BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.
Following is a partial list of roads on which these Motors and Steam Cars are used : MOTORS. NEW ENGLAND. Concord Horse Railroad Onset Bay Grove Association
Concord, N. II. Onset, Mass.
MIDDLE STATES. Brooklyn City Railroad Rochester and Lake Ontario Railroad Mt. Penn Gravity Railroad North Hudson County Railroad West Jersey Railroad Camden and Atlantic Railroad
Brooklyn, N. Y. Rochester, N. V. Reading, Pa. Hoboken, N. J. Sea Isle City, N. J. Atlantic City, N. J.
SOUTHERN STATES. Wheeling and Elm Grove Railroad Petersburg and Asylum Railroad Roanoke Street Railroad Metropolitan Street Railroad Rome Land Company Belt Line Railroad Nashville and West Nashville Railway Overland Railway East End Railroad Prospect Park and Belt Railroad Knoxville Real Estate Company Gadsden Land and Improvement Company Tuscaloosa Belt Railway Himlsville Belt Line and Monte Sano Railroad Birmingham Union Railway Highland Avenue and Belt Railway North Birmingham Street Railway Birmingham, Powderly, and Bessemer Street Railroad Selma Street Railroad
Wheeling, W. Va. Petersburg, Va. Roanoke, Va. Atlanta, Ga. Rome, " " " Nashville, Tenn. " " Memphis, " " Knoxville, " Gadsden, Ala. Tuscaloosa, Ala. Huntsville, " Birmingham, " " " " " " Selma, "
CENTRAL STATES. Alton and Upper Alton Horse Railway and Carrying Company Street Railway of Grand Rapids Evansville, Suburban, and Newburgh Railroad
Alton, Ills. Grand Rapids, Mich. Evansville, Ind.
21 SOUTHWESTERN STATES. Grand Avenue Railway East Fifth Street Railway Kansas City, Independence and Park Railway Interstate Consolidated Rapid Transit Railway Topeka Rapid Transit Company West Side Circle Railway Leavenworth Rapid Transit Company Wichita and Valley Centre Motor Railway Colfax Avenue Railway Denver and Berkeley I'ark Rapid Transit Railway City Electric Street Railway Denison Land and Investment Company
Kansas City, Mo. " " Kansas City, Kansas. Topeka, . . " Leavenworth, " Wichita, Denver, Colo. " L'"'e Rock, Ark. Denison, Texas.
NORTHWESTERN STATES. Cedar Rapids and Marion Railway Des Moines Belt Line Railway Lake Manawa Railway Helena Motor Railway Helena, Hot Springs, and Smelter Railroad
Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Des Moines, Council Bluffs, " Helena, Montana. "
PACIFIC STATES. Willamette Bridge Company . Mt. Tabor Street Railroad Geary Street, Park and Ocean Railroad San Bernardino and Redlands Railroad San Diego and Pacific Beach Railway Coronado Beach Railway Pasadena City Railway Southern California Motor Railway Ogden City Railway
Portland, Oregon. " San Francisco, Cal. San Bernardino, " San Diego, " " Pasadena, Colton, " Ogden, Utah.
FOREIGN. Hamilton and Dundas Street Railway Mexican National Railway (Zacatecas Tramway) Urbano Railroad La Prueba Railroad Paramatta City Tramways * Sydney City Tramways
Hamilton, Ont. Zacatecas, Mexico. Havana, Cuba. " " Paramatta, New South Wales. Sydney, " " "
STEAM International Bridge Dallas Park and Suburban Railway
CARS. Buffalo, N. Y. Dallas, Texas.
* For the city of Sydney mure than eighty of these machines have been supplied.
BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.
RESULTS inGMarxidmeusm 0 CLASS.
ROAD. %s a JS Street Railway of Grand Rapids .... Selnia Street Railroad Petersburg and Asylum Railroad ....
4.nC it U 4.14C 4.14C t4 L. ■1
Maximum Grade and Shortest Ra loAn is pounds. idiUSof Fee.t. dius of Curva ture Occurring Number of Feet100.per Cars Sthortest Cunatur in Combination. Hauled. £ . ■3 4 Ordinary. Maximum. il ji
2.5 5. 2.5
4.5* 90 2. 70 60 3
56,000 125,000 4 3 1 to 3 27,000 8l,000 . .
1 to 6
Miles Run per Motor per Day.
I20 40 127 60
Geary Street, Park and Ocean Railroad . Brooklyn City Railroad Alton and Upper Alton Horse Ry. Co. . . Des Moines Belt Line
1 .45 5. 2.84 68 8. 35 4.5 3.9 45
Cedar Rapids and Marion Railway . . .
North Hudson County Railway .... Mt. Penn Gravity Grand Avenue Railway
8. 1. 12 5' 2.3 6. 1.88 4.
East Fifth Street Railway
tt " ti tt ',
San Bernardino and Redlands Railroad . 10. Southern California Motor Railroad Co. . 12. Interstate Consolidated Rapid Tr'sit Ry Co. 7. Gadsden Land and Improvement Co. . . 7.25 Rochester and Lake Ontario Railway . . 6.5 North Birmingham Street Railroad . . . 4. 2.75
1.13 220 1.8 358 5.4 75 2.5 45 1.74 120 4. 5°
Wheeling and Elm Grove Railroad . . . Denver and Berkeley Park RapidTr'sit Ry. Willamette Bridge Co Denison Land and Investment Co. . . . Helena, Hot Springs and Smelter Railroad
6. 3.5 3.62 6. 5.5
5. 3* 70 5. too 5. 60 9.5 70
50,250 50,250 3 1 to 3 41,000 125,000 to 1 or 2 20,000 28,000 60,O0O 2 6,000 I
IOO 63 Il6 75 77
East End Railway
Leavenworth Rapid Transit Railway . . Kansas City, Independence and Park Ry. Hunlsville Belt Line and Monte Sano Ry.
6. 8.2 S.5
3.5 286.5 2.25318 2 to 6* 36,000 175,000 1 69,000 69,000 4. 200 3 2.6 286.5 2.6 573 2 to 5 /2,OO0 180,000 4. 95 3 122,500 [22,500
4I4C1 4.18C/ 4.I8C 4.20C
>. 6.i6^C tt it ti 6.i8^C 6.18WC1 8.i8XC / 8.20XC .1 tt
1 30,000 2.84 1715 3 54.OO0 6. 35 1 or 2 I2,0O0 . . 1 to 3 II,O0O
30,000 . . . 24,000 33.000
90 90 90 '35
5.5 1 100 5.5 1 100 2 or 3 30,000 40,000
2 1 2 I or 2 2 to 4
55,OO0 50,000 29,560 35,000
. . .
90 126 to 168
1 or 2 25,000
525 120 42
1 1 to 4 2 75 2 4 50 2 and 3
. . 7° 716
20,000 100 16,000 8o,OO0 I08 to 120 140 60,000 32,000 32,000 85 1 20,000 120,000 208* 40,000 60,OO0 90 to IOO 115 to 120
75 160 80 to 120
NO/SELESS MOTORS AND STEAM STREET CARS.
WATER. Consump tion in Gallons per Mile.
COST OF OPERATING PER MILE ROT, IS CENTS PER MILE. WAGES. Oil,Waste and Repairs. Engin.I Firt. TOTAL. Tallow. eer. man. Wiper.
Consumption in Pounds per Mile
Anthracite. Coke. . .! Anthracite.
1 2.5 12.5 14.17
3.75 2.5 2.5* 2.73 .2
. ■ 1 Anthracite.
. . ! Soft Coal. 3.5 Anthracite. •7 Coke. 11. 1 Coke.
20. '3.33 '3.33 7.5
1.88 1.46 7.5 ] . . 1.77, .70 I I 342
36 100 20
Anthracite. Anthracite. Serai.Anth. Coke.
16 ! Slight. 1 1.84 .77* 3.4 1.42
12. 1 1.4 If).
S. 6.62 3.28 2.35
.44 .87 .2 .4
30 30 11 22.5
20 20 30 28
Soft Coal. Soft Coal. Semi Anth. C«al and Coke. Anthracite. Coke. Wood. Coke. Anthracite. Wood. Soft Coal. Soft Coal.
* Grade begins just after leaving curve. * Includes repairs.
3.«9 2.22 1.3 I. II .6
12.5 1 Semi.Anth. 1
7.09 12.5 5.7°
2 38 .14.3
5.06 10.51 5.66
1.66 1.5 16.10 4. 2.62 i.3' 12.30 2.14 .4 7.98 2.9 I.5 1.28 9.53
1 Bushel. 3. 1.25 22.2 10.5 .8* 2 Cords.* 7. .5 17.6 2.95 .9 52. •..7 i.5 26.6
Semi.Anth. Soft Coal. Soft Coal.
80. 54. 40.
16.4 6. 6.
* Includes water. f * Railroad crossing at foot of grade. } Cost of operating per motor per day, in. ( eluding all expenses, stated at $7.00.
* Includes car repairs also. * During summer months. Cost of operating per motor per day, in cluding all expenses, stated at $15.00.
Cost of operating per motor per day, in cluding all expenses, stated at $10.00. (" Cost of operating per motor per day, in. j eluding all expenses, stated at $9.35. j * Only 760 ft. of level track. I f Includes water.
2.0S .5 .88 1.96 1.17*
... 1 476! . . . i 5.17] .7 ] 4.2 j 1.9 ■ 4.3 j . . . 3.6 I
.75 1. . . I 2.89! .9 . . 1.33 . . 2.6 1.8 .8 ..5
4.66| 3. '.3 2.58) 1.69 3.5 ' 2. 15
10.25 16.56 16.46 10.08 22. 12.2
* Includes water. * Per day.
* 40 to 130 passengers each.
25.4 1 15.77 * Includes water. Cost of operating per motor per day, in 13. cluding all expenses, stated at S20.00.
BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORK'S.
OF THE TWO
It is believed that the separate motor will, in most cases, be found preferable. takes the place of horses without requiring any changes in existing cars.
to the car by a rigid draw-bar, and thus makes the car ride more steadily than if drawn by horses.
It leaves the front platform of the car available for passengers,
and obviates the necessity of losing the use of a car while the steam machinery is being repaired, or vice versa, as is the case with the steam car.
There is, furthermore,
no unusual weight in the case of the motor, as it weighs no more than a heavily. loaded horse car; and its weight being chiefly carried between the wheelbase, it is more steady on the track, and, therefore, less damaging to the rails than a full horse car. In some cases, however, the steam car may be found to possess advantages over the motor.
It takes less space in a crowded street than a motor with car attached,
and presents less the appearance of a train of cars. Either description of machinery will be furnished on short notice, fully guaranteed, and made to the standard of the best locomotive work. For prices and further particulars, address
PARRY, WILLIAMS & CO., Baldwin Locomotive YVorl.cs, PHILADELPHIA, U. S. A.