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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP


WORKSHOP GUIDE CHOO'ING A BRUSH Whilea eeaeonedfiniaher can apply a atain or topcoat ekillfully with vir' tually any bruah, moat peopleare better off buyinqa qood-quality tool. Thebruah ahowncut away at riqht may coot more than a lower quality model,but it includeacerLain featurea that willenaureconaiatently 4ood reaulto. Thereare two kindaof bruaheaon the market: natural- and aynthetic' brietle ty pee. Natural - briatle brueheeare made from boar, aable, camel,ox or badqer hair, tsoarbriatle ("Chinahog") bruaheeare ideal for applyinqvarnieh.)ther natural-briatle bruaheaare beat auited to lacauer and ahellac, Theyare a po6r choice,however,for opreadin4 water- baeed fi nishee becauaethey may cauae the finiah to foam up. gynth dtic-fil a ment bruahea a re made of nylon or polyeeter, or both. Theaebruaheeare your beat bet for applying water- baaed prod ucta. Durableand flexible,they can alao be uaed with varniahand penetratin4 oil etains.

ANATOMY OFA PAINTBRUSH

Retaining pin Nailor rivet.that binde ferrule to handle Reaervoir A apace that holda finiahaa it ia beinq opread on by briatleo

Divider Taperedplu7 that eeparatee bdatlea_ into qroupo, forminq a reaervoir

Epoxyplug Bondaferrule-endof brietlee together with epoxyqlue

Bristles Natural bristlea or aynthetic filamente; tipe can be cut flat or tapered to a chiael tip

ANDSYNTHETIC BRISTTE TIPS NATURAL Tipped )traiqht-cut tipo recommendedfor water-baged finiahea

Ferrule A riqid, corroeionreaiatant metal band that holda brietlea and epoxyplug

Handle Can be made of plaatic or hardwood;balanced and deoi4nedfor comforb

Tapered Tipehonedto a fine point; ideal for oil-baaedproducto Itkevarnish

CHISEL-TIP BRISTTES

Flagged 1plit enda hold more finiah and epread it more omoothlythan tipped or tapered Lipe

T I P SO NB R U S HS E L E C T I O N . Paya littlemoreto geta superiorq u a l i t yb r u s ha; b e t t ebr r u s hw i l l yourresults. improve . Avoidbrushes with hollowbristles. o n e sd o U n l i k es o l i db r i s t l e sh,o l l o w n o ts p r i n gb a c kt o t h e i ro r i g i n aslh a p e whenbent. . Fora good-quality, all-purpose brush, choose a chiseltip modelwith long springybristles-softforthin waterbasedfinishes andstifffor heaw-

lacquer bodiedproducts suchasshellac, a n dv a r n i s h . o lf youwanta brushwithf laggedbrissplitends, tletips,checkforbranch-like . l f y o ua r el o o k i n fgo r a t a p e r e d b r i s t l eb r u s hm , a k es u r et h a tt h e b r i s t r easr et h i c k ear t t h ef e r r u l e e n dt h a na t t h et i o . . B u yb r u s h etsh a t h a v eg o o ds p r i n g . S q u e e zteh e b r i s t l ew s i t hy o u rh a n d

a n db e n dt h e m ;t h e ys h o u l df e e l f u l l a n ds p r i n gb a c kt o t h e i ro r i g i n a lp o s i t i o n s . . Confirm thatthe bristles arediff e r e nlte n g t hbsy r u n n i nygo u rh a n d fromthe downonesideof the bristles ferruleto thetip; the shorterbristles shnrrldsnrino rrn

r Makesurethatthe bristles aref irmly setin the ferrule,whichshouldbe fastened securely to the handle.

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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

WOOD FINISHING


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THE ART OF WOODWORKING

WOOD FINISHING

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TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL. NEWYORK


THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by ST. REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PRES/DENT PierreLdveilld SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director SeniorEditors

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Art Directors Normand Boudreault,SolangeLaberge Designer Luc Germain Research Editor Iim McRae PictureEditor ChristopherJackon Writers TamsinM. Douglas,Andrew lones ContributingWriter LauraTringali Bourgeois, Contr ibuting I llustrators Michel Blais,Jean-Pierre RonaldDurepos,SergeGuibord, RobertPaquet,facquesPerrault, JamesTh6rien,focelynVeillette Administrator NatalieWatanabe ProductionManager MichelleTurbide SystemCoordinator fean-LucRoy Photographer RobertChartier Index ChristineM. Iacobs Proofreader Iudith Yelon Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIME-LIFEBOOKS President Publisher ManagingEditor Directorof EditorialResources

MaryN. Davis RobertH. Smith ThomasH. Flaherty EliseD. Ritter-Clough

Associate Publisher TrevorLunn MarketingDirector ReginaHall Editorial Director Donia Ann Steele ConsultingEditor Bob Doyle ProductionManager MarleneZack

THECONSUTTANTS Michael Dresdner is a former contributing editor to Fine Woodworkingmagazine.He cur"Just rently writes the Finishing"column for AmericanWoodworker magazine. Frank Klausz ownsand operatesFrank'sCabinet Shopin Pluckemin,New Jersey.He contributes to Fine Woodworkingmagazine and hasmade videotapeswith TauntonPress,including one on wood finishing. Paul McGoldrick ownsand operatesPianoforte Inc.,a pianorestorationcompanyin Montreal, for the maintenance Quebec.He is responsible and concertpreparationof the pianosusedby the Montreal SymphonyOrchestraand the National Arts CenterOrchestrain Ottawa,Ontario. Giles Miller-Mead hastaught advancedcabinetrnakingat Montrealtechnicalschoolsfor more than 10years.A nativeofNew Zealand,he previouslyworkedasa restorerof antiquefurniture. JosephTruini is SeniorEditor of Hoze Mechanixmagazine. A former Shopand Tools he hasworked as Editor of PopularMechanics, home improvementcontractor a cabinetmaker, and carpenter. Wood Finishing p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. (trade) ISBN0-8094-9912-6 rsBN 0-8094-e9 r3-4 (lib) l. Wood Finishing. I. Time- Life Books. II. Series TT325.W661992 684.1'043-dc20 92-32892 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall I-800-621-7026,or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326t-2068 @ 1992Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,except may be quoted for reviews. that briefpassages First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time Warner Inc. U.S.A.

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CONTENTS

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6 INTRODUCTION 12 SAFETY

20 22 24 30 35 43 50 51

PREPARINGTHE SURFACE Toolsand accessories Planing Scraping Sanding Repairingsurfacedamage Raisingthe grain Filling the grain

54 56 57 59 60 64 68 75 76 80

CHANGING THE COLOR Toolsand accessories Bleaching The varietiesof wood stains Dve stains Pigmentstains Stainingwood Pickling a wood surface Chemicalstains Fuming

PROTECTIVEFINISHES Toolsand accessories Choosinga protectivefinish Finishingby hand Settingup your sprayequipment Working with sprayequipment Anatomy of a sprayroom Identifting and avoiding sprayproblems 106 Frenchpolishing 82 84 86 91 93 97 I02 I04

IIO II2 113 118 122

DECORAIIVEFINISHES Toolsand accessories Stenciling Graining Marbling

126 I28 I29 130

FINISHING TOUCHES Toolsand accessories Preparingto rub out the finish Rubbingout a finish

136 CLEANING AND STORAGE

140 GrossARY I42 INDEX I44 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


INTRODUCTION

PaulMcGoldrickdescribes

FINISHING APIANO y careerin restoringpianosbeganlike a lot of opportunitiesin life-by chance. When I was231 had a cabinetmakingshopin Montrdal;next door wasa

Parisian cabinetmaker, GillesJozon. wasa cabinetmaker oftheoldtradition Jean Jean andI spentmanyhoursin hisatelierleamingaboutdifferentfinishingmethods-techniquesthathaven't changed for generations. I laterfollowedhim to Parisandspent aworkingholidaythererestoring antiques. ThroughmutualfriendsI metapianotechnician namedGillesLosier, andI began doingfinishingworkonpianoshewasrestoring. In hisyouth,Gilleshada foreman whocouldselect thewoodfor apianocase, installthesoundboard, stringthepiano, cutthekeys,andassemble andregulate themechanism. Hecouldevensitdownand playa tune.Sadly, craftsmen withthatrangeof expertise in thepianotradehaveall butvanished. pianospresents Restoring manychallenges: Theinstrument mustnot onlylook great;it mustalsosoundsuperbandrespond wellmechanically. Theinstrument shown in thephotograph isa7-footChickering andSonsgrandpianobuiltin Bostonin 1875. I counted10differentwoodsusedin itsmaking,although theentiresurface isveneered with Brazilian rosewood. My firsttaskinvolvedfillingthegrainof thewoodwith a darkpastefiller.I then applieda coatofsandingsealer, andnextsprayed Tokeep oneightcoatsoflacquer. thefinalfinishthinandto levelanydepressions caused bythelargeporesoftherosewoodveneer, I cuteverysecond lacquer coatingwith 220-gritsandpaper. TheIegsdemanded special attention. Theywere madefromlargeblocksof poplar woodsoI hadto createmyownstain,blendingin justenoughyellowandredto simulaterosewood's hue.I sketched in gain linesusingacombination distinctive of feathersandbrushes, with thetop of thepianostandingnearbyasa guide.Thegrain patterns in rosewood cangetquitewild,soyoucantakeartisticliberties in tryingto it aslongasyourespect simulate a fewrules,suchaskeeping thegrainlinesrunning parallel. Thefinalcoatof finishwassanded with220-gritandthen400-gritpaper. All that remained at thetimethisphotowastakenwasto rub thefinishto a softglosswith 0000steelwool,buffwitha cottonclothandapplyacarnauba-based wax.

PaulMcGoldrickfinishesand restores pianosin hisshopin Montrdal,Qudbec.


INTRODUCTION

ThomasMosertalksabout

LINSEEDOIL y introductionto the craftof buildingfurniturewaswith l9th-Century Americanantiquesandremnantsof antiques.I u'ouldbuy a chestof drawers withoutdrawers, for example, andthatwouldleadme to figuringout how drawers with olderpieces, I wasattractedto buttermilk weremade.Because of my fascination paint,earlyvarnishes andFrenchpolish. elegantfurnituremadeby the Graduallymy interestwasdrawnto theausterely and Shakers andoneof their favoritefinishes-boiledlinseedoil. I experimented cameup with my own wayof applyingthe oil andthenpastewaxto createa clear finishlikethe oneusedon thepiecein the photograph.Madeof cherry,it is what "Bob although I callthe Cratchetdesk."It'sa deskfor an accountant or schoolteacher, it canjust aswellbeusedasa lecternor telephone table.It hasa draweranda removableoencilrack. Linseedoil hasbeenusedto finishwoodfor centuries. Unlessit is appliedwith thewood ratherthancreatinga membrane a shellacor varnishbase,it penetrates the wood'sgrainand color,and overit. It is this penetrationthat I feelenhances of a naturalpatina,which is causedby exposureto accelerates the development I feel,is far richerandmorehonestthan sunlightandair.Thecolorthat is created, anypigmentthat comesout of a can.Youjust haveto be a little patient.Youalso polishedpiece.In manyshops,a finish haveto besureto startwith a well-prepared, before serves to concealflaws.I believethat a pieceshouldbevirtuallydefect-free youbeginto applya finish. Therearethreemajorrisksassociated with boiledlinseedoil. Thefirst involves Leftin a foldedrag,linseedoil cancombustspontaneously, becomingalmost safety. explosive. Second, the finishaffordsno protectionfor wood againstwaterandother Third,Iinkindsof stains.Thisiswhyweapplya pastewaxovertheoil asa sealant. seedoildoesnot sealwoodagainstmoisturepenetration thesamewaylacquers and morethanpaintvarnishes do.Oiledoiecestendto shrinkandswellwith theseasons pieiesdo.Soin designing furniture,thisexpansion hasto belaken edor lacquered into account. Theprincipaladvantage Scratches, burns of a finishlikelinseedoil is itsrepairability. andchipscanbesandedandpolishedwith theoil. In a shorttime,thecolorwill come backandyou won't evenknow it wasaffected.But if a membranefinish-especially oneappliedovera stain-is chipped,scratched or burned,moreoftenthannot it has to be entirelyrefinished.

ThomasMoserispresident andco-founder of Thomas MoserCabinetmakers, in Auburn,Maine. headquartered


INTRODUCTION

Prew Savoyon

THE, CRAFTETHIC hepieceI amworkingonin thephotograph isaSheraton-sryle, two-drawer work table,typicalof earlyl9th-CenturyAmerican furniturebuilding.Knowinghow to applytheappropriate finishtakesagoodappreciation of furniturestyle.Youhave to approximate theoriginalasclosely aspossible-incoloraswellasin topcoatcomposition.Thebestwayto getontotherighttrackisto studyfurniturestyles asthoroughlyasyoucan.Talkto people experienced withperiodpieces-museum curators, serious collectors andrestoration or conservation craftsmen. Theyareusuallyvery willingto sharetechnical information. Alsotry to seeasmanyoriginalexamples as possible. Forthispiece, I selected naturalandchemical dyesto makethecolorappropriate to itshistory.Thetableismadeof cherrywithafiguredveneer appliedto thedrawer fronts.Twodifferentcombinations wereused:logwoodextract(anaturaldye)and (achemical potassium dichromate mordant)ontheveneer; andlyeandwalnutcrystalson thecherry. Forthetopcoat, I padded a 3-pound-cut orange shellac onthewood.I likeusing apadmadeupof awoolinteriorandalinenexterior, butotherfinishers preferpolishingcloths-perhaps good-quality because linenishardto find.Thetechnique is polishing, calledFrench butthetermcanbemisleading. Thereareseveral waysto apply polish,someusingpumiceandoil to fill theporesof thewoodcompletely, a French providing a mirror-likefinish.Thatisnotalways pieces. appropriate for allAmerican I tracemyinterest in finefurniturebackto mychildhoodandmyparents whowere collectors themselves. AsanadultI spenttwosummers workinswithaboatbuilder. andmuchlaterstudiedwith George Frankin China.WhenI iarted collecting fine furniture,I couldn'taffordthepieces I liked,soI learned to buildreplicas instead. I believe thatcabinetmakers shouldconsider themselves ascaretakers of a sort. buildingsomething thatwillbepassed downfromgeneration to generation. Youneed to develop whatI calla"craftethic." Youhaveto lovewhatyoudo,notfor theresult or for awage,butsimplyfor thesakeof findingthefinestwayof doingeachstep.

PrewSavoyspecializes in furniturefinishingand restoration. He alsoteaches woodfinishingat the OldeMill CabinetShoppeinYork,Pennsylvania.


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SAFETY business f, inishingcanbea dangerous I' if vou are not well informedand properlyprepared.Fromwood fillersto waxes,polyurethane varnishes andtung oil, finishingproductsfrequentlydepend on toxic organicsolventsto do their work.Without thepropersafetygearand precautions, short-termexposure to these solventscan resultin irritation to the skin,eyesandthroat,aswellasdizziness, headache,nauseaand shortnessof

breath.Longer-termexposureposes morepotentialrisks;someeffectsmay not be apparentuntil you haveusedthe for monthsor evenyears. substances In additionto thehealthrisks,most of thesesolvents areflammable.Some oil-derived oroductslikelinseedoil can combustsDontaneouslv at room temperatureiithe vaporsaresufficiently concentrated. Whenvaporized in a small enoughconcentration of air, a small

Dual-caftridge reapirator Uae whenoprayin4 a finiah or workingwith chemicale;rnterchanqeable filtere and cartridqee ?rotect aqainet epecific hazarda, Cartridgea purify air contaminated with toxins ao they are inhaled,then expel them throu4h exhalationvalve;ftlter preventoinhalationof duat

Safety gogglea Uae wheneprayin4 a finieh; theae ventedgo7gleepre-vent finiahinqfumeafrom irritating the eyeo

Neoprene rubber glovea Uaeto protect the akin whenoprayin1 or mixinq cauatic finiahinqproducta; o n ug -fitti nq a urqeon'e gloveoare auitable for moat other finiehin4taeke

quantityoflacquerthinnercancausea life-threatening explosion. All thisis not to suggest that working with finishingproductshasto be dangerous-only that it canbe if you takea cavalierattitudetowardstherisks.If you sprayfinishes,considerbuyinga spray booth (page.13) or constructing a spray roomofyour own(page102).Asmostof the harm from organicsolventscomes from inhalation,weara dual-cartridge

Claaa ABC flre ertinguiaher For puttin4 out a small frre in the ehop

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9teel waate dispoaal container For temporary aafe diapooalof aolvent-eoaked raqa;dampenra7a with water firat

Rubberapron Frovideeprotection whenworkinqwiLh a wood bleachor chemicaletain

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SAFETY

respirator(page14),particularlyifyou or willbe exposed to fumes arespraying for morethan an hour.To Dreventeye goggles, unddonrubinjury wearsaiery bergloveswhenworkingwith causticor toxicfinishingproducts. possible, choose a product Whenever that combinesthefinishyou wantwith low volatility and toxicity (page19). Workwith thewindowsoDenandusea to keeptheair certified spark-prooffan moving.Thiswill helppreventthefumes in your work areafrom reachinga toxic or flammablelevel.If you experience fatigue,headache, blurred drowsiness, numbness, irritationof vision,weakness, ofbreath theeyes,skinor throat,shortness whilefinishing, or a lossof coordination stopimmediatelyand leavethe work areauntil the symptomsclear.Afterwards,ventilate theworkareathorougfrly andusea differentfinishingproduct.

SPRAYING SAFELY

SAFETY TIPS . D o n o t e a t ,d r i n ko r s m o k e w h e nu s i n gf i n i s h i n gp r o d u c t s . . K e e pf i n i s h i n gp r o d u c t sa w a y f r o mc h i l d r e n . r A v o i de x p o s u r e to organic s o l v e n t si f y o u a r e p r e g n a not r breast-feed i ng. o I n s t a l la t l e a s to n e s m o k e d e t e c t o ro n t h e c e i l i n go f y o u r s h o pa b o v ep o t e n t i af li r e h a z a r d s ; k e e pa f u l l y c h a r g e dA B Cf i r e e x t i n g u i s h en re a r b y . . N e v e sr t o r es o l v e n t os r c h e m i c a l si n u n m a r k e d containers. C h e m i c aslo l u t i o nssh o u l da l w a y s b e s t o r e di n d a r k g l a s sj a r s t o s h i e l dt h e mf r o m I i g h t ,w h i c h m a yc h a n g et h e i rc o m p o s i t i o n . r Do notflushusedsolvents down the drain.Consult the YellowPages t o f i n d o u t w h oh a n d l e cs h e m i c a l d i s p o s ai n l y o u ra r e a o , rcheck w i t h y o u rl o c a lf i r e d e p a r t m e n t .

Usinga spraybooth y x i co r f l a m m a b lvea p o r so, r S p r a y i nagn yf i n i s h i n g m a t e r i apl r o d u c epso t e n t i a l tl o b o t h .E v e nt h e f u m e sr e s u l t i nfgr o ms p r a y i nw g a t e r - b a s er e d s i n sw i t h l o w e ro r g a n i c s o l v e nct o u n t sc a n b e h a z a r d o uusn l e s st h e ya r ep r o p e r lvye n t i l a t e d . A s p r a yb o o t hm a k e ss p r a y i n cgl e a n ear n d s a f e r r, e d u c i n gh e a l t hh a z a r d bs y c o n t a i n i ntgh e o v e r s p r aayn df u m e s t, h e nf i l t e r i n ga n d e x h a u s t i nt h g e m .T h e r e a r ed i f f e r e nm t o d e l sd e s i g n e fdo r d i f f e r e nst p r a y i n a g p p l i c a t i o nTs h . e yr a n g ei n e o d e l sl i k et h e o n es h o w na b o v ew s i z ef r o mc o m p l e t e r o o m st o p o r t a b l m , h i c hm a y b e y o u rb e s tb e t i f s p a c ei s a p r i o r i t yi n y o u rw o r k s h o p o r i f y o u o n l ys p r a ys m a l l p i e c e so f f u r n i t u r e . B e c a u s oe f t h e t o x i ca n d v o l a t i l en a t u r eo f m o s tf i n i s h i n gp r o d u c t sa, l l s p r a y b o o t h sm u s tm e e tO c c u p a t i o nSaal f e t ya n d H e a l t hA s s o c i a t i o( 0n S H A ) g u i d e l i n e s I n s o m es t a t e ss, p r a y i nigs i l l e g ailn u r b a na r e a su n l e s ys o u h a v ea p r o p e r lby u i l t sprayroom(page102).


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I USINGA RESPIRATOR 'l

thecartridges lnstalling I W e aa r d u a l - c a r t r i drgees p i r a t o r Institute of bythe National approved Safety andHealth(NIOSH) Occupational youspraylacquers orvarnishes whenever t h a tc o n t a i vn o l a t i loer g a n isco l v e n t s , stainsor work orwhenyoumixchemical (lf youhavea beard, you withammonia. To install needa fullfacemaskor hood). thecartridges onthemodelof respirator screw themontotheinletvalves shown, (/eff).Always in pairs, buycartridges theyhave andkeeptrackof thehours beenused.

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.) lnstalling filters with L Usedustfiltersin conjunction if youaresanding respirator cartridges ind o o do r a p p l y i nf g c h e m i c a tl lrye a t ew i s h r nm g a t e r i asl us c ha ss h e l l a cl a, c q u e r Choose theapprostains. or nonwater-based priate filterforthetaskat hand,thenfit (rrghf). Snapthe a filterintoeachretainer retainer ontothecartrrdge.

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Testing therespirator P l a c et h e r e s p i r a t o rn y o u rf a c e , wtththe top strapoverthe crownof your h e a dP . u l lo n t h e s i d e s t r a pusn t i lt h e f a c e p i e coef t h e r e s p i r a t ofri t s s n u g l y . T e s t t h e d e v i c eb y b l o c k i n tgh eo u t l e t v a l v ew i t hy o u rh a n da n de x h a l i ngge n t l y (above). Thereshouldbe no air leakage a r o u n dt h e f a c e p i e c el f. t h e r ea r e a n y gapsa , d l u s t h e s t r a p sf o r a t i g h t e r fii

l f n p r p s s arrJ r' r ri vpr snv lv . a c pi h p f : e c n i p n p

according to themanufacturer's instructions,or replace therespirator.

llllillltllllll lllj]ll1 tl]ltlllljlJlil llutlllullljllllllttiillillllJ 1HO?TI? Storing reegirator cartridges Evenwaler vaVor can deVleteLhe purifyinq chemicals in reepira- ,/. Lor car._.,.;,

4ffi

tridqee. t-'.....*._-*\ ; To extend their life, et ore lhe

carlrid,qeein a d,ry,airliqhl -\ environmenN, suchas a plastricfreezer baq.KecordtrheamounN of Nimethe cartridgeehavebeenusedand replacethem afLereiqhthoursof uoeor ae eoona6 you can emellthe finiehinq producLthrouqhIhem.

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()RCHEMICAL SPILL CLEANING UPA TOXICSOLVENT Disposing ofsoiledrags andwindows, openall doors lmmediately of heatandturn anysources extinguish Wearing a rubber sources. offallelectrical rubbergloves, apron,rubberboots,heavy soakup anda respirator, safetygoggles towels; then thespillwithragsor paper olace t h e mi n a m e t acl a nd o u b l e - l i n e d garbage plastic bags.Add withheavy-duty spontato prevent of water a smallamount Youcanalsospread neous combustion. to andallowthesolvent theragsoutside ofthem.Clean before disposing evaporate solwiththeappropriate upanyresidue v e n tl i s t e di n t h e c h a r tb e l o wl.f t h e product or poisof lammable is extremely nousandmorethanonegallonhasbeen leave theworkareaandcallthe spilled, of the Otherwise, dispose firedepartment. theenvironmental soiledragsfollowing in effecttnyourcommunity. regulations

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FORA SPILL SOLVENT THERIGHT PRODUCT SPILLED

REQUIRED SOLVENT

M i n e r as lp i r i t s

andwater Household detergent

Turpenti ne

detergent andwater Household

Paintremover

spiritsor paintthinner, andwater; or mtneral Household detergent detergent andwater thenhousehold

Denatured alcohol

None

alcohol Methyl

None

Acetone

None

t hr i n n e r Lacque

None

Water-based stainor latexpaint

detergent andwater Household andwater deiergent thenhousehold Mineral spiritsor paintthinner,

stain 0il-based Urethane or polyurethane Varn ish

andwater detergent thenhousehold Mineral spiritsor paintthinner, andwater detergent thenhousehold Mineral spiritsor paintthinner,

Lacquer

t hr i n n e r Lacque

Sh el l a c L i n s e eodi l

(ethylalcohol) alcohol or methyl Denatured alcohol paint household detergent andwater thinner, then Mineral spiritsor

TungoiI

detergent andwater thenhousehold Mineral spiritsor paintthinner,

woodbleach acidortwo-part Oxalic

soda Water andbaking

Lye

mixedin equalparts Water andvinegar,

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BEINGPREPARED F()RA CHEMICAL FIRE Using a fireextinguisher T o c o n t r oal s m a l lc, o n t a i n ef idr e ,u s e a d r y - c h e m i cf iar e l e x t i n g u i s hr e a rt e d yourself ABC.Position safely awayfrom t h ef i r ew i t hy o u rb a c kt o t h e n e a r e s t e x i t .H o l di n gt h ee x t i n gi u s h eu r pright o n a l e v esl u r f a c ep ,u l lt h el o c kp i no u t (inseta ) ,n da i mt h en o z o f t h eh a n d l e zleat the baseof theflames.Squeeze the handleleverstogether andspray in a quick,side-to-side motion(right) u n t i lt h e f i r e i s e x t i n g u i s h e l fdt h. e flamesspread, leavethearearmmediately andcallthefiredepartment. Dispose of burned wastefollowrng theadvice of thef iredeoartment. Havetheextins r r i s . h p rr p c h : r o o d

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Checking a smoke detector A smokedetector is an essential safety feature in a finishing shop. Testthedevice onceeverymonth.First,press thetest button. Then,blowouta lit matchbelow a vent,letting smoke enterit, or holda flamebelowit (left).Replace thebattery if thealarmdoesnotsoundfor both t e s t s - o ri f i t e m i t sa c h i r p i nsgo u n d , indicating thebattery isworn.

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SAFETY

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DECIPHERING THELABELINFORMATI()N

lnhalation warnin4 lndtcaLee1,ha1, Lheproduc1;te exLremelyhaz' ardousdurinqprolonged e x p o e u r ec; a u t i o n e aqainef inLenLional ah"ae

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Directione for uee Detailed inel;ruct,ione on how Lo uee Lhe product, tncludin4 puiace preparat ion, mirinq 9"16quant triee. appltc2Ti611 niquee and clean-up

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9afety precautiona lneLruct;tonefor eafe handltn7 and etora7e ofthe product, incl ud inq praper venLilaLronand warntnq e,7ne of prol6n4ederpoeure 1;.ofumea

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Emergency/Firat aid proceduree 'gpectfiee immedtaLe acLion Lo be Laken in an emerqency involvinq ekin or eye conLacL,inhalation or inqeel,ion

Prod u ct identification The Lype of product and the brand name 7iven by 1,hemanufact.urer to idenLtfy Lhe producL

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VOC(Volatile Organic Compound)rating

Warning lndicaLeswheLherLhe

A meaEureof Lhe amounL of volaLtleorqantc compounda in Lhe producL, in percenl,, grame per liter or pounde per qallon

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flammable or Loxtc

Product i ncom patibility A ltat of frntehtnqproducto l;hat; are chemtcallytncom' pattble wt1;hthe product

Vapor preooure lndicaLee Lhe force exerted by evaporaLed vapo16 on the aLmoephere dtrectly above Lhe ltqutd, meaeured in milltmel;ereof mercury. The qreater Lhe vapor preeeure, Lhe more volattle Lhe producL

R e a d i nagp r o d u cl ta b e l T h el a b e o l n a c o n t a i n eorf f i n i s hi s m o r et h a nj u s ta t r a d e m a r k a n da s e to f i n s t r u c t i o n lst.i s b o t ht h e k e yt o c o m p a r i ntgh e f i n i s h ' sc h a r a c t e r i s t w i cist ht h o s eo f o t h e rp r o d u c tasn da g u i d e

Aative ingredients Indtcatea the common and/or chemtcal namee and proporl,rone of bol,h volatrle and non-volaLtlein4redienLetn 1,heproduct, euch ae reetne, eolvenLs.driers and flatLenere: aleo tndtcaLea wheLher Lhe eolvenLis aenattiveto liqht and phoLochemically reacLtve,whtch can crealie atrbarne polluLante

t i n n ss n e c i f i e nd n t h e l a h e tl o s e t r r nt h e n r o n e vr e n t i l a t i o n l f i t ht h ef i r s ta i d a n dw o r k i n cg o n d i t i o nas n , df a m i l i a r i zyeo u r s ew i n s t r u c t i o ni ns t h e e v e n o t f anaccident. t n r r s i n o i h p c , r r h c , l : n . ps . : f p l v n t h p s h n n T h e r ^ o m n n s i t el : h e l S o m es t a t e sa l l o wt h e u s eo f T r a d eS e c r e R t e g i s t rny u m h e r sf o r a n r o d r r cst i n p r e d i e nttos n r o t e cnt a t e n t ecdh e m i c a l s h o w na b o v ei n c l u d etsh e f e a t u r eyso us h o u l dl o o kf o r w h e n ^ ^ r ^ . , ; ^ ; + . -, ^ + , ^ ^ \ / ^ ^ - - + e h n n q r n o : f i n i c . .h. i. n. bg rn.r n- uf ,u, L.- L{ , ^) u. ,L^i fl d drf o r m u l a sl.f y o uf i n d t h e i n f o r m a t i oonn t h e l a b e lt o o v a g u e , ) L U T L T L ryd L i l 1 5 .v v u i n g ,v a p o rp r e s s u raen df l a m m a b i l i t R r e q u e sat l V l a t e r i S a la f e t yD a t aS h e e t( l v l S D Sf )r o m t h e y .e f e tro t h e c h a r to n n : o p l Q i n d p i p r m r n p t h p l n v i r - r l vn f : n r n d r r r ^ t ':sr ^ t i v pi n o r c d i m a n u f a c t u rief ro n e i s a v a i l a b l e A.n M S D Sw i l l e x p l i c i t l y sgrslignla t s w e l la s p r e c a u e n t sa n dc o m p a r teh e mw i t ht h o s eo f o t h e rs i m i l a rp r o d u c ttso d e t a r tl h e p r o d u c t 'hs a z a r d o ui n h e l py o uc h o o s e t h e l e a s t o x i cf i n i s h .F o l l o w t h e s a f e t yp r e c a u - t i o n sf o r s a f eh a n d l i nagn d u s e . '

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SAFETY

CHOOSING A SAFE FINISH F i n i s h i ncgh e m i s t hr ya sc h a n g erda d i c a lilny r e c e nyte a r s . Themostsignif icantadvance hasbeenthedevelopment of w a t e r - b a sfei ndi s h eisn r e s o o n st oe b o t ht h e h e a l t hr i s k s posed b ys o l v e n a t sn dc l e a n - alier g i s l a t i tohna tl i m i t st h e percentage of V0Cs,or volatile organic compounds, in solvent-based f inishes. Mostof theseregulations areprimarily intended forf urnituremakers whousemorethanonegallon predictthatbythe of finishperday,yet industry experts m i d - 1 9 9 0V s ,O C - c o m p l if ai nni ts h ewsi l lb et h er u l er a t h e r thantheexception foreveryone in the UnitedStates. I n h a l a t i oi snt h e m o s tc o m m ow n a yt h a ts o l v e n tasr e absorbed intothebloodstream, buttoxinscanalsobe ingested fromfoodandbeverages leftin theshop.Others canbe a b s o r b eddi r e c t ltyh r o u gthh es k i no r e v e nb ys w a l l o w i n g v a p o risn s a l i v a . ln theirmostpoisonous form,solvents cancausedamage nervous to thecentral system andrespiratory tract.Methylene

chloride f o, re x a m p l e i s,s u s p e c t eo df b e i n ga c a r c i n o g e n , whilesomeglycolethershavebeenlinkedto birthdefects. K e e pi n m i n d ,h o w e v etrh, a tt h e h e a l t hh a z a r dosf a n y f i n i s h i npgr o d u cdte p e n od n a n u m b eor f f a c t o r sM. o s t p r o d u c tosn t h e m a r k eat r ea c t u a l l b yenign w h e nu s e d o n l yo no c c a s i oann, dc o u l do n l yb ec o n s i d e r p eo di s o n o u s i f s w a l l o w eddi r e c t l yS. o m ec a ne v e nb e m a d en o n t o x i cs; h e l l aics c o m m o n ul ys e da sa n i n g r e d i e innt confectioners'glaze. W h e nc h o o s i nagf i n i s h i npgr o d u c bt ,e a w a r e ofthe combinatio a n dc o n c e n t r a t ioofno r g a n isco l v e n ti sn i t s m a k e u pp,a r t i c u l a ri fl yy o ui n t e n dt o u s et h es u b s t a n c e periods for extended of time;prolonged exposure maybe h a z a r d o uTsh.ec h a r b t e l o wl i s t st h es o l v e n ct so n t a i n ei n d a v a r i e toy f f i n i s h i n p g r o d u c tasn de v a l u a t et hse r e l a t i v e toxicityof eachone.Always choose thesafestproduct for j o b the athand.

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Toxtc sotvENTs FINISHING PRODUCT W o o fdi l l e r( p a s taen dl i q u i d ) e ,i p i n gN, G Rg, e la n dg l a z S t a i n(sa n i l i n w ingstains; colorpigments) (whiteandorange) Shellacs (spray Lacquers andbrush,sanding sealers) Lacque t hr i n n e r R u b b i nogi l s( D a n i sohi l ,a n t i q uoei l )

SOLVENT Petroleum naphtha*, mineral spirits*, acetone**, methylethylketone**, methyl isopropanol**, isobutyl ketone*** glycolethers*** Ethanol*, mineral spirits*, toluene***, xylene***, methanol***, Ethanol*, methanol*** Acetone**, glycol methyl ethylketone**, isopropanol**, methanol***, xylene***, ethers*** glycolethers***, Acetone**, methyl isopropanol**, ethylketone**, toluene*** VM&Pnaphtha*, turpentine**, toluene***

Drying oils(boiled linseed oil,polymerized t u n go i l ) (tungoilvarnish, Varnishes sparvarnish, varnish stain) (polyvarnish, Polyurethanes urethane starns)

Mineral spirits*, turpentine**

Lacquer/varnish removers (pastewax,furniturewax) Waxes

Acetone**, xylene***, methanol***, methylisobutyl ketone***, toluene***

M i n e r as lp i r i t s V * ,M & Pn a p h t h a * M i n e r as lo i r i t s t*o. l u e n e * * * Petroleum naphtha*, turpentine** * product Safest ** Mildlyhazardous product *** Product to beavoided if possible

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PREIARINGTHESre ld-timewoodfinisherssmoothed whichcanscratch enededge,however, wood with sharkskinand rush. thewoodasbadlyascoarse sandpaper. filled its poreswith plasterof Parisand Sanding with successively finergrits pulverizedbrick, coloredit with matepreparation. completes thesurface For rials such as iron filings and walnut hand-sanding a fairlysmoothsurface, a shells.and finishedit with secretcomtypicalprogression is 150grit,followed Modern binationsof oils and beeswax. by220andthen280grit.(lfyoudidnot finishingtechniquesaremundaneby smooththewoodwithacabinet scraper, comparison, but theobjectis thesame: youmightneedto startwith 80or 120 to bring out the beautyof the wood. grit.)Neverskipanintermediate gritor youwill leave Whetherthis meansa glassyfilm on the scratches in thewoodthat surfaceof thewood or a finishthat softAmongits manyuses,thehandscraper thefinishwill magnifr.With anorbital ly glowsfrom within dependson the plan canhelpclearawaydriedadhesive sander, usethesamegritsequence; typeofprotectionthewood needsand aftergluingup a carcase or drawer. on hand-sanding with thefinalgrit to the effectyou wish to achieve.Because remove anywhorls. Afterfinalsanding, "raise tasteis involved,thereis no singleright answerto everyfinishing you maywish to the grain"andthen resand,to remove question.But all professional-quality finisheshaveonething the whiskeryfibersthat might otherwisepop up throughthe in common:painstakingsurfacepreparation,which readies finishon thefirsthumid day.Thisstepis essential whenapplythewood to acceptthe finishingmaterials. ing anymaterialwith a water,ratherthan solvent,base. Theamountof time you spendon surfacepreparationand Whetheror not you fill the poresof the wood is againa the toolsyou usedependin'largepart on your'workhabits matterof taste.Ifyou like a natural-lookingfinishthat allows "read and your wood. Surfacesspeckledwith dried glueobviously you to thewood grain,"do not usefiller.Close-grained requiremore work to smooth.Looseknots,splitsand other speciessuchaspine and cherrydo not requirefilling in any defectsneedrepairprior to finishing;sodoeseverydent and case, but ifyou wanta glassy finishon anopen-grained species, chiselnick.Thewood probablyhasjointer andplanermarks, suchasoakor mahogany, you mustfill the wood. which you can removewith shallowcutsusinga smoothing A washcoatmaybe appliedto the wood beforeor after plane.Theplanemustbeproperlyadjusted andsharp,soit cuts staining-or not at all ifyou areapplyinga penetratingoil finwoodfibersratherthantearingthemandrougheningthesurish.A washcoatcanbe nothingmorethan a half-and-half face.Ifthe woodhasan irregularpattern,soyou cannotavoid solutionof your final finishandthesolventrecommended by tearingthe grain asit changesdirection,substitutea cabinet its manufacturer(for lacquer,usesandingsealer). Thepoint of scraper-athin, flat pieceof steelwitha burrededge.(Forultiusinga washcoatis to preventthewoodfrom unevenor excesmatesmoothnesof straight-grained wood,useboththesmooth- siveabsorptionof finishingmaterials.When appliedbefore ing planeandcabinetscraper.)Cabinetscraperstakepractice the final finish,thewashcoatkeepsthewood from drinking up to sharpenand use,but oncemasteredtheycansubstantially the finish,therebyreducingthe numberof coatsrequiredto reduceyour sandingtime. Bewareof an improperlysharp- build up theproperthickness.

Despitea modernbladeadjustmentmechanism that enables thetoolto sliceoffpaperplaneretainsthehandcrafted qualityof a traditional thin shavings, thissmoothing handtool.Producingsmoothsurfaces is a crucialstepin finishingfurniture.

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TOOLSAND ACCESSORIES

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Honing guide and anglejig For honinqplane bladee.Deviceholda bladeat appropnaLe anqlefor honinqa bevel;rotatinq the wheelon Lop of the ji4 eete angleo bef,ween15oand 35o

9moothing plane For smooLhinqwoodaurfacee with the grain, ueuallyprior to scrapin4and oandinq.Blade muELbe aharpenedand properly adjuated before uee

Grinding jig For holdin4planebladea in aliqnmentwith grindin4 wheeldurinq aharpeninq

File alamp HoldE file perpendicula r to cutting edqeof ocraper durtnqeharpeninqof ocraper, enaurinq atra i7ht and square eaqe

Tri-burniaher Uaedto form amall burr, or hook,on cuLtrn4edqeoof ecraperafter honin4; combtnesround,trianqular and oval burnisherain one tool

Mill baetard file For equartnqcuttin4 ed4eo of ecraperoprior Lo honin7 and burniehinqthem

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Block plane For omoothin4end 4rain and chamfered aur-facea;ueuallyueed with onehand

Abraaive pade An alternattveto eandpaperfor smoothinqwoodaur-faceeand abradinq inf,ermediatefinieh coata by hand; abraaiveparticlee of aluminumoxtde and etliconcarbtdeare bondedto evnLheLicfiber pade. Laat lonqerthan sandpaper;can be waehedand reused

Combination aharpeningatone For eharpentn4planebladea. Coaraeside removeemetal quickly;fine atde createg emoof,hed4e.Lubricated wtth water or orldepending on the type of stone

Hand ecrapere Kecta ngula r acraper amootha flaL aurfacea:curvedmoaele workwellon contouredeurfacea,moldinqaand epindlee

Cabinet scraper For amooLhinqwood aur-facea,typically afLer planing;wellauited far levelinqknote and cuLtingawaydried qlue.Elade ocrapea a paper-Lhinehavtngfrom aurface:has twin handleafor 4reater convenience and control than hand acraper

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PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

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Eelt eander Towereander ueed to remove atock and eliminateflawa from wood aurfacea. and for amoothinq.Iandinq belta availablein qrite from coarae to fine

Random-orbit sander Fowersander uaedfor fine amooLhinq and removinqawirlmarka left by belt or orbital aander; ideal for contouredaurfacea

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5t'eel wool 9pectally made woodworkinqeteel woolia oil-freeand featurea lonqeretrande than etandard varietiea: leeo likelyto

Cont'ouredeanding bloak Holda aandpaperfor amoothinqcurvedand irreqularly ahaped eurfacea by hand: featurea a narrowardefor reachin7 into nqht epota

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FIat aanding block Holds aandpaoerto smooth flat aurfacea by hand

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Alcohol lamp and burn-in knife Uaedto apply ehellacatick to damagedareag on woodaurfacea; flame from lamp heato knife, which rn Lurn melLEahellac,drippin4it. onto aurface

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Grinder tharpenin4 wheel Ganbe uaedto regrind bevelaon planebladee

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Orbital palm eander Fowereander for omoothinq aurfaceethat are difficult to reach with 6rqer 9anaer

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PLANING f hoosingthebestwayto smootha \-r woodsurface is a matterof individualpreference. Therearenoordained stepsor prescribed rules.Somewoodworkersplaneandthensand;others planeandscrape beforesanding. Whicheversequence you decideto follow,theobjectisto producea surface thatisassmoothasglassandjustasflat. Thissectionof thebookexplains the useof a smoothingplaneto beginthe process of preparing a woodsurface to accept a finish. A well-sharpened bladein a properly adjusted planecanshearofffineshavingsof wood.Youcanmakeall the adjustments with only a screwdriver, despitetheplane'sapparently complicateddesign(below). Planebladesrequireregularsharpening.Althoughyoucanhonea blade byhand(page 26),a grinderisthebest

toolto bringacuttingedgeto peakper- square its end(page 25,step1).Fora formance. Fora nickedbladeor anold newbladeor onethathashaditsbevel out-of-square oneyouwishto salvage, wornaway, honeanewbevelonthecutting edge(step2). Tomaintaina keen edge,honethebladefrequently on a sharpening stone(step3). Before usinga plane,setthedepthof cut to removeonly a thin shavingon eachstroke.Because anexcessive depth gouges settingmayproduce in thework piece,youshouldtestyoursettingfirst on a scrapboard.Forbestresultson a largesurfaceusea longplane;a short onewill bemorelikelvto followexist ingcontours. Setaplaneon itsbottomwhenstorPlaningtheedgesof a workpiecewith a ingthetooltopreventtheironfromgetsmoothingplane-alsoknownasedge tingnickedbyothertools.Occasionally jointing-is usuallydonebeforeplanrub a thin film of light machineoil on ing thefaces.Thisallowsyou to remove thebladeto preventrust.Onceayear, any blemishes or depending ontheamountof use,take from thefacesleft by thejaws of a clampor a vise. thetoolapartfor a general cleaning.

ANATOMY OFA SMOOTHING PTANE Cap iron aarew Adjuete offaet diatance between cutting edqe of blade and end of cap iron; to avoid blade chatter, 'la inch io ideal 6ap Leveraap acrew )ecures levercap, cap iron and blade to fro4

Levercap Allowaquick removalof cap iron and blade

Late ra I a dj uati ng lever Centera the blade in the mouth of the plane by aettin7 the lateral, or aide-to-aide, poaition of the blade

Cap lock Holda lever cap in place

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BIade Alao knownaa olane iron. lnstalled beveldown on fro4; for beat reeulta, ahould barely probrudefrom mouth

Frog adjuetin7 earew Turnedto alide frog back and forth; poeitioned to eet cuttinq edge of blade about 1/azinch from front edae of mouth

Frog 9upporbe blade

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PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

SHARPENING A PLANE BTADE WITHA MACHINE theendoftheblade 1 Squaring whether I Usea trvsouare to check the cuttine g d g eo f t h eb l a d ei s s q u a r el f. i t is not,square it ona grinder witha rough positioned wheel. Withtheguardproperly a n dt h eb l a d e c l e aor f t h ew h e e sl ,w i t c h onthemachine. Holding thebladebetween theindexfingerandthumbof yourright hand,setit beveluponthegrinder's tool it toward restandadvance thewheeluntil yourindexfingercontacts thetoolrest (right).Slidethe bladeside-to-side across pressing thewheel, lightly whilekeeping yourfingeronthetoolrest.Thetip of the l at rh e b l a d es h o u l sdt a yp e r p e n d i c ut o wheelthroughout theoperation. Dipthe it bladein wateroccasionally to prevent fromoverheating. Check thebladefor regurany. square

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r) Creating a hollow-ground bevel Z . S h a r p e n ian pg l a n eb l a d ei n v o l v e s threesteps: creating a bevel ontheblade's cuttingedge,honing another bevelon partof thef irstone-calleda microbevel-thenremoving theburrthatresults fromthehoningprocess. Tocreate the f irstbevel, clamptheblade topfaceup jigsetto create grinding in a commercial a 30" bevel. Runthecutting edgeacross thewheel asyouwouldforsquaring the b l a d et h ; ej i gw i l lk e e pt h eb l a d e square to the wheel(left).Checkthe cutting edgeperiodically andstopgrinding when thebevel forms(lnsef). Asa ruleof thumb, thebeveliscorrect whenmost of thesparks showering trom t h eg r i n d ef ra l lo n t h et o p faceof theblade, rather than belowit.

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PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

themicrobevel Q Honing r-,f Place a combination sharpening stone finesideuDona worksurface. Nailcleats to thetableagainst thestoneto keepit frommoving. Oneof thecleats should be thesameheightasthestoneand4 to 5 inches Iong; thiswillallowyouto usethe full length of theabrasive surface. Clamp thebladein a commercial angle-setting h o n i n g u i d ew i t ht h eb e v et lo u c h i n g the stone.Saturate thestonewiththe appropriate Iubricant-either wateror a lightoil-untilit pools onthesurface. guide, Then,holding thehoning slidethe b l a d eb a c ka n df o r t hf r o me n dt o e n d alongthestone(lefil,applying moderate pressure untila microbevel forms(insef). Continue untila burr-athinridge of metal-forms onthef latface o f t h eb l a d eT. h e nl a pt h e b u r r a sy o uw o u l dw h e ns h a r p e n ian g planeby hand(sfepbelow).

SHARPENING A PTANE BTADE BYHAND [apping thebun guide Clamp thebladein a commercial (stepabove) andgrinda 30" bevelusing thecoarse sideof thestone. Thenreoositionthebladein theguideandturnthe stoneoverto honethe microbevel. To remove the burrfromthe blade-a process woodworkers call"lapping" the burr-remove the bladefromthe honing guideandsaturate thestoneonceagain. Holding thebladeflushonthestone,bevpatiern el sideup,moveit in a circular on (righil the stone unlilthe flat sideof the cuttingedgeis smooth to thetouch.A fewstrokes shouldsufficeto eliminate theburr.Testthesharpness of thecuttingedgeon a pieceof paper; a sharp blade willslicea sliver fromtheedse.

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PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

Assessing a planeblade's cutting edge Nomatter howwellit is adjusted, a dullor poorly sharpenedplanebladewilldoa poorjobof smoothing thewood surfaces of yourfurniture. Moreover, itscondition willonly deteriorate if youpersist in usingit, losingits beveled cutting edgeandpossibly evengoingout-of-square, as in the bladeshown(far/eft).Sucha bladewouldneed to besquared andsharpened ona grinder. A well-sharpenedblade(nearleft)hasa vrsible bevelandmicrobevel, making iI a razor-sharp cuttingimplement. Thisblade needs onlyanoccasional honing ona sharpening stone.

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Levercap ecrew

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Froq eetecrew

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Positioning thecuttingedge I Loosenthe levercap screwand removethe bladeassemb l y - i n c l u d i n gt h e l e v e rc a p ,c a p i r o na n d b l a d e - f r o mt h e p l a n eT. h e nl o o s e tnh e c a p i r o ns c r e wa n ds l i d et h e c a p i r o n o n t h e f a c eo f t h e b l a d et o l e a v ea g a po f a b o u t% o i n c h b e t w e e tnh e e n do f t h e c a p i r o na n dt h e c u t t i n ge d g eo f t h e b l a d e .T i g h t e nt h e c a p i r o ns c r e w .N e x t ,p l a c et h e b l a d e

assembly in position onthefrog.Thegapbetween thefront edgeof thebladeandthefrontof themouthshouldbeabout t/rcinch.lf not,loosen bothfrogsetscrews about1Zturn, thenturnthefrogadjusting screwwitha screwdriver to set gap(above). theproper Lockthe bladeassembly in position.

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PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

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r) Centering thebladeand Z- setting thedepth of cut e ss h o w ns,h i f t h e H o l d i nt gh ep l a n a lateral adjusting lever to onesideorthe thecutting edgein the otherto center mouth. Tosetthecuttingdepth,turn adjustment knobso thedepth-of-cut thatnomorethanaboulrhzinchof the fromthemouth. cutting edgeprotrudes Checkthedepthof culby eye(right), t h e nc o n f i r m t h es e t t i nbgym a k i nag testcutona scrapboard. Theshavings bepaper-thin; thefinerthecut, should t h em o r et r a n s p a r et n h tes h a v i n g s . Adjust thecutting depth,if necessary.

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WITHHAND PLANES SMO()THING

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plane Usinga smoothing w i t hs m o o t he, v e n G u i d ea h a n dp l a n ea l o n ga w o o ds u r f a c e Alwayscut with the grainof the wood;planingagainst strokes. t h e g r a i nw i l l t e a rt h e w o o d ,r a t h e trh a ns h a v i n gi t o f f c l e a n l y . l f y o uc a n n o d t e t e r m i nteh e o r i e n t a t i oonf t h e g r a i n ,l i g h t l y s l i d et h e p l a n ep a r a l l e l taon e d g ei n o n ed i r e c t i o nt h, e n r e p e a itn t h e o p p o s i t d e i r e c t i o nT. h ec u t t i n ge d g ew i l l c h a t t e r o r c a t c ho n t h e w o o df i b e r sw h e ni t i s c u t t i n ga g a i n stth e g r a i n .l f t h e g r a i no r i e n t a t i ocnh a n g eosn t h e s u r f a c es,w i t c h . o s m o o t ha o f y o u rs t r o k et o f o l l o wt h e g r a i n T thedirection s u r f a c es u c ha s a t a b l e t o pm , o v et h e p l a n eb a c ka n d f o r t h as shown usinga seriesof straightpasses thatslightlyoverlap, inthediagram a t r i g h t .W h e np u l l i n gt h e p l a n eb a c ka f t e r e a c hf o r w a r ds t r o k et,i l t t h e t o o lt o o n es i d et o l i f t t h e c u t t i n g e d g ec l e a ro f t h e s u r f a c e .

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2B

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Smoothing a face faceupona work Secure theworkpiece s u r f a c e0.n c ey o uh a v eo r i e n t etdh e plane withthewoodgrain, lineupyour s h o u l daenr dh i pw i t ht h et o o tl o h e l p y o um a i n t a ifnu l l c o n t r ool f t h ec u t . withbothhands as Gripping theplane pushthetoolalong thesurface shown, awayfromyourbody.Applyf irmand s u s t a i n epdr e s s u dr eu r i n g t h es t r o k e , pressing downonthefrontof theplane at thestartof thepass.Oncetheplane iscompletely onthesurface, evenout thepressure to thepressure, shifting

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t h e r e a rn f t h e n l a n ea i t h e e n d o f t h e

Examine asyouwork stroke. theshavings andadjust thecufting depthif youwanta finercut.Keepplaning untilthesurface becomes shinyandsmooth to thetouch.

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endgrain Smoothing U s ea b l o c kp l a n et o s m o o t ht h e e n d so f a w o r k p i e c eT.h e r ea r et w ow a y so f p l a n i n g e n d g r a i n ,b o t h i n v o l v i n tgw o s t e p s c a l c u l a t etdo a v o i dt e a r o uat t t h e e d g e s . F o re i t h e rm e t h o ds, e c u r et h e w o r k p i e c e e n d u p . I n o n em e t h o db, e g i na s t r o k e a t o n ee d g eo f t h e b o a r dg, u i d i n gt h e p l a n ea l o n gt h e s u r f a c eu n t i l t h eb l a d e is abouthalfwayacrossthe end (left). R e p e atth e p r o c e s fsr o mt h e o p p o s i t e e d g e .I n t h e s e c o n dm e t h o ds, t a r tb y c u t t i n ga c h a m f ear t o n ee d g eo f t h e boardh , o l d i n gt h e p l a n e a t a n a n g l et o f l a t t e nt h e corner(inset).Then make a p a s sa c r o s tsh e e n t i r ee n d , b e g i n n i ntgh e s t r o k ea t t h e o t h e re d g e .

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SCRAPING is an interQ crapingwoodsurfaces planingand stepbetween rJ mediate A sharpscraper canremove sanding. high spots,tearoutand glue lines, andcleanup marks smootha surface, leftby a plane.Thetool is inexpensive, simpleto sharpeasyto useandrelatively en.Tho commonlyusedtypesarethe handscraper-asinglebladeof steelablademountscraper, andthecabinet ed in a metal or wood body that Thisimplement resembles a spokeshave. for two-handfeatures wingedhandles edpushingor pulling. Scraper bladesaremadefrom thin to ofspringsteelandsharpened sheets forma cuttingedge.Theyareavailable on in differentthicknesses, depending theworkyouwantthemto perform. for heavycuts; aresuitable Thickscrapers areusedfor finerwork. light scrapers hasa Unlikea planeblade,thescraper hook-a smallflarealongthelengthof page32).The thecuttingedge(inset, hook'scuttingactionallowsthescraper in anydirection, to bepulledor pushed

andtightspots soyoucanreachcorners inaccessible to a plane. dullquickA scraper's cuitingedges which ly andrequireregularsharpening, filing,honingandburnishing. involves shavings signal Thesizeof thescraper's its condition:thedullertheblade,the

a scraper Properlysharpened, will producefiner andshorter shavingsthana plane.

I I theshavings, untilfinallythetool smaller produces onlysawdust. needto befiled Mostnewscrapers smoothbeforeuse.It mayhelpto apply alittlelubricatingoil onthecuttingedge beforeburnishing, butbe ofthescraper carefulwith theoil: If it getson your handsorbenchit couldendupstaining theworkpiece. thecutting Apartfrommaintaining keepin mindthatthe edges of ascraper, toolwill performwellonlyifyouholdit andpush atanangleto thewoodsurface or pull itwhileapplyingafairamountof Ifyou pressure closeto ttrecuttingedge. holdthescraper almostperpendicular to thesurface andapplyhealypressure, wood,but thetoolwill quicklyremove the it mayalsogouge, dentor scratch Heldat moreof anangle,the surface. removes lesswood,butproduces scraper asmoother surface. Onemethodof finding theright angleis to holdthetool almostparallelto theworksurface;begin gradually raisingtheangle scrapingwhile of thebladeuntilit bitesintothewood.

SHARPENING A SCRAPER square 1 Filingtheedges hookon a I Tofileofftheexisting scraper, clampthetoolin a visewith a onelongedgefacingup.Holding filefirmlywithboth sharpmillbastard passes handsasshown,makeseveral backandforthalongtheedgeof the ng moderate downward scraper, exerti pressure and untilthebundisappears filings, theedges areflat.Toremove periodically tapthefileona firmsurfaceor usea filecard.Turnthescraoer for the overandrepeatthe process otheredge.

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fiu|ltfilrililllttljJ llillliltl]J fillltJilllllltlll tllllll filtl]ll 5HO7Tt? Uoinga file clamp Deeiqned Noholda file perpendicular to the edge of a ocraVer, a fileclamp makesit, eaeytro remove hooksand fileoLraight edqeeon Ihe trool.To use the fileclamp,securethe ocra?erin a vieealong wilh a woodblockon one eideto keepit,riqid.lneerL I h e f i l ei n t h e c l a m pa n d f i x i t i n p l a c eu o i n q l h e Lhumbscrewe on Iop of the i m p le me n t . 7 oE i Loi n L he c la m p

on lhe edgeof the ecraVerand file lhe ocraVer'e ed4eunlil it, feelesharp,takinqcarenot Io cuXyouroelfwhenNeeLinq.

r) Honing theedges L Secure a combination sharpening stone finesideupto a worksurface with cleats andlubricate it asyouwouldwhen honing a planeblade(page 26) Holding thescraper flatagainst thestone, rubthe faceonthestone witha circular motion (left).Applymoderate pressure andconproduced tinueuntilanyroughness byfilingdisappears. Turnthescraper overand repeat fortheotherface.Tocomplete the honing, holdthescraper edgedownand slideit backandforthdiagonally across thestoneuntiltheedgeissmooth with sharpcorners. Repeat fortheotheredge.


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PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

I I to starta hook theedges Q Burnishing r.,l Placethescraoer f laton a work withtheedgeto besharpened surface extending offthetable.Holding a burnisher at a slightangle to thescraper, passes makeseveral backandforth alongthe edge(left),applying strong pressure downward to startturning overtheedgeintoa hook.Burnish the edgethesameway;turn othercutting thescraper overandburnish theedges ontheotherface.

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Completing thehook Securethe scraperedgeup in a vise

perpendicular Holdtheburnisher almost to theedgeandrunit along theedgein onedirection untiltheedgeswells slightly,turningoutward on oneside(right). presForbestresults, applymoderate s u r eT. h e nh o l dt h eb u r n i s hseort h a t t h eh a n d liesa t a 1 0 ' t o 1 5 ' a n g l e abovethe edgeof thescraper andcont i n u eb u r n i s h i u nn g t itl h ee d g e turns over.Repeat theprocess to forma hook ontheothersideof theedge(inset), this timeholding thehandle withyourother youapply, hand.Thegreater thepressure iho hioopr thp hnnk

Turnthescraper over andburnish theopposiie edsp

Tpsi thp .r ri-

tino pdooc nn a nipnp

of scrap wood,burnishingthemagain, if necessary, untilyouhave thehookyouneedfor t h ej o ba t h a n d .

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flllllllllllllllllllrulll1 ililllllllllllltllllullilllllllllllllltlllt 1HO?TI? Using a variableburnisher l,oldinq a o l d t n qa O burnieher u r n t e na aL e tr tthe riqht. anglefor turnin4overa hookon a ocraVerie no eaoylaok. Oneanswer jiq Ihal ie a commercial provideoVrecioecontrol of the burniohing anqle. Theactual burnisher ie a carbiderod mounled wilhinLhe body;a knob o n N h e N oapd j u o t o N h e anqleof Nherod belweenOoand 15o.Iouse Nhe L ne a burnieher, u r n t ? n e r? oecure , e c u r eT the , n eS ecraVer c r a ? e rtin n a vviee t 6 ea and na

: f i I i t e b l a d e i n t h e b u r n i s h e r ' ee l o N :r u n n i n qt h e b u r n i e h e r back and f or\h alon4 the blade wilh moderale downward ?re6ourecreaLeea hook of NheapVropriaLean4le.

SMO()THING A SURFACE WITHA HANDSCRAPER Using a handscraper Secure thestockto a worksurface. Standing at oneendof theworkpiece, curlyourfingers around thefrontof the scraper andpress onthebackwithyour thumbs to makethetoolbowslightly outward. Tiltthescraper forward about 20'fromthevertical andscrape the in thedirection surface thatthebowis facing(left).lf thecuttingedgedoes notbiteintothewoodproperly, adjust theangleof thetoolslightly. Workat a s l i g hat n g l e t o t h eg r a i na, p p l y i n g pressure moderate andmakinglong, fluid,overlapping strokes. At theend of eachstroke, lift thescraper offthe surface before stopping. Youcanalso pullwiththescraper, butbesureto you. flexthe bowtoward


I PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

SCRAPER SMOOTHING WITHA CABINET

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theblade 1 Adjusting edge I lnstall withthehooked thebladein thescraper t/zzinchfromthesoleof the facingforward andprotruding Lockthebladein placebyturning thetwothumbscraper. (abovd. fhen clockwise screws onthefrontof thescraper b o wi t s l i g h t lbyyt u r n i n tgh et h u m b s c r et hwa tp r e s s e s against thecenter of thebladeattheback6f lls scr:ner

r) Using thescraper Then,standing at oneendof the Z Secure theworkpiece. withthe firmlywithbothhands stockandholding thescraper preshookfacingawayfromyou,pushthetoolwithmoderate (abovd. lift At theendof eachstroke, surealongthesurface io thescraper offthesurface andturnthetoolupside-down thebladefromclogging. dislodge theshavings andprevent

ltljulllllrl]l]llllllllllllllrllllllllllllllllfifillllr]l]llrlllllilIl 1HO?Tt? Uoingold oara?erblades to cut half-blind dovetaile Youcan aet eornemore mileage ou| of an old ocra?erby uoin7it Nocomplelelhe eaw cuNemadeto fashion half-blinddovelails. Tlacelhe bladein the kerl and tap il with a hammerunLilit, reachesthe shoulder lineof the ioinLThiewillmakeiN eaeierLo finiehNhecut with a chisel,

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SANDING Q andingis the final stagein smoothJ ing a pieceof furnitureand is also indispensable in eliminatinganyblemishesleft by planesand scrapers. Both toolssometimesleavemarksandridges Theycanalsocomon wood surfaces. presswood fibersandclosetheporesin thewood,inhibitingits capacity to properly accepta finish.Sandingasthe final stepopensclosedpores,allowingthe finish to penetratethe surface. A wide varietyof naturaland manmadesandpaperabrasives areavailable for thewoodworker, from naturalmaterials suchasflint, garnetand emeryto artificialoneslike aluminumoxideand you siliconcarbide.Formostapplications, needa sandpaperwith hard,sharp-edged particlesttratarenot easilydislodgedfrom their paperbacking.Garnet,siliconcarbideand aluminumoxidearethe abrasivesthat bestsatisfythesecriteria. A typical sandingsequence begins with a 120-or 150-gritpaper,depending on whetheror not you useda scraper (page30).Youmayfirst needan 8O-grit abrasiveto eliminatedefectsor irregularitiesfrom a surface. Continuesanding witha220-gritpaper,movingto increas-

ingly finer abrasives to removethe scratches leftby thepreceding operation. Fora surface thatis to receive a glossy finish,youwill needto useapaper atleastasfineas320grit.Howhighup thegrit scale youclimbdepends on the finishingproductyouintendto apply Keep andtheeffectyouwishto achieve. in mind,however, thatpolishinga surfaceto a highglosswith anultra-fine papermaykeep astainfrompenetrating evenly. Referto thecharton page37for

Combiningtheconvenience of a powertoolwith thefine touchof handsandinga palm sanderreadies a cabinetfor a finish.

informationon the differentsandpaper gradesandgritsandwhento usethem. Apart from selectingtheappropriate grit, you alsoneedto choosebetween paper.Theabraopen-andclosed-coat paperscovsiveparticleson closed-coat er almost the entire surfaceof the backing,and arebestsuitedto sanding hardwoods.Open-coatpapershave morewidelydispersedparticles,covering only 40o/oto 700/o of the backing. Theseareyour bestbet for softwoods because theyarelessproneto cloggingby moreresinouswood. fu shownon thefollowingpages, sanding canbe equallywellaccomplished by hand or with power tools.Although handsandingis laborious,it allowsyou greatercontroloverthe process, especiallywhenworkingon contouredsurfacesor in cornersandtight spots. Whichevermethodyou select,you canjudgewhetherthesurfaceis smooth enoughby pulling a pieceof fine nylon fabricoverthewood;the clothwill snag on roughspots.Thenexaminethewood undera beamoflight playedacrossthe surfaceat a low.angle.The^lightwill expose anyremalnmglmperfecuons.

SANDING FLAT SURFACES Using a beltsander Clamp theworkpiece downandinstall griton a sanding beltof theappropriate yourbeltsander. Holding thetoolabove thestockwithbothhands, switchit on andgentlylowerit flatontothesurface. Guidethesander fromoneendof the workoiece to theotherin smooth and passes straight overlapping thatfollow thegrainof thewood(/efil.Keepthe f latandmoving sander at alltimesuntil is uniformly Avoid thesurface smooth. leaving thetoolononespotwhileit is quickrunning; it cancutintothesurface ly,leaving a gouge. Cleanupthesand(page42)beforerepeating ingparticles withafiner-gritbelt.

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PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

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r I I I I Handsanding Attacha pieceof sandpaper of the appro' p r i a t eg r i tt o a s a n d i n gb l o c k G . r i pt h e b l o c kf i r m l ya n d s a n dt h e s u r f a c e with s t r a i g h to, v e r l a p p i n g b ,a c k - a n d - f o r t h s t r o k e sa, p p l y i n gm o d e r a t ep r e s s u r e a n dw o r k i n g w i t ht h e g r a i no f t h e w o o d (above,left), Keepthe blockf lat on the s u r f a c ea t a l l t i m e s ,p a r t i c u l a r lwyh e n you reachan end or edge.To smootha s m a l lo r r e s t r i c t esdu r f a c es, u c ha s t h e a r e a sb e t w e etnh e s o i n d l e os f a c h a i r a s s h o w nu, s ea c o m m e r c i as la n d i n g ^+l^t, >LtL^

/^^^,,^ lauuvc,

-:^L+l r tBr tL,t.

I

lttlllllilllllilillll]lll]ltilllll[l]lllllllltllllilllilitilltruilfl 1HO?Tt? Shop-madeoandingblock CUIa woodblockthalyou can qrip comfortably.OnIhe top face of the block,cuLlwo narrowqrooveo, then cuI two wedqeehapedwoodobripo NhaI fit, in Lheqrooveeenuqly.To gluea fel| provideeveneandinq?reooure, or cork pad t o NheboLbomlace of the block. T ou s e t h e b l o c k , w r aa?p i e c eo f e a n d V a V e r aroundit,,inoertNheendeinNolhe qroovee, then tap in the wedgeoto holdNheVaVerin Vlace.

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ABRASIVE GRADES ANDGRITS SANDPAPER Grade

Grit

Medium

8 0 , 1 0 0 ,1 2 0

Uses Initial smoothing; removing shallow depressions and scratches

F in e

1 5 0 ,1 8 0

Intermed iatesmoothing

Veryfine

220,240

Finalsmoothing beforeapplyinga f inish

Extrafine

280,320

Removing dust particlesand air bubblesbetween finishcoats

360,400

F i n a sl a n d i n g b e f o r ef i n a lc o a to f f i n i s h ;i n i t i a l sandingfor highglossfinish

6 0 0 ,1 2 0 0

Rubbingdownthe final coatof highglossfinish

Medium

1

Lightremovalof particlesand raisedfibers; smoothing of shallowdepressions and scratches

Fine

00

Smoothing beforeapplyinga clearf inish

Extrafine

000

Smoothing betweencoatsof finish;lightcleaning and deglossing of a finishor polish

S u p efri n e

0000

Polishing; waxing

S u p efri n e STEEL W(lOL

lluljlJlllllll tllilltt]l]lllllllttllllljlltlll}ljltflltllllilltl]ll 1HO?TI? Makinga aandpaperauttingboard To cul sheeleof oandpaperquickly and accuraLely, ueea ohop-made cuttinq board.Screwa hacksaw bladeto a pieceof plywood with a washerundereach endto raiseit eliqhNly off the Vlywood.To cuTa sand?a?er sheet in half, ,./ .. elideiI under

1,r)r \

li.i';\ ;: rino'i'

.','*^*

t .-s-o d

,

"

c

ki**"*":

the blade. H o l d i n 4o n e end down,Near

\ the other part,of the eheetoff. Fora quarEersheel, marka lineparallel NoNheblade Nhat,isone-quarLer ofLhewidlhof a e h e e Xf r o m t h e l e e l h . T h e n a l i g nl h e e n d ol f,he eheet wilh lhe line and lear.

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4

Choosing sandpaper gritsin the Therange of sandpaper chartat leftwillserve foralmost any f i ni s hi n gj o b .W h e nb u y i nsga n p da p e r ,c o n s i d ei trsc o m p o s i t i oAnl u. minumoxidepaperworksbestwith a beltsander. Choose silicon carbide p a p eirn g r i t sa b o v 2 e 2 0f o rf i n i s h s a n d i nwgi t ha no r b i t asla n d e r .


PREPARING THE SURFACE

SANDING CURVED SURFACES Using a random-orbit sander Withitscompact andpliable sanding pad,therandom-orbit is ideal sander forsanding contours suchasa cabriole leg(left).Clampdowntheworkp i e c ea n df a s t e n a s a n d i ndgi s kt o pad.Withthetoolclear thesander's of thestock,switchit onandlower thepadontothesurface. Applying pressure, moderate workalongthe length of theworkpiece in back-andf o r t hp a s s eusn t rtl h es u r f a cies s m o o t hR. e p o s i t i o t hne p i e c ei n theclampas necessary to smooth ^:i^^^-+ ^,,"+-^^^ duldutrrrL)ur iduc).

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Hand sanding Smoothing contoured surfaces usingonlysandpaper risks creating blemishes onthewoodorf lattening outthecurves pressure. padthat withexcessive Fora shop-made sanding canfollowcontours withoutoversanding, wrapa sheetof sandpaper around a thicksponge thatyoucancomfortably grip.Holdthepaper around thesponge andsandalong the length of thesurface withf irmpressure.

U s i n ga s a n d i nbgl o c k S e c u r et h e w o r k p i e caen d a t t a c ha p i e c eo f s a n d p a p et or a c o m m e r c i ac lo n t o u sr a n d i n gb l o c k .O n t h e t y p es h o w n , t h e e n d so f t h e p a p e ra r e p i n c h e dt o g e t h ear n d h e l d i n a s l o to n t h e n a r r o ws i d eo f t h e b l o c k .F o rm o s tc o n t o u r s , s a n dw i t h t h e c i r c u l a sr i d eo f t h e b l o c ka g a i n stth e w o o d ( a b o v e )F. o rc r e v i c e sa n d o t h e rt i g h t s p o t s ,w r a pa s h e e t o f s a n d p a p earr o u n dt h e b l o c k ,h o l di t i n p l a c ea n d s a n d w i t h t h e n a r r o ws i d e .

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BLOCK CONTOURED SANDING Smoothing thecontours of a pieceoI its molding evenly without damaging is a difficulttaskwithonly contours sanding sandpaper or a conventional youcanusea short block.However, your sample of themolding to shape ownsanding blockthatcorresponds exactlyto the surfaceof the workpiece. Fashioning theblockrequires bodyfilleror modeling rubber, used to makea moldof theorofile. To prepare themold,nailtogether a smallboxslightly longer andwider thanthesample molding andabout r/qinchdeeper thanthethickestpart of themolding. Prepare thefillerfollowing themanufacturer's instrucfill about half the boxwith tions,then it. Laya single ihickness of plastic wraDoverthebox.Whilethefiller themolding samis stillsoft,press pleintotheboxandclampit firmly against thefiller.Letthefillerhardremove en,ihencarefully themoldingsample fromthebox.Sawoff theendsof thebox. Totransform theboxintoa sandingblock,stretch a pieceof sandpaperabrasive sideup across the molded sideof thebox.Usethe thepaper molding sample to press filler,then against the hardened staoletheendsto the sidesof thebox. Tousetheblock,clamptheworkoiecedownandslidetheblockback (/eff). andforthalongthemolding

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grooves Smoothing andturnings grooves Tosandnarrow in turnedpieces suchaschairspindles, usecommercial abrasive cord.Cuta pieceof cordlongenough to extend a fewinches on eachsideandwrapit around the groove. Pulloneendandthentheotherrepeatedly to sandhalf (above, left).Workfromthe thecircumference of thegroove

opposite sideto smooth theotherhalf.Tosandturnings or largergrooves, useabrasive tape(above, right),whichis wider thanabrasive cordbuthandled identically. Smooth intricate pads. turnings andmoldings usingsteelwoolorabrasive

r]llilI1 illlltllltlilllfilltllllll}ulli]IlultllllilIlil1j ilutjllfit1 ?HO?TI? Shop-madeabraaivetape 1andingbelNeare an excellenl oourceof abraeiveLapeo.The belbereadilyNearin parallel ebripe,makinqiL eaeyto obtaina lenqthof abrasive of Yhewidthyou need.)ince uoinqabraoiveNapeinvolvee crooo-qrain oandinq, uoeonly slrios from fine-aritbells. Coalrserabrasivis may leave ecrabchee and makeabraded area6?roneNoabeorbinqmore slain Nhansurroundina areao.

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IN TIGHTSP()TS SANDING

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r[ IltlfiIlllllllllijllltlillrilllllrrlltiltrinllllilI]illlllltlll] 1HO?TI?

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.$o. Findingflawo O o m e b t e m i e hoener h e \2" eurtaceof a Vieceof furni' Lure may noNbe aVVarent, to ./, ,; LheLouchor underordinary l i q h t , b u t b e c o moeb v i o u e t in a floodof light.Tocheck your workafLereandinqa workpiece,cleanoff the eandinqVarLiclee (paqe42),then aim a beamfromaflaehlightaNIhe eurface,bouncing il otr LhewoodaNan oblique angle.griqhl directeunliqhtworkoequallywell.Clooely examine Nheeuryour headup and downolowlyIo benefiLfrom f ace,bobbinq everyanqle.Takenole of any flawoyou miesedearlier.

panel's Smoothing a raised edges jobscallfora certain Somesanding degree of improvisation. Forexample, to smooth the beveled edges of a panel(above) raised without rounding thesquare edges of theframe, use a piece of sandpaper folded inthirds to aboutthewidthof the beveled section. Holdthepaper in a U shape andplaceonefingerbehind it; the your foldedpaper cannot slipagainst finger. Sandtheedges, applying even pressure parallel andworking to the woodgrarn,


PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

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CLEANING SANDING PARTICLES

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Removing sanding dustfrom a woodsurface Cleanparticles offwoodsurfaces after everystageof sanding before moving onto a f inergritabrasive or applying . e m o vaesm u c hd u s ta n d a f i n i s hR gritaspossible witha vacuum cleaner, ragor benchbrush(above, /eff).Then w i p et h es u r f a ccel e a nw i t ha t a c k yourhand clolh(above, nghf).Sweep across thesurface to checkforany particles. remaining Wipeagainwith thetackclothif necessarv.

ilIllluillIllrilllllrllr1 tlllfillllltltflfiIlllllilltltljlllllltllI] 9HO7Tt? Makingataak aloth Makea tack clothNomatchthe tiniehinqproducLyou inhendt o uee.Fora water-basedfinieh, oimVlydamVena cleanVieceof cheeeeclothwilh waten Fora eo l ven I - ba eed f i n i s hd, a m pe n trhecloth wiNhmineralspiiits, then workina fewdropsof varnioh.?queeze Ihe cloLhre?eatedlyunbiliNbeginoIo feelobicky. Add varnishwhenit,loeesits Nackyfeel.)tore a tack cloth in a plaelic bagwith a labelidentityingit as eilher waNer-or solvent-based,

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REPAIRINGSURFACEDAMAGE canshow Tl lawson a woodsurface .F throughalmostanyfinish.In fact,a clearfinishlikelacquermaymagnify Beforeyouapplya finimperfections. ishto a pieceof furniture,youneedto find and mendanysurfacedamage. Mostdefects stickout,but youneedto thelessobvious blemfindandeliminate ishesaswell.Tiy runningahandacross thewoodandfeelingfor them.Youcan withlowanglelight alsowashthesurface (page 4) andlookfor them. to a repairand Thebestapproach requireddependon the thematerials repair A suitable natureof thedamage. isto lift it with for a dent,for example, if thewood steam(page4).However, ratherthansimply fibersaresevered crushed, steamwill not work;a wood Forsmall fillermaybethebestremedy. waxor shellac stick canproblemishes, ducea virtuallyinvisiblefix. Bothare in.avarietyof colorsto match available manywooospecres. Youcanbuy specialburn-inkits for applyingshellacsticks.Thetypiincludesa burn-inknife calpackage stainless steelblade; with a gentlybent, an alcohollampfor heatingtheknife; a felt anda special solutionfor soaking therepairwiththesurblockthatlevels roundingsurface. arebestconMostlargerblemishes withwoodfiller.Althoughmany cealed

you cantint filler tfpes arepre-colored, yourselffor a perfectmatch.Testthe filler on a scrapof the targetwood beforecommittingyourselfto a particularformulation.In situationswhere the a filler is inappropriate-because damagedareais too largeor the filler would be conspicuous-youcanmend the defectwith a shop-madepatch fashionedfrom a wood scrapof the samespecies(page47).

stickremainsoneof thebest A traditionalshellac methodsof repairingminordamagein wood. Heatedby thellamefrom an alcohollamp,a burn-in knifemeltsa small bit of theshellac sticl<,whichfills theholelevelwith thesurface.

C(lMP(lUNDS W(l(lDPATCHING TYPE

CHARACTERISTICS

USES

G(lMPATIBILITIES

Woodfiller

or water-based; depending Solventontype,canbetintedwithstainor purchased pre-tinted

Fillinglargeholes,gouges, cracksanddents

withmostfinishes; Compatible applybeforeor afterstain

Waxstick

in Wax-andresin-based; available a varietyof colors.Setsquickly

stick Shellac

available andresin-based; Shellacin a varietyof colors.Setsquickly to forma hardsurface

with scratches Maybe incompatible Fillingsmallholes, lacquer; applyafterf inishing andcracks withalcoholor Maybe incompatible dents Fillingscratches, finishes; applybefore lacquer-based andgouges or afterfinishing

Shop-made filler

mixedwithbinder, Sawdust canbe suchashideglueorshellac; tintedwithstain

Fillingnanowcracks, gapsandsmallholes

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Mostmodernpatchingcompounds comto bechemically areformulated patiblewith avarietyof finishes, but in contain cases wherethetwo products finish can dissolve thesamesolvent, the below to help thefiller.Usethechart compound. choose theappropriate Forall your fixes,whetherlifting a lightlysandthe dentor fillinga gouge, repaironceyouaredoneto levelit with thesurrounding surface.

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withmostfinishes Comoatible


PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

LIFTING DENTS

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t Repairing a dented surface Onewayto fix a dentin woodis to swellcrushed woodfibersto theiroriginalshaoe. Turna household ironto its highest setting andallowit to heat uo.Meanwhile. soaka cleanclothin water,foldit overa fewtimesand placeit onthedent.Press thetip of theironagainst theclothoverthedent (above), holding it in placeuntilthe clothsteams. Thesteamwillswellthe woodf ibers, liftingoutthedent.Add waterto theclothasnecessary and avoidleaving theironontheclothfor toolong,whichmayscorch thewood.

llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll'fiItl|llll llltfllllll]illlilltllllllt 9HO7Tt? Gluingan edgeeplinter back A emalleplinteron the edqeof a workViececan be qluedin Vlace,ao lonqao iNie eLillafLached.Clamotrheetrockin a vieeand equeezeoomeqlueinto lhe qap beiweenNheeolinterand Lhewood.Then eplinlerinto placeand secure preeeNhe it wibhmaekinqtape.)nce the qlueio dry,removelhe IaVe and sandthe repair fluehwilh adjacenteurtacee.

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PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

FILLING SMALTNICKSANDNAILHOLES A p p l y i nwg o o df i l l e r C h o o sa e f i l l e rt h a t i s c o m p a t i b lw ei t h t h e i n g r e d i e n at sn dc o l o ro f t h e f i n i s h y o uw i l l b e a p p l y i n gU, s ea p u t t yk n i f e t o w o r kt h e f i l l e ri n t ot h e h o l ea n do v e r f ill it slightly(left),thenscrapeoff the e x c e stso l e v e li t w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g surface.Avoidspreading fillerontoundamagedareas,whereit maycauseuneven c o l o r i nigf a s t a i ni s a p p l i e d .

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gun Melting shellac stickwitha soldering Select a shellac stickof theappropriate colorandseta solderinggunon Low.Holding thestickoverthehole,meltit with thetip of thegun(above, lefil.Dripenough of theproduct to f i l l t h eh o l eW . h i l teh ef i l l e irss t i l l s o f ut ,s ea k n i f eo ra w o o d chisel to press it evenly intothedamaged area. Workcarefully to avoidmarring thesurrounding areawiththeknifeorchisel

b l a d eA. l l o w t h ef i l l e tro c o o lT. ol e v et lh ef i l l e w r i t ht h es u r rounding surface, soakthebottom of a feltblockwitha small a m o u notf c o m m e r c li e a vl e l i nsgo l u t i oann dl i g h t l ryu bt h e blockbackandforthacross therepau(above, nghf).Theslowacting solvent in thesolution dissolves excess fillerwithout harming thewood.


I I PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

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t Applying shellac stickwith a burn-in knife Lightthealcohol torchandholdthe knifeoverthewickforseveral burn-in Withtheshellac seconds. stickover thedamaged area,press the knife against thesticksothatenough filler meltsanddrrpsintothehole(above) Reheat theknifeasnecessary until h o l e i s f i l l e d . k n i f et o the U s et h e f i l l e r F i n i s s p r e atdh e evenly. thh e r e p a iwr i t hl e v e l i nsgo l u t i oann da f p l i h l n n k (t Pnv ab vo e 1' .v 6 t )

iitiiltllrillllll1 illrr]lllrlllliilllrll}ll11 lll1 ilI]iltrxlllllfilt 5HO7Tt? Ueinga gluegun to apply shellacstick A qluequn offeroa oimplealternalive lo a burn-inknifeor solderina aunfor repairinq damaqewith a ehellac stick. Ueea oharpknifeNo whiltlea ehellacelick oo "' that, iNfit 6 in Nhebarrelof y o u r4 l u e4 u n . I om e l L l h e -.'. filler,pullLheLriqqerae /. y o u w o u l d NaoV V l q y lue, Ihen dripLhemelLedehellac eNickonto Nhedamaqedarea.TressNhefiller inboNheholewiLha knifeor woodchiee|and leveliNas shownon ?aqe45-uoinq a felN blockand levelinq eolulion.

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/' ' / / // / /

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PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

PATCHING A LARGER HOIE andoutlining thepatch 1 Making I Aneffective wayto menda larger holeona woodsurface is to cuta patch a n da m a t c h i nm g o r t i soev e tr h eh o l e , t h e ng l u et h ep a t c hi n p l a c eU. s i n ga cut-offscrapfromtheworkpiece, or a p i e c eo f v e n e ewr i t hs i m i l agr r a i na n d color,cut a patchthatis slightlylarger thanthehole.Givethepatcha diamond shape, lessconspicuous thana square patchafterthefinishis or rectangular applied. Usea woodchiselto bevelthe edgesof the bottomfaceof the patch, thensandbothfaces.Place thepatch overthehole,aligning itsgrainwiththe grain,andmarkitsoutline surface with a sharppencil(righil.

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r) Chiseling themortise L Secure theworkpiece witha clamp if necessary. Select a woodchiselslightly narrower thanthesidesof themortise to cutalong theoutline. Tiltthetoolwithits bevel facingupto produce ananglecorresponding to thatontheedges of the patch.Remove theremaining waste from theoutline withthechiselbevelfacing down(left).Periodically test-fitthepatch in themortise untilthemortise isslightly shallower thantheoatchisthick.

47


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PREPARINGTHE SURFACE

downthepatch Q Gluing r-,1Spread somegluein themortise andsetthepatchin place.Laya piece overthepatch, thenposiof waxpaper t i o na w o o db l o c ko nt o p .( T h ep a p e r w i l l k e e pt h ep a t c hf r o ma d h e r i nt g o where lf thepatchis located theblock.) youcannot seta board clampit directly, a t o pt h eb l o c ka n dc l a m pt h ee n d st o pressure onthepatch focustheclamping (left).Workquicklyto prevent the patch f r o ma b s o r b i nmgo i s t u rfer o m t h eg l u ea n ds w e l l i n g .

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PATCHING A DAMAGED CORNER 'l

area Preparing thedamaged I A d a m a g ecdo r n eirs b e s tr e p a i r e d w i t ha p a t c hl.f t h ee d g e os f t h eb r e a k areragged or sharp,usea woodchisel e do r t i s e t o c u t a s h a l l o wo,v a l - s h a pm w i t hs m o o t e h d g e as r o u n tdh ed a m a g e . H o l dt h ec h i s ewl i t ht h eb e v efla c i n g d o w na n dw o r kw i t ht h es r a i no f t h e wood(right).

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PRE,PARING THE SURFACE

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r) Installing thepatch patch L Cuta thatroughly fitsthe mortise, thenshape it withsandpaper ora chiseluntilit fitsperfectly. Spread s o m eg l u ei n t h e m o r t i s ae n ds e t thepatchin position, aligning itsgrain withthatoftheworkpiece. Usemaski n gt a p et o k e e pt h ep a t c hi n p l a c e whilethegluedries. Tolevelthepatch withthesurrounding pare surfaces, away theexcess withthechisel(above). C u tw i t ht h eg r a i nk, e e p i nt h g ec h i s e l bevelsideuo.

illrultlltl|ltll]llltllllllllilltilllfiijtlllllilljl]lltljljtjll]jll 1HO?TI? Filling a damagedaorner An alternalive Nopatchin7a aamaqedcorner is lo reconslrucL it wilh woodfiller. SecureNheworkpiece\ in a vise.Makea form

NokeepNhefillerfrom ea4giiqbytaVinq,

l\ 6ffl\ ,*./*-\

lntn ?teceol meLalor or a tonque \\ VlaeLic, 'depreooor \ \ to thi sideof the slock.lf you uoea tonqe..de?reooor, placea etrip of waxVapei underneath Lo keepNhefillerfrom bondinq to the stick.Applythe fillerwiLha ?uLIyknife,then LaVea eecoid form Lo the ilp\r,fra"".


t

RAISINGTHE GRAIN Wetting thesurface phase Every of working withwood-from j o i n t i nagn ds a w i nbgo a r dt so p l a n i n g andscraping them-compresses the fibersonthesurface. Exoosure to water causes thefibers to standup,rougheningthesurface. lf youintendto usea water-based finish,wetthesurface to raisethegrainbefore applying thefinishing solution. Spray wateronthesurface(left),thenwipeofftheexcess with a cleancloth.Allowthesurface to dry, thenlightlyscuffthewoodwithvery fine(220-griI) Avoidoversandpaper. whichmightexpose freshgrain, sanding, making it necessary to repeat theprocess. Raising thegrainhasotherbenefits, such asliftingshallow dents,exposing defects a n dh e l p i nagf i n i s ha d h e r e .

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iltillti]l]llltilltultilt]iltluuilul]llillJ ilu]lilj-tluuullllt 5HO?Tt? Coloringgrain filler qrainlillercan Untrinted becoloredf,o malchor conlrast with Ihe slain onYourworkoiece.For a waier-baseAfiller,usean oil-freepiqmenL in liquidor ?owderform,suchas universallinlinqor dry earLhcolors.TinL an .'. ,.:. . -.# oilbasedfillerwiNhan oil-based s\\\-..' - -:-: piqmenl,euchas arf,ieI'soil or japancoloro,To the filler, prepare pourit.inhoa diehandadd a emallamounN of the colorin7aqent, MlixtheIwo inqredienlewibha putty knife.Contrinue addinqcolorinqaqenLunbilNhefillerNakeeon the d,eeired color.Teet,the filler illo your workViece. on a 6cra?boardbetoreaVVlying Add more coloring aqenN NodarkenNhemixlure:add fillerNoliqhlenit.

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FILLINGTHE GRAIN f, illingthervoodgrainis theeasiest washcoat (pnge53),and finallyapplyt rvayto achieve a highgloss, mirror- inga fillerwitha conl.rasting color'. likefinishon open-grained like species Fillercomesin sereralcolors;choose ash,oakandmahogany. Grainfiller,also a shadeslightlydeeperthanthervood knorvnasporefilleror pastewoodfiller, is not arppropriate for everyjob,howevwoodhasno need er.A closed-srain for filler,andiome woodrvorkers avoid fillersaltoeether in favorof a morenatt t

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ttrat looK.

Ifyou decideto fill thegrainofyour wood,youshouldunderstand thevariousoptionsregarding ivhento applythe filierandexactlywhattypeto use.Filler is usuallyappliedbeforestain;if you chooseto stainbeforefilling you must becarefulnot to damage thestainwhen removinsthe excess filler.Yetanother alternatirie isto applythestainandfiller togetheron therarvwood,althoughthe resultis oftena flat, monochromatic appearance. To bring out the character of .t species likenrahogany, tly stainirrg thewood,thensealing thestainwith a

Applying n .filler to ttrtoperr-grttitted specieslike onk doesrtnre tlmrr sitnplylill tlrc woodpores.ht corttrast with the rnturttl sttrfaceon the riglrt, theJiller added to the sartrple on the leJiltasaccerrtrtsted tlrc wood'sgrairrpntterrt.

Forbestresults, makesurethat the workpieceis cleanand dust-free. Then prepirethe fillerfollowingthe manufacturer's directions; it shouldhavethe consistency of thickcream. Because erainfiller canabsorba lot of finish,ali,aysapplya washcoatto a filled surfacebeforestaininsor finishing it. Thewashcoat,consiiting of the finishyou plan to r-rse dilutedby the appropriate thinner,creates a barrier betleenthe fillerandthe finish.With sornespecies likemahogany, a washcoat is advisable beforefilling,to preventthe fillerfrom developing unsightlywhite spotsseveral monthsafterit is applied.

onthefiller 1l Brushins -

I W i t ht h e w o r k p i e cfea c eu p o n a w o r ks u r f a c ep, o u rs o m eo f t h e f i l l e r i n t oa c o n t a i n eAr .p p l yt h e f i l l e rw i t h a p a i n t b r u s h( l e f t )o r a b r a s i v ep a d s . U s i n gb a c k - a n d - f o r tohv.e r l a p p i n g strokes,coverthe surfacecompletely w r t ht h e f i l l e r w , o r k i n fgi r s tw i t ht h e grain,thenacrossit. Examine the workn i e c er r n d edr i r e c tl i p h tt o c o n f i r m thatthe surfaceis covered thoroughly. A p p l ym o r ef i l l e r ,i f n e c e s s a r y .

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APPLYING A FILLER

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soit willmatchastheivooddarkens r,vith age.Youcanalsobuyuntintedfillerand colorit yourselfinthe shop (pnge50). Beforecommittingyourself to a particularsequence oLcolor,applythe filler to piecesof scrapwood both before andafterstaining, andchoose thebest

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otfexcess filler O Wiping I Once thefillerbegins to dry,losing itsshineandturning hazy, wipeit with piece a of cleanburlapfoldedintoa padtighil. Startingat oneendof the workpiece, workwitha circular motion to packthefillerintothewoodpores andremove theexcess.

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up Q Cleaning r.J Ona detailed workoiece suchasa raisedpanel,remove excess fillerfrom hard-to-reach spotswitha sharpened tonguedepressor wrapped in a clean pieceof burlap(lefl. Dabthe pointed endintocorners andalongedges to remove filler.Allowthefillerto excess dry,thensmooth thesurface with220to 320-gritsandpaper. lf a second coat is required, applyit thesameway.

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APPLYING A WASHC()AT

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onthewashcoat 1t Brushins I Prepare a 50/50solution of thefinishyouintend withthe to use,diluted h l o n tgh e a p p r o p r i at ht ei n n e B r .r u s a woodgrainto applya light,evencoat of thesolution to thesurface bbove),

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r) Rubbing inthewashcoat L tJsea clean.lint-free clothto workthewashcoatintothe pores of thewood(lefil. Allowthewash coatto dry,thensmooth thesurfacewithextrafinesandoaoer.


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CFIANGNGTHECOLOR notallwoodcriesout Of course, to bechanged; somespecies arebest dense richness of thepigment-tintleft aunatureLlt ishardto imagine edvarieties, thematerialsusedin improvingon therichpatternsof coloringwoodafforda greatdegree rosewoo{Macassar ebonyor Grpaof latitude.Sainsallowyouto make thianelmburl,justasit seems futile whitewoodscolorful,lightwoods to altertheshocking intensity of purdar( plainwoodsfancyandsteaked pleheart, padaukor Osage orange. woodsuniform. Butformostwoodworkers, opporThroughout thelonghistoryof tunitiesto workwith perfectspecifurnituremaking, stainshavebeen mensarerare.Thetypicalproject calleduponto fool the eye.They involvesmakingdo with whatever havehelpedcommonwoodstake materialsareavailable andaffordon theappearance of moredesirStainingallowsyou to dramaticallyalterthe able.Stainshelp to makethis feasible. ableones,addingcolorandfigure outwardappearance of wood.Thismaple Ebony-costlyanddifficultto piano benchwasebonized, whereit waslacking.Theyhavealso or coloredblacl<" wor( butsnikinglybeautifirl---offen produced colorsandpatternsthat with multipleapplications of tintedlacquer. aprimeexample ofthespecial effecs natureneverimagined. thatstainingmakespossible. Even Onetrick involvedinlayingmahogany surfaces with pat- whenthewoodis available, thesmalltreediametermakesit ternsof whiteholly.Thechallenge wasto darkenthe sur- impossible to obtainwideboardsandthenaturalinstabilityof roundingwoodwithoutdiscoloring theinlay,andthesolution thewoodvirtuallyassures pieceof ebony thata good-sized layin awashof potassium permanganate or dichromate. The will cracksooneror later.Fortunately, a widelyusedstaining "ebonizing" washreacted with thehightannincontentin themahogany, technique called givestheappearance ofebonyto bringingoutrichredsandbrowns,but it leftthetannin-free morestableandaffordable woodslikemahogany andmaple. hollyunchanged. Perhaps moreimportantthanmerefakeryistheabilityof Modernstainsfall into two broadcategories: thosecon- stainsto createnewwoodsbyaddingunlikelycolorsto familtainingdyesandthosewith pigments. Dyesimparttranslu- iar materials. But not all stainingis soblatantlyobvious.A palette centcolorto wood,alteringnature's whileleavingthe moresubtle, butequallyvaluable useof stainisto addto furintricategrainpatternsvisible.Pigmentstainscontainopaque niturethatmostelusive of traits:age.Morethanone"antique" colorants thatclingto thesurface of thewood.Pigments can hascometo marketwith adroitlyappliedmixturesof waxand beusedto addpatterns andcontrast to thewoodgrain,or to rottenstone, or evenshopdustandjapancolors,hidingthe bringdefinitionandhighlights piece to corners andcarvings. factthatthe onlyrecently leftitsmakerthands. rom the deep,clearandbright tonesof dye-tintedstainsto the

A colonialredanilinedyestainenlivensa palepieceof oak. Whetherit colorsthewoodfibersor merelycoversthesurface with a layerofpigments,stainingcanchangethe lookof a workpiecemoreradicallythananyotherstepin thefinishingprocess.

55


TOOLSANDACCESSORIES of stains, I longwith an assortment A pigmentsand dyes,there are a numberof implementsandaccessories that everyfinisherneeds.A samplingof the mostusefulitemsis featuredbelow. Changingthecolorofwood involves as much art as science, but in some precisemeasuringis helpful. instances For example,if you areattemptingto matchan earlierstainingjob, it helps to know the exactproportionsin which the original ingredientswere mixed

together. Usegraduated cylinders and cupsto measure out liquidsaccurately, and a scalefor determining precise weightsof powders, crystals andother drycomponents. Brushes, sponges, ragsandpadapplicators ofvaryingsizes arethemostcommon tools for applyingstainsand bleaches. Brushes arecategorized bythe natureof theirbristles. Thebrushyou choosefor a particularprojectwill depend on thesubstances youneedto

ANII{VEI{TORY OFSTAINING IMPTEMENTS

For applyinqstaino and bleachea.Synthetic bruahea made from nylon or polyeeter are more durablethan naturaFbrbtb brushea

9ponge For applyin4 bleachea and chemical staina f-----"1

A

apply.Solvent-based stainsshouldbe spread on with natural-fiber brushes; usesynthetic brushes to applywaterproducts. based An oil-based product, suchasa pigmented wipingstain,can beapplied witheithertypeof brush. All oftheproducts presented in this chapteraretoxicto varyingdegrees. 'v\hethermixingor applyinga stainor bleach, wearsafetygoggles, neoprene rubberglovesand a dual-cartridge respirator.

Pad applicator For applyin4atains evenly on wideeurfacee; type ahownfeatureo rectan4ular pad with thouaanda of ehorEfilaments and a foam backinq Foam brush For applyinq ataina without bruah marka; type ohownaynthetic and diapoaable

1

\ L=;---'

Weighing acale For preciae meagurement of powdere and cryatala in ataina and bleachee

\-==;'

Graduated aylindere For preciae meaourement of liquid inqrediente in atains and bleachea

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Glaee jars Clearjara uaedfor mixing ataine and bleachea; brownjare uaed for atorinq aolutionsaince they blockout aome of the li4ht

High-volume, low-preaaure (HVLP) apray unit For aprayinq on etaine; featurea a turbine whichblowa a oteady etream of air throu7h a epray qun, forcin7 the atain through the 7un'a nozzleas a fine vapor

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BLEACHING

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arehishlvreactive chemiT) leaches I) calsthat brea'kdown the natural colorantsin wood.For years,woodworkershaveusedbleachto lishten the coloroftheir stock.Theeffeitcan bestartling.Mahoganytumsa toneof pale rosewhen bleached;walnut becomes creamyin color. Bleachinghas other applications, however,that go beyondsimplywashing out color.The process canbe the firststepin preparinga piecefor a specific stain,suchasa blond finishfor it is alsousedto readya dark mahogany; is oakfor liming.In addition,bleaching an effectiveway to suppress the color variationsbetweenthe sanwoodand

hearftvood ofa species like poplarand makethem more uniform.It alsorids woodof waterandruststains. Therearethreecommontypesof woodbleach.Oxalicacid.soldin licuid "deck is yourbest form as brightener," choicefor removingstainsfrom wood. Sodiumhypochloritewill do an excellent job of removingan anilinedye Thisproductis stainfrom a workpiece. available asliquid laundrybleach.But the most effectiveall-purposewood lighteneris two-partA/B woodbleach. Usingthis varietyof bleachinvolves resultcombininglyeandperoxide;the ing effectis strongerthanthat of either inqredienton its own.

Naturalcherrv

Woodbleachcanaffectyourtoolsas drasticallyasthe wood.Usea synthetic brushor spongeto applybleach;a natural-bristle brushwill eventually disintegratein thesolution.Mix andstore bleachin glasscontainers;the chemicals mayreactwith metal.Bleaching leaves residues on woodthatcanbecomehazardousairborneirritantswhenthesurfaceis sanded. Thethreemaintvoesof bleachcanall be washed awaybf rinsing thewoodwith water. Bleachcanbe dangerous ifhandled improperly,sofollowthemanufacturNevermix bleachwith er'sinstructions. anotherchemical,and alwayswork with a freshbatch.

Nat.uralwalnut

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Dleachedwalnut

Bleachedcherry

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CHANGING THE COLOR

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BLEACHING WO()D

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F

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t t I I I Applying thebleach C l e a tnh ew o r k p i e oc fea n yd i r to ro i l , thenreadythetwo-part bleachbypouringa quantity of eachsolution intoseparateglassbowls. Donotmixthetwo p a r t st o g e t h et rh;e yw i l lb ea p p l i eidn separate steps.Spread a generous but evencoatof PartA onthewoodsurface witha paintbrush ora rag.Lettheproductdo itsworkforabout5 minutes, then applyPadB thesameway.Lettheworkpiece sitforat least4 hours, thenrinse thesurface withwaterortheneutralizer supplied withthebleach. Allowtheworkpiece to dryovernight before applying a stainorfinish.Two-part bleach is usuallystrong enough sothatoneapplication issufficient;however, to lighten the woodfurther,repeat the process.

ljlllll1 llltillllltfur][llltll11 tltlutllltt]i}l]tll]llt]llllitilll 3HO7Tt? Lighteningwood wit"h6rain filler Io liqhLenwoodwilhout bleachinq it,,usean oil-baeed qrain fillermixedwiNhsome whitepigmenN. FireIapply a washcoaLto the workpiece(page53),Lhen ?re?area balch of filler (paqe51), a d d i n qe n o u q h -f w h i t ej a p a n o r

o t h e ro i l - b a s e d

/f

,

o i a m e n l s l o o b l a i n T , h es h a d e

you wanl,.You can applyIhe mixtureao you wouldany grainfiller.IheVroceoo willaccenluateLhegrainof o?en-?ore epecieo likeoak,aeh,mahogany and elm.

5B

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THE VARIETIESOF WOOD STAINS Q tainingwasoncekeyto thecabinetsubtleartof forgery. fumed l) maker's with naturaldyes,chemicalmordants andsecret recipes, cabinetmakers could imitatethelookof prized,exoticwoods, or givenewlybuilt chairs,chests and cabinets thepatinathatantiques acquire withthepassage of time. Today, camouflaging andenhancing wood with stainsare still important aspects ofwoodworking. Whetherastain penetrates anddyesthefibersofthewood, or merelycoversthesurface with a thin layerofpigments, nootherstepin thefinishingprocess bringsaboutsucha radicalchange. Stainingcanhighlightgrain patterns, maskhomelysurfaces, addcolor or imparta uniformhueto different woodswithina singlepieceof furniture. All stainsconsistof a coloringagent mixedin aliquid.Thetwobasictypesof coloringagents aredyesandpigments. Dyestainsworkmuchlikethecoloring agents usedoncloth.Dissolved in water, oil or alcohol, theypenetrate thesurface

andbondto thewoodfibers.Pigment stains powcontainfinelygroundcolored derssuspended in aliquidsuchaslinseed oil.Theyworkmorelikeverythinpaints. Whenapplied to wood,theliquiddries, bindingthepigmentto thesurface. Dyesforstaining woodaremostcommonlysoldasanilinepowders, which mustbemixedwith a liquidbeforeuse (page68).Theirintensecolorscanbe combined in varyingproportions to provideavirtualrainbowof huesandtones. Pigment stainsareavailable in thesame yetcomein readywiderangeof colors, to-useliquid,gelor glazeform.Pigments canalsobepurchased in concentrated formasearthpigments orjapancolors; theconcentrate is addedto a ready-tousestainfor enhanced effects. Bothdyes andpigments canbemixedwith lacquer,varnish, waxor shellac to provide coloredfinishes. Whenchoosing a stain,remember thatmostdyestainsarebrilliantand transparent, butgenerally notaslightfast,

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59

or impervious to fading,aspigment stains. Dyestainsareexcellent for highlightinggrain.Pigment stainsareopaque andtendto cloudthegrain.Somenewer liquid stainscontainbothdyesand pigments, providingtheusefulpropertiesof bothqpesof coloringagents with addedease of application. Themostdesirable liquidbasefor a staindepends ontheeffectyouareseeking.Thedeeperthevehiclepenetrates the wood,the darkerandricherthe resulting color.Because waterpenetrates deepest, water-soluble stainsaregenerallythebestchoicefor hardwoods. One drawback of water,however, is that it raises thegrain,necessitating further sanding of thesurface.

Availablein easy-to-apply liquid form, thegelstainshownin usebelow pigmentsthat will imparta contains dark brown mahoganytone.


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DYESTAINS andanif-\ erivedfromplants,insects I-/ mals,thewooddyesusedin the 18th Centuryrangedfrom concoctionswith exoticnamessuchasdragon'sblood,verdigris, madderrootand cochinealto moreearthytints extractedfrom tea,urine,vinegarandwalnut husks.A hundredyearslater,thefirst anilinedyewasextracted from coaltar. Today,suchdyesaretheindustrystandard,usuallymixedwith oneof three solvents: watet oil or alcohol.Dyesnot

yet combinedwith a solventarealso available in eitherpowderor liquidform. Premixed stainsaremoreconvenient to use,but mixingthemyourselfgivesyou moreflexibilitywhenyouneedto producea particulareffect.A fourthtype of dyeproduct,knownasnon-grainraising(NGR)stain,is onlyavailable in liquidform.Thedyesin NGRstainsare dissolved in ananhydrous, or waterless, solutionof organichydrocarbons, such aspetroleum.Whichevertypeof dye

Mahogany

60

t stainyouapply,thefactorthatwill determinetheeventual colorof thewoodis theamountof dyein thesolution,not theamountof solutionapplied. Water*oluble sainsareagooddroice for emphasizing thegrainofhardwoods. Althougha water-based stainwill raise preferto thegrain,manywoodworkers takecareofthat stepbeforeapplying astan (page50.), therebysavinga sandingstepthatmightaffectthefinalcolor of thewood.

Mahogany

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CHANGINGTHE COLOR

Alcohol-soluble dyes,alsocalled "spirit stains," do not raisethegrainas muchaswater-based stainsandthey producesomewhat brighterhues. Oil-soluble dyesaretransparent and alsonon-grain-raising. Thedryingtimes of thesestainswill vary,depending on thesolvent used.Mineralsoirit-based generally stains havea slowdryingtime, whilestainscontaining tolueneor xylene dryconsiderably faster. Thetrade-offis thattolueneandxylenearemoretoxic

thanmineralspirits.Anotherpotential problemwith oil-based stainsis their tendenryto bleedthrougha protective finish.Althoughthisshouldonlyoccur if thestainis stillwetwhenthetopcoat isapplied, it isa goodpractice nonethelessto useafinishwithadifferentsolvent thanyourstain. Forbestresults, NGRstainsshould besprayed onwood.Ifyou useabrush, youwill needto adda retarder to the solution to extend itsdryingtime.

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Choosingtheright stainfor a project caninvolveexperimentation. Frompages 60 to 63 is a seriesof photosthat illustratethe effectsoffive differentdyestains on someof themostpopularhardwood species. The sampleson the far left are unstained,followedby piecescut from the sameboard,eachone coloredby a differentdyestain.For further inforl mation on the characteristics and uses of stains,refer to the chart provided on page70.


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CHANGINGTHE COLOR

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t Liqht yellowmaple

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Cherry Natural

Cherry Goldenfruitwood

62

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Oak Colonialdark red

Oak Hone5fione amber

Oak Ebonyblack


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PIGMENTSTAINS thatcanbereduced I ny substance a pigment l1' to a powdercanbecome thatwill impartcolorto wood.Minerals, ores,metallicoxidesandmanyother naturallyoccurringearthcompounds canall begroundinto veryfinepartiin a solcles.Oncetheyaresuspended ventsuchasoil, varnish,pollmrethane powders or water,these become spreadBecause ablepigmentstains. theparticles ratherthandissolved aresuspended, in thesolution,pigmentstainsdryto a

thin, paint-like coatingon the surface of the wood. Whereasdyestainscolorwoodfibers and tend to accentuatethe grain, pigment stainsare opaqueand hide the wood patterns.As a result,pigment stainsareoftenusedfor glazing,graining and otherfinishingtechniquesthat for the lackof distinct grain compensate Datternsin certainvarietiesof wood. Thesearedescribedin detailin Decorative Finishes(page110).

Today,pigmentsareproducedsynthetically, with bindersanddriersadded to helpthemadhere to thewoodasthe dries. Pigment stainscomein solvent gel liquid and forms. Themost different popularandbest-known arepigmentfinThese ready-to-use edwipingstains. ground products a finely ishing contain pigmentsuspended in linseed oil,which doubles assolventandbindingagent. Wpingstainsareslow-drying, allowing plentyof timeto spread themonor wipe

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r t Walnut Cherry wipinqatain

Walnut Antique white wipingetain

64

Mahoqanyliqht wipinqetain

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off any excess.Either sprayedon or appliedwith a ragor a brush,theyare particularlyusefulwhen the wood surfaceis madeuo of heartwoodandcontrastingsapwood. Otherpopularpigmentstainsinclude japancolors,glazingstainsandgelstains. lapancolorsoffer a morevibrant range of huesthanwipingstains,but theyneed to be thinnedbeforeuse.Theycanbe usedto tint otherstainswhenyou are trying to matchan existingsurface.

The main sellingpoint of glazing stainsis that theyareheavierandthicker than wiping stains-and thus useful for concealing grain.Gelstains,meanwhile,are easyto applyand they set quickly,reducingdrips on verticalsurfaces.Referto the chart on page70 for more informationon theseand other pigmentstains. Pigmentsarealsoavailable in powderedor concentrated form.Earthpigments,like siennas, umbersandochres,

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Maple Goldenoak wipinqoLain

Mahoqanydark wipinqetain

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areminedfrom theearthandorocessed in deoxygenated conditions athighheat to bringout theirbrightcolors.Different pigmentstainscanbemixedtogetheror with powderedor concentrated varieties to produceuniquecolorsandtones,providedthesolvents arecompatiblel an oilbasedstaincannotbe mixed with a water-based stain,for example. Pages 64to 67 illustratethe effectsof variouspigmentstainson fivedifferent typesofhardwoods.


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Eirah FlakewhtLe japan color

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Van Dykebrown glaztnqot;ain

Kaw umber qlazingstain

Durnt umber 4laztnqotatn

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CHANGING THE COLOR

Eirah Chromeyellow japan color

Eirah Fermanentblue japan color

Eirch Euiletinred JaPancotor

Oak van Dykebrown

gel eLain

Eurnt eienna 7el etain


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STAININGWOOD awater-based stain.Otherwise, oodworkersarequite naturally applying requirwhena carefully thestainwill lift thewoodfibers, disappointed thestain. thatmayremove appliedandapparentlyuniform coating ingsanding uneven of stainproduces resultson a pieceof furdifniture.Unfortunately, ferentpartsof thesame boardcannotbeexpected to absorbliquid evenly. endgrain Unlessexposed for example, it issealed, -':-' will usuallytakein more ,. "::.''t'': .. t , . .,. ofastainthanfacesor 1 .edges, nrakingtheends appeardarker.Asshown end on page69,sealing out A teststriptakestheguesswork grainis simplya matterof brushingon of staining.Thissampleillustrates theappropriate sealerbeforeyou stain. thefficx on wtstained oakof one, There are other preparationsyou Whilea grain twoandthreecoatsof stain(ntoving shouldmakeat thisstage. fillercanbe appliedeitherbeforeor fi'omlefttoright).Thebottomhalf to showhow ofthestripis topcoated after staining,you need to raisethe thestainlooksundera clearfinish. grain of the wood (page 50) before

W W

A STAIN PREPARING

^)f

68

Many stainscan be bought premixed and readyto use.However, you may if you enjoyexperimenting, alsopreferto custom mix your colors.As shownin the photoat left,a teststrip canhelp you producethe right of ingrecombination dientsand determine the numberof applicationsyou will need to make. Frompaintbrushes and ragsto padapplicatorsandsprayguns, in applyingstains therearealternatives aswell.\{hichevermethodyou choose, andrubbergloves. wearsafetygoggles It is a goodpracticealsoto don a dualcartridgerespiratorto filter out toxic f u m e sp r o d u c e da s a s t a i ne v a p o rales(page19).

n u

Mixing theingredients withdyesor pigments Whenworking powder stick in form,usea wooden withthe to mixsomeof the powder solvent in a glasscontainappropriate (left). Applythestainto a sample er stripof thewoodthatyouwillbecoloring, Allowthestripto dry.Todarken t h ec o l o or f t h es t a i na, d da s m a l l To of powder to thesolution. amount lighten thestain,mixin a littlemore Make another teststrip,adjustsolvent. ingthecolorof thestainuntilyouare satisf iedwiththe results.

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CHANGINGTHE COLOR

THEW()RKPIECE READYING

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S e a l i ne g n dg r a i n U s ea r a go r p a i n t b r u stho a p p l ya s e a l e tr o t h e e n d g r a i no f y o u rw o r k p i e c eM . a k ec e r t a i nt h a tt h e p r o d u c t y o uu s ef o rt h i st a s ki s c o m p a t i b lwer t h t h e s t a i na n df i n i s hy o uw i l l b e u s i n g S p r e a do n s h e l l a cf o r w a t e r -o r o i l b a s e ds t a i n so r f i n i s h e sf;o r a l c o h o l b a s e dp r o d u c t s ,e a le n dg r a i nw i t ha n o i l - b a s ewdo o dc o n d i t i o n eAr v. o i ds l o p p i n gt h es e a l eor n t ot h e f a c eo r e d g eo f t h e w o r k p i e c et h; i s c o ul d a f f e c t h e evennessof the stai n.

lliir]iillj lt iljijliiiilllili,ii,itlj:ruu ruitjir* tlli ; i l i l $ 1Ho?TtP ?reparing a nat'ural walnut, stain To make,,broue d,e noix,',z

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naluralwalnuN dyeeNainVopular in the 1BOOz, collecLeeveralqreen / h u a k sf r o mf a l l e nw a l n u l a , l e l l i n q i . L h e md r ya n d t u r n b l a c k . ) o a k | h e i ' ' huskefor a fewdayein a larqenon- i -_ ' filled wilh waler,

stick steel pot '' for several ' " : - :ThensimmerNhemixNure hourson a eLove, addinqoneIable- ! i . I , eVoonof lyefor everyqallonof the i. ,,. . , mixture.SotrIlelhe solulionin clear g l a s s l a r e a n d l e a v el h e m i n b r i q h t \= e u n l i o , hul n l i l l h e m i x f , u r ed a r k e n ef u r N h e rS . L r a i n L h ed y e L h r o u q ha n o l d c l o t h a n d r e - b o t t l e i t , d i e c a r d i n qL h e h r s k e , A p p l i e d , w i l h a b r u s h , " b r o u ed e n o t x "V r o d u c e ea r a n q e o f r i c h b r o w nl o n e s o n w o o d .

69

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A GALLERY OFSTAINS TYPE

AVAILABLE FORM

ANDUSES CHARACTERISTICS

PREPARATION AND APPLICATION

Water-based starn

Powdered uble ; water-sol

grain.Addto water, Raise strain. Applywithbrush,ragorspraygun.

S p i r ist t a i n

Powdered uble ; alcohol-sol

Penetrating; notverylightfast; transparent; brilliant; tendsto raisegrain;goodforhardwoods; compatible withanyfinish Penetrating; notlightfast; driesquickly, buttendsto leavelapandstreakmarks

0ilstain

Powdered; oil-soluble

Penetrating; transparent; doesnot grain;slow-drying; obscure bleeds; needs goodforsoftwoods sealercoatof shellac;

N G Rs t a i n

L i q u i dd;i s s o l v e i nd methanol andpetroleum distillate solution

Doesnotraisegrain;transparent and goodforveneers lightfast;

Thinto desired consistency. Applywithspraygun.lf applying witha brushor rag,useretarder.

Penetrating oil stain

L i q u i dd; i s s o l v e i nd mineral spirits

Penetrates open-grained wood;moderately lightfast; transparent; easyto apply;colors canbemixed; doesnotraiseor obscure grain;bleeds; needswashcoat;goodfor softwoods

Applywithbrushor rag.Wipe off excess afterdesired coloris achieved.

DYESTAINS

Varnish stain

L i q u i dd;i s s o l v e i nd varnlsn

Mixwithalcohol andstrain.Brush orwipeon.Bestforsmallareas. Dissolve in mineral or spiritpetroleumdistillate andsirain.Apply withnylon-bristle brushandwipe off excess,

Highlytransparent; lightfast; non-penetrating;Applywitha ragandwipeoff, or addsfiller,colorandglossin oneoperation; usea spraygun. goodfor lowergrades of lumber

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PIGMENT STAINS W i p i n sgt a i n

L i q u i ds;u s p e n d iendo i l andmineral spirits

gun. Lightfast; willnotbleed;non-penetrating; Applywithbrush, ragorspray opaque; tendsto hidegrain Wipeoff excess afterdesired color is achieved.

Earthpigment

Powder; soluble in any l i q ui d

Easy hides to use;lightfast; opaque; grain;goodforwoodwithindistinct grain ortintingprotective finish

M i xw i t ho i lo rv a r n i s A h .p p l y withbrush, ragor spraygun.

lanan

Liquid;concenirated in varn ish

Excellent fortintingvarnish, stain,lacquer

Applywithsynthetic brush.

Gelsiain

L i q u i ds;u s p e n d iend petroleum-based gel

Easy to use;hidesgrain

Applywithrag;wipeoff excess afterdesired coloris achieved.

Glazing stain

L i q u i ds;u s p e n diend varnish

Water-based stain

L i q u i ds;u s p e n dienda n acrylicandwaterbase

Excellent forfiguring, shading, or conecting Applywithbrushor rag;allow sapstreaks; hidesgrain;wears off;needs a to set.Wipeoffwithgrainif hardfinishcoat desired. grain.Applywithbrush, Non-penetrating; lightfast; brilliant; colors Raise canbe mixedtogether; non-toxic and ragor spraygun. non-f lammable

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APPLYING A STAIN

WooD STAIN

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lll1 rlllilltl|llillll| llltill filltllllll]llllllltlll filtiltilIlfilj ?HO?TI? Controlling the flow of et ain AlLhouqhfloodinqon stain ie NherecommendedpracNice whenworkingon a horizonlal sur'face, doin4the samewhenNhewood is verNical willresultin drippinq, and make a meooof your projecLOneanswerie lo rig up a cleanmetalcan lo regulate t h e f l o wo f l i q u i df r o m y o u r b r u s h . TunchNwoholeeon oppooite

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Brushing onstain Dipa cleanpaintbrush intothestain, coating abouthalfthebristle lengh. Tominimize lapmarks, floodthesurfacewithstainandbrushalongthe w o o dg r a i ni n l i g h te, v e ns t r o k e s (above). Once thesurface is completely covered, wipeit witha clean, dry,lintfreeclothto evenoutthe colorand s o a ku p e x c e slsi q u i dF . o ru n i f o r m coverage withan alcohol-based stain, wipethesurface assoonas possible afterbrushing it on.


t CHANGING THE COLOR

Wiping onthestain F o l da c l e a nd, r y ,l i n t - f r ecel o t hi n t oa padandsoakit withstain,squeezing out theexcess untilthepaddoesnotdrip. Wipethestainonthesurface, working parallel to thegrain(/eft).Ruboffthe witha cleancloth. excess

WooP STAIN

Using a padapplicator F i l lt h ew e l lo f a p a da p p l i c a t o r trayhalffullof stainandpullthe padovertheroller, loading it with t h el i q u i d D . r a wt h ea p p l i c a t o r a l o n gt h ew o r k p i e cf oel l o w i n g thegrain(below), wetting thesurfaceliberally. Usea cleancloth to wipeawaytheexcess.

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72

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lllllllrlll ullllullrllrJlI]IlljllljlllllllllltllltIlll1 ljlli]lllll 9HO7Tt? Gettin7 stain into tight, epote Keepa selectrion of smallbrushes on handlo straincorner6,moldinqo, carvingoand lrim that a clotrhor a laraerbrushcannol reach.For brushestrhalare smallerthan lhoee foundin mosl hardwareslores, try an art :. \

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73

Dipping a small workpiece To colora workpiece that is too s m a lflo rb r u s h i nogrw i p i n gd,i pi t rightintoa container filledwiththe stain(abovd.Holdthe pieceover thecanto lettheexcess liquidrun off,Thenholdthepiecebythecorn e r sa n dw i p ei t w i t ha c l e a nc l o t h .


CHANGING THE COLOR

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t I I t t I I t I Spraying a stain gunfollowing Prepare thespray the manufacturer's instructions. Tostain a pieceof f urniture liketheoneshown a b o v eh, o l dt h eg u na b o u 6t t o 1 O inches fromthesurface withthenozzle perpendicular to thewood. Starting at thetopof thepiece, squeeze thetrigger to applythestain,moving thegunfrom sideto sidein overlapping sweeps until youreach thebottom. Formoreinformation o n a d l u s t i nagn du s i n gs p r a y e q u i p m e nr te, f e tro p a g e9 3 . B e f o r e s p r a y i nags t a i nc, o n t a cyto u rl o c a l a u t h o r i t i teose n s u rteh a ty o u rs p r a y areasatisfies localsafety regulations (page102).

lllllllllll lll llllllfilil lji lll lil i]lJllllllllilIlIIlilllilllllil 1HO?TI? Supportsfor drying AfEer st aininqa workpiece,

let it dry evenlyand blemish-free on a beI nf

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equarewoodblocksand drivea smallnailIhrouqh the middleof eachone. Arranqetrheblockson a levelsurtacewith the nail t i V e p o i n t i n qu Vs o l h a l they willeupporL the workniPaP

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PICKLINGAWOODSURFACE ickling,or liming,refersto anyone of a number of antiquingtechniquesintendedto impartan agedand weathered look to lisht-coloredwood. Traditionally, woodriorkershavepickled furniturewith suchchemicals as nitric acid,lyeandlime.Asshownbelow, however,you canachievecomparable resultsby applyinga coatof whitepaint, pigmentedwhiteshellac or whiteglazeto the workpiece.The trick is to wipe off

A pickledfinishcangivea newly mlde chairthetime-worn appearance of a vintageantique.

thebulkof thestain,leavingtraces in moldingsandcorners. Oncethepickledstainisdry it should be sealedwith a light topcoat.Youcan pickleeitherbareor stainedwood suriaces,but ifyou haveuseda water-based dyeon the wood,you will alsoneedto sealit prior to applyinga latexpaintor glaze.Picklingcanbe attempted with anyspecies, worksbest but the process with oakor oine.

APPLYING A PICKLED FINISH

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'l Applying thewhitestain I Usea ragto spread whitepaintorstainonthesurfaces. W h i l et h ep a i n ti s s t i l lw e t ,w i p eo f f t h e b u l ko f i t w i t ha burlaprag,leaving a whitishglazeonflatsurfaces andstreaks (above). white in of crevices andcarvings Letthestaindry. l f t h ee f f e c its t o op r o n o u n c eadb,r a dteh es u r f a cw eith 220-grit sandpaper untilyouobtainthelookyouwant.

11 "Aging"thesurface Z to givethewoodan antique appearance, usea ragto ruba mixture of rottenstone andpastewaxoverthesurface (abovd. Wipeofftheexcess witha burlaprag,takingcareto leave someresidue in thecrevices andcarvinqs.


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CHEMICALSTAINS p eforethe adventofsyntheticdyes, I) staininewoodwasan art form ihat rivaled aljhemy. With natural dyes derivedfrom plantsand insects,and chemicalmordantsextractedfrom tin, iron,aluminumandchrome, staining requiredknowledgeofbotanyandchemistrv aswell asexoerience with wood. Appliedby thimselves, naturaldyes producepleasantshadesof red and brown on manyspecies of wood.Tea, for example,is usedoccasionally on

antiquereproductions to producea warm goldenhue.But in combination with chemicalmordants,naturaldyes canbringout a rainbowofsuperb,brilliantcolors.Thephotosbelowandoppositeillustratetheeffectsofa fewselected dyesand mordantson four popular The species is indicatedin hardwoods. bold tlpe with the dyeor mordantlisteddirectlybelowFormoreinformation on a full rangeof mordantsandnatural dyes,referto the charton page78.

The term mordantcomesfrom the "to Frenchverbmordre,meaning bite." Mordantsdo two thingsfor naturaldyes: Theychangethecolorofa dyethrough a chemicalreactionwith eitherthedyeor the wood.They alsohelp a dyepenetratewoodandbind with thefibers. Somenaturaldyesareavailable as powderedextracts, but othersmustbe extracted from naturaloroductsin the shop.Mordantscomein crystal,powder or liquid form.Whenpreparinga

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Fotaeeium perma nqa nate

Cherry Drazilwood andalum paLaooium dichromaLe

76

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CHANGINGTHE COLOR

chemical stain,mix a 15percentsolution of thedryingredients anddistilled water.It is betterto maketheconcentrationtoo weakthantoo strong;it is easierto darkenthewoodthanto lightenit. Allow eachcoatto dry completely beforeapplyingthenext;colorcanbe misleading whenthestainis wet. Somenaturaldyescancauseallergic reactions, butmostarerelativelybenign. Manychemicalmordants,however, are caustic andsometimes toxic.Prepare and

applytheseproductscarefully, wearing safetygoggles, neoprene glovesanda rubberapron.A dual-cartridge respirator is a mustfor a mixtureproducing toxicfumes.Do not spread a chemical stainonbleached woodor youriskcreatingpoisonous chlorinegas.Toavoid splashes whendilutinga mordant,add thechemicalto thewater, alittleatatime. Thereareno hardandfastrulesfor applyrngchemicalstains.Typically, the dyesolutionisspread onthewood,then

themordantis addedwhilethe dyeis stillwet.Thesolutionsshouldbemixed separately and appliedwhen cool. Experimentation is the key to good results; keeparecordofyourrecipes and thecolorstheyproduce. Chemicalstainingis becominga dyingart.Manyproductscanbefound onlyatphotography andchemical supply houses. But if youareafterstriking and uniqueeffects,they canbe well worththetroubleof seeking themout.

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Oak Fotaaaium Permanqanate

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Mahogany Lo7woodand potaaoium dichromate

Mahogany 9umac and copper aulfate

77

Mahogany Loqwoodand alum


CHANGING THE COLOR

DYES ANDNATURAL MORDANTS CHEMICAI MORDANT

FORM ANDCHARACTERISTICS

PRODUCED COIORS

Alum

salts;non-toxic Whitemineral

Ammonia

highly toxic 28%liquidsolution;

sulfate Copper ( b l u ev i t r i o l )

highly toxic Bluecopper crystals;

Fenous sulfate

highly toxic; lroncrystals; reacts withtanninin wood

Purplish anddarkcrimson tones (Forfuming)Darkvioletbrowns withlogwood dye;lightyellow dye withbrazilwood browns (Forpreserving wood)Darkgrayandolivetoneswith logwood dye ebony-like blackwithlogwood Steelgrayto bluishtones; oyeor alum

fnnnnorasl

Hydrated lime (quicklime)

toxic Calcium oxidecrystals;

limedfinishon hardwoods suchascherry Antique withvinegar mustbe neutralized andwalnut;

Potassium carbonate

mildlytoxic Potash crystals;

withalumandfustic A range of greens

toxic; chromecrystals; extremely Potassium dichromate Orange reacts to hightanninconient crystals; mildlytoxic Violetpotash Potassium permanganare Whitelyepowder; toxic hydroxide Sodium

wellwithanilinedyes Deepredsto richbrowns; combines (Forebonizing) a Turnswoodwithhightannincontent purplish brown withvinegar Darkens chenyandoak;mustbeneutralized

Stannous chloride

moderately toxic Whitetin crystals;

combines dye;pinkwithalizarin; Lightredwithbrazilwood wellwithmanydyes

T a n n iac c i d

fromhemlock Yellowpowder extracted andoak;mildlytoxic

Boosts tannincontentin wood

DYE I{ATURAL

FORM ANDORIGIN

Alizarin

dyeor theactivecoloring A synthetic agentof madderroot

PRODUCED COLIIRS "Turkish yellow andbrown, red";crimson, orange,

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onthemordant depending (ForFrench polishing) of reds Graytoneswithalum;a range withlinseed oil tin or alum;oakbrown andgoldswithchrome, 0ranges withlye depending onthemordant reds,browns, andpurples, Vibrant

Alkanetroot

An ancientorganic dyefrom the borage family

Annato

tree American Seedsfroma Central

Brazilwood

of species A popular dyefromseveral trees redwood SouthAmerican

Coch ineal

Driedtropical insects

Manyshades of redmixedwithalum

Cutch

of An extractof the heartwood tree theAsianacacia

lightfast shades of brown,frombeigeto chocolate Various

Dragon's blood

A resinfromthefruitof the rattanpalm

reds Bright,lightfast

Fustic

of Anextractfromthe heartwood tree mulbeny theAmerican

lndigo

fromIndian A dyeextracted indigoplants

to greenish-yellows on itsown;yellows Orange-yellow w i t ha l u m hydroxide withsodium Deepblue;yellow-white

Logwood

American AnextractfromCentral hardwoods campeche

Madderroot

Extracted fromthe rootsof plant madder theEurasian

grays, depending blacks, bluesandpurples, Lightfast browns, onthemordant depending onthemordant andyellows, Reds, blues,browns

78

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CHANGINGTHE COLOR

APPLYING A CHEMICAL STAIN

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M i x i n gt h ei n g r e d i e n t s I n p r e p a r i nagn a t u r adl y es o l u t i o on r a c h e m i c am l o r d a n ty,o uw i l lg e n e r a l lbye f o l l o w i ntgh e d i r e c t i o nssu p p l i e w d ith t h e c o l o r i n ag g e n t B . u ti t i s i m p o r t a n t

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A chemicalstain for ebonizing Tomakeyourownsf,ainfor lurninga woodblack,oubmerqea ef,eelwoolpad and a few ruoty nailsin a larqe

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d r y i n g r e d i e n t so t h e w a t e rs l o w l y ( a h n v e )s t i r r i n pt h c s n l u t i o nw i t h a w o o ds t i c ku n t i lt h e p o w d e dr i s s o l v e s . A p p l yt h e r n i x t u r teo y o u rw o r k p i e c e w i t h a s y n t h e t i sc p o n g ef,o l l o w i n g the p r o c e d u rfeo r w i p i n go n a s t a i nw i t h a cloth (page 72).

q l a o oj a r f i l l e dw i b hc i d e r v i n e g a r . LeI lhe mixttre sif,, uncovered, u n t i l i N t u r n e c l o u d ya n d q r a y :L h i e e h o u l dL a k e a b o u l a w e e k .T h e nE L r a i n l h e s o l u t i o nN h r o u g ha i.,

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coals of iNon the wood, l e t r t i n qe a c h a p p l i c a t i o n dry before ?rtttnq on Lhe nexN.Af|er the l a e l c o a L ,b r u s h o r s o m e l i q u i da, m m o n i a or flood Lhe sufiace w i t h w a L e rt o n e u f , r a l i z e t h e a c i d ,i n t h e v i n e q a r . T h e ns a n d N h ew o o d .

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FUMING {.,..-.r niais itstendenq,to reactlviththe to a pieceof tirnninin lvood.Exposed liquidrvill furniture,thisrvater-soluble bok darkenthervood,gir,ingit theclassic of anantique.In oakandcherry,aumoof huesrangniarvillbringoLrta vatrietv ing from light hone,vto dark brorvtr. of exposure, on thean-u'rturt Depending t h e c h e n r i c .rrvl i l lt t r r r r : o t t t cs p c c i e s ahrostblack.

You cirn firme wood rvith regular Ammoniacanbe appliedby either household aulrollia, but aqueous sufthe liqLrid or by or brushing sponging pirr, avai Iablefr"omchenrical sr"r vapor inside ar.r.l.r-u'u-r lr,ood in ammonia ftisingthe lvorks in 28 perceut scllution, ply hor-rses ir This option, secoud a shop-builttent. Bothproductsare calledfuming,hasdefiniteadr,antages. rulrchr.norequickl1,. harmftrlto theeyes, skinirnd caustic and e\.eltcolorsexposed surf,lces Theprocess concentrtrted amtlorespilatory s,vstem; And ly rvithoutlap marksor streaks. If fhtal if inhaled. nia cau e\ren be the ivood ftrmes althoughthefhmespenetrate rveirr rubrvood possible, fi.rme outdoors; liquid more deeplythan brushed-on safety goggles arnda dual-carbergloves, ammonia,fuming doesnot raisethe rvood. tridge respirator. the grain,sinceno liquidcontacts

Nat,ural maho1any

NaLural walnuL

,l r.! - ,l .r rr ' rL lr 'r ^L \.rhl ( 'l ,r (. r' \.rr\ r. " j S t i C SO l -i . l 1 1 l 1 O -

NaLural oak

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Fumed maho1any

Fumed walnut

Fumedoak

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CHANGING THE COLOR

EXPOSING FURNITURE TOAMM()NIA FUMES

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Using a fuming tent Builda woodframethatis a littlelarger thanyourworkpiece. Usetriangular bracketsto reinforce thecorners anda bar clampto holdthecorners square asyou (above). nailtheframetogether Remove anymetalhardware fromyourworkpiece beforp e l a c i n igt i n t h ef r a m eo; t h e r w i s et,h ea m m o n w i ai l lt a r n i sthh em e t al.Tocomplete thetent,drapea black plastic tarpovertheframe.Useduct tapeto sealanyopenings in thetarpand gather it tightlyaround theframe,leaving o n ef l a po p e nF. i l ls e v e r ad li s h ew s ith ammonia andsetthecontainers inthetent (right).Sealthef lapandletthefumes workfor about24 hours, checking on periodically theworkpiece andtopping upthedishes withfreshammonia. Remove thepiecewhenit hasthecoloryouwant, k e e p i ni gn m i n dt h a ti t w i l ld a r k ean l i t tle moreafterit is exposed to theair.

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PROTECTT\tr FINSHES nlike a cabinetmakingprojectin whichwoodis cut awayuntil you

microscope, woodloolslikeabundleof straws-woodabsorbs finishat differaresatisfied with theshape thatremains, entrates.Applyinga uniformcoating afinishisbuilt up layerbylayer.Simply of a finishoftenresults in whatappears put, finishingis theprocess of spreadto beunevencoverage. Thereasonis ing a fluid overwoodto dry in thin that endgrainabsorbs morefinish, sheets. Andwhileit is a slowerandless leavingits surface lookingbare,while dramaticstage of aproject,ttreendresult the adjacentfacesand edgesappear is equallyimportantin producinga adequately covered. Thesolutionis to beautifulpieceof furniture. floodon a coatof finishandallowdifPerhaps themostimpressive aspect ferentamountsto betakenin by the of a finishis theamountof protection endandflatgrainareas. Thewoodwill it will provide.Mostcommercial finish- A varnishtopcoatbringsout theluster thenbe properlycovered whenyou esarenothickerthanthepageof aboo( of an oak table.Finishinga pieceby wipeoffthe excess. yettheymustguardthewoodonwhich handdemandscare.Loadingthebrush Overtime,finishers musthavegrown theyrestfromdirt, moistureandeven with toomuchfinish,particularly impatientwith thethin coatsthatwipmild abrasion. whencoatingverticalsurfaces, can ing produces, andbrushes wereintroTheearliest clearfinishes wereprobresultin driDsand runs. ducedto theprocess. you Brushes enable ablyappliedin thesimplest way-wiped to getintothemostinaccessible of carvon with whatever wasat hand.A true oil finishconsists of ingsandcrevices, to applyfinishquicklyin thickercoatsand, nothingmorethannaturaldryingoilsfloodedontothewood. notincidentally, to keepyourhandsclean.Today, with thevarTheexcess is thenwipedoff,leavinga thin film to dry.One iousbristletypesandbrushconfigurations available, thereis or twocoatssealthesurface andsubsequent layers canbebuilt a brushfor virtuallyeveryvarietyof finishingproduct. up to almostanythickness or sheen.Eventoday,theterm Application timeswerefurtherreduced startingin the1920s "hand-rubbed finish"conjures upanimageoflusterandqual- withthedevelopment of thespraygun.Spraying isby farthe ity.Shellac, anaturallyoccurringresin,canbehandledin much quickest wayto applya finish,blanketing thewoodin a cloud thesamewayasoil. Oneor twocoatssealthewood,butyou of finelyatomized fluid.Buttechnology comes with itsdrawcankeepaddingcoatsto develop thedeep,glosysurhceknown backs. Spraygunscanbewasteful, for asubstantial portionof asFrenchpolish(page106). thatcloudgenerally misses itsmark.Oneof thegoalsof finMosttopcoats canbeapplied by hand,andwipingranks ishingequipment designers is to createa newgeneration of asoneofthebestandeasiest waysto ensure thin, evencov- spraygunsthatpreserve theirtraditionalspeedofoperation erage of a woodsurface. Because of its structure-under a whilecurbingwastefulness.

Sprayingmakesquickworkoffinishingintricateturnings.Quick-dryingfinishes like lacquerandshellacareidealfor thistechnique.


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TOOLSAND ACCESSORIE,S , \ s i v i t h r l l t h e o t h e rs t a g eos f a l1 finishingproject,the.rpplication stagervill be helpedalongby a few Ifyou havethe accessories. specialized patienceand energyto applya little elbowgrease, thereareir wideassortfor mentof cloths,padsandbrushes a surface. Clothsandpadscan cor,ering in theshopfrom be madeandprepared or linen;you canalsofashold sheets ion your own foam brv,sh(pnge92). sizes Brushes comein differentstyles, and priceranges. Shouldyou opt for thebristleoverthefoamvariety,a highqualitybrLrshis a good,long-term investment. It will outlasta cheaper it will brush,but, rnoreimportantly, alsoproducea betterfinish. Therearretwo principaltypesof spraysystems on the market.Until fealecently, theonlysystemavailable hookedup to a tured a col.npressor sprayguu.Today,the morecompact (HVLP)syshigh-r,olurne, low-pressure With temisbecorringmoreprevalent. the lessoverspray andhencelesswaste, to operate HVLP is moreeconomical andeasier on theenr,ironment. you need With both spraysystems, to cor-rttrin thefumesandexhaustthem safeiy.The commercialspraybootl-r shorvnat right is a goodalternative, providedtheworkpiece issmallenough to fit insidethebooth.

Commeraial spray booth For eprayin4 amall work' piecee. Made of aheeL meral. Featurea filtero Lhat collect overopray and an exploeton-proof fan and chimneyLhat exhauaL fumee ouLeide Lhe workehop

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PROTECTIVEFINISHES

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High-volume, Iow-p reeaure epray 6y6tem Featureean electric turbine that eupplieea qreat deal of air at. low preggureto spray 7un;ailowehiqhpercentaqeof ftniehto contacL workpiece

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Vieaoeity cup Helpoin mixinqfintehLo proper coneteLencyfor eprayinq.Cup ie drpped rnto fintehand filled with liquid;Lhetime iL takee cup Lo empty throu1h holein bottom ehould correepondt.o elapoed Ltmeapeciftedby manufacturer

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Foam brush An rnexpenaive optton for applyinq finteheawithouLleavinqatreaka or otray briatleo on aurface; ideal for contoured eurfaceaand tiqht. 6pot6

Conventional epray eyetem Compreeoorouppileeatream of pree' aurtzedair throu4hhoeeto oprayqun. Atrre7ulatorcontrols volumeand preaaure of ar; requlator includeefilter that rernovegmora|.ure and other tmpurittee

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-Nat.uralor oynthet.ic brretleafor applyinga ftniah: spreadaa thicker, more even c'oat than foam bruah

?pray gun and cup Cupaerveeaa ftnish reservoir; euction feeda finish Lhroughmetal tube to qun, wherecompressedair atom' izeathe liquidinto a mtet whentn4qer io pulled

8s


CHOOSINGA PROTECTIVE FINISH finishyouchoose for T h. protective I a projecthasa lot to do with your personal tasteandtheeffectyouwishto Theprincipalfeatureofa prodachieve. uctliketungoil,for example, isitscapacity to penetrate wood,givingthesurface awarmglowandaccentuating thegrain andits pattern.A varnishor polyurethanetopcoatprovides a higherdegree of protectionby dryingto a plasticJike film;however, itwill alsomaskthesurfacedetailsto somedegree. Manyprotective finishes, including varnish,polyurethane andlacquer,are

nowavailable in two formulations: sol- preparingandapplyinga water-based vent-andwater-based. Yearsago,sol- finishmaydifferfrom themethods used productsmonopolized vent-based the for is solvent-based counterpart. Always marketplace, but recentenvironmental referto themanufacturer's instructions concerns havespurredthedevelopment for mixingandapplyinga topcoat. of water-based finishes. Solvent-based Whichever finishyouselect,applyfinishesaregenerally flammable; water- ing it entailsmorethansloppingon a basedproductsarenot. Anothersell- fewcoasoftheproductandlettingthem ingpointof water-based finishes isthat dry.Thewoodsurface hasto beproptheydo not release toxicsolvents into erlyprepared: Ifyouwantto fill thegrain the atmosphere exceptwhentheyare (page50)of an open-pore species like sprayed, andthuscomplywithincreas- oalgyouwill needto dosobeforeapplyinglystringentair qualitystandards in ingthefinish.Beforeapplyngalacquer states likeCalifornia. Theprocedures for topcoatto anopen-pore woodsurface, a sealercoatmaybe in order.Finally, youwill needto bleachor stainthepiece aheadof timeif changing its color(page 54)ispartofyourgameplan. Beforepreparingyour tools and openingup your containerof finish, makesurethat anyfiller,washcoator stainis completely dry.Asa finalpreparation,gooverthewoodsurfaces with a tackclothto besuretheyarefreeof particles sanding anddust.' Theprocedures for applyinga topcoatdependon the productyou are usingandthe applicationmethodyou haveselected. Pages 87to 90detailthe stepsfor applyingawiderangeof productsbyhando5whereappropriate, with thehelpof sprayequipment.

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Easyto apply,a coatof polymerized tungoil is wipedonto thesurfaceof this cherrytoy chest,protectingthe wood andgiving it a warm luster.

86

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PROTECTIVEFINISHES

DRYING OILS Drying oils,suchaslinseed, tungandwalnut oil,area group of natural finishesthat cureto forma relatively hardfilmona woodsurface. Tungoil, alsoknown asChina woodoil,isoneof the mostpopular dryingoil f inishes. Extracted fromthe nut of thetungtree,theoil is available in pure,modified andpolymerized form. puretungoil is a good Because it contains noadditives, choice forfinishing children's toysandeating utensils suchas lf youareplanning saladbowls. to useit, checkthelabelto pure.Themain makesurethatthecontents are100percent benefit of modif iedtungoilsisthattheycontain chemical a d d i t i v et hsa ta l l o wt h e mt o d r ym o r eq u i c k l yP. o l y m e r i z e d tungoil undergoes a special heattreatment; it driesfasterstill andproduces a glossier sheen. Drying oilsarereactive f inishes, meaning thattheydryand harden whenexoosed to air-evenin a sealed container. Whenyoustorea drying oil,usea containerthat is assmall a sp o s s i btl oe r e d u cteh ev o l u moef a i rt o w h i c ht h eo i l i s A coupleof othersuggestions exposed. arediscussed in the ShooTiobelow.

APPLICATION SEOUENCE 1.Wipetheoilonthesurface witha cloth;it shouldbe applied straight fromthecontainer. 2. Lettheoil soakintothewood(typically for 15 minutes),thenusea cleanclothto wipeofftheexcess. 3. Letthesurface dry,usually overnight. 4. Sandthesurface with400-gritpaperandremove particles. sanding 5. Repeat steps1 to 4 as manytimesas necessaryto achieve thefinishyouwant.Depending on yielda semithewood, fivecoatsof oil willtypically glosssheen. 6. Letthesurface cureforat leasta weekbefore rubbingoutthefinish(page126).

lllllllllll llfllllltll]fillfillillilrittjllilltllllfitli]llilltllltilll 9HO7Tt? ?reventing reaat ive finisheo from drying out, Io expooea reactivelinieh I o a e l i I I l ea i r a s V o o o i ble,pour iL introa collapeible VlaeLicconlainerlike Nhoeeueedfor pholographicchemicale(far ri7ht),Collapoe the folds of NheconLainer to expel a l l N h ea i r , I h e nc a Vi t Li4htly (near riqht). lf you are keeoinaa reactive finieh in a 7 l a o oc o n L a i n e r d, r o p e n o u q h

small sLonesor marbleeinlo Nhe liquidIo raiseillo lhe levelof the brim,trhen ocrewonlhe caV,Whichever oloraqe methodyou choooe,fix a labello NheconNainer identifvina lh e co nlenNs.

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PROTECTIVEFINISHES

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VARNISH protective Varnish is a highlydurable coatingforwood,moreresistant to heatand alcohol damage thanproducts likeshellac youarebrushing andlacquer. Whether it onor usingspray equipment, it isalsorelatively easyto apply.lf youarebrushing, tryto workwitha whitewallora window in backof theworkpiece. Thereflected lightwillhelpyouseeif youareskipping anareaor if youarepicking updust. Varnishes wereoncemadewithnatural resins andoilslikelinseed oil.These materials havesincebeensupplanted bysynthetic resins, buttheoldsystem of classifying varnish based ontheorooortion of oil-toresinstillprevails. Accordingly, varnishes aredesignated aseithershoft,medium or longoil.Long-oil varnish isslowdrying, producing a softandelastic coating. Short-oil varnishis hard,andglossygoodforwithstanding abrasion. Mediumo i lv a r n i sohr o v i d easf i n i s ht h a tf a l l s between thetwoin glossanddurability.

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(BRUSHING) APPLICATI()N SEOUENCE 1. Dilute thevarnish andspread a thincoatonthesurface witha highquality bristle brush; workfirstagainst thegrain, thenwithit. 2. Letthesurface dry,typically for 12 to 24 hours. 3. Sandthesurface witha self-lubricating 240-or 280-griIsandpaper. 4. Repeat 1 steps to 3, usinga stronger dilution of varnish andsanding the (280-to 320-grit). witha f inergritsandpaper surface 5. Brush onan undiluted coatof varnish. 6. Letthesurface dryandsandwith400-gritsandpaper. 7. Repeat steps5 and6 twoorthreetimes. 8. Letthesurface curefor 24to72 hours before rubbing outthefinish. (SPRAYING) APPLICATI(1N SESUENCE (page96) 1. Dilutethevarnish to theproper viscosity 2. Setthespraygunat lowpressure to minimize overspray andpooling. 3. Spraya thincoatonthesurface. 4. Letthesurface dry,thensandwith320-gritsandpaper. 5. Repeat steps3 and4 twoorthreetimes. 6. Letthesurface curefor 24 Io 72 hoursbefore rubbine outthefinish.

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POTYURETHANE Polyurethane is a transparent, varnish-like finishthatis durable, abrasion-resistant andeasy to apply. Formulated withsynthetic resin,it driesmorequickly thanvarnish, making it an idealchoice whenyouhavelimited timefor polyurethane thef inishing work.Likevarnish, canbe brushed orsprayed onfurniture. Polyurethanes in a variety areavailable of lusters, rangingfromflatto glossy. Because theydo notrelease toxic polyintotheatmosphere solvents whiledrying, water-based urethanes aresaferfortheenvironment thantheirsolventbased counterparts. lf youplanto spraya water-based polyurethane, besureyourspray equipment isscrupulously product. clean; oilwillcontaminate thewater-based

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(BRUSHING) APPLICATI()N SEOUENCE l. Applya thinandevencoatwitha paintbrushor pad applicator, always brushing withthegrain. 2. Letthesurface dryforabout2 hours.

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3. Sandthesurface witha 320-to 400-gritsandpaper. 4. Repeat steps1 to 3, abrading thesurface witha finer gritsandpaper. 5. Applya finalcoat,giving thesurface 18 to 24 hours to drybefore rubbing outthefinish.

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1. Spray theworkpiece asyouwouldforvarnish, allowing 30 to 60 minutes forthecoatto dry. 2. Sandthesurface witha 320-to 400-gritsandpaper. 3. Applytwomorecoats,usingprogressively finergrit sandpaper to abrade thesurface aftereachapplication. 4. Waitat least18 to 24 hoursbefore rubbing out t h ef i n i s h .

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SHELLAC Shellac is a natural f inishproduced from thesecretions of thelacinsect, whichis indigenous to Indochina andIndia. The bugsfeedontreesapandexpela resin thatformsa protective shellaround their bodies. Eventually thismaterial builds up andisdeposited ontreetwigsandbranches;it isthenharvested andprocessed. In itscommercial forms, shellac is available bothasa liouidandin f lakes. Liquid shellac is ready foruse,butthe f lakesmustbemixedf irstwithdenaturedalcohol. In someregard, however, theflakesarethemoreconvenient form of theproduct sinceyoucanprepare only asmuchof thesolution asyouneedfor project. a particular Bothtypesof shellacareavailable in a variety of shades, ranging fromdarkbrownandorange to blondandwhite. Shellac isalsoclassif iedaccording to its "poundcut,"whichrefers to the amount of resininthesolvent. A 1-poundcutshellac, forinstance, hasonepound of resinforeachgallonof solvent. grades, Shellac comesin different depending onwhere andwhentheproductwasharvested. Coarse shellac has bitsof twigsandbugs; thesuper-refined pureliquid. variety isvirtually provides While shellac a durable finishthatprotects woodfromhumidity andabrasion, it doesnotstandupwell to water, alcohol or heat.Likeothersolvent-release finishes, shellac formsa milkycloudona surface-called blushing-if it issprayed in highhumidity or withexcessive moisture in thesolvent. Keepthesolvent in a sealed container.

(BRUSHING) APPLICATION SEOUENCE 1. Eitherbuyor prepare a 1-or 2-pound-cut withwhichto applytwo shellac (page53i.Brushthefinishonquickly orthreewashcoatsto thesurface andevenly withasfewstrokes aspossible, working withthegrainonly. Avoidoverlapping thebrushstrokes. 2. Letthesurface dry,typically forat least2 hours. 3. Sandthesurface witha self-lubricating 360-or400-grit sandpaper. Remove particles. sanding 4. Brushonanother coat,usinga 3-pound-cut shellac, thensand. 5. Applythreeor morecoatswitha 5-pound-cut shellac, sanding before each application. 6. Allow24 to 72 hours of drying timebefore rubbing outthef inish. (SPRAYII{G) APPTICATION SESUENCE 1. Prepare a solution withtheproper consistency forspraying following the manufacturer's instructions; a 1-or 2-pound-cut shellac istypical. lf yoyoumayhaveto diluteit. areusingliquidshellac, gunfora lightcoatto keepdripsandrunsto a minimum. 2. Adjust thespray 3. Sprayontwoor threewashcoats. 4. Letthesurface dryforabout30 minutes, thensandit wiiha selfparticles. lubricating 360-or 400-gritsandpaper. Remove sanding 5. Sprayonthreeorfouradditional coatsusinga moreconcentrated solution andsanding between applications. 6. Letthefinishdryfor48 to 72 hoursbefore rubbing out.

A viscositycupis usedto testtheconsistency of afinishfor spraying.Properdilution of thefinishwill ensurethatit coatsa workpiece uniformlyandwith a minimumof dripping.

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LACOUER Lacquer hasbeenusedasa protective finishforwoodfurniture in theFarEast years, for more 2000 than butit didnot 1. Dilute sealer according to themanufacturer's instructions and thesanding in West become oooular the untilthe applyit to theworkpiece. Letdryandsandwith320-gritpaper. 17thCentury. Thefirstlacquers used witha retarding 2. Dilutethe lacquer solvent asspecified bythemanufacturer. d u r i n g C h i n a ' C s h o u d y n a s t w y e re (Theretarder quickly.) keeps fromhardening thelacquer too derived fromnaturalresins; today's withthefinishusinga soft,long-bristled brush.Work 3. Coattheworkpiece products areformulated synthetically. al a 45 angleto thesurface andbrushwiththegrain.Donotoverlap Lacquer canbe brushed ontoa surbrushstrokes. face,butbesureto usea brushwith 4. Letthelacquer dry(typically 2 hours), thensandwitha self-lubrrcating bristles setin rubber, otherwise thesolparticles. 360-to 400-gritsandpaper. Remove sanding ventin thefinishmaycause thetoolto 5. Repeat steps2 to 4, usinga slightly moreconcentrated lacquer solution. shed.Therapiddrying timeof lacquer alsomakesit well-suited forspraying. 6. Applyat leasttwoorthreeadditional coats.Avoidbrushing undiluted youshouldaddat leasta smallamount A lacquer topcoat hardens to a clear lacquer onthesurface; of reiarder to thelacouer. a n dd u r a b lfei n i s hl.t i s a g o o dc h o i c e forfurniture thatmaybeexposed to 7. Letthefinishdryforat least24 hoursbefore rubbing it out. wateror highheat. (SPRAYING) APPLICATI(lN SEOUENCE Unlikepolyurethanes andvarnishes, 1. Dilute thesanding sealer according to themanufacturer's instructions and whichformseparate layers witheach paper. applyit to theworkpiece. Letdryandsandwith32O-grit n e wc o a t i n ge,a c ha p p l i c a t i o n f lacquerdissolves the previous coatsto 2. Prepare withthesolvent a dilutedlacquer solution recommended bythe c r e a taes i n g l fei l m .F i n i s h eur s u a l l y manufacturer andsprayit ontothesurface. Makesurethelacquer hasthe proper forspraying; usea viscosity cup (page90. consistency tryto limitthemselves to fourcoats Butthesearegenerally of lacquer. in 3. Letthefinishdryforaboutan hour. addition to oneortwocoatsof sanding 4. Sandwitha self-lubricating 320-gritpaper. s e a l eT r .h et h i c k ear l a c q u ef irn i s hi s (Thisstepis optional.) 5. Repeat steps2 and3, sanding thesurface lightly. builtup,thegreater theriskof crack6. Spray onat least3 morecoats, diluting eachapplication withonlya small i n g .H o w e v eorb, t a i n i nagm i r r o r - l i k e amount of retarder andsanding thesurface witha 360-gritpaper. lacouer finishonsoecies likerosewood oroakmaysometimes involve asmany 7. Letthef inishdrycompletely rubbing before out. Finishers in ancient as10 aoolications. Chinawereknown to applymorethan p i e c eo f f u r n i 3 0 0 c o a t so n a s i n g l e ture.To prevent cracking, theywould carefully abrade thesurface aftereach n e wa p p l i c a t i ohna dd r i e da n dt h e y kepteachcoatasthinaspossible. Lacquer isavailable in a range of sheens fromf latto glossy. Therearedifferenttintsto choose fromaswell,and a clearformulation thatheightens the grainandcolorwithout altering thehue.

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FINISHINGBYHAND r"fi- hereareessentially threemethods

WIPING()RPADDING ONA FINISH

3- of applyingprotective finishesby hand:wipingthe finishingmaterialon with a clothor sponge, paddingit on or usinga brush.Themethodyouchoose shoulddependon thetypeoffinishyou areapplying. Wiping,for example, isthe bestwayto applya dryingoil. Varnish, polyuretl-rane, shellacand lacquerare betterappliedwith a brush. Sornefinishingproducts,called paddingfinishes, aremadeto bepadded onto a surface; theyprovidesomething approaching the lusterof Frenchpolishedor laccuered woodwith considerablylesseffort.However, because these finishes do not readilybuild up into a thick coating,theystill requirea fair amountof time and work to apply.As a result,they are most often usedto touchup damaged finishes. As finishes for newlybuilt ftrrniture,theyarebest suitedto ornamental details, turnings or smalluieceslike the tableshown below Toreducethe amountof time Usinga clothor sponge requiredto build up a paddingfinish, W e ta c l e a nc l o t ho r a s p o n g w e i t ht h e f i n i s ha n dw i p ea t h i n c o a to f t h e l i q u i d firstapplya sealer coatofvarnish, shel- ontothe surface(above).Makesureyou coverthe woodsurfaces completely. Let lacor laccuer. t h ef i n i s hs o a ki n t ot h ew o o df o r s e v e r aml i n u t e st ,h e nu s ea n o t h ecr l e a nc l o t ht o w i p ea w a yt h e e x c e s sC. h e c kt h e m a n u f a c t u r e ri 'nss t r u c t i o nf so r d r y i n gt i m e s , t h e na p p l ys u b s e q u e n co t a t st h e s a m ew a y .

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,r Workingwitha pad U s ea p i e c eo f l i n e na n d s o m ew o o lt o m a k ea f i n i s h i n p g a da s y o uw o u l df o r Frenchpolishing(page106). Poura liIt l e o f t h ef i n i s ho n t h e p a d .t h e nt a p i t a g a i n stth e p a l mo f y o u rh a n dt o g e t t h e p a du n i f o r m ldya m p .W i p et h e p a d a l o n gt h e s u r f a c e f o l l o w i ntgh e d i r e c t i o n of the grain (left).Overlapyourstrokes u n t i ly o u h a v ec o v e r e tdh e e n t i r ew o r k -

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g l o s ssyh e e nC. o n s utlht em a n u f a c t u r er'sinstructions fordrying times, then a p p l sy u b s e q u ecnota t sP. a d d i nf g inishes usually require several applications.

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t I I Brushing ona finish S e tt h ew o r k p i e cs e l i g h t layb o v yeo u r worksurface soyoucancoverthewood r i g h t o t h eb o t t o m w i t h o ustl o p p i n g f i n i s ho nt h et a b l e F . o ra s h o p - m a d e onwoodblocks stand,propthecorners withsmallnailsdriven them.lf through youareusinga bristlebrush, dipabout o n e - t h i rodf t h eb r i s t l e l e n g t hi n t h e f i n i s ha n db r u s a h l o n tgh eg r a i nl e a v i n g behind t h i n ,e v e nc o a t sR . e s i st th e to spread thef inishthickly temptation o rt h el i q u i dw i l lr u n ,s a go r p o o lT. o onthe avoid airbubbles andlapmarks surface, useasfewbrushstrokes as poss i b l eU . s et w e e z etros r e m o vset r a y it hasa bristles fromthef inishbefore c h a n cteo d r y .A f o a mb r u s hw i l lc u t downontheproblem of lapmarks.

lllll]llllltlllJilljllllllllllllllllllllllllllllrlllilltlll llrlllllllll 1HO?TI? Afoam brush Youcan makeyour o w nd i e V o e a b l e foam brushesto suit anyjob at, hand.Ueeecrap woodfor Nhehandle and a Vieceof polyure'

Ihane foam for lhe aoolicalor.

foam at Youcan buy polyurethane f a b r i ca n d u p h o l o t e r oy h o p oC . utthe foamto Nheeizeyou need,lhentold if,overone e n do f L h eh a n d l ea n d s l a o l ei Ni n o l a c e U . ee eciseorsto NrimLhefoam to the riahl orofile for your workpiece.

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SETTINGUP YOURSPRAYEQTJIPMENT ith a bit of practice,sprayingis a highly efficient method of applyingprofessional-looking finishes. (HVLP) High-volume,low-pressure systems offerthebesttransferefficiency-that is, they land a high percentageofthe sprayon the workpieceand wastelessasoverspray. Sincethey use low-pressure air to createa mist of finish, HVLP systemsalso createless "bounce back"than conventional systems.Bouncebackoftenoccurswhen sprayingis donein an enclosedspace: The oversprayreboundstowardthe spraygun ind'settleson othersurfaces. The keyto successful sprayingis to keepyour equipmentproperlyadjusted.With both HVLP and conventional systemsthe adjustmentsaremadewith theactualsolutionyouwill beusing,so you will needto start the processby preparinga batchof finish (page96).

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Spray gun and aup Finiahflowa from cup to qun whereair turno liquid into a miet, directin4 it at the workpiece; cup unacrewafrom 7un

Air hose Connectaepray qun to turbine;atoree in turbine whennot in uae

Turbine Featureaa 7-amp motor that poweraa fan diecharqin4[ow-preaeure air throu4hthe air hoae;Lurbineia liqhtwei7htand compact compared to the compreaaoraused on conventionalayatemo

ANATOMY OFA CONVENTIONAL SPRAY SYSTEM Air preaeure gauge Tocompreeaor

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Hoee Hiqh-preaaureair from comPre69or,otroraqe tank and air re4ulator paeeeethrou4h hoee to epray qun

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AI{ATOMY OFAI{HVIPSPRAY SYSTEM

Fluid cup and lid aaaembly Fluidcup holdafinish: uouallyone quart or leao;acrewe on to epray qun in front of trigqer. Compreaeedair atreaming throu4h gun createa a vacuumthat eiphonofiniahfromcup upto 1un.Lidaeaembly clampeto cup

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5pray gun Atomizea finieh into a opray; featuree fluid adjuetment acrewfor oetting flow volume and apreader adjuotment valvefor regulatinq epray patrtern

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ANHVLP SYSTEM ADJUSTING

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thespraypattern 1 Adjusting it I Fillthecuowithfinishandscrew gun. model shown, Forthe to thespray onat theturbine, then turnthesystem eithera veradjusttheaircapto produce pattern. or circular spray tical,horizontal vertical setAsa ruleof thumb,usethe tingto spraytopsandotherhorizontal settingto andthe horizontal surfaces, patvertical surfaces. Thecircular spray ternis widerthantheothertwoandcan Testall be usedon anytypeof surface. turnthreepatterns onscrapwoodbefore to theworkpiece. ingyourattention

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r I I I r) Adjusting theflow L to setthevolume of finishto be sprayed fromthegun,turntheflow knob.Holding thegunnozadjustment froma testsurface, zleabout8 inches pullthetrigger The to startthespray. finishshouldcover thesurface evenly without dripping or pooling. lf thecoatingistoothin,increase theflowbyturnif the ingtheknobcounterclockwise; decrease thef low f inishdripsor pools, byturningthe knobin theopposite Tochange direction. thesizeof thespray pattern, eitherincrease ordecrease the distance between thegunandthesurface.Thismaythrowofftheflowadjustment,however. Moving theguncloser mayrequire a decrease to thesurface asyoudrawthe in theflow;similarly, gunawayyoumayhaveto increase thef low.

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ADIUSTING A CONVENTIONAT SPRAY SYSTEM

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'l Setting theairpressure I Attach theairIinefromthecompressor to theairinleton theregulator. Theninstall thehose, connecting oneendto the a i ro u t l eot nt h er e g u l a t a on r dt h eo t h e tro t h ea i r i n l e to n thegun.Toadjust theairpressure onthemodelshown, take

thefluidcupoffthespraygunandturnonthecompressor, allowing thetankto pressurize. Opentheoutletvalveonthe pressure gauge to the levelspecified bythe manufacturer (above), typically about50 psi,


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I r) Adjusting andflow thespraypattern L r , l t h ef l u i dc u pw i t hf i n i s ha n d gun.Adjust thespray attachit to thespray pattern andtheflowof thefinishin the s a m ew a yt h a ty o uw o u l df o ra n H V L P (page94).Turnthefluidadjustsystem to increase mentscrewcounterclockwise t h ef l o wa n dc l o c k w i st oe d e c r e a si te. valveto set adjustment Usethespreader thesizeof thespraypattern(right),turna largto produce ingit counterclockwise direction er pattern andin theopposite to narrow thescopeof thespray.

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ofa finish Adjusting theconsistency A f i n i s hm a yn e e dt o b et h i n n e tdo t h e proper it canbesprayed. consistency before of a f inishTodetermine theconsistency i n gp r o d u cdt ,i pa v i s c o s ict yu pi n t ot h e fluid,thenliftit outandtimehowlongit takesforthecupto empty(left).lf the specif iedbythe timeexceeds theinterval t h e f i n i s hw i t ht h e m a n u f a c t u rdei lru, t e Test solution as appropriate solvent. the make manytimesasnecessary, but sure consistency. thatyougetit to theproper fillingthefluidcup,strain thefinBefore impuriishthrough a paintfilterto remove clogthespray tiesthatmightotherwise system ormarthefinish.

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WORKINGWITH SPRAYEQUIPMENT andthatof your D othyourownsafery D neighbors shouldbe a majorconcernassociated with sprayinga finish. Do not fail to put on the appropriate gearfor thetask:safetygoggles, rubber gloves,a rubberapronand a dual-cartridgerespirator. If you cansmellthe finishingproductthroughyourrespirator, it is not doinga goodenoughjob. Adjustthedeviceto fit properlyon your face,changethefiltersor replacetherespirator.Referto the chapteron safety (pnge12)formoreinformationon protectingyourself. Whetheryouareusingwater-or solvent-based products,you mustsetup your sprayareaand exhaustthe fumes yougenerate in a mannerthatcomplies

The ideal distancebetweerta spray gun nozzleand the stu'faceto be sprayedis about B inches.Youcnrr LLse your outstretched fingers to quicklygnugethe distance.

withfederal, stateandmunicipalrequirements.Pages 102and103showa typical sprayroom with someof the elements that may be necessary. However,it is essential to checkyour localregulationsbeforeoutfittingyoursprayroom. \Ahileyouareactuallyspraying, hold your arm straightout in front ofvour body.Whenever possible, keepthe gun asnearlyperpendicular to thewoodsurfaceasyoucan.Asillustrated in thediagrambelow,a surfaceis covered with a seriesof back-and-forth strokesthat overlapeachotherandtheedgesofthe wood.Beforeactuallysprayingthe finishon a pieceofftrrniture,practicea little on somecardboard or scraowood untilyouhaverefinedyourtechnique.

S PR AY IA NF GI N IS H Applying a full andevencoat T h ed i a g r a m a t l e f ti l l u s t r a t eass p r a y i n g s e q u e n cfeo r a p p l y i ncgl e a rf i n i s h e sT. h e k e yi s t o s t a r ta t o n ec o r n e a r n d m a k ea s e r i eo s f s t r a i g h ot ,v e r l a p p i npga s s etsh a t w e n dt h e i rw a yt o t h e o p p o s i t e corner. T h r sf i r s ts e r i e s h o u l dr u n a c r o s st h e g r a i no f t h e w o o d .T h e nm a k ea n o t h e r seriesof passes, thistimeworkingparallel to the grain.As youwork,release the triggereachtimeyoupassoff theedgeof the w o o dT . o e n s u r ea n e v e nc o a t ,h o l dt h e g u n p e r p e n d i c u tl a o rt h e s u r f a c ea n d k e e pi t m o v i n ga t a l l t i m e s .


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I I I A SPRAY ROOM DOTLY Towheela workpiece in andoutof yoursprayroom,andto moveit around without having to sethands o n t h ed r y i n g w o o du, s et h es h o p builtdollyshown at rightandbelow, T h ed i m e n s i o innst h ei l l u s t r a t i o n willyielda dollythatis large enough projects. for mostfurniture C u ta p i e c eo f % - i n c hp l y w o o d forthebase, thenscrew thecorner blocks in place. Screw a caster onto eachcorner block. Tosetupthe d o l l yf o rt h e p i e c et o b es p r a y e d , d r i v en a i l st h r o u g thh e c e n t e r s of fourwoodblocks. Position the blocks onthebasewiththenailtios

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t I pointing up sotheywillsupport the corners of theworkpiece. T o u s et h ed o l l ys, e tt h ep i e c e onthenails.Toavoidtouching the

workpiece afterspraying it, useyour footto movethedolly.Youcanalso attacha towropeto the baseand useit to pullthedollyalong.

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Spraying theflatsurfaces Tofinisha pieceof furniture, startwiththeoutside surfaces, edgeclosest to youandworktoward theopposite edge(abofirstspraying thetopandthenthesides.In preparation for ve,left).Forthe sides,setthe air capto the horizontal yourworksurface, thejob,setthe pieceslightly prop- spraypattern position above andworkwiththegunperpendicular p i n gi t u p o nw o o db l o c kw s i t hn a i l sd r i v e tnh r o u gthh e ma s to thesurface(above, right).To ensureevencoverage, hold yourarmoutstraight shownoverleaf. Forthetop,besureto adjusttheaircapto to maintain a uniform distance between (page94) andusea spray thegunandthewood.Always the verticalspraypatternpositron workin straight lines;circular patternthatworksfirstacross patterns thegrainandthenwith it. spraying willleave theedges witha thinner coating Holding thegunat a slightangleto thesurface, startat the thanthecenter.

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Spraying theinside surfaces T oc o v etrh e i n s i d e o f a p i e c eo f f u r n i t u r e ,s t a r tw i t ht h e l e a sct o n s p i c u o u s s u r f a c eF.o rt h ec a b i n est h o w nf ,i r s t s p r a yt h e u n d e r s i doef t h et o p ,b e g i n n i n ga t t h e b a c ka n dm o v i n tgo w a r d t h e o p e n i n ag t t h e f r o n t .B ec a r e f u l notto aimthesprayat yourself. Spray t h ec o r n e r st h, es i d e st.h e b a c ka n d f i n a l l yt h e b o t t o m o f t h ec a b i n e t ,

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A TURNTABTE FOR SPRAYING Tosprayallthesurfaces of a pieceof f u r n i t u rw e i t h o uht a v i ntgo m o v e yourequipment, usetheshop-made turntable shownat right.Thedevice consists of twopieces of plywood w i t ha " L a z yS u s a nb" e a r i nfga s Thesetupallows tenedin between. at a pieceof furniture to berotated anyspeed asit is beingsprayed. To maketheturntable, cuttwo piecesof 3/q-inch plywood slightly larger thanthewidthof thepiece Setthe of furniture to befinished. baseon a worksurfaceandcenter thebearing ontopof it. Onthebase, marktheaccess holeandthefour screwholesin theinnerringof the holethrough bearing. Boretheaccess thebaseanddrillfourpilotholes, thenaitachthe bearing to the base withscrews. Tofastentheturntable piece, setthe baseontopof it with between the bearing sandwiched of wood.Aligning the thetwopieces edgesof the pieces, slowlyrotate holein it thebaseuntiltheaccess linesupwithoneof thefourscrew holesin theouterringof thebearing. Screw thebearing to theturntable pieceandrepeat the process at the otherthreeholes. T o u s et h et u r n t a b l e cu , tf o u r s m a lw l o o db l o c k as n dd r i v en a i l s through them.Settheworkpiece on t h et i p so f t h en a i l st,h e ns l o w l y rotatetheturntable withonehand w h i l eo p e r a t i nt hges p r a g y u nw i t h the other(right,bottom).

Deartn4 acceaa hole

Turntableptece

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surfaces Spraying contoured surfaces, Whenspraying, treatcontoured andlegs,asif they suchaschairspindles werefour-sided objects. Holding thegun at a slightangle to thewood, spray each s i d ei n t u r n .

THESPRAY EOUIPMENT CLEANING

Fluid nozzle 9uction tube aeaembly

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gunandfluidcup Cleaning thespray in good To keepyoursprayequipment w o r k i nogr d e rc, l e a nt h eg u na n df l u i d cupaftereachuse.Forthe HVLPsystem s h o w nu,n s c r etw h ec u pf r o mt h eg u n andpouranyf inishleftin thecupintoa containe f or rs t o r a goer d i s p o s aTl .h e n poura smallamount of theappropriate intothecupandreattach it to the solvent gun.Spray thesolvent intoanemptycan. Repeat asmanytimesasnecessary until thesolvent comes outclean.Wioethe o u t s i doef t h ec u pa n dg u n ,t h e np u l l thesuction fromthegun. tubeassembly R e m o vt eh ea i rc a pb y u n s c r e w i int g s retaining ringfromthegun;soakthetwo pieces briefly in solvent. Clean thef luid nozzle, suction tubeassembly andaircap witha softbrushdampened withsolvent (/efil.Reassemble thegunandscrewthe f l u i dc u ot o i t .


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Air filtere KemovehazardouoparLiclee from air: madeof non-combuattbtemaLertal.At leaat. four 20" x 20" filLeraarrayed edge-Lo-edge requtredto provideadequaLepratecLian; needto be cleanedand replacedre4ularly

Tube-axialfan ExhauaLaatr from room Lo the outdoora;rnountedon exteriar wall. Featurea explaoion-proof motor and epark-reeieLantpropeller;availablefrom induatrial ouppliero.Moveolarqe volumee of air efficientlyuoinga mtnimal a h^t

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t Automatic aprinkler eystem Water eprinklere acttvated by emoke or heaLfrom a ftre

Fire ertinguiaher thould be mountedin a convenienL locationy

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..j=I I I Airflow meter Aleo knownaa manometer.Vtaual readout indtcateeair velocityLhrou7h Lhe fan; whenvelocttydrope belowa cerLatnlevel,ftltera ahouldbe replaced Workpieae thould be poeitioned betweenepray 1un and fan; no large objecLe ahouldtmpedeairflow betweenworkpiece and fan

Light owitch -proof, MuoLbe exploaton incapable or of produc' inq eparkoLhat could i4nil;evaporo

l!!l Waete can For temporary otora7e of combuetible wa6te;madeof eteel with tight-fitttn4 ltd

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PROTECTIVEFINISHES

Light fixture Featureetncandeacentbulbin a eealed4laee 7lobethat prevenLe vaporein room from ignittn7 Wall Can be made of concrete, aheet metal or fire-rated drywallcovered wtth aheet metal

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with of thehazards associated T) ecause D s p r a y i n fgi n i s h e st h, ep r a c t i c e is strictlycontrolledby law.Youcannot, for example, setup a furniturespraying facilityin your garagewithout adequatelyguardingagainstfire and environmentalcontamination. generates Spraying toxicand flammablevapors,solventsand particles, makingthe air in the immediatearea harmfulto breatheandpotentiallyexplosive.Toxicvaporsmustbe filteredout beforetheair canbeexhausted; andthe sDravareamustbecontained in theevent products oi fir.. Althoughwater-based poselessof a fire hazardthan solventmakingthema saferalterbasedfinishes, nativefor thefinisher, bothtypesproduce harmfulvaporswhensprayed. If you want to sprayfurniture,you havetwo ootions:Youcanusea commercial booth (pageB4) or you can build a sprayroom.Thelatteralternative is a complexundertaking,however.Accordingto one of the regulatory agencies, the NationalFireProtection (NFPA),a sprayroommust Association be fully enclosed and featurea powerooeratedventilationsvstem.

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SPRAY ROOM SAFETY TIPS

Air regulator

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Theillustrationat leftshowssomeof theelements thatmightbe incorporated in a typicalsprayroom.A powerful electricfan pulls air from the room througha paneloffilters,whichremove toxicsubstances beforetheair isexhausted.Thewallsareconstructed in sucha wayasto preventthespreadoffire.The electrical systemis explosion-proof: the switches, outletsand fixtureswillnot createa sparkor producea voltagelevel that couldcausean exolosion. Beioredesigning a spiayroom,there importantpreliminarysteps. areseveral First,consultyour local,stateand federalinspection authorities to makecertainyourdesigncomplieswith thefire, electrical, buildingand environmental codesin effectin your community.For example, your sprayroom will haveto meetNFPAandOccupational Safetyand HealthAdministration(OSHA)safety guidelines. Alsocheckwith your home insurance carrier.Youmaydiscover that operatinga sprayroomvoidsyourinsurancepolicy.Ifyou stillseefit to proceed, consulta ventilationengineer who can giveyou expertguidanceon properly situatinganddesigning your system.

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. Consult thef iredeoartment aswell aspertinent local, stateandfederal authorities before choosing a sitefor yourairexhaust outlet. Depending on theareain whichyoulive,levels of certaincontaminants mayberestricted by specific regulations. In general, locate passersby, an outletto avoidexposing children andpetsto theexhaust.

. Keepthewalls,floorandothersurfacesof yoursprayroomscrupulously cleanto prevent toxicorf lammable substances fromaccumu lating. . Always gear wearprotective safety whenspraying: longpants,a longgoggles, sleeved shirt,safety rubber g l o v e sa,r u b b earp r o n a n da d u a l carlrid,ao rpsniratnr

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eyetem.Located ouLaide a ' nrr 'A-\ t r ' r A A m ' a i e h 'n -a e- - 'r t- r1t n t n q throuqh wallconnectatt Lo air requlaLorinaideraom

o C h e cw k i t hy o u rl o c aal u t h o r i t i e s aboutnoiseregulations; theventilation . Replace airf iltersregularly, asindicatin yoursprayroommaycreate meter. system ed bytheairflow noiselevels thataredeemed excessive o Dispose forresidential areas. of usedairfiltersaccording to localfireregulations. . Donotwearclothing gear orsafety products spraying outside ofthespray . Storefinishing usedduring safely room;storetheseitemsin a metallocker. (page136).

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IDENTIFYINGAND AVOIDINGSPRAYPROBLEMS oodspraying technique alonedoes I first-rateresults. \J not guarantee Otherfactors,includingthecharacteristicsof thesprayroom,theequipment or eventheweathercanalsoinfluencethe qualityofthefinish. A clean,dust-free workareaisessential.Oneansweris to vacuumregularly. If yousprayfrequently, you should consider settingasidepartofyourworkshopfor drying.To preventanydust fromsettlingon a newlyfinishedworkpiece,provideyourselfwith several makeshiftdustcovers. Thesecanbe nothingmorethanpiecesof plywood sittingatoptall supports. WhenyoufinFisheye ishspraying apieceof furniture,placeit undera dustcoverto catchanydustthat mightotherwise fall on theworkpiece. Humidityandwarmtemperatures leaving canwreakhavocon finishes, with a milkylookor causing lacshellac querto dry poorly.Keepingtheroom at the right temperature-roughly 72o-isnot quiteasdifficultascontrollinghumidity.It isbestto doyoursprayingon a dry day. Evenwith optimumconditions and propertechnique, will arisefrom snags timeto time.If thereis a problemwith thesprayingsystem, consultyourownproer'smanual.Mostmanufacturers videdetailedtroubleshooting guidesfor their equipment.Thefollowingchart detailssomeofthemostcommonsprayingproblems, theircauses andwaysto preventthemfromoccurring.

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DESCRIPTION ANDCAUSE

Crazing

Finecrackscausedby solvent or material incompatibility.

Checking

Subtle,grid-like cracksin the finishcausedby a rapid shift in temperature. lf the workpiece is exposed to warmtemperatures andthensuddenly broughtintoa coldroom,thef inishwill contract at a differentrate thanthewood.

Keepthe finishedworkpiece in a temperaturecontrol ledenvironment.

Blushing

Milky-white cloudsin thefinishusually occurring whena finishis sprayed on a humidday.

Sprayon drydays;keepthe temperature constant. A retarder addedto the finishingmaterial on humid dayswill allowthefinishto drymoreslowlyandcounteractthe problem of thetop layerdryingtooquickly.

Orangepeel

peel"texture, A rough,"orange the resultof holding the sprayguntoo closeor too far fromthe surface, usingtoo littlethinneror settingthewrongpressure for the material beingapplied.

Run

A largedripthat runsdowna vertical surface after too muchfinishhasbeensprayed in onespot.

Sag

Similarto a run,butcoversalargerarea.

0verspray

Materialthat driesbeforeit reaches the workpiece becauseit is beingsprayed fromtoo far away.

Holdthegunat the properdistance fromthework surface-about8 inches-andadjustthe air pressure forthefinishthatyouarespraying; checkthe material viscosity. Movethegunevenlyandmorequickly.Reduce the material feedadjustment andensurethatthefinishis thinnedto the properconsistency. Holdthegunat the correctangleandkeepit moving at an evenpace.Reduce the material feedadjustment andcheckthatthefinishisthinned to sprayconsistency. Holdtheguncloserto thesurface or reducethe air pressure.

Fisheye

Small,circular, occasionally iridescent shapes causedbycontamination fromsilicone or waxfrom bladesor tools.

Wipetheworkpiece with naphtha anddilutedammoniabeforefinishing. Avoidtouching the workpiece if youhavecomeintocontactwithsiliconeor wax.

Pinholes

Smallholescausedby spraying at too higha velocity or by spraying too closeto the worksurface.

Adda moisture retarder to the finishingmaterial; it will slowdownthe dryingtime,allowing thefinishto flowoverthe holes.Reduce the air pressure andmake sureyouareusingthe properspraying technique.

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Pinholes

PREVENTION Makesureyourthinnerandfinishingmaterials are compatible, according to the manufacturer's soecif ications.

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FRENCHPOLISHING isatrmef, renchpolishing I' honored methodof finpadding ishingthatinvolves on shellac with a cloth.The resultis a lustrous. almost finishtypthree-dimensional icalof fineantiquefurniture. Thelookdoesnotcomeeasily, however. Frenchpolishingtakestimeto masterand a lot of elbowgrease. Forcommercial woodworking shops, thelaborandtime requirements generally ruleoutthistype of finishfor mostjobs;it is mucheasierto relyonlacquers andmodernspray equipment. Still,for anamateur woodworker,Frenchpolishingcan be a rewarding way-somepuristswould arguetheverybestway-to finishaspecialproject.Althoughthefinishdoes notstandupto water,alcoholor heat,it isrelatively easyto repaironcethepiece is completed. Thematerials requiredfor French polishingarewoolandlinenrags(pieces of old sweaters and shirtsor a well-

After thetopof thistablewas Frenchpolished,thelegswere givena similarlookby brushing on threecoatsof shellac and thenwipingon afourth coatwith a pad.

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t washedbedsheet will work fine),shellac flakes,denaturedalcohol,mineraloil, pumice and polishing compound. ((6s1"-1ls Shellacis measuredby the numberof poundsof shellacflakesdissolvedin eachgallonofalcohol.So,a 5-poundcut refersto 5 poundsofshelIacdissolvedin a gallonof alcohol.For Frenchpolishing,we a 2Vz-to a 3lzpoundcut,althoughyou will, of course, be dealingin quantitiessmallerthan a gallon. Theprocess consists ofseveralsteos that aredoneto the followingscheduie: On the first day,a coatof oil is applied to thewood andthe excess is wipedoff.

(|NTHESHELLAC PADDING

Thentheporesarefilledwith pumice. On the secondday,additionalcoats of shellac arepaddedon to buildup thebodyof thefinish.Onthethirdday, the oil film is removedwith a clean cloth.Thisis thetimeto examine the surface undera lightandbuildup the bodywhereyou noticedull spotsor open8ram. Ifyou cannotaffordthetimerequired for aFrench polish,therearesubstitutes calledpaddinglacquers thatprovidea similarlookwithoutthesamelevelof effort.Padding lacquers arefrequently usedto reDairoldfinishes, but canalso beappliedto newwood.

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a pad 1 Making I Takea pieceof woolroughly 3 inches square andfoldthecorners toward the center, stretching thewoolwitheach fold.Thensqueeze thewoolpadintoan ovalandadda fewdroosof 2Vz-to 3t/zpound-cut shellac. Disperse theshellac throughout thewoolbycrumpling thepad in yourhand,thenplaceit in themiddle of a single thickness of coarse linen.Add several dropsof alcoholIo the pad(right).

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r') Preparing thepad polishing L torFrench Gather thelinenaround theballof wool andtwistthelinenuntilthepadis held firmlyin place(above, ieff).Thentap thepadagainst thepalmof yourhand to spread outtheshellac andalcohol andforma flat surface(above, right). lf thepadistoowet,squeeze outthe excess liquid.(When notin use,thepad should bestored moistin anairtight container to prevent it fromstiffening.)

ff'ffi'"llr{l-lll'ffi 9HO7Tt? Making a pumiaediapeneer jome finieherou6ea oalt shakerto oprinkle on pumioe for Frenchpoliehing(page1OB, otep 3),Ycjucan also fashion a moretraditionaldisoenser. ?oura smallamount,of pumice into a pieceof linen.FolAthe linenoverand lie the too wilh a emallpieceof etrrinqio form a ball.To useLhediopeneer, ehakethe baq,oprinklinq a smallamount,of oumice NhrouqhLhecloLhand onNo the wood.

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thepores Q Filling r-,, Applya sealer coatof shellac witha brushandallowit to dry.(Thisprocedure canbedonebefore making thepad.) Then pumice ontheworkpiece andshake a smallamount on sprinkle yourfingers andthumb thepad.Gripthepadtightlybetween andworkthe pumiceintothewoodwithanyof thestrokes most shownin thediagram below; choose theonethatproves Keepthepadmoving whileit is onthesurface to comfortable. prevent thealcohol onthepadfromIeaving a markonthewood

(above). Payparticularattentionto the edgesso as notto leave t h e mu n t o u c h e A d .t f i r s t t, h e p u m i c ew i l ls o u n ds c r a t c haysy o u r u b .T h em o r et h e p o r e sf i l l , t h e l e s ss c r a t c htyh e p u m i c ew i l l s o u n dC . o n t i n uteo p a d ,o c c a s i o n a sl lpy r i n k l i nogn f r e s hp u m i c e s r ec o m p l e t efliyl l e da n d a n da d d i n gm o r ea l c o h oul ,n t i lt h e p o r e a hasa mattelook.Depending thesurface on the sizeof the workp i e c et,h i sp r o c e d u rmea yr e q u i r e s r m o r eA . f t e rf i l l 30 minuteo ingthe pores,setthe workpiece asidefor a day.

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POTISHING PATTERNS

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Building upthefilm Prepare a newpadanddaba dropof oil ontoit witha fin(above, gerto provide lubrication for padding thesurface left). you Polish withthesamestrokes usedto fillthe pores. Use lightpressure witha wetpad.Asthe paddriesandthefriction increases, applymorepressure. Recharge thepadwithshellac process andalcohol, asneeded. Repeat the untilthelookof the (above, youandthepolishing finishpleases streaks disappear righil.SeIasidetheworkpiece f or a day. Aftertheshellac has

driedyouwillnotice a milkyclouding of thesurface, asin the upperhalfof theworkpiece in the pholo(below). Thisis the oil usedto lubricate thepad;having risento thesurface it mustnowberemoved. Moisten a padwithalcohol andrub (orpolishwitha fine glazing thesurface withlongstrokes compound) untiltheoildisappears. Thiswillreveal thefinai polishasshownin thelowerhalfof worklookof the French piecein theohoto.

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DECORATT\C FINSHES ecorativepainting tracesits historybacktoabout3000BC,

ingresults areusually obtainable with alittlepatience. Theglaze isbrushed, whenartisans h Egfpt,hrdiaandthe ragged, combed, sponged, or even Orientleamed to transform ordinary qpattered overanopaque base coatIn materials andobiects intoomamental alldecorative finishes except stencilones ttroughmarblinggrainingstening,thecolorof thebasecoatisviscilingandotherpractices. Alongwith iblettroughtheglazewhich imparu moreftaditional prizes of thetrading to thefinishadeep,subtleglow.It is route,thetechniques of decorative generally a goodideato mix more paintingwerecarriedto theWest, Stencilinghas developed a crude interior glaze youthinkyouwill need, than from wheretheyhavecycled in andoutof decorating technique into a minor art form. because it is nextto impossible to fashion dor,vn throughthecenturies. Thetop rail of thisBostonrocker,stenciledwith matchsucha finishexactly. Thereal Stenciling, in particular, foundfavor bronzepowder,is typicalof 19thCenturydesigns. challenge painting of decorative amongtheearlycolonistsof North is in the patterningof the glaze. America.Colonialfurnituremakers usedstencils to embellish Stenciling istheleastcomplex technique-youcanjust stiptheirinexpensive chairs; householders of modestmeans sten- plethecoloronoverthebasecoatwith a brushor a sponge, ciledtheirroughfloorsandplasterwallsto mimicthebeau- workingthrougha paperor acetate template.Marbling ty of thewallpaper andrugstheycouldnotafford.Duringthe andgrainingaremoredifficultto execute, because both Victorianera,artisans bothin theUnitedStates andabroad colorandpatternmustbefairlyrealisticfor thefinishto tookinspiration fromthefuts andCraftsMovement, elevat- beattractive. In marbling,thismeansyoumustfirst creing thefaux(or false)finishes-marbling andgraining-to atea believable cloudofbackground colors,thenshoot therealmofhighstyle.In thehandofanexpert, apotofglaze it throughwith natural-looking veins.Because the patanda feathercouldtransform blandtabletops andsmallbox- ternsof heartwood and sapwood arelessfree-flowing esinto richmarblelook-alikes; a deftlywielded grainingbrush thantheveinsin marble,grainingrequiresevenmore couldgiveanitemof plainpinefurnituretheluxuriouslook skill thanit takesto disguise woodasmarble.In both of walnutburl. cases, finishingwill gomoresmoothlyif you continualWhilethetechniques andmaterials of stenciling changed ly referto a sampleof thematerialyouaretryingto simlittle overtime,themethodology of marblingandgraining ulate. With any decorativefinish, alwaystest the grewevermorerefined.Close-mouthed professionals kept appearance ofthe glazeoverthebasecoatbeforebegintheir tradesecrets closeto thevest,evencarryingthepar- ning work;with marblingand graining,practicepatticularsof theirartistrywiththemto thegrave.Novices may terningon largepiecesofillustrationboarduntil youare notbeableto duplicate thefinishes of themasters, butpleas- confidentof yourtechnique.

In contrastto theviolentnaturalforcesthat createrealmarble,thisbirdfeatherrequiresa defttouchto transformtinted oil paint and a ghzecoatinginto a marblefinish on wood.

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TOOLSAND ACCESSORIES Grainingcombs For deeigningwoodgrain patternz on a workpiece;feature metal or rubber teeth

Marine eponge For removingexcego 4lazeand eoftening 7rain and marbled patterna; featurea a naturally rou4h aurface

9wivel knife A precieion artiet'a knife with a awivelingtip for cuttinq contoura of atencila

1tenciling bruoh For applyrnqpaint or bronzepowderethrou1h atencil openin7o;haa atiff ho4'o-hair briatlee that helpprevent paint from bleedinqunder atencil

Bloak cuahion grainer For creatinq wood7rain patterng on a workpiece. Fulledand rocked alonq the eurface of a qlazed workpieceat any anqle; featurea a rubber face

Badger softener A epecialty bruah uaed for aoftening qrain and marbledpat' terns, and amoothinqout d ecorative finiahea;made of fine badger hair

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Camel'shair aword atriper bruah Afine, aoft bruahuaed to apply individualveina or qrain linea in freehand graininqand marblinq

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Hog'a-hair briatle bruah For applyinqthe bage coat and removingetainin4 qlaze whenproducinq woodqrain patterna; ite flaqqed briotle tipa promote maxtmumcoveraae

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t qlaze in marbled finiahea;workabeat when eli7htly woraefor wear

Orainin7 rollera For producing wood qrain patterne on a workpiece;pulledacroee a qlazed surface

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STENCILING u..rsincethe F l8yptiansin ancient IJ tlmesbegandecoratrng mummy with stencils, patcases suchdecorative ternshavebeena ubiquitous featureof furnituredesign. Theyhaveappeared oneverything fromshields to chairsand toychests.

Assimoleasa fine-veined leafor as complexis a multicolored, repeating motifof fruitsandflowers, a stencilcan beappliedto a pieceof furnitureeither before or afterthelastcoatof finish.The stencilis typicallyreduced or enlarged from a masterDatternandcut from

Designsaregenerallystenciled with eitherpaint (above,left)or bronzepowders (above,right). Theapplicationtechniques aredffirent, asaretherangeof fficx. Bronzepowders, look. for example,cancreatea burnished,three-dimensional

MAKING THESTENCIT

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eitherstencilboardor acetate. Because acetate canbecleaned with mineralspirits and reused,it is moredurablethan paper.The translucentmaterialcanbe boughtat mostdraftingsupplystores. Stencildesignscanbe sprayedon or appliedwith a specialshort-bristledstencilingbrush.WhileearlyAmerican settlers stenciledwith milk paint, any thick-bodiedpaint,suchasquick-dryingjapancolorsor anoil-based or acrylic paint,will fit the bill equallywell.Bronze powderscanbe combinedin the same stencilto yield a varietyof metalliccolors within a singledesign,creatingthe illusionof light and shadow-a techniquemadefamousby the Hitchcock chairsof themid-1800s.

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a pattern 1 Enlarging I Onewayto produce a larger version of a pattern forstenciling is to usea photocopier withanenlargement feature; another wayis to transfer theshapeusing a grid.Drawa gridof squares overthepattern,usinga ruledstraightedge to make allthesquares exactly thesamesize.(The youmakethesquares, smaller theeasier it willbeto reproduce thepattern.) Then,on a blanksheetof graphpaperoracetate, make grid,increasing a larger thesizeof the youwishto squares bythesameamount enlarge thepattern. Forexample, if you needa stencildesign thatistwicethesize of the pattern,makethesecond setof squares twiceaslargeasthefirst.Toproducethestencil design, drawineachsquare gridthepartof thepattern of theenlarged thatis in thecorresponding square of the grid(left).Tomakea stencil smaller smallpattern, erthantheoriginal follow thesame gridsmaller steps,butmakethesecond thanthefirstone.


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r) Cutting outthepattern yourdesignto a piece L f ransfer Withthe of stencilboardoracetate. paper; s t e n c ibl o a r du, s ec a r b o n foranacetate stencil, simplyplace thesheetoveryourdesign andtrace r e s i gwn i l li n c l u d e i t i n i n k .l f y o u d morethanonecolor,makea separatestencilfor eachcolor.Usea swivelknifeto cut outthe pattern, pullingtheknifetoward youbbove). Keepyourfreehandoutof the blade's oath.

rlljllll lllriltulrfiljllllilltllltllltflllllllllllllllflrllllJlllllll1 ?HO?TI? Trojecting a ?attern AnotherwayNoreproduce a stencilin a differenLeizeinvolvee a wal| First Iake a phoboqraVh of lhe Nhe deoiqn onXo Vrojeclinq patlern ueingelidetilm.Ioavoiddistnrtion,ehoot,fromdirecNly in uoea slideprojecfronLof Nhepat1ern.)nce Nhefilm is develoVed Ior Nodieplaylhe patlern on a wall.The t--dislance betweenLhe projeclorand Lhe 1 .r , Aeterminethe sizeof the imaqe, imaqe wallwilldef,ermine ||I . d?.S:b "Sâ&#x201A;Ź4" ToNransferLhepattern,projectthe ' g$g^-.@" imageonto a pibceof etencil board i o*{&3/6 or aceXateand lrace overit,.

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llltfitlll11 lllliltltllllllllltfilttlllilltIIJtlllllllfllJ ilIjilIlrlll 1HO?TI? A curefor bleeding To prevenN wet,paint,from bleedingundera slencil, Nemporarily bondIhe etencilIo your workViece. 7pray Nheundereideof NheeNencil wilh placeiN an aeroeoladheeive,Nhen in Voeilionon Nhework' piece,preooinqout any air pocketo. A p p l yt h e V a i n i a5 soona5 ?o5sibleso thal you can peeloff the stencil beforeil adhereepermanenNly,

'l Taping downthestencil precisely, I Tohelpalignthestencil drawa reference linecentered along eachsideof boththeworkpiece and t h es t e n c iTl .h e ns e c u r teh es t e n c i l to theworkpiece withmasking tape, making surethereference linesmatch (abovd. up properly


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Applying thepaint T r a n s f etrh e s t e n c idl e s i g nt o y o u rw o r k p i e cbey s p r a y i n g

or brushing on paint.lf youarespraying, maskthesurfaces thestencil withpaper andsettheworkpiece edge surrounding paintcanabout6 to Holding anaerosol upona worksurface. 10 inches fromtheworkpiece, directthespray at thestencil woodiscoated lightly withpaintbbove,lefil. untiltheexposed T o p r e v e npta i n ft r o mb l e e d i nugn d etrh es t e n c i lk,e e pt h e n o z z l lee v ew l i t ht h es t e n c i l a nsdp r aiyn a s t r a i g h l i tn eT. o

u s ea s t e n c i l i n g b r u s h s, e tt h e w o r k p i e cfel a t o n a w o r ks u r f a c ea n dd i po n l yt h et i p so f t h e b r i s t l eisn t h e p a r n tT. h i sw i l l r e s u l it n a l i g h tc o a ta n dt h u sr e d u c eb l e e d i n gH. o l d i n g the b r u s hp e r p e n d i c u lt ao rt h e s u r f a c ej a , b t h e b r i s t l e su p a n d downon the stenciluntil the woodis covered(above, right), r e l o a d i ntgh e b r u s ha s n e c e s s a rlyf .y o ua r eu s i n gm o r et h a n onestencilto applyseveral colors,let eachcoatdry before s p r a y i nogr b r u s h i nogn t h e n e x t .

Removing thestencil T o a v o i da n y b l e e d i n gr,e m o v et h e

s t e n cw i l h i l et h ep a i n itsw e t .P e etlh e m a s k i ntga p ef r o mt w oa d j o i n i ncgo r ners,thengentlyliftthestencil offthe pulling workpiece, upthetwosides even ly (left).Avoidsliding thestencilalong thesurface or youmaysmearsomeof paint.Oncetheparntisdry,remove any adhesive residue withnaphtha before topcoating theworkpiece.

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POWDER STENCILING BRONZE thestencil 1 Positioning I Drawthestencil onacetate and Place thebronze cutoutthepattern. powder in a bowlorona palette and by setit aside.Prepare theworkpiece varapplying a thincoatof slow-drying n i s ht o t h es u r f a cyeo uw i l lb es t e n c i l i n gL . e tt h ev a r n i sdhr yu n t i il t i s firmbutstilltacky.Place theacetate i n p o s i t i oonnt h ew o r k p i egc leo s s y s i d ed o w ns ot h a ti t a d h e r et so t h e surface(left).

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Rubbing onthepowdel W i t ht h ev a r n i ssht i l lt a c k yw, r a pa p i e c eo f c h a m o iosr a c l e a ns, o f tc l o t h yourindex finger anddipit intothe around p o w d e r . R u b t h e p o w d eorn t o bronze in the thesurface exposed bythecutouts you wish to highstencil. Rubtheareas r u b m o r e l i g htly l i g h rt e l a t i v ehl ya r d ; you Applyaddion areas wantto shade. tionalpowder asnecessary untilthesurfaceis colored to yoursatisfaction, but q u i c k l y work t o k e e pt h ev a r n i sfhr o m y o ua r ef i n d r y i n gc o m p l e t ebl ye f o r e peel ished. Then offthestencil. To highquality, lightthethree-dimensional apply layers separated several of bronzepowder, youarefinWhen bythinlayers ofvarnish. protect with ished stenciling, thesurface twofinalcoatsof varnish

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GRAINING in whichthe f rainingis a process \f appearance of onetypeof woodis re-created puronanotherfor decorative poses. Onspecies withmutedgrain,the technique canbeusedto imitatethetextureandwarmthof more exoticspecies. Butgraining canalsocamouflage visualdefects-likeawood patchusedto repairadamagedsurface. Wth practice, exoerimentation andcareyou frrlstudyof thespecies wishto emulate,you can producea diverse rangeof styles, fromtheclosegrain of beechto thefree-flowingpatternof pine. Grainingwasespecially popularin the 1800s amongwestward-moving Americanpioneers. Withhardwood in scarce supply,woodworkers harvested softwoods andgrainedthemto resem-

blemorehighlyfiguredwoofulikecher- A colorglazeis thenappliedandthe ry,oakandmahogany. grainpatternis tracedinto theglaze Graininginvolves several First, with specialgrainingtoolssuchas stages. the surfaceis paintedwith a flat base combs, raymarkers, mottlersandrollers. coatandthe baseis allowedto dry. Finally,a protective topcoatis added. Grainingglazescan beprepared in theshop, butcommercial, ready-touseglazingstainsarejust aseffective; theycanbe tintedwith japancolors to producevirtuallyany youwish.Theglazes shade you makeyourselfwill usuallyconsist of onepart boiledlinseed oil andtwo partsvarnish; theyaretintedwithartists'colors. You needaheavy-bodied consistency, but not soheavy thatthedryingtimeisslow A deftlywieldedartist'sbrushanda grain- or thegrainpatterns will tendto flow ingrollercombinedto etchavivid pattem backtogether. Youcanbuyspecial addiofheartgrainonapieceofparticleboard. tivesto speed up thedryingtime.

GRAINING A SURFACE BYHAND andapplying theglaze 1 Preparing I Tinta container offlatoil-based oaint withartists'colorssothatit matches the hueof thewoodyouwishto imitate. Spread a layerof the paintonyourworkpieceasa basecoatandallowit to dry. glazeonthepaintThenapplya graining edsurface witha foambrushor padapplicator.To beginthe process of creating a grainpatternon thewood,wrapa soft clothtightlyaroundthreeof yourfingers, thendrawtheclothalongthesurface severaltimes,drawing thin,wavy,parallel lines (right).

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r) Refining thegrainlines L fo makethegrainlinesfromstep I a littlemoredelicate, dipanartist's hairsword brush ora camel's striper in theglaze, anddrawit slowly along the surface withintheoriginal lines(left). Forbestresults, holdthebrushat an angleto thesurface. lf youwishto simulatea knotonyourworkpiece, rubin linesfora roughovalordiamond shape a r o u nw d h e r yeo uw i l lb ea d d i ntgh e knot.Experiment withthebrushuntil you hasthegrainpattern thesurface areseeking.

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Drawing in knots Q r.,l Wrapa clotharound onef ingerand dipthefingertip in theglaze. Thengently touchthesurface to makeIheknol(righil. Tosmooth outthe oatterns andblend themintothebackground, brush thesurfacebackandforthwitha soft,drybrush following thedirection ofthegrain. A badger softener is idealforthisstageof the process. 0ncethesurface is dry,applya topcoat, thenpolishit withrottenstone andpastewax.

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W()RKING WITHGRAINING TOOTS

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othergrainpatterns 1 Simulating I Spread a basecoatof tintedpaintandthena glazing stain following the procedures described on page118.Tosimulate grainmarkings the random characteristic of oak,runa ray marker alongthesurface lines,parallel of theboardin straight

left).Toreproduce to theedges(above, thebroadgrainpattern graining typicalof mahogany, drawa metalor rubber comb alongthesurface, creating a series of slightly wavybutparallel lines(above, right).

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r) Blending in thegrain L Wnletheglazeisstillwet,gently draw a soft,drypaintbrush,suchasa badger softener, backandforthoverthesurface, following the directionof lhe grain(right). Thiswillfanoutthegrainlinesandgive thesurface a moreuniform andnatural appearance.

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A BLOCK CUSHION GRAINER jigandsilicone Witha molding rubber, youcanmakea blockcushion grainer Forthejig,cuta cirto suityourneeds. woodthat cularblockof 1%-inchthick willfit onthesandrng diskofyourelectricdrill.Screw theblockto thedisk,then install thediskin thedrillchuck. Attach a commercial drillstandto a %-inchplywoodbase, theninstall thedrill.Clamp thebaseto a worksurface andsecure a shortscrapof 2-by-4justin frontof the blockto serveasa toolrest.Cutnotches in the2-by-4forclamps. Toshape thewoodblock,lockthedrill in the0n position andholdthetip of a smallskewchiselagainst therotating groove surface, etching a %-inch-deep intothewood.Restthechiselblade on Ihe2-by-4to keepit steady. Cutonthe left-hand sideof theblockto prevent the chiselfrombeingkickedup.Carve a grooves in theblock series of concentric (above,right), varying theirwidthsandthe intervals between themto suitthegrain pattern youwishto desrgn. Closely spaced grooves will produce a hardwood look; grooves thatarespread fartherapartare betterforsimulating softwoods. Tomaketheactualgrainer, remove the blockfromthesanding diskandcoatits grooved facewithpastewax.Thenapply layerof silicone a 7a-inch-thick rubber overthewax.Lettherubber curefor about24hours, thenpeelit offtheblock (below, righil.frimtherubberimprint pieceof 2-by-2 andglueit to a rounded witha plywood handle. Remove anyresidwaxwithnaphtha. ualpaste Thetoolis usedthesamewayastradi(page120),butremember tionalgrainers to pushit along thesurface witha forward rockrng motion.

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MARBLING considerf n thepast,whenstructural I ationsruledout theuseof realmarble,fauxmarbre,or falsemarble,finishes werecommonlyusedasa substitute on everything fiom wallsandfloorsto mantelsandfurniture. Realmarbleis a bv-productof intense naturalforcesthatoccurwhenlimestone is meltedundergreatheatandpressure. Mineralsrunningthroughthe molten

rock cool and crystallize. The resultis layerupon layerof veinscoloredwhite, blackand otherhues,whichtogether form a latticethat is somehowboth opaqueandtranslucent. Of themanytechniques for replicating theappearance oimarbleon wood, mostinvolveworkingwith two or three coloredpaintson a wet,glazedsurface. Toolsfor manipulating thepaintsrange

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from ragsto newspapers to sponges, Fine brushesor a featherarethebestimolementsfor simulating thedepthandpatternofthe veins. As a rule of thumb,the colorson a marbledsurfaceshouldbe limitedto a maximumof three,includingthe base color.Thechoiceof colorsisbestrestricted to the naturalcolorsfound in marble.The constituentoartsof marble actuallyflow during the formationof the stone,and it is vital to capturethis appearance offluidity.Toproducea realisticdesign,work with goodreference photographs or keepa sampleof thereal thingon hand.

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Whiteandgreenntarbledwood simulates theJluidappearance and mistydepthof realmarble.

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MARBLING WITHA BRUSH

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Applying theglaze 1 I Forthebasecoatof a whitemarble f inish,brusha coatof white,semigloss t n y o u rw o r k p i e ca esa o i l - b a s epda i n o b a s ec o a ta n da l l o wi t t o d r y .T oe l i m i nateanybrushmarks, lightly sandthe surface witha 320-grit Tint sandpaper. a container of whiteglazewitha small amount of oneof theartists' colors that y o uw i l lb eu s i n gi n t h ef i n i s hT. h e nu s e pieceof newspaper a clothora creased to coatthepainted surface wilhglaze(righil.

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r) Sketching in themarble veins L Wntlethesurface is stillwet.squeeze someof theartists' colorusedin stepI o n t oa p a l e t t eD. i pa na r t i s t s ' b r u isnht o thecolorandusewavystrokes to paint imitatjon-marble veinsin theglaze(above). Theveins should aooear to wander randomlyaboutthesurface, forking rightandleft. R o l l i ntgh eb r u s hb e t w e eyno u fr i n g e r s whileyoupaintcanalsoproduce a realisyouhavepainted tic effect. Once in allthe glazeandsoften veins,remove theexcess t h ev e i n b s yp u l l i nags o f tc l o t hd i a g o n a l l y (ighil.Repealthe process across thesurface to paintin moremarble veinsin a second color.lf youwishto layer onadditional veins, reverse theorderof thecolors, or mixthem together to provide contrast anddepthto thesurface.

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theoattern n<. Smoothins

r - , 1 W h i l et h e s u r f a c ei s s t i l lw e t ,g e n t l y d r a wa s o f t ,d r y p a i n tb r u s h s, u c ha s a badgersoftener,backand forthacross the veins(right).Conlinueuntil the surf a c el o o k sm i s t ya n dt r a n s l u c e nO t .n c e t h e s u r f a c ei s d r y ,l e t i t s i t f o r a b o u I 2 4 h o u r sa n da p p l ya c o a to f s e m i g l o sosr e r n i s hP. o l i s h va h i g h - g l o spso l y u r e t h a n t h e w o r k p i e cw e i t h a s o f tc l o t h .

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t I I I FEATHERING A MARBLED SURFACE broad veins 1l Sketchins -

I F o ra g r e e nm a r b l ef i n i s h s. p r e a d a b a s ec o a to f g r e e np a i n ta n d t h e na g l a z et i n t e da l i g h t ecr o l o ro n y o u rw o r k p i e c ef o l l o w i n gt h e p r o c e d u roen p a g e 122

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a n dd r a wi t d i a g o n a l al yc r o s tsh e s u r f a c e t o p r o d u c eb r o a dm a r b l e - l i kvee i n s( / e f f ) . S m o o t ha n d s o f t e nt h e p a t t e r nb y b r u s h i n gt h e v e i n sl i g h t l yw i t ha m a r i n es p o n g e , a b a d g e sr o f t e n eor r a s o f tc l o t h .W h i l e t h e s u r f a c ei s s t i l l w e t , p r e p a r ea n o t h e r b a t c ho f g l a z ea n dt i n t i t l i g h t e rt h a nt h e f i r s tc o a t i n gA. p p l ya n df e a t h e trh i s g l a z e t h e s a m ew a yy o ud i d t h e f i r s to n e ,b u t t h i st i m e ,m a k et h e v e i n sc r o s so v e rt h e o n e sa l r e a d iyn p l a c e .

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r) opening upthepattern I lo produce a mottled effectonthe paint surface, dipa clean, stiff-bristled brushintoa container of mineral spirits. Holding thebrusha fewinches above the workpiece, runa gloved f ingeralong the bristles, moistening theveinswitha f ine spray(right).

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thepattern Q Completing r-,, Dioa birdfeather in whiteartists' colorandallowtheexcess to driooff to prevent anyblobbing. Thenusethe feather tipto sketch in a series of thin whiteveinswithinthebroadveins already onthesurface. Whenallthe fineveinshavebeenpainted, smooth, v a r n i sahn dp o l i s thh es u r f a caes described in step3 on pageI24.

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FINSHNGTOTICHES Ithoughwoodworking catThedifference between arubbed alogsaboundwithawidevarisatinfinishandonethatisbuffedto ety of rubbingcompounds and a glossdepends on thegrit of the fancyelectric polishers, puristsstill abrasive youchoose. Rubbingcomrelyonthecenturies-old process of pounds, for example, containpar"rubbing out" a finishwith traditiclesthat leaveminutescratches tionalabrasives. Rubbingafinishto on a surface. Coarser-grit coma satinsheenwith pumice,a powpoundsproducea fairlylargepatdered form of volcanicrock, ternthatmakes thesurface appear impartsa softlook suggestive of dull,or satin.Finer-gritcompounds brushed brassandleaves thewood Thevarnishtopcoaton this lgth-Centuryfarmleavemarksthatareharderto see, smoothand silky to the touch. house-style tablewasrubbedout with extra creatinga glossierlook.Virtually Takingtheprocess yetanotherstep paste steel wool and buffed with wax. anything thatabrades canbeused fine furtherwith an evenfinerpowder for rubbingout.In additionto rubcalledrottenstone removes theabrasions caused bythepumice bingcompounds, finishers relyon sandpaper, steelwooland to addanextrameasure of shine-evento glossytopcoatsof nylonabrasive pads.In eachcase, thesizeofthe scratchpatvarnishor lacquer. terndictatesthelevelof sheen. Thenotionof rubbingouta meticulously appliedtopcoat If rubbingout hasan inherentproblem,it is the risk of with abrasive compounds mayhave anincongruous ringto it. rubbingthroughthefinish.Sincetheprocess involves grindBut the final coatof finishon a pieceof furnitureseldom ingsmallamountsof thethinlylayered topcoat,thereisalways leaves thesurfaceclearandperfectlysmooth.It is not unusu- thepossibilityof cuttingright throughthe coatingto the al for thetopcoatto bespeckled with randomdustanddirt wood.Youneedto beespecially carefulneartheedges. With particles thatsettleon thefinishbeforeit dries.In addition, somevarnishes, rubbing through even the very top layer will "signature" some of thetool usedto applythefinishmaybe create a blemish. Theresulting outlineof thecutarea,called visible.Evenwhenbrushes areadroitlyhandled,theyoften a "halo"or "witnesslinel' is a faintbut visiblereminderof leavebehindfaintbristlemarks,anda sprayed surface may justhowthin eachlayerof a finishreallyis. showatexturesimilarto thatof anorange peel.Thefirststep Whilemostof therubbingout process is a removalof in therubbingprocess therefore isto levelthesurface asper- material,thelaststepputsa tiny amountback.Waxinga fectlyaspossible. Thesmoother it is,thebetterthelookand surfaceaddsan ultra-thinlayerof protectionatopthe feelof thetopcoat.Oncethesurface islevel,it canbebuffed rubbedtopcoat,impartinga little moresheenanddurato almostanysheen. bility to thefinish.

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Fittedwith a lamb'swoolbuffingbonnet,a random-orbit sanderserves asan electricpolisher,rubbingout thefinish and thenbuffingthetopcoatto a high-gloss sheen.


r TOOLSAND ACCE,SSORIE,S Lubriaant Keepepumtcefrom removinq fintehwhenaLeelwoolor

Kubbingoil )peeda up rubbingouL proceee;uoed with eandpaper or pumiceetone to achtevea hiqh-qloaeftntoh

abraetve pado are ueed Lo rub ouL fintoh;potaearum'

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oleate type re1enLleenouqh to be ueedas cleaner

Pumiceetone Medtumcoaree (2F) and fine (4F) qradee oprinkledon aurface and ueed with felt block;made from qround up lava

Paste wax Duffed on eurface afLer rubbin7ouL 1;oproducea waterregietantand lonl' Iaoting lueLerfiniah; blendedwaxegare often made wtLh carnauba,a hard, naLuralwax,mtxed wtth parafftnor beeewax

Felt.block Felt-coveredhardwood blockfar epreadtng ,rubbin4 on nn' co,mP,ouna tSnea 6urface

Kubbingaompound An abraeivepaate epeciallyformulat.' ed for rubbtn4out lacquer,varntehand ehellacfiniahea;applrcdwtth a raq or electric polteher

Rottenatone A fine abraeivepowdereprinkledon aurfaceaff,erpumtceto achtevea hi7hqloeeoheen;uaedwith felt block

Lamb'a wool buffing bonnet lnetalledon elec' trtc poltoher

Electric polieher Ueedwtth bufftn4 bonnetand rubbing compoundto worK on larqeaurfaces

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Steel wool )uper fine or OOOO qrade ueedfor rubbin4ouLa ftnioh

Rubbingpada 9uper fine pad ueedaloneor wtth lubrtcant,suchaa rubbin7otl;made from durable poly' eater frber

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PREPARING TO RUBOUT THE FINISH avinggracedyourworkpiece with ff I I a finalcoatof finishandwaitedfor it to dry,you maybeimpatientto move on to the nextstep.However,beforea topcoatcanbe rubbedout, it mustfirst dry andset,soasto be hardenoughto beworkedoverwith veryfine abrasives. Beforerubbingout yourworkpiece,you mustwaitfor thetoDcoatto cure-that is, you must allow it ampletime to becomeashard asit will set.Without time to cure,you arelikelyio scratchthe finishduringthe rubbingout phase. No two finishestakethesameamount of time to cure.The durationof the processdependson severalfactors, includingthetypeof finishingproduct you use,thenumberof coatsyouapply,

and the amountof time that elaoses between subsequent coats.Forexample, shellac andthewater-based finishes can usuallybe rubbedout after24 hours. For lacquer,the wait is more like 48 hours,whilevarnishtakesthreeor four days.Oil finishescanrequireweeksto cure.The greaterthe numberof coats on a surface, thelongerthecuringtime. But remember that a finishcuresmore rapidlyif more time is left for drying behveencoats.Alwaysreadthe instructionsbeforeapphng a finish;a suggested curingtime will usuallybe indicated. The typeof sheenyou end up with afterrubbingout a finishhingeson the abrasives you use.For a satingloss,use 400-gritpaper,thenbuffthesurface. Use

TESTING A FINISHT()SEEIF IT IS CURED Checking thefinish Perform thefollowrng simpleteststo determine whether a topcoat hascured. T r yt o d i ga f i n g e r n ai ni lt ot h ef r n i s ho n partof theworkpiece an inconspicuous (lefil.Youshouldnotbeableto leave an indentation. lf youdo,thefinishneeds a d d i t i o ncaul r i n tgi m e S . m e lils a n o t h e r goodindication. lf youcandetectthe o d o ro f t h es o l v e notn t h ew o r k p i e c e , t h et o p c o ai ts n o tr e a d fyo r r u b b i n g o u t .O n c et h ef i n i s hp a s s ebso t ho f thesetests,sanda hidden arealightly. lf thepaper clogs, allowmoretimefor glidesoverthesurcuring.lf thepaper face,turning someof thefinishto powder, thetopcoat is fullycured.

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0000steelwoolinconjunction with 400grit paperfor a semigloss. An evenfiner grit sandpaper, suchas600,combined with rubbingcompoundwill resultin a high gloss.Thesameeffectcanalsobe achievedwith a 600-gritpaper and pumiceor rottenstone. Startby abradingthe topcoatto a mattesheen.If you choosea wet/dry sandpaper, select a grit thatis finerthan the oneusedto preparethe surfacefor thefinalcoatof finish.Thenextsteoisto (page removedustandsandingparricles 42),Ihenrepeattheabradingprocess severaltimeswith successively finer-grit papers.For a dull- or flat-lookingsurface,stopat 400-gritpaper.Moveup to a highergrit for a glossier finish.

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r RUBBINGOUTAFINISH herearetwo competingschoolsof J. thoughton thebestwayto rub out a finish.The traditionalapproachis to painstakinglywork pumiceand rottenstoneoverthetopcoated surfaces usinga felt block. A lesshideboundmethod involvestheuseof oneor moremodern abrasives, suchasrubbingcompounds, steelwool or sandpaper, and may even makeuseof an electricpolisher.Both methodshavetheir advantages. Working with pumiceand rottenstoneis laborious,but wins thewoodworkingpurist's stampof approval.The modernway is easierand cutsdown on elbowgrease, but somearguethat it involveslesscraft. Both methodsaredemonstrated on the pagesthat follow Whicheverrouteyou take,keepin mind that thefinerthe abrasive you use, glossier you produce. the the sheen will The photo aboveshowsonesheenyou can achieveusingeitherrubbing out technique. Any lustercanbe enhanced by buffing the finish with wax. But do not rely solelyon the wax to heighten the gloss;it will not turn a satinfinish into a semigloss, for example.Instead, the wax will only intensify what is alreadythere.Althoughall the surfaces of a workpiecewill haveto be rubbed out, pay particularattentionto tops, sincetheyarethe mostvisiblefeatures of mostfurniture. If you chooseto go the traditional route,you will needto usea lubricant with thepumiceandrottenstone. Water and oils,like paraffinand mineraloil, arethemostcommonlyusedlubricants. Working with waterofferstwo advantages:It cutspumicemorerapidlythan oil, speedingup the process,and it also doesnot leaveany oily residue.Avoid

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however; it will usingwateronshellac, turn thefinishwhite.Paraffinoil. the is a traditionalrubbingoutlubricant, betterchoicefor shellac topcoats.

Rubbingout withfine steelwool and 400-gritsandpaperaddeda semigloss sheento thewoodsample at right. Tocreatea glossierlook, evenfiner abrasives wouldbeused.

()FFINISHING A GUIDE T(lTHELAST STAGE

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fora flatsurface Strokes suitable Fortabletops andotherflatsurfaces, keepevery strokeparallel to thewood grain,asshownin thediagram at right.Startneara corner andmovein a pressure straight linealongtheedge,rubbing withmoderate thesurface f r o mo n ee n dt o t h eo t h e rA. l t e r n a tdei r e c t i o nwsi t he a c hs u b s e q u e n t strokeuntilyoureachtheotheredge.Keeptheabrasive moving; thefricfromrubbing tionresulting a single spottoolongmayleave thefinishslightly Avoidmaking burned. arc-like strokes, whichareaptto makeanyscratches onthesurface morevisible.

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W()RKING WITHCONT()URED SURFACES Rubbing outa contoured surface Forrounded surfaces thatareawkward pad,usea to workwitha rigidabrasive padthatwillfollow shop-made rubbing thecurves of yourworkpiece. lf youare working withpumice, sprinkle it onthe surface witha short,stiff-bristled brush. Thenwrapa sheetof sandpaper around a thicksponge smallenough to comfortablygripin yourhand.Clasp thepaper you around thesponge as ruboutthefinishon the surface(right).Withsome youcanalsousesteel typesof finishes, nad woolor a commercial rubhins

RUBBING OUTA FINISH WITHROTTENSTONE thelubricant 1 Applying I Dipthetipsof yourfingers in a bowl ofthelubricant andsprinkle several drops on thesurface to be rubbedout(lefil. gloves Wearrubber if youareusingoil a sa l u b r i c a n t .

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r) Abrading thesurface L Snat<e a littleoumice ontothesurface,thenbeginlightly abrading thesurthe facewitha felt block(/eft).Follow p a t t e rsnh o w n o n p a g e1 3 0 .l f y o ud o n o th a v ea f e l tb l o c kw , r a pa p i e c eo f Continue burlao around a scrao of wood. r u b b i ntgh es u r f a cuen t i la m i x t u roef forms.Use therottenstone andlubricant a softclothto wioeoff a smallareaof t h es u r f a cpee r i o d i c at lol yi n s p e ct ht e finish. Youwantto make certain thatyou arenotrubbing through thetopcoat.

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FINISHINGTOUCHES

()PTI()NS MORERECENT F()RRUBBING OUT U s i n ga n e l e c t r i p c olisher F i t a b u f f i n gb o n n eot n t h e m a c h i n e ' s p o l i s h i n dg i s ka n d s p r e a da w o o dr u b b i n gc o m p o u n o d n t h e b o n n e tS . t a r tt h e p o l i s h enr e a rt h e c e n t e ro f t h e s u r f a c e a n dw o r ko u t t o w a r dt h e e d g e sm , oving (left).Electric the bonnetcontinuously p o l i s h e rws o r kq u i c k l y s, o s t o pt h e t o o l oftenandwipeoff a smallareaof the surf a c ew i t h a c l o t ht o c h e c kt h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e t o p c o a tO . n c et h e s u r f a c et a k e s o n a s a t i nl o o k ,y o uc a ne i t h e rs t o pt h e p r o c e sos r c o n t i n u e w i t h a f i n e r - g r irtu b b i n gc o m p o u nfdo r a g l o s s i elru s t e r .

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Using rubbing compounds Scoop upa littlerubbing compound with a cleanclothandrubit alongthewood (righilasyouwouldpumice. surface Once y o uh a v ea b r a d etdh ee n t i r es u r f a c e , wioethecomoound with offthesurface repeat another cloth.Fora glossier sheen, witha f iner-grit the process compound. glossthanis possible Toobtaina softer w i t hr u b b i ncgo m p o u nsdo, m e finishers r u bo u tt h ef i n i s hw i t ha l u b r i c a a nn td s u p efri n es t e ew l o o ol r a c o m m e r c i a l r u b b i npga d .

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CLEANING ANDREPAIR TIPSF()RFINISHES

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FINISH

CLEANING TIPS

REPAIR TIPS

Lacquer

Wipeusingcleancloth dampened withlightdetergent, potassium oleate or naphtha; avoidusingthinners

Repair cracks withlacquer slick(page 45)orshop-made lacquer puttybyletting a smallamount of lacquer dryto a honey-like consistency. Forwhitespots, carefully digoutthedamage witha puttyknifeandapply lacquer thinner untilthewhiteportion turnsclear; thenapplylacquer stickor putty,letdryandsandlightly.

Wipeusingcleancloth dampened withnaphtha; Avoidusingwater; it willturn shellac white Wipeusinglightdetergent, potassium oleateor naphtha; avoidusingmethylhydrate Usenaphtha on polymerized oilfinishes; usesoapand wateron pureoil surfaces

Lightly sandawayscratches. Repair discolored areas bypadding thesurface withshellac asin (page106). polishing French

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Repair smallcracks withlacquer orgouges stick(page 45).

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Sandawayscratches, thenrecoat withoil.Recoat discolored or dullareas.

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FINISHINGTOUCHES

WAXING FORA PROTECTIVE SHEEN Applying thewax 1 I A c o a t i no g f w a xw i l l p r o t e cat rubbed-out topcoat fromdamage, but s e l e cat p r o d u cwt i t ha c o n s i s t e n c y thatisslightly thicker thana liquidor creamwax.Scoop a bit of thewaxonto a cleancloth,thenspread a thin,even coatonthesurface, rubbing thewaxinto onesmallareaat a Iime(right).lf youtry to workontoo largea surface areaaI a time,thesolvent in thewaxmayevapoyoucanrubit overthesurface, ratebefore prematurecausing thewaxto harden l y . L e tt h ew a xd r ya c c o r d i nt o gt h e m a n u f a c t u r einr 'sst r u c t r o nt ys p, i c al yl abou1 t 5 minutes.

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r) Buffing thewax L A u Ow i t ha c l e a nc l o t hu n t i lt h e waxed surface shines. Forcontours or surfaces withdetails, asshownat left, buffthewaxwitha stiff-bristled brush, givingthewoodshort,briskstrokes.


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AND STORAGE CLE.A].dING ,\ finishingprojectis not quitefinA isheduntilyoucleanandputaway anddisyourbrushes, storethesolvents, poseof anyoilyrags.Whilefoambrushesareusuallydiscarded aftera single use,bristlebrushesandpadapplicators canbe cleanedand reused.With the propercare,a high-qualitybrushcan providemanyyearsof service. Butgoodcleanup habitswilldo more than protectyour investment; theyare alsokeyelements of shopsafetyandenvironmentalresponsibility. Tokeepfinishingproducts outof thereachof children, storecontainers in a lockedmetalcabinet.Avoidthrowingout wet,oily rags with thetrash;thisincreases theriskthat theywill catchfire.Fortemporarystorage,

darnpenthe ragsand placethem in a rnetalcontainer. Thiswill isolate sealed thern from anv sparksor flamesand quicklystarveanyspontaneous fire of needed oxygen. Thesafest wayto dispose of oily ragsis to firstspread themout to dry out ofdoors. Storefinishingproductsin sealed, properlylabeled containers. Avoidusing bottlesor jarsthat normallycontain food or liquids;a visitorto your shop couldmistakea chemicalproductfor something drinkable. Alwaysstorestainsand finishesat roomtemperature; proda water-based uct will be ruinedif allowedto freeze. Reactive finishes suchastungoilor varnish,which eventuallyhardenwhen

exposed to air,shouldbestoredin airless containers. Ratherthankeepinga small volumeof a reactive finishin a largecontainer.transfertheoroductto a smaller one,exposing theliquidto lessair.A better solutionisto buyfinishingproducts in smallercuantities or to storethemin (page87). collapsible plasticcontainers Do not flushany finishingproduct findownthedrain.Evena water-based ish canposeproblemsby coagulating in drain pipesand backingup your plumbingsystem. To disposeof small quantitiesof a productlet it sit in an uncovered containeroutsideuntil the solventevaporates. Forlargervolumes, consultthe wastedisposalservicein your community.

CLEANING ANDSTORAGE TIPS o Avoidstanding a brushon itsbristles; thismaybendthempermanently and r u i nt h eb r u s h .

o Afterbreaking in a newbrushor c l e a n i nagu s e do n e w , r a pi t i n p a p e r for storage.

o To disposeof a water-based finish, pouror brushit ontoscrapsof cardboard; let it dryand discardthe cardboard.

. Breakin a newbrushbysuspending it upto theferrulein a solvent thatis comp a t i b lw e i t ht h ef i n i s hy o uw i l la p p l y . Soakthebristles forabout10 minutes, thencleanthebrushwithdetergent and warmwater.

. Salvage a hardened brushbysoaking thebristles overnight in a mixture of 2 partsxylene,1 partacetone and1 part denatured alcohol. Usea brushcombto remove fragments f inish of hardened fromthebristles.

. Insteadof discarding a containerof usedmineralspirits,recycleit. Let the solventsit in a coolspotfor a weekor two,then decantthe spiritsthat have risento the top in a cleancontainer and disposeof the residue.

SH()PAIDSFORBRUSHES Aruahaomb A metal combfor cleanin4eolidftntEh reaidueefrom brueh bristlea

Bruah bucket and lid An airtiqht 6tora0e conLatnerfor ouopending bruehesin a eolvent; featurea plaettc cltpe that hold bruaheewith the brietleaabovetha bottom ofthe contatner

Eruah apinner UaescenLrtfu1alforce to epin eolventfrom brueh briatlea:one end ofthe devtceholdathe bruah whilethe pump-likehandleat the other end createe the epinningaction

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in solvent Soaking brushes Thereis nopointcleaning a brush(page 13B)n youplanto useit thefollowing day.Instead, suspend thebrushin the prodappropriate solvent forthef inishing uctyouareusing: forvarnish, a mixture of turpentine andvarnish; forshellac, alcohol; forlacquer, lacquer denatured keeper" t h i n n e fr o; ra s t a i na, " b r u s h solution of 2 partsrawlinseed oilandI (Foroil-based partturpentine. finishing justwrapthebrushin plastic products, wrap.) Whensoaking a brush, submerge o n l yt h eb r i s t l e a s ,n dn o tt h ef e r r u l e , making suretheyaresuspended above thebottom of thecontainer. Keepthe b r u s hi n a c o m m e r c ibarlu s hb u c k e t (page136),or hangit froma nailin a shop-made rack(above).

lllltlllllllllllilllilltlllllliltlljlllllltJllllrlll,lrllilulJ lt]jilii 1HO?TI? ?unahingdrip holee lNLakesverylif,Lletime for the rim of a can of finishto fill uo with liauid.Theresult,is ofLena' meoty and a oVlaohwhenthe lid dripVing ie IappeAcloeeA,To keep a conlainerfrom over' flowinqits rim,puncha serieeof holeearound wiLha iXecircumference n a i l . T h iw e i l la l l o wl i q u i d Lheholee Nofall Nhrouqh backinNoIhe conNainer.

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CTEANING A BRUSH thebrush insolvent 1 Rinsins I Submerse thebrush's bristles in the prodappropriate solvent forthefinishing uctused(page16).Swirlthebrushin the pressing solvent, thebristles against the sidesof thecontainer. Workthesolvent through thebristles withyourhands until thebrushis clean(left).foremove allthe residue fromthebrush, washthebristles in a solution of milddetergent andwarm water, thenpulla brushcombthrough (below). themasmanytimesasnecessary

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r) Spinning thebrush dry L to rida brushof solvent, shakert by handor usea brushspinner. In bothcase s ,h o l dt h eb r u s h i n s i dae 5 - g a l l ocna n to catchthesolvent asit sprays fromthe

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AG BR U S H ST O R I N Wrapping thebristles A well-cleaned indef brush canbestored initely. Wrapthebristles a fewtimesinthick, paper. absorbent Avoidusingplastic wrap, whichwillkeepthebristles fromdrying properly andmayleave themlimp.The paper should cover thebristles completely, extending beyond thetipsandovertheferrule.Usea rubber bandto holdthewrapperin place, grips making suretheelastic (rrehil. theferrulerather thanthebristles Hangthebrushupto dry


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GLOSSARY A-B Abrasive Eithera coarsepowder,or a pieceof paperor fabric coatedwith grit particlesusedto smoothwood in preparationfor finishing or to abradefinish coats;includessandpaper,abrasivepads,steelwool, pumice and rottenstone. Aniline dye:A lightfast,permanent syntheticdyederivedfrom coaltars; solublein water,alcoholor oil. Artists' colors: Rich, coloredpigmentsmixed in linseedoil: usedto tint paintsand stains. Basecoat:An undercoatof glazeor paint appliedasthe first stepin many decorativefinishingtechniques. Bleach:A liquid that chemicallyalters wood; usedto lightenthe color. Bleeding:The tendencyof a stainor grain filler to seepthrough to the topcoat.Bestavoidedby applyinga wash coaton the stainor filler. Brazilwood:A natural dyestuffextracted from the SouthAmericanredwood tree;usedin chemicalstainingofwood.

Curing: The processbywhich a finish hardenscompletely,leavingit ready for rubbing out. Curing time varies accordingto the type of finish and the numberof coats. Cut The numberof poundsof shellac flakesdissolvedin eaih gallonofdenatured alcohol.A 3-pound-cutshellac, for example,contains3 poundsof shellacfor everygallonofalcohol.

H-r-J-K-L Heartwood:Wood from the centerof a log; generallydarkerthan sapwood.

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D-E Distressing:A finishingtechnique that involvesaddingscratches, dents and otherblemishesto the wood or topcoatto simulatethe well-worn look of an antique.

fapan color: Highly refinedcolored pigments;usedto tint stainsor protectivefinishessuchasIacquer or shellac.

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Driers: Chemicalsaddedto a finishingproductto speedup the drying time.

Lacquer:A tough,clearsynthetic finish usuallyderivedfrom nitrocellulose;driesquicklyto a flat or glossyfinish.

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Dryingoil One of a group of organic oils that hardenwhen exposedto the air;tung oil andboiledlinseed oil areexamples.

Lightfast Describesa stainor dye that doesnot readilyfadeafterproIongedexposureto light.

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Dyestuff:A naturalcoloringagent extractedfrom plantsor animalsand usedasa basefor dyestains.

Bristlebrush:A paintbrushwith bristlesmadefrom the hair of animals, suchasox,badger,boar or sable. Bronzepowder:Metallic,powdered pigmentusedin stencilingor for other decorativefinishes,suchasgilding.

Flat finish: A finish with no sheen: onethat containsflatteningagents, which reducelight reflection.

Burnisher: A rodJike tool usedto sharpenscrapers.

Frenchpolishing: A traditional finish typicallybuilt up with many layersofshellacto producea deep, lustroussheen.

Crazing:The tendenryof a finish to fractureerraticallyasit dries;results from solventincompatibility.

Graining:A decorativefinishingtechniquein which a specificgrain pattern is replicatedon a preparedsurface.

IfVLP: Abbreviationof high-volume, low-pressure; in finishing,a system for sprayingthat useslargevolumes of air at low pressureto turn a liquid into a fine mist.

F-G Fisheye:The tendencyof a finish to when showsmallcirculardepressions contaminatedby siliconeor wix.

C Catalytic finish: A two-part finish comprisingresinsand chemicalcataIysts;the resinsreactwith the catalysts to oxidizeand hardenthe finish.

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Long-oil varnish:Varnishcontaining 100poundsofresinfor each40 to 100 gallonsof oil, resultingin a product that driesslowlyto a durableand elastic finish. Seeshort-oilvarnish. M-N-O MSDS:Abbreviationof manufacturer'ssafetydatasheet;the information describes the flammabiliry volatility and healthhazardsofa finishin! product. Marbling: A decorativefinishing techniqueusedto imitatethe appearance of marble.

Gelstain:A blendof pigmentsand dyesin a gelthat becomesliquid whenstirred.

Mineral spirits: A petroleum-based solventcommonlyusedfor thinning variousfinishesandfor cleaningapplicationtools.

Glazs A heavy-bodied stainusedin decorativefinishessuchasgraining and marbling.

Mordant A chemicalsubstance that changesthe color ofwood; often used in conjunctionwith naturaldyes.

Glossyfinish: A finish with a reflective,shinysurface.

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NGR stain:Abbreviationof nongrain-raisingstain;NGR stainsare madefrom anilinedyesin a waterless solutionof methanoland oetroleum products;theyaredesigned to avoid raisingthe grain of wood.

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OrangepeehThe tendencyofa topcoatto takeon the textureofan orangepeelwhen the finish is sprayed poorly or at the wrong viscosity.

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Overspray:Dried finish particlesthat adhereto the surface,or finish spray that missesthe workpieceand is dispersedinto the air.

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P-Q Padding:A techniquefor wiping on a finish with a cloth pad.

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Photochemicallyreactive:Describes a finishingproductthat breaksdown in its chemicalstructurewhen exposedto light. Pickledfinish: An antiquefinish consistingof a light-coloredglazewiped overa basecoat.

Rottenstone:A fine abrasivemade from pulverizedlimestoneusedto rub out finishesto a high gloss;texture is finer than that of pumice.

Stain:A finishingproductusedto color wood; may containdyes,pigmentsor chemicals.

Rubbingoil A light oil usedasa lubricantwhen rubbingout finishes.

Thckcloth: A cloth dampenedwith an oil-and-varnish mixtureor with water;usedto removesandingparticlesfrom wood surfaces.

Rubbingout The processofabrading a topcoatto levelthe surfaceand add sheento the finish.

S-T-U

Tlrnnicacid:A naturallyoccurring acidfound in wood; changescolor when exposedto certainchemicals.

Sandingsealer:A preliminarycoat for a lacquerfinish.

Thinner: A solventusedto reduce the consistenryof a finish.

Sapstreak Pocketsof pitch in wood that tend to bleedinto a finish unless first sealed.

Topcoat The final finishingproduct appliedto the workpiece.

Sapwood:The live wood nearthe outsideof a log; generallylighter in color than the interior.Seeheartwood.

Tungoil A water-resistant drying oil derivedfrom the seedsof the Chinese tung tree;availablein pure,modified and polymerizedforms.Also known asChinawood oil.

Satinfinish: A finish of intermediatesheen;not asdull asa flat finish, nor asshinyor reflectiveasa highglosssheen.

Universalcolor: Concentratedpigmentsusedto tint protectivefinishes, suchasvarnishor lacquer.

ShellacA clearfinish derivedfrom the naturalsecretions of the lacbeetle; soldreadyto useor in flakes,which arethen mixedwith denaturedalcohol.

V-W.X-Y-Z

Polymerized tung oil Tirng oil that hasbeentreatedwith heatto accelerateits drying time.

Short-oil varnish:Varnishcontaining 100poundsofresinfor each5 to 12 gallonsof oil, resultingin a product that driesto a hard,glossyfinish. See long-oilvarnish.

VOC rating: Indicatesthe amount of hazardousorganicsolventsin a finish; providedin percent,gramsper liter or poundsper gallon.

PolyurethaneA synthetic,durable, oil-modified urethanevarnishthat is resistantto abrasion;availablein lustersrangingfrom flat to glossy.

Smoothingplane:For shavingwood surfacessmoothand level;longerthan jack plane. the average

Pigment Finelyground,coloredparticlesof earthor metallicoxidessuspendedin a liquid to createa stainor a tint for protectivefinishes.

Pumice A volcanicrock that is ground to a powderyconsistency for useas an abrasive. R Raymarker:A tool usedto produce grain patternstypicalofoak. Reactivefinish: A finish that hardens when exposedto the air; tung oil, varnish and polnrrethaneareexamples.

Solvent-releasefinish: A finish that forms a solid film afterthe solvent hasevaporated; shellacand lacquer areexamples. Solvent A liquid usedto dissolve anothersubstance; examplesare turpentine,mineralspirits,toluene, acetoneandwater.

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Varnish:A clearfinish madewith syntheticoils that excelsat resisting waterand alchohol.

Washcoat A coatof diluted finishing materialfor sealingwood pores. Water-basedfinish: A product in which the solventis primarily water. Wipingstain: A non-fadingstain containingpigmentssuspendedin oil. Wood filler: A putty productusedfor repairingsurfacedamagein wood, or a pasteusedfor filling opengrain.


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INDEX Pagereferencesin iralicsindicate an illustration of subiectmatter. Pagereferencesin bold indicate a Build It Yourselfproject.

A Abrasives, 35,37, 128 Abrasivecord,40 Making a sandpapercutting board (ShopTip), 37 Rottenstone, 127,130,131-132 Shop-madeabrasivetape(ShopTip), 40 SeealsoPumice Ammonia,80-81 Antiqueeffectfinishes,55 Pickling, T5

B Belt sanders,23, 35 Blades.SeeCabinetscrapers;Hand scrapers;Planes Bleaching,57-58 BIockpIanes,22, 29 Bronzepowderstenciling,113,117 Broue de noix. 69 Brushes,fr ont endpaper, 83 A foambrush (ShopTip),92 Buffing,126,128,135 Keepinga buffing bonnet grit-free (ShopTip), 133 Build It Yourself: Graining block cushiongrainers,l2l Protectivefinishes sprayroom dollies,98 turntablesfor spraying,100 Surfacepreparation contouredsandingblock, 39 Burn-in kits,43,46

C Cabinetscrapers,22, 30,34 Sharpening, 30-32 usinga file clamp(ShopTip), 3l usinga variableburnisher (ShopTip), 33 Using old scraperbladesto cut halfblind dovetails(ShopTip),34 Chemicals: Ammonia.80-81 BIeach.57-58 Mordants, T6-79 Spills,l6 SeealsoSolvents:Stains Chinawood oi1,86,87 Cleaningtechniques,136-I 39 Chemicalspills, 16 Finishedsurfaces, 134 Decorativepainting, I I I Tools.l.l2 SeealsoGraining;Marbling; Stenciling

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Dents: Repair,44 Dollies,98 Dovetailioints: Using old scraperbladesto cut halfblind dovetails(ShopTip),34 Drfrng oils,87, 134 Preventingreactivefinishesfrom dryingout (ShopTip),87 Dyes,5t 59,60-63,70 Natural dyes,69,76-79 Seea/soStains

Insurance: Sprayrooms,103 lapancolors,65, 66-67,70 .,lgs: Blockcushiongrainers,l2l Supportsfor drying (ShopTip), 74 Turntablesfor spraying,100 Variableburnishers(ShopTip), 33

E-F Ebonizing,55 A chemicalstain for ebonizing (ShopTip), 79 File clamps,3-l Finishes.SeeDecorativepainting; Polishing;Protectivefinishes;Stains Fire: Extinguishers, 12,17 Safetyprecautions,12,17 Sprayrooms,103 Frenchpolishing,106-109 Making a pumice dispenser (ShopTip), 107 Fuming,80-81

G Gelstains,65,66-67,70 Glazingstains,65, 66-67, 70 Grain: Raising,21, 50 Grainfiller, 21, 51-53 Coloring grain filler (ShopTip), 50 Lighteningwood with grain filler (ShopTip), 58 Graining,lll, 118-120 Tools,112,l2l

H Half-blind dovetailioints: Using old scrapeibladesto cut halfblind dovetails(ShopTip),34 Hand scrapers, 21,22,j0, jj Sharpening,j0-j2 usinga file clamp (ShopTip), 3l usinga variableburnisher (ShopTip), 33 Using old scraperbladesto cut halfblind dovetails(ShopTip),34 High-volume,low-pressurespray systems,93,94 Holes: Filling filling a damagedcorner (ShopTip), 49 Patching,4T-49 HVLP spraysystems,93,94

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L-M-N Lacquers, 90,134 Liming,75 Linseedoil, 9, 87 Marbling, 110,122-125 Tools,l12 McGoldrick,Pari,6-7 Metric measures: Conversion,backendpaper Mordants, T6-79 Moser,Thomas,8-9 Natural dyes,76-79 NGR stains,60, 6l

O-P-Q Paddinglacquers, I06 Palm sanders,23, 35 Pastewood filler. SeeGrain filler Patchingcompounds,43,45-46 Filling a damagedcorner (ShopTip), ae Using a gluegun to apply shellac stick(ShopTip), a6 Pickling,75 Pigmentstains,55, 59,64-67,70 SeealsoStains Planes, 20,2I,22,24 Adjustment, 27-28 24,25-27 Sharpening, Planing,21,28-29 Polishing: Waxing,127,135 SeealsoBuffing; Rubbingout Polyurethanes, 88 Porefiller. SeeGrain filler Powertools. SeeSanders;Sprayers Productlabels,l8 Protectiveclothing, 12 Protectivefinishes,83,86,87-90 Application techniques,83, 86 brushing,83,92 flooding, 83 Frenchpolishing,106-109 padding,9l spraying,82, 83,97- 101,I0O sprayingproblems,104-105 wiping,83,9l Cwing, 129

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Tools.85 a foambrush (ShopTip),92 sprayers, 84, 85,93-96,101 viscositycttps,89,96 Tlpes {rfrng oils,87,134 lacquers,90,134 polyurethanes, 88 shellacs, 89, 10G109,134 varnishes, 83,88, 134 SeealsoBuffing; Rubbing out; Waxing Pumice,130,131-132 Frenchpolishing,107-108 Making a pumice dispenser (ShopTip), l0Z

R Raisingthe grain,2l, 50 Random-orbitsanders. 38 Reactivefinishes.87 Preventingreactivefinishesfrom dryingout (ShopTip), 87 Repairs: Finishedsurfaces. 134 Surfacepr epar ation, 43-49 gluingan edgesplinterback (ShopTip), aa Respirators, 12,14-15 Storingrespiratorcartridges (ShopTip), .15 Rottenstone, 127,130,I 31-132 Rubbingcompounds,J33 Rubbingofi, 126-133 Tools,128

S Safetyprecautions,12-13 Bleach.57 Dual-cartridgerespirators,12, 14-15 storing respiratorcartridges (ShopTip), 15 Fire,12,17,103 Mordants,77 Protectiveclothing, I2 Spraybooths, .13,84 Sprayrooms, 102-103 Sanders, 23,35,38 Buffingbonnets,126,128,133 keepinga bufEng bonnet grit-free (ShopTip), 133 SeealsoAbrasives Sanding,35-36 Curvedsurfaces,3& 40 Finding flaws (ShopTifl, al Removingdust particles,42 making a tack cloth (ShopTip), 42 Tight spots,4l SeealsoSanders

Sandingblocks: Contouredsandingblocks,39 Curvedsurfaces,38 Shop-madesandingblocks (ShopTip), 36 Sandpaper.SeeAbrasives Savoy,Prew,l0-lJ Scrapers.SeeCabinetscrapers; Hand scrapers Scraping,33-34 Scratches: Repair,134 Shellacs, 89,134 Frenchpolishing, 106-109 making a pumice dispenser (ShopTip), l0Z Shellacsticks,43, 45-46 usinga gluegun to apply shellac stick(ShopTip),46 ShopTips: Decorativefinishes,114,115 Protectivefinishes,87,92,107 Rubbingout, 133 Safety,l5 Staining,58,69, 71,73, 24,79 Surfacepreparation grain filler, 50 repairs, 44,46,49 sanding,36,37, 40,41, 42 scraping, 31,33,34 Smokedetectors.17 Solvents: Productlabels.18 Protectivefinishes,86, 103 Safetyprecautions,12-19,84,102-103 Toxicity, 19,86,103 Wastedisposal,12,13,16 Sprayers, 84, 85,93-96 Cleaning,10.1 Viscositycups,89,96 Spraying,97,99, 101 Dollies,98 Problems,104-105 Spraybooths, 13,84 Sprayrooms,102-103 Turntables,100 Staining, 54,55,71-74 Controlling the flow of stain (ShopTip), 7l End grain, 69 Gettingstaininto tight spots (ShopTip), 73 Pickling,75 Supportsfor drying(ShopTip), 24 Tools.56 SeealsoBleaching; Fuming Stains: ChemicaI,T6-79 a chemicalstainfor ebonizins (ShopTip), 79 Dyes,5t 59,60-63,70 naturaldyes,69,76-79

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Pigmentstains,55, 59,64-67,70 Preparation,68 preparinga naturalwalnut stain (ShopTip), 6e SeealsoStaining Stenciling,111, 1I 3-I 16 A curefor bleeding(ShopTip), l15 Bronzepowder,113,117 Patterns,backendpaper,I 13-114 projectinga pattern(ShopTip), 114 Tools,I 12 Surfacepreparation,2 I Repairs,43-49 filling a damagedcorner (ShopTip), 49 gluing an edgesplinter back (ShopTip), 44 SeealsoPlaning;Sanding;Scraping

T Tack cloths: making a tack cloth (ShopTip), 42 Tools: Decorative painting, 1I 2 Protectivefinishes,84-85,92 Rubbing out, 128 Spraybooths, 13,84 Sprayrooms,102-103 Staining,56 Storage,136,137,139 Surfacepr eparation,22-23 Variableburnishers,33 SeealsoAbrasives; Brushes;Cabinet scrapers;Hand scrapers;Planes; Sanders; Sandingblocks;Sprayers Tung oil, 86,87

u-v-w-x-Y-z

U.S.measures: Conversion,backendpaper Vaporpressure,18 Variableburnishers,33 Varnishes,83,88,134 VOC (Volatile OrganicCompound) rating,18 Walnut oil, 87 Walnut stains: preparinga natural walnut stain (ShopTip), 6e W a s hc o a t s , 2 l , 5 l , 5 3 Wastedisnosal: Solvenis,12,13,16 Waxing,I27, 135 Wax sticks,43 Wiping stains,64-65 70 Wood: Color,55 Grain.5l Wood filler,43,45 Fillinga damagedcorner(ShopTip), 49


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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Theeditorswishto thank thefollowing SAFETY DeVilbissSprayBoothProductsCo.,Barrie,Ont; Chris A. Minick. Stillwater,MN PREPARINGTHE SURFACE AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos., Lincoln,NE; Blackand Decker/EluPowerTools,Hunt Valley,MD; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Hitachi PowerToolsU.S.A.Ltd.,Norcross,GA; LeeValleyToolsLtd., Ottawa,Ont.; RecordToolsInc, Pickering,Ont.; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; 3M Canada,Dorval,Que.;VeritasToolsInc.,Ottawa, NY Ont./Ogdensburg, CHANGING THE COLOR AdjustableClamp Co.,Chicago,IL; JonathanB.Kemp,H. BehlenCo., Amsterdam, N.Y.;OldeMill CabinetShoppe,York, PA; WagnerSprayTechCorp.,Minneapolis,MN DECORATIVE FINISHES AdvancedEquipmentManufacturingCompany,Inc.,Chicago,IL; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont. PROTECTIVEFINISHES DeVilbissRansburgIndustrialCoatingEquipment,Barrie,Ont.; DeVilbissSprayBoothProductsCo.,Barrie,Ont.; The HydrocoteCo. Inc.,EastBrunswick,NJ; WagnerSprayTechCorp.,Minneapolis,MN

I I I I I I I I I I I

t I I I I

FINISHINGTOUCHES Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; H. BehlenCo.,AmsterdamN.Y.;3M CanadaInc., Dorval, Que.

t

CLEANINGAND STORAGE LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont. Chris A. Minick, Stillwater,MN

I I I I I I I t I I I I I

in thepreparation Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted of this book: ElizabethCameron,DonnaCurtis,LorraineDor6, Kent J. Farrell,Kam Ghaffari,Michel Gigudre, Maryo Proulx SergeGuibord,BrianParsons,

PICTURECREDITS Cover PaulMcCarthy/Au Puitsde Lumidre 6,7 RonaldMaisonneuve 8,9 GraceHuang 10,11Ian Gittler

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I I I I I I I I I I I

WORKSHO GPU I D E U.9, AND METRIC CONVERSION To find the metric meaeure equivalentof a U.9.measuretn the left-hand column,multiply by the converaionfacf,or tn f,he center column.To find the U.9. meaaureequivalenLof a metric meaeurein the riqht-hand column, divideby Lheconveraionfactor.

U.S.MEASURE

CONVERSION FACTOR

Pound

0.454

Ounce

28.350

Gram

3.785

Liter

3.785

Liter

3.785

Liter

4 Quarts

Gallon

1 2 8F l u i d o u n c e s Quart

t

Pint

I I I I I I I

Fluidounce

H a l fp i n t

2 Pints

0.946

Liter

32 Fluidounces

0.946

Liter

16Fluidounces

0.473

Liter

8 Fluidounces

0.236

Liter

29.573

STENCIT PATTERN Thte fruit -bowl pa|Lern wae a commonly uaed mol)f on 19th Century furniture, To make a etenctl from iL to decorate your own furntfnllntt,

f.he

alena

6tartinq on pa4e 113.

t I I

t I

t t I I I I I !

Kilogram

(Liquid) Volume 1 6P i n t s

il rre

METRIC MEASURE

Weight

N o o o o o 0 \.rN0%

Milliliter



THE ART OF WOODWORKING Vol 10 wood finishing