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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP


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WORKSHOPGUIDE

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BASICW()ODWORKING TO()TS AI{DACCESSORIES TOOTS MEASURING ANDMARKING . Tapemeasure . Steelruler . Trysquare

BORING TOOLS . P u s hd r i l l . H a n dd r i l l . Brace

. . . . .

. Gimletor screwstarter . Electric drill(cordless andcorded)

C o m b i n a t i osnq u a r e Carpenter's square Straightedge Level C h a l kl i n e

ry :::'ff:::'a . Trammel points o Marking gauge . Cutting gauge . Mortise gauge . Awl . Dovetail square

SAWS . Handsaws (rip,crosscut, backsaw, coping, compass, _-

t3r

. Miter box with integralsaw . Hacksaw . C i r c u l asr a w . Sabersaw

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SUPPTIES r N a i l s( fi n i s h i n g , common, box, ring-shank) . Brads . Screws(flat, r o u n da , n do v a lh e a d ) r Sandpaper . P u m i c es t o n e . Steelwool . Glues(woodworker's, white,contactcement, epoxy,instant) . Woodputty . M a s k i n tga p e . P e n c i l sa n d m a r k e r s . W o o df i n i s h e sa n d appropriate solvents . H o u s e h o lodi l o Penetrating oil . Sponges o Reoq

H O D D YK N I I C

. . . .

Single-edge razorblade Scissors Wirecutters Tinsnips

. . r .

androundheads) Rubber mallet Clawhammer Nailsets Utilitybar

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v\\-Y\1+

FlNlSHlNc t00LS . . . . . .

Foambrushes Lint-free cloths HVLPsprayer Paintscraper Molding scraper Puttyknife

FASTEI{ING TOOLS . Screwdrivers (offset, stubby, cabinetmaker's in flat-,Phillipsandsquaretip varieties) o Nutdrivers r Pliers (standard slipjointtype) . Locking pliers . Channel-joint pliers . Wrenches (adjustable, open-end)

SMOOTHING TOOTS . Handplanes (block, jack,jointer) . Scrapers . Files(flat,half-round, round, triangular) . Rasps (patternmaker's) . Sanding (flat blocks andcontoured)

:3:ll'::ff:,# . Orbital sander

-w

v . Triggerclamps . Q u i c k - a c t i obna rc l a m o s

. Handscrews

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:TT,fu . Barclamps . Pipeclamps . Spring clamps o Webclamps

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CUTTING TOOLS . Chisels (paring, firmer, mortise) butt, . Sharpening stone o H o n i nggu i d e . Gouges (woodcarving set) . Router andbits .Utirityknife @ .

TOOLS STRIKING . Woodenmallets(square

r T a c kh a m m e r

. Slidins bevel

flush-cutter) ref['i'.'

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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP


THEART OFWOODVV'ORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP

BOOKS TIME-LIFE VIRGINIA ALEXANDRIA, ST.REMYPRESS NEWYORK MONTREAL.


THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by ST. REMY PRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PRESIDENT PierreLdveill6 SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director SeniorEditors

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Art Directors Normand Boudreault,Luc Germain, SolangeLaberge Designers Jean-GuyDoiron, Michel Gigudre Research Editor Iim McRae PictureEditor ChristopherJackson Writers Andrew Jones,Rob Lutes Cont r ibuti ng IIlustrhtors GillesBeauchemin,RollandBergera, Jean-PierreBourgeois,Michel Blais, Nicole Chartier,RonaldDurepos, Philippe Gauvreau,Gâ‚ŹrardMariscalchi, JacquesPerrault,RobertPaquet, IamesThdrien Administrator NatalieWatanabe Production Manager MichelleTurbide System Coordinator Iean-LucRov Photographer RobertChariier Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIME-LIFEBOOKS President lohn D. Hall Vice-President NancyK. Jones Editor-in-Chief ThomasH. Flaherty Directorof Editorial Resources EliseD. futter-Clough MarketingDirector EditorialDirector ConsultingEditor ProductionManager

ReginaHall LeeHassig JohnR. Sullivan MarleneZack

THECONSULTANTS Jon Arno is a consultant,cabinetmakerand freelancewriter who livesin Tioy, Michigan. He alsoconductsseminarson wood identification and earlyAmericanfurniture design. GilesMiller-Mead taught advancedcabinetrnakingat Montreal technicalschoolsfor more than ten years.A nativeofNew Zealand,he has worked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. fosephTruini is SeniorEditor of Hone Mechanixmagazine. A former Shopand Tools Editor of PopularMechanics, he hasworked as a cabinetmaker,home improvementcontractor and carpenter.

Home Workshop p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-9920-7 . (trade\ ISBN0-8094-992 1-s oib) 1.Woodshops. 2. Woodwork--Equipmentand supplies. I. Time-Life Books. II. Series TTI52.H6 1993 684'.08-dc20 92-682r CIP

For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall l-800-621-7026,or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.BoxC-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326t-2068 @ 1993Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,except that briefpassages may be quotedfor reviews. First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time Warner Inc. U.S.A.


CONTENTS

6 INTRODUCTION

12 L4 15 16 17 18 23

SAFETY Accidentprevention Working with safefinishes Fire safety Electricalsafety Personalsafetygear First aid

28 30 32 36 4L 43 44 45

SHOPTAYOUT Workshopplanning Planningfor stationarytools Shoporganization Electricalpower Lishtins FlSors,i"a[s, and ceilings Heatingand ventilation

68 70 72 74 76 78 85

SHOPACCESSORIES A storeof shopaccessories Air compressors Portablegenerators Benchgrinders Dust collection Portabledust collection

88 STORAGE 90 Storingwood 94 Storingtools and supplies IIO LL2 118 I25 I29 I34

WORKSURFACES Work tables Sawhorses Work supports Extensiontables Tool standsand tables

I4O GLOSSARY 46 48 50 53 56 62

WORKBENCH Anatomv of a workbench Buildingthe base Buildingthe top Visesand accessories Benchdogsand hold downs

I42 INDEX I44 ACKNOWTEDGMENTS


INTRODUCTION

PeterAxtell talksaboutplanninghis

DREAIVI WORKSHOP f startedwoodworkingaround1974nEngland,whereI wasplayingrockmusic I andneededa hobbyto helpmeunwindfromtherigorsof theroad.My shopat thetimewasjustbigenoughfor aworkbench, a radialarmsawandnot muchelse. I rememberconstantlybumping thingsinto thelow ceiling. WhenmywifeandI movedbackto AmericaI wasofferedajob in alocalwoodshoprun by a friendof mine.It wastherethat I beganto acquirea feelfor how a shopshouldbelaid out.Aftera fewyearswith my friendI left andsetup my ownshopin our three-cargaruge.Isoonlearnedwhatworkedandwhatdidn'g Whenit cametimeto plana shopfromscratch,Isoughtoutmylocalwoodwqrfting organization, whichturnedout to bea fountainof information.I studi/dlots of shopsin my areaandaskedhundredsof questions aboutwhatpeoplelikedand whattheywantedto changein their ownshops. I sawoneplacein particularthatseemed thebestforjry needsandsettledonthat asmy model.My budgetallowedme 1,500sqlrgtt.feet, sothat wasonelimit set. Light-both naturalandartificial-wasamaiorconsideration. I placedmybuilding andplannedthewindowsto takemaximumadvantage ofthe abundantsunlightin northernCalifornia.I wasalsodetermined to haveawoodfloor.I quicklyfoundout thatahardwoodfloorwouldbetooexpensive soI usedl%-inchtongue-and-groove plywoodandeporypaint,whichhaveheldup verywelloverthelastnineyears. I figuredout thefloor planon graphpaperandcutout scaledrawingsof all my machinesaswell asareasfor plywoodstorage,officespace,anda spraybooth.It is importantto allowenoughspacearoundyourmachines, soI spentconsiderable time movingsthingsaroundandtestingdifferentscenarios. Thecrawlspace undermyshophasextraclearance because I choseto run my dustcollectionpipeunderthefloor,whichhasallowedmeto keepthewholeceiling spaceclearandairy.Oneof thebestinvestments I madewasin super-insulating thewholeshop-floors,walls,andceiling,whichhasmadeit easierto keepthe placewarmin winterandcoolin summer. I put a lot of thoughtandresearch into my shopandthereisrt'tmuchI would change exceptfor onething:I wishI hadbuilt it bigger.Butthatis a commoncomplaint.It seems thatyoucanneverhavetoo muchspace.

PeterAxtellbuilikfinefurnitureat his shopin SonomaCounty, Californin.


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INTRODUCTION

Martha Collinsdiscusses

SHOPSTORAGE I makejewelryfrom exoticwoodanddy.d ulne.r. Somepieceshaveasmany I as800bits of woodin them,combiningthe colorsandtexturesof various Beingableto find someoffbeatscrew rarewoodswith brightlyhuedveneers. where to retrievethat wonderfulsmall or fastenerwhenI needit, or knowing years for 10 isrlt a luxury;it's a necessity. that I'vebeensaving chunkof rosewood Throughtheyears,I havelearnedthat the strenghof a workshopdependson proPerorganization andstorage. "storageareas"in my shop.Theinfeedandoutfeedtablesof I havefour distinct usedtoolsMyjewelrystorage myradialarmsawholdscrapwoodandlessfrequently The4-bybenchholdsall themachinedandmilledexoticwoodsanddyedveneers. progress, in exotic 8 outfeedtableon thetablesawhousesavarietyof items:work jewelry-making process. lumber,furniturepads,andleftoversfromthe Themostimportantstorageareais in themainworkbenchandtool chestarea. to planes andscrewdrivers Thisistheheartof myshop.I keepwerythingfromscrews power toolsthatI use closeto thebench.All of thehandand andhingesin cabinets regularlyarekeptin mymainchest,whichis featuredin thephotograph. I storewerythingfrom Thechestis6 feethighand4 feetwide.In theuppersection, andplanes in theleft-handdoorto files,screwdrivers, hammers andonesetof chisels and in thecenterarefilledwith wrenches Thefivedrawers in theright-handsection. with dovetail I assembled thedrawers bitsof allkindrspurs, twists,andForstners. joints,a satisfringeffortthatonlyaddsto thepleasure of puttingthingsaway. Theleft-handdoorin thebottomsectionof thechestholdsall my measuring andmarkingtools;theright-handdoorhousesa setof pliersalongwith my handarehometo my portablepowertools-circular saws,saber saws.Thecubbyholes tools,andsoon. cordless drills,pneumatic router,sander, saws, overtheyears.FifteenyearsagoI hadonly Thetoolsin my chesthavechanged onecordlesd,rill;nowI havethree.Butmychesthasbeenableto adaptandaccommodateall thenewtools-eachwith its ownspecificplace.

and makes Martha Collinsdesigns finejewelryand Washington. near Sequim, her worhshop in furninne worlcsin Her husband,luthierRichardSchneider, an adjoiningshop.


INTRODUCTION

LeonardLeeon

THE\ALUEOF AWORKBENCH A retiredcarverfriend youcanfit a solidsurface. worlshopcanbeanywhere Heonlyhadto gpel worlshopin thelinendosetofhisaparhnent. builtasuperb the closetdoo5pull out a stool,andgoto work.Everythingheneededwasfitted into a spaceoflessthan l0 squarefeet. I built thesmallcherrybenchin thephotographto fit an awkwardalcovein only 23 by 37 inches.For yearsI hadbeenusingmy my officethat measures deskasa makeshiftworkbenchand I wasfrustratedby both the lack of any decentclampingsystemandenoughclearwork surface.The deskis oftenas in thebackground. clutteredasthebookcase With theworkbenchin place,I cannow clampwoodfor testingsaws,chisels, bits,andsoon,withoutknockinga coffeecupto thefloor or spillingpaperseverywhere.Thebenchis alsojust theright h.tght for usinganinspectionmicroscope, in theworld of sharpedges. andsuccesses tool for analyzngfailures aninvaluable Thebenchoccupiesan otherwiseunusablespacenextto a doorway.Sincethe floor spacenextto it canbe usedonly for foot traffic,thebenchonly addst9 theusibility of my office;it doesnot detractanything.Incidentallythebench waspulledout of thealcovefor thisphoto. Moreimportantthanits utility, my benchaddsa wonderfullyrelaxingand detail. humanizingelement.Likemanypeople,I tire quicklyof administrative With a workbenchhandy,I cangetup from my desk,wanderoverto thebench andtinkerwith toolsfor awhile.It islikea mini-vacationin themiddleof theday. yourselfwith thingsyoulike. part comesfrom surrounding Thehumanizing I like everythingaboutwoodworking.My officeis filled with old toolsaswell as to thegeneralclutteris booksaboutthiir historyanduse.To adda workbench just anotherlayerto thecocoon.Theworldlools muchbetterwhenviewedfrom anofficewith aworkbenchin it.

LeonardLeeis thepresidentof VeritasToolsand LeeValleyToolsin and retailersoffine woodworking Ottawa,Canada,manufacturers hand tools.He is alsothepublisherand executiveeditor ofWoodcuts, of woodworking. a magazinethatfocuseson thehistoryand techniques


SAFETY

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effects of somewoodspecies. Safety the home Tl or mostwoodworkers, goggles, rubbergloves,anda rubber refuge, where f worlshopisapeacefirl attirefor any apronaregoodstandard ideas.It is craftgivesshapeto creative finishingjob, especially if you are mayoccur, accidents alsotheplacewhere spraying a finishor mixingandapplyowingto theverynatureof theactivity. ing causticchemicals. But the likelihoodof mishapcanbe Fireis anothershophazard.Smoke reducedby a fewsimpleprecautions. prodefence, detectors areaninvaluable isa safe First,aninformedwoodworker vidingvaluabletime for youto control woodworker.Readthe owner'smanutheblaze(page16).Keepa fire extinalssuppliedwith all your tools.Before guisherratedABC in your shopand startingajob,makesureyouknowhow knowhowto useit. Oneof theleading that are to usethe safetyaccessories Whether causes offireisimproperwiring. designedto protectyou from injury youarebuildinga shopfromscratchor whileworkingwith a tool. revampingan existingspace,electrical Personalsafetygearis oneinsurance Mostaccidents aretheresultof carewoodworker routs safetyshouldbeapriority (page17). against injury. Here, a lessness inattention-failure to use a or groove No shopshouldbewithoutthepera in a dra"wer wearing safeguard when cutting a board on a safety front, jointing sonal safetygearillustrated on page18. ty gJasses, a dust maslg and ear muffs. face stock with bare tablesaw, (rather You can easilymake some safetydevices, push with a block), hands than (page20). Referto thesafetytips suchaspushsticks,pushblocls,andfeatherboards or usinga routerwithoutsafetygoggles. theywill But not complacent about the security page the more common do become 14for waysof avoidingsomeof on provide. makea All equipment in the world cannot the safety in theshop. accidents is foremost a matter of attitude-a receive most of shop accidentfree. Safety Althoughthebig stationarymachines in usingthemachines combinedwith a healthy woodworkers, thereare confidence theattentionfromsafety-conscious power wield. less respect for the these tools otherpotentialsources ofdangerthat,though apparent, still Evenwith the besteffortsat prevention,accidents cannotbe ignored.Manyfinishingproducts,particularly fly Bits maybreak, boards split, shavings and all too canbetoxic,althoughtheireffects occur. thosecontainingsolvents, prompt prepared prolonged find victim. Being and taking action expo- often a mayonlybecomeapparentafteryearsof Takea first-aidcourse, of woodcancauseallergicor toxic canhelpminimizefurtherdamage. sure.Certainspecies 23) first-aid kit on hand in theshop(page informationon keepawell-stocked in somepeople.Page15presents reactions possible medical aid when necessary. health andbereadyto administer choosingsafefinishingproductsandonthe

Thereare manysafetydevicesthat canminimize therisk of usingpower took. Thetablesan in thisphotofeaturesa plnsticshieldthat coversthe panl protectagainstbindingand blade;thesplitterand theanti-kickback theworkpiece kickback.A hold-downdevicepresses flat on the tableand firmly againstthefence.A pushstickallowsthewoodnorkertofeedthe stockinto the blndewhile keepingfingerswell anayfrom thecutting edge.

t3


ACCIDENTPREVENTION SAFETY TIPS GENERAL

POWER TOOTS

FINISHING

r Makesureworkshop lighting andventilationareadequate.

o Wearappropriate safetygear:safety glasses protecor faceshieldandhearing tion.lf thereis nodustcollection system, weara dustmask.Forallergenic woods, suchasebony,usea respirator.

. Donoteai,drink,or smoke whenusing products. finishing

. Readyourowner's manual carefully beforeoperating anytool.

. Installat leastonesmokedetector on theceilingof yourshopabovepotential firehazards; keepa fullycharged ABC fireextinguisher nearby.

r Keepchildren, onlookers, andpetsaway fromtheworkarea. . Concentrate on thejob;do notrushor takeshortcuts. Neverworkwhenyouare tired,stressed, or havebeendrinking alcohol or usingmedications thatinduce qrowstness. . Finda comfortable stance:avoidoverreaching. r Keepyourworkareacleanandtidy; cluttercanleadto accidents. HAND TOOTS o Usetheappropriate toolforthejob; do nottry to makea tooldo something for whichit wasnotdesigned. r Whenpossible, cut awayfromyourselfratherthantowardyourbody. . Keeptoolscleanandsharp.

. Tiebacklonghairandavoidloose-fittingclothing.Remove ringsandother jewelry thatcancatchin movingparts. . Unpluga toolbeforeperforming setup or installationoperations. r Whenever possible, clampdownthe workpiece, leaving bothhandsfreeto perform an operation. . Keepyourhandswellawayfroma turningbladeor bit. . Turnoff a toolif it oroduces an unfamiliarvibration or noise: havethetool serviced beforeresuming operations. o Donotusea toolif anypartof it is wornor damaged.

r Avoidexposure to organic solvents if youarepregnant or breast-feeding.

r Neverstoresolvents or chemicals in unmarked containers. Chemical solutions shouldalways bestoredin darkglassjars to shieldthemfromlight,whichmay change theircomposition. o Storefinishing products in a locked cabinet. oToprevent eyeinjury,wearsafetygoggles,anddonrubber gloves whenworking products. withcaustic ortoxicfinishing . Donotflushusedsolvents downthe drain.Consult theYellow Pages to find outwhohandles chemical in disoosal yourarea,orcheckwithyourlocalfire deoartment.

"fl|"ff'lll""1{l"lll"'llll'1lll'lII illllll'llll'll|l lllllltilllllllltrlll IlIl 1HO?TI? Disablinga powertool To preventunaulhorizeduse of a ?ower lool, oliplhe boll of a mini-Vadlock throuqhoneof the tinee in lhe power cord pluq.Thelockwillmakeit im?o6sibleto plu6in trhetrool.lfyou are ueinqakeyedlock,slorelhe t keyeout of vhe way in a cupboardor drawer thal can be locked.

t4


WORKINGWITH SAFEFINISHES I lthougha numberof high-quality A water-based finisheshavebecome finishavailablerecently,solvent-based ing productsare still widely used,and superiorfor someapplicaconsidered tions.Thuswoodworkersmustlearnto protectthemselves againstthe health hazardsassociated with organicsolvents. Organicsolventscanhavea numberof healtheffects.Short-termusecanresult and in ailmentsrangingfrom headaches nauseato skin and eyeirritation. With

extendeduse,manysolventsareknown to damagethe centralnervoussystem or respiratorytract. Someglycolethers aresuspected ofcausingbirth defects, whileothersolvents,likemethylenechloride,havebeenlinkedwith cardiacarrest. Solventscan be absorbedinto the bloodstreamin a numberof ways:after beinginhaled,or ingestedalongwith food left in the shop,absorbedthrough whenvaporssetthe skin,or swallowed finishtle in saliva.Mostsolvent-based

esareunlikelyto causeharmwhenused occasionally, and areonly poisonousif swallowed.But you still needto be aware of the combinationand concentration of organicsolventsin a particularfinish if you plan to usethe product in large periodof quantitiesor overan extended time.Thechart belowliststhe solvents containedin a varietyof finishingproductsand assesses the relativetoxicityof eachone.Be sureto choosethe safest productfor thejob at hand.

Toxrc soLvENTs PRODUCT FINISHING

SOLVENT

Wood filler(paste andliquid)

Petroleum naphtha,* mineral spirits,* acetone,** methyl ethylketone,** methyl ** isobutyl isopropanol, ketone*** glycol xylene,*** methanol,*** ethers*** Ethanol,* mineral spirits,* toluene,***

(aniline, gelandglazwiping, NGR, Stains ingstains; colorpigments) (whiteandorange) Shellacs (spray Lacquers andbrush,sanding sealers) Lacquer thinner oil) Rubbing oils(Danish oil,antique

Ethanol,* methanol*** glycolethers*** Acetone,** methyl ethylketone,** isopropanol,** methanol,*** xylene,*** glycol Acetone,** methyl ethylketone,** isopropanol,** ethers,*** toluene*** naphtha,* VM&P turpentine,** toluene***

tungoil) Mineral spirits,* turpentine** Drying oils(boiled linseed oil,polymerized (tung VM&P naphtha* Varnishes oilvarnish, sparvarnish, varnish stain) Mineral spirits,* (polyvarnish, Mineral spirits,* toluene*** Polyurethanes urethane stains) ishremovers Lacouer/varn (paste Waxes wax,furniture wax)

methyl isobutyl ketone,*** Acetone,** xylene,*** methanol,*** toluene*** Petroleum naphtha,* turpentine** * Safestproduct** Mildlyhazardous product*** Product to beavoided if possible

w00Ds Toxtc Asanyone whohassuffered through reaction to an allergic or irritating with wooddustwilltestify,working certainwoodscan ooseserious healthrisks,Thedustfrommany species, likeblackcherry, Douglasfir,andpine,is known to causerespiratoryailments suchasrhinitis(or nasalinflammation) andasthma. woods, including Other oak,ash,and birch,canirritatetheskinandeyes.

likeebony, Somespecies, South American mahogany, andWestern redcedar, contain toxicchemicals thatcanbe inhaled, ingested, or absorbed throughcutsandscratches.Although thechemicals arepresentin minutequantities, theymay causeproblems ranging fromheadachesto inegularheartbeat. yourself Protect fromdirectexposure yourshop to wooddustby keeping

15

Weara cleanandwellventilated. dustmaskfor cuttingoperations. Whenhandling a species whichyou knowor suspect maytrigger an allergicreaction, spread a barrier cream gear, onyourskinor wearprotective gloves, glasses, including safety and longsleeves andpants.Referto the backendpaper for a chartlistinga varietyof toxicwoodsandtheirpossiblehealtheffects.


FIRESAFETY /a onsiderins thenumberof flammaignition \-, Ut.rut.ri"ul,andpotential in a woodworkingshop,firepresources ventionshouldbeoneofyour foremost wood,paint, safetyconcerns. Sawdust, often andthinnerstendto accumulatel theyareneartoolsthat producesparks andheat.Thecombination canorove volatile:When vaporizedin a imall enoughconcentraiionof air, a small quantityof lacquerthinner,for example,canbeignitedby a sparkfrom a tool andcausea life-threatening explosion.

The first stepin fire safetyis prevention.All finishingproductsandsolvents, for example, shouldbestoredawayfrom heatsourcesin airtight glassor metal preferably containers, in a fireproofcabinet (pageB9).Hangragssoakedwith flammablechemicals to dry outdoors, or soakthemin waterandstorethemin Whenworkine sealedmetalcontainers. with finishingproducts, keepwindowi openandthe shopwellventilated. Bepreparedto dealwitha fireeffectively.Installa smokedetectoron the

shopceilingor a wall,andkeepanABC fire extinguishernearby.Designa fire planthat mapsout two posevacuation routesfrom eachroom of sibleescape thebuildingin whichtheshopis located.Ifthe fireinvolvesan electrictool,a powercord,or an electrical outlet,shut offthe power.Callthe fire department immediately, inform themof thenature of thefire,andtry to extinguish theblaze yourself.But if theflamescannotbecontained,or thefireis comingfrom inside a wall or ceiling,evacuate thebuilding.

PREPARING AGAINST FIRE Installing a smoke detector Openthecoverof thedetector, holdthebaseonthe ceiling orwall,andmarkthescrew holes. Borea hole fora screwanchor at eachmark.Taotheanchors into and,holding thedetector in position, drive theholes a screwintoeachanchorto secure the base(right). Testthe Installa battery andclosethedetector cover. device onceeverymonth.First,press thetestbutton. Then,blowouta lit matchor candlebelowa vent, letting thebattery if thealarm smoke enterit. Replace doesnotsoundforbothtests-orif it emitsa chirping indicating isweak. sound, thebattery

Controlling a fire Toextinguish a small,contained f ire,useanABC-rateddry-chemical f ireextinguisher, whichis effective against allthreemajorclasses of fires:burning woodor (Class othercombustibles A),oil-orgrease-fed flames (Class (Class yourB),andelectrical blazes C).Position fromthefirewithyourbackto the selfa safedistance pullthe nearest exit.Holding theextinguisher upright, (insef)and lockpinoutof thehandle aimthenozzle at thebaseof theflames. Squeeze thehandle andspray rna quick,side{o-side motion(/eff)untilthef ireisout. Watch for"flashback," orrekindling, andbeprepared to spray again.lf thefirespreads, leave thebuilding. Dispose of burned wastefollowing theadvice of thef ire profesdepartment. Afteruse,havetheextinguisher sionally recharged; replace it if it is non-rechargeable.

T6


ELECTRICALSAFETY lectricityplaysa majorrolein the modernwoodworking shop,poweringmachines andtools,lightingfixturesandlamps,andheatingsystems. Electricityis thatit isall socommonplace tooeasyto forgetis potentialfor danger. An electrical shock,evenonethatcan Forthisreahardlybefelt,canbedeadly. is strictlyregson,theelectrical system designed ulatedbycodes andstandards to protectyoufromfireandshock. Livingsafelywith electricityalso requiresfollowingbasicprecautions Inspect designed to preventmishaps. plugsfor cracksandpowercordsfor frayrng,andreplace anywornor damagedpart beforeusinga tool.Never replace ablownfusewithoneof ahigheramperage. Donotplugathree-prong pluginto a two-slotoutletby removingthegroundingprongfroma threeprongplug.Instead, replace theoutlet withaGFCI|WA. Beforeundertaking a repair,shutoff theoowerattheservice oanel.Towork wearrubbergloves and, on thesystem, wherepossible, useonlyonehand,keepingyourfreehandbehindyourback.

INSAFELY PLUGGING

UsingGFGI outlets TheU.S.National Electrical Coderequires thatanynewoutletin a garage or unfinished basement mustbe protected bya ground-fault circuitinterrupter(GFCI). A GFCIprotects a circuit-andyou-by monitoring theflowof passing it andtrippinginstantly whenit detects a leakto electricity through ground. anoutletin yourshop,installa GFCI, suchas lf youneedto replace manufacturer's theoneshown above, followingthe directions, or havea qualimonthbypushing fiedelectrician dothework.Testtheoutletonceevery the TESTbutton; theRESET buttonshouldpopout.lf it doesnot,havetheoutlet Toreactivate theoutlet,press theRESET button. serviced.

F(|REXTENSION MINIMUM WIREGAUGE CORDS

o-2.0 2,1-3.4 3.5-5.0 5.1-7.0 7.I-12,0 12.1-16.0

gauge Choosing a wirewiththeproper Usinganextension cordwiththewronggauge can in lossof powcause a dropin linevoltage, resulting heat.andtoolburnout. Referto the er.excessive chartat leftto determine theminimum wiregauge your forthetoolandtaskat hand.lf, for instance, toolhasa 7 -ampmotorandyoulre usinga 75{oot gauge extension cord,theminimum should be 14. Choose onlyround-jacketed extension cordslisted (UL). byUnderwriters Laboratory

F(lR MINIMUM GAUGE TENGTH DIFFERE}IT CORDS

AMPERAGI RATII{G OFTOOL 25'

50'

75'

18

18

18

18 18

18

18

18

18 18

16 T4

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16

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PERSONALSAFETYGEAR -f h. personal safety equipment shown I belowcango a longwaytoward shieldingyou frommostdangers in the workshop. Butcarryingan inventory of safetygearis not enough;theitems mustbeproperlyusedto protectyou frominjury. Theneedfor someitemsmaynotbe readilyapparent, althoughthedangers

areveryreal.Fewwoodworkers needto beremindedof thecuttingpowerof a spinningsawbladeorjointercutterhead. Less wellknownarethelong-termeffects ofbeingexposed to thesoundgenerated by powertools.Thecharton thenext pagelistsa varietyof powertoolsalong with theirapproximate noiselevelsin Thechartalsoindicates decibels. the

Iongestrecommendedtime that an unprotectedpersoncanbe exposedto variouslevelsbeforeriskingpermanent hearingloss. Remember, too,that evenshort-term exposureto somenoise,while it may not leadto hearingloss,can dull the senses and causea woodworker'salertnessto flag-a setupfor an accident.

A PAI{OPIY OFSAFETY EOUIPMENT 5afety gogglee Flexible,moldedplaati" f,: lli 6o6qleoprotect eyee. Typewith perforated vani \ holeaehieldaaqainat impact injury and sawduat; type with baffled vents protecto a7ainot ahemical apla ehea: nonvented qoq7leaalbo available. Faae shield Clear plaatic ahieldprotecta a4ainat. flyinq debria and eplaahea;featurea adjuetable head 4ear Rubber glovea Houaeholdrubber gloveoor dieposable vinylqloveoprotect aqainot mild chemicals or finishea;neoprenerubber aloveashield akin from cauetic finiahinq Producto

for one-time-uoe protection aqainet inhaiationof duat or miaX featurea a cotton or fiber shield with an adjuotable head atrap and a metal noee olip

Dua l-aaftri dg e res pi rato r Frotecta aqainet fumeawhenworkin4 with chemicalaor aprayinqa finiah. lnterchanqeablefiltera and chemical cartridqee ehield aqainat opecific hazards; filter prevents inhalationof dust. Cartridqea purify air and expeltoxina th rough exhalation valve

Reuaableduat mask Features a neoprenerubber or aoft plaatii frame with an adjubtable head etrap and a replaceablecotton fiber or 7auzefiltec protecte againet duet and misL

Ear plugs with neakband Detachablefoam-rubberpluqa compreooed and inaerted into ear canals providehearinq protection from high-inteneity power tool noiae;plaatic neckbandfits around neck Ear muffs Cuahionedmuffa with adiuetable plaatic head eirap protbct hearinq againot hi1h-intenaity noiae from power toola

Work gloves For handlinqrouqh lumbentypically featuree leather or thick fabrio palmo and finqertipe with elaaticized or knitted wrists

2afetyglaeeee

j

I

\ ?;f:lT,if'tr:;i::fT:f leneeeproteot eyeb from flyinq woodchipo and other debris: t.ypicallyfeature aide ahielda

t8


SAFETY

T(|(ILS PR(IDUCED BYPOWER NOISE LEVELS * IEVELS MACHII{E SOUND

115

1%-Hfrouter

I09

112

2-HF circular eaw l-HP router %.-HPradial arm %-HPioi %-HFrouter %-HPband

2-HFahaper 2-HP table aaw %-HFdrill preao * Higheet decibel rating while cutting hardwood Occupational )afety a nd Healih Adminiat.rat'ion (OAHA) atandarda for permiaoible noiae expoeure without heari n4 protec'tion

Sound level in decibela Maximum oafe expooure per day (hr)

yourhearing-unless yourunthemachine all day drillpressis unlikely to damage Whilea %-horsepower produced only a 1 %-horsepower router can be dangerous after to the noise by long-unprotected exposure produced power Keep in noise levels by a variety of tools. chartshows approximate 30 minutes. Theabove generate with well-sharpened cutting edges. morenoise thanthose mindthattoolswithdullcutters or blades

A RESPIRATOR TESTING forairleaks Checking yourface.No is onlyasgoodasitssealagainst A respirator placeit overyour Totestyourrespirator, seal,no protection. face,settingthetopstrapoverthecrownof yourhead.Adjust coverthe thesidestrapsfora snugfit. Totesttherespirator, outgently(right).There outletvalvewithyourhandandbreathe lf air leaksout around thefacepiece. shouldbe noair leakage readjust thestrapsfora tighterfit. Replace of therespirator, following themanufacturer's thefacepiece whennecessary Usetheappropriate filinstructions, or replace therespirator. tersforthejobat hand.(lf youhavea beard,usea full-face ventilation.) maskwithforced-air

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I9


SAFETY

()FPUSHSTICKDESIGNS A VARIETY

12"

-

12"

PUSH STICKS Pushsticksforfeeding stockacross stationary tooltablescanbe purchasedready-made, buttheyare easyto makein the shopusing%inchplywood scraps anda bandsaw or sabersaw.Thevariations shown above canserveasroughguides,but nooneshapeis idealfor everysituation.Design a pushstickthatis comfortable to holdandsuitedto the machine andooeration at hand.The pushstick longbaseof a rectangular (above,left)or shoe-shaped model (above,right)allowsyouto apply pressure firm downward on a workpiece.Eitherdesign will effectively keepyourhandsawayfroma blade or cutterwhilepushing narrow stock across a sawtable. Formostcutson a tablesaw,design a pushstickwitha 45' anglebetween the handleandthe base(above, cenA pushstickfeaturing fer.). a smaller angle, withthe handle closer to the table,worksbetterfor rippingwood

'

on a radialarmsaw.Whatever design To usea pushstickon a radialarm youchoose, the notchonthe bottom saw(below), set it against thetrailedgemustbedeepenough to support ingendof theworkpiece andfeed theworkpiece, butshallow enough it intothe blade;at thesametime, notto contact themachine table.You applysomesidepressure to keep canalsochamfer theedges of the thestockflushagainst thefence. grip. handle for a morecomfortable Whenthecut is completed, retract Keepyourpushstickscloseat hand, the pushstickcarefully to prevent readyto feedstockwhennecessary. it fromcatching in the blade.

20


SAFETY

PUSHBTOCK

FACE JOINTING FOR A PUSHBLOCK Thelong,widebaseof thepushblock the shownaboveis idealforsurfacing faceof a boardona jointer.Although pushblocks forsuchjobsareavailable youcaneasily fashion commercially,

yourown.Referto the illustration for buttailorthe dimensions, suggested to suityourownneeds. design to size,thengluethe Cutthepieces of thebase,flush lip to theunderside to the thehandle withoneend.Screw

2I

it sothebackis even top,positioning withthe endof the base.Drivethe of the base; screws fromtheunderside to thefasteners besureto countersink whenyou theworkpiece avoidmarring feedit across thejointerknives.Borea holenearthefrontendof the baseso youcanhangthe pushblockon the wallwhenit is notin use. Tousethepushblock,settheworkpieceon thejointer's infeedtablea fromtheknives, butting fewinches thefence.Thenlay its edgeagainst ontopof the thepushblocksquarely itssides,with between stock,centered endof the thelip overthetrailing hand workpiece. Withyourleading on thefrontendof thestockandyour thepushblock, against thumbbraced across the slowlyfeedtheworkpiece knives(/efil.(Forstockthinnerthan 3/a Apply inch,useonlythepushblock.) pressure to keepthestock downward flatonthetablesandlateral Dressure thefence. to keepit buttedagainst


SAFETY

FEATHERBOARDS Featherboards, alsoknown asfingerboards, areusedto keepstock pressed snuglyagainst thefenceor tableof a stationary tool.Theyalso serve asanti-kickback devices, since thefingers allowa workpiece to movein onlyonedirection-toward thebladeor bit.Twobasicdesigns areshown at right.Themiter-slot featherboard is attached to a bar thatisclamped in themiterslotof a woodworking machine table.The standard featherboard isclamped directly to thetableorfence. Tomakeeithertype,cuta %-inchthickboard 3 to 4 inches wideand longenough to suitthejobat hand. Cuta 30"-to 45o-miterat theend of theboard, thenmarka parallel line about5 inches fromthemitered end. Cuta series of X-inch-wide slotsto themarked lineabout1linchaoart, creating a rowof pliable fingers. For

FEATHERB()ARDS

9tandard featherboard

themiter-slot type,routa slotdown the underside of thebar.(Acarriage themiddleof the boardwideenough boltorflat-head machine screwwill for a machine screw; alsocuta wood workwell.)Tosetupthefeatherboard, barthelength andwidthof thetable's slipthescrewthrough thebar,fit the miterslot,Borea holeforthescrew barin thetablemiterslot,andusea through thebar,countersinking it so washer andwingnutto fastenthe thescrewheadcanbe recessed in featherboard tightlyto thebarso its f ingersholdtheworkpiece against thefence.Clamp themiterbarin placeat thefrontor backof thetable. Forthestandard featherboard, cut a notchoutof oneedgeto accommodate a supportboard.Tousethe deviceonthetablesaw(/eftl,clamp onefeatherboard to thefenceabove the blade, andplacea second one halfway between thebladeandthe frontof thetable.Clampa support boardperpendicular to thefeatherboardfor extrapressure to prevent it fromcreeping outof place.For thecutshown, feedtheworkpiece intothebladeuntilyourtrailing fingersreachthefeatherboards. Then, withthesawstillrunning, moveto thebackof thetableandpullthe pasttheblade.0r, use workpiece a pushstickto complete thecut.

22


FIRSTAID carefrrl-orstopworkingost woodworkingaccidentsarise Beespecially ifyouarefatigued. from the improperuseof tools canbefalleventhemost Accidents and safetyguards,unsafework habits, Boards split,blades woodworker. materials. carefirl hazardous mishandling and finishing Many liquids splash. properly for a nick, and to set up Thkethe time productscontainchemicals thatemit job, gatheringtogetherthe tools,equipor naucausing dizziness ment, and materialsyou need.Always ioxicfumes, potential hazards in mind the sea. Keep gear. Work safety usethe appropriate job. use. Storea or material of anv tool vou a never hurry through methodically;

FIRST.AID SUPPTIES Adheaive bandagea )terile 4auze dreeeinqo with adheaiveatripa for protecting acratchea or minor cuta. Availablein a widevariety of sizes and ahapes:gquare,rectan' qutAr,rouid, butterfty, and finaerbip

Tweezera Extract eplintera or other emall objecto lod7ed in akin. Made of etainlese steel in a variety of ohapeeand aizea;flat-tipped type 41/z inchealon7 ie common

withthebasicsupfirst-aidkit, stocked pliesshownbelow,in aneasilyaccessible spotin yourshop.In theeventofanaccito beableto dent,youwill wantanyone firstaid. find it quicklyto administer numbers telephone Keepemergency for handlingsome handy.Techniques areshownon commonshopmishaps thefollowingpages.

Oauze roller bandage Otedle roll oecureaqauzedreoainga; faotened with medical tape or aafety pin, or by knottinq. Available in lenqtha of 5 to 10 yardo and widtha of 1 to 4 inchea

Medical tape )ecurea qauzedreeein7a,1auze roller bandaqesor eyepada: hypoaller4enicfor aenaitiveakin.Avail' able in lenqthaof 2 %to 10yarda and in widths of %to 5 inches

Ipeaaa eyrup For inducin7vomitinq in a poiaoningvictim. Caution:Administer only if advieed by a phyeicianor poiaon control center

Triangular bandage Multipurpoee cotton banda7ecan be folded to make alin4,pad, or bandaqe; meaeurea55 incheaacroeo baoeand 36 to 40 incheaalona each aide Eye irrigator Filled with water and ueed to fluah foreiqn particleo from eye

Rubbingalaohol Alao knownaa iaopropylalcohol: aterilizea tweezero and other firat' aid equipment

Hydrogen peroxide For cleaninqwounds beforeapplyinqadheoive banda7ee,1auzedreaa' inga,or qauze roiler bandaqea;aommonly availablein 3% aolution

r\r\ Gauze dreeaing )terile pad for coverin7 a wound;becuredwith medical tape or qauzeroller bandaqe. Availablein aizes of 2-by-2, 3-W-3 and 4-by-4 inchea

23

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\-'l Eye pada )terile pado taped over eyee to protect them and prevent movement:aelf-aaneoivepatchea alao available


SAFETY

PROVIDING MINOR FIRST AID

//

J

Clearing a pailiclefromtheeye Holdyouraffected eyeopenwiththeforefinger andthumbof onehand.Slowlyrotateyoureye,if necessary, to helpexpose the particle. Gentlywipeawaythe particle usingthetwisted endof a tissuemoistened withwater(above, left).Or,till an eyeirrigator withcoolwateranduseit to flushoutthe particle. Leanforwardwith botheyesclosedandpressthe rim of the

irrigator against theaffected eye,andtilt backyourhead.Open youreyes(above, right)andblinkseveral timesto flushoutthe particle. lf youcannotremove theparticle, seekmedical help immediately. Caution: Donotremove a particle that is onthe cornea, is embedded, or hasadhered to theeye.

Flushing a chemical fiomtheeye Holding the eyelids of theaffected eye apart,flushtheeyethoroughly forat least 15 minutesundera gentleflowof cool waterfroma faucet(right)or pitcher;tilt yourheadto onesideto prevent thechemicalfrombeingwashed intotheuninjured eye.lf youareoutdoors, flushthe eye usinga gardenhose.Gentlycoverboth eyeswitheyepadsor sterilegauzedressingsandseekmedical helpimmediately.

24


SAFETY

outa splinter Pulling with thesolinter Washtheskinaround even soapandwater.(A metalsplinter, it, mayrequire if youareableto remove help,) seekmedical fortetanus; treatment a needle sterilize thesplinter, To remove Ease alcohol. withrubbing andtweezers outfromunderthe theendof thesplinter thenpullit outwith skinusingtheneedle, (right).Cleanthe skinagain the tweezers cannot withsoapandwater.lf thesplinter attention. seekmedical beremoved.

Treating a cut Wrapthewoundin a cleanclothand withyourhandto applydirectpressure keepthewoundelevatstopanybleeding; blood-soaked, ed. lf theclothbecomes perwrapanother clothoverit. lf bleeding seek sistsorthewoundis deeporgaping, washthewound medical help.Otherwise, it; for withsoapandwater,thenbandage draw its edges shallow wound, a narrow, (left). closedwith a butterflybandage

25


SAFETY

CONTROTLING BLEEDING

4@= \,

Applying directpressure to stopbleeding To helpstopprofuse or rapidbleeding, applydirectpressure to dressing to inspect thewound. lt willbeeasier to maintain thewoundwitha gauzedressing or a cleanclothand,if possi- steady pressure if youwrapthewoundwitha rollerbandage ble,elevate the injury(above, left).DiecIpressure shouldstop (above, right)toraddeddirectpressure. lf youcannotstop theflowof bloodandallowit to clot.lf thedressing becomes thebleeding, callformedical help. blood-soaked, addanother overthefirstone;avoidliftingthe

HANDTING A SH(ICK VICTIM Treating a shockvictim Somedegree of shock-either immediate or delayed-accompanies anyinjury. Shockcanbe provoked by lossof blood,pain,or an allergic reaction. Signsof shockinclude anxiety orconfusion;coldorclammy skin;weak,iregular breath. ingor pulse;andlossof consciousness. lf you suspect an injuryvictimis suffering fromshock, immediately callforemergency help.lf thevictim placehimon hisbackwithhisfeet is conscious, propped up8 to 12 inches above thelevelof his head(right). Loosen thevictim'sclothing around theneck,chest,andwaist.Keepthevictimwarm witha blanket, butavoidoverheating. Donotgive thevictimanything to eatordrink.

26


SAFETY

SHOCK A VICTIMOFELECTRICAL TREATING a victimfroma livecurrent Freeing whocontacts a livecurrentmay A person sensation. onlya mildtingling experience however, thevictim'smusSometimes, the around involuntarily clescontract Donottouchthevictimorthe source. lnstead, immediately source. electrical in thecircuit stopthef lowof electricity panel.lf at a wallswitchor theservice cannot beshutoffimmeditheelectricity suchas ately,usea drywoodimplement, thevictimfree handle, to knock a broom source(right).CallIor of the electrical m e d i c ahle l pi m m e d i a t et lhye, nc h e c k lf there andpulse. thevictim's breathing givemouth-to-mouth resusis nobreathing, givecardiopulif thereis nopulse, citation; (CPR) onlyif youare resuscitatton monary q u a li e f d .l f t h ev i c t i mi s b r e a t h i n ag nd placehimin hasnoneckor backinjury, (below). position Ttltthe the recovery victim's headbackfaceto drawhistongue awayfromhisthroatandkeepthe airw a yo p e n K . e e pt h ev i c t i mc a l mu n t i l heloarrives.

27


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SHOPIAOI-]T Each thebasement or a garage. s they gain experience pros A has its and cons. baseand accumulatetools. ment ii apt to be damp and most woodworkerspine for mayneedto haveits wiring and their own specialplace to heatingupgraded;access can practicetheir skills.In their hampered narrow doors, be by fantasies, the workshopis an tight stairways,and low ceilairy spaceequippedwith a subings;and ventilationmay be stantial workbench and an inadequatefor finishingtasks. arravof stationarvmachines garage,on the otherhand,is A andportabletools.Thereality apt to be cold;it may require for manywoodworkers,howwiring andheating.Thewoodever,is much more modest. workermayendup jostlingfor The typical shopneverseems spacewith a car or two. Even in spaciousshops,tools occasionallyneed to be to haveenoughlight,power,or Still,with a bit of planning movedaround; in small shopl reassigning elbowroom. floor spacemay and the proper layout, even havespacespecifbe a part of everyproject.A wheeledbasecan make a 10Fewhomes pictured theselocationscanbe turned here,easyto reposition. inch tablesaw,like the one ically designedasa workshop to your advantage: A basement area.As a result,settingup a moreeasilythana garage. Onthe canbeheated andpowered home shopdemandscreativityand flexibility;the taskoften hasalargerdoorthroughwhichto move otherhand,a garage involvesconvertingan arcaoriginallyintendedfor someothmaterials likeplpvood,itsairislesshumid, er purpose.With carefulplanningand forethought,however, lumberandsheet canbeisoandthedinof powertoolsandfumesof finishing a locationthat might appearunsuitablecanbeturnedinto an latedfromlivingspaces. efficient,comfortableplaceto work. to followwhen Thischapter outlines somebasicprinciples severalother Althoughsizeis oftenthe first consideration, one.Topics designing a newshopor upgrading anexisting concernsmaybe more important.For example,situatinga plannng(pages for 30and3l);allowing adequate space shopin a spareroomon themainfloor of a homemayprovide include likeheat, andprovidingfor necessities tools(pages 32-40); a largeworking area,but noiseand dust from toolswould power(pages light,andelectrical 41-45). Bylistingyourobjecprobablyinconvenience othermembersof the family.To suit yourwork,youcanapplythese examining their own needswithout intrudingtoo muchon the people tivesandclosely principles homeshopsin to create a layoutthatsuitsyourownneeds. commonlylocate theylivewith,woodworkers

Everyhour spentplanningshoplayoutpaysdividendslater on. Tbdeterminethebestwayto arrangethetoolsplannedfor placesoverhead-view silhouettes theshop,e woodworker of the toolson a scaledrawingof thespace.

29


WORKSHOPPLANNING to shufflepapercutouts I t is fareasier I of vourtoolson a template thanit isto draga tablesawhalfwayicrosstheshop. Time spentplanningthe layoutof your shopwill be morethan amplyrewarded in reducedfrustrationandincreased efficiencywhenyou go to work. Designinga shopinvolvesjuggling many interdependent variables,from localhumidityandtheqpe of work you do to the heightof the ceilingand the costof wiring. To help sort them out, likethose askyourselfasetofquestions, in the checkliston page31, to help determinethe kind of shoomostsuitablefor yourneedsandremindyou of factors that may affect its design. Remember, too, a basicprinciplefor

anyshop,illustrated below,thatthelumbershouldtakea relativelystraightpath asit is processed-almostasthoughthe shoowerean assemblv line.

Referto the illustratedinventoryof stationarymachines andtablesstarting on page32asa guideto spaceandlighting requirements. Thebestwayto design

A multipurpose stationary power tool can helpyou make the most of a crampedworkspace.The machineat right is an all-in-one tablesew,drill press,disk sander,and lathe. Accessory attachmentsalso allow it to serveas a band saw,jigsaw, and jointer.

T()OIPLACEMENT ANDWORKFLOW

Lumbergtoraqe

Dand saw

lxH 'â‚Ź_-J

Designing a shoparound process thewoodworking F o rm a x i m u e mf fi c i e n c yl a, yO u t h e t o o l si n y o u rs h o ps ot h a tt h el u m b e r followsa f aily directroutefromrough pieces. stockto f inished Thediagram at leftillustrates a logical workf lowfora medium-size workshop. At theupper left-hand corner istheentrance where lumber isstored onracks. Totherightis thestockpreparation area,devoted to the jointer, tablesaw(orradral armsaw), and p l a n ear ;t t h i ss t a t i o nl u, m b ei rs c u tt o roughlengthandsurfaced. Theheartof thenextworkarea,nearthebottom righthandcorner of thedrawing, is theworkbench. Radiating outward fromthebench aretheshop'sotherstationary tools-in thiscase, a drillpress, lathe, routertable (orshaper), andbandsaw.A toolcabinet is nearby. Moving clockwise, thef inalwork areaissetasideforassembly andf inishing.Thisstation features a tableforgluing up pieces andshelves fordrying andstoring.Thesprayboothis closeby,butisolatedfromtheshopbywallsonthreesides.

Wi,ft Izil,",t

30


SHOP LAYOUT

the layoutis to experimentwith arranging photocopies of scaledrawingsof the tools (page35)on a sheetofgraph paper.Remember that a tool shouldbe doorisvisoositionedsothatan access ible from it. In addition,a workpiece kickedbackfrom the tool shouldnot be ableto strikesomeoneworking at anotherstation. for speConsiderdedicatingspaces cificwoodworkingtasls.A finishingarea or spraybooth requirespriority in planningbecause of light,temperature, and ventilationneeds. Dependingon the extentof your shop you andlocalzoningandbuildingcodes, may needto obtainpermits;consult your localbuilding inspectionoffice.

illltlltl|ltllllljrlllllllllrlllllljllllllrlllllllllilllllljllllllllrll1 1HO?Tt? Atable eaw on wheels and DecauseiI is Lhelarqeot, q Nool heaviesl woodworkin in manyohopo,a Iable oaw uouallyetaye pul, whichcan bea drawbackin a emallohopwhereepaceie By mounting at,a premium. you can il on wheels,however, eaeilyehifl your 6awout of the waywhenit is not in uee.lfyour baee,measure sawdid nol comewith a wheeled ohop lhe baseof the moNorhoueinqand havea melalworkin4 Formaximuftltrlafitaubuilda rollinqbaoelo your epecificaf,ions, includinq the baseehouldhavelhree wheels, onelhaL verability, KeepIhe sawfrom movingor tiVpingwheniNie in ueeby pivoNe. wedqinq two Irianqularwoodehimeunderthe wheelsal lhe front of the baee.

A SHOPTAYOUT CHECKLIST TOGATION

TYPE OFWORK

WORK HABITS

o Whichavailable areas in andaround yourhomeareappropriate fora shop?

. Whattypeof woodworking projects will youbedoing?

r Whatroomtemperature will youneed to workcomfortably?

o Howeasyis theaccess to theseareas?

o Whatsizearethe materials youwill needto movein andoutof theshop?

. Whattypeof lightdo youprefer forworking?

' Howmuchspacewill bedevoted to lumber andwork-in-progress? storing

r W i l ly o ub ew o r k i ndgu r i n gd a y l i g h t h o u r so, r w i l ly o ub e u s i n gt h es h o p at night?

. ls theelectric wiringadequate for poweringyourtoolsandlighting? . Howwellaretheareas heated, insulated,andventilated? r Willshopnoisedisturb otherareas? . lf thelocation is a basement, willthe shopbesharing space witha furnace room? roomor laundry . l f t h e l o c a t i oins a n o u t b u i l d i nogr garage, howmuchspaceistakenup by lawnmowers, andsoon? cars,bicycles, . Does orgarage haveany thebuilding heating, electricity, or plumbing? o Howsecureis the buildingor garage fromtheft?

r Whatstationary podable powmachines, ertools,andhandtoolswillyouneed? . Arethereenough electrical circuits to supplyyourpowerneeds? o Howmanylighting fixtures doesyour workreouire? . Howmanyworkbenches, assembly liketoolcabinets, tables,andaccessories scrapbins,andsawhorses willyouneed? . Willlocalseasonal temperatures and humidity affectyourwork? . Willyoubedoinga lotof f inishing work?

31

o Whichtoolsdo youexpectto use mostoften? . Willyoubeworking alonein theshop,or will it be usedbyanother worker? Would thatperson haveeasyaccess to theshop? o Willyouneedto locktheshopor keep it off-limits to children or pets? o Howmanyhoursperdaydo youexpect to spendin theshop? r ls theflooring madeof a material that is comfortable to standon for longperiodsof time?


PLANNINGFORSTIIfIONARYTOOLS TABTE

sAw

LIOHTING Naeda liqht from above, to the laft of and behindblade

LIGHNNA Needeliqht.from aboveand to the riqht of blade;porLable clamp-onli7ht can be uaed

CLEARANCE Needa enouqh clearance around table for lon6 boarde;keeplineof work clear. Best location ia center of ahop

CLEARANCE No clearanceneededon throatcolumn aide; requirea4 feet of clearanceon other aideefor lonq boarda. Keepline of work alear. Can be poeitionedaqainat a wallor in a corner

RADIAT ARMSAW

LIOHTINO Needali7ht from aides, front and above

ROUTER TABTE LIOHTING Needaliqht from front and both aides

CLEARANCE CLEARANCE Na clearanae needed behindtool; qood location ia againat wall.Allowabout 12 feet of clearance on either eidefor long boarde

Relativelyportable.Allow at leaat 6 fert of clearance in front and to the aides whenin operation;needo no clearancebehindtable. Good location ie aqainet wall: keepline of work clear so that a kiaked back workpiecewould not.atrike another worker

32


SHOP LAYOUT

SHAPER

DRITL PRESS

LIOHTING Liqht muat focua directly on bit from overhead; portable clamp-on Iiqht can be uaed

CLEARANCE No clearanceneeded behindtoob qood loca' tion ia aqainet wall, AIIow3 feet of clearance on either aide, and enou4hclearance in front for widework

LIGHTING Needalight from fronL and aidea

CLEARANCE Allowat leaat 6 feet of alearance in front and to the sides: no clearanceneededbehindtool. Good location is aqainat wall; keeplineof workclear ao that a workpiecethat ie kickedback will not atrike another worker

JOINTEUPTANER

LIOHTINO Needalightfrom aboveand front of tablea

JOINTER CLEARANCE Allow3 to 4 feet of clearance on aidea,more for lonqboarde; keeplineof workclear. Good location ta near lumberatoraqe rack for eaey aurfacin4of atock

LIGHTINO Needaliqht from lefL and rear of tool

TATHE LIOHTING )verhead li4ht muat focua directly on work CLEARANCE Allow3 feet of clearancein front of tablea and enouqhclearanceon both aideafor long boarde;keep lineof workclear. Dest location ie behindor to [ef, of table eaw

CLEARANCE Leave3 feet of clearancein front: can be poaitioneda7ainet a wall ainceworkis containedbv tool

33


SHOP LAYOUT

ASSEMBLY AND FINISHING TABTE

BENCH GRINDER Deet.location ia near lathe aincethe cutting toola ueed with it require frequenL4 rindinq. Needa clearanceand li4ht on front only;porEable clamp-onlight can be aimed directly at whee[

LIGHTING Needeliqht from aboveand aidea:natural li4ht preferable

CLEARANCE Minimalclearance needed;qood loaation ie near window

STATIONARY BEtTSANDER LIOHTINO Needeliqht from front and left of tool

scR0ltsAw

CLEARANCE Allow 5 to 6 feet of clearance to bhe aidea for lon4 work;leave3 to 4 feet in front of and to either side of diak aander. Keepline of work clear LIOHTINO Li4ht needed to the riqht. of blade;portable clamp-onlight can be uoed to ehinedirectly on work

CLEARANCE Needa 5 feet of clearanceat front and eidea;no alearance neededbehind tool. Oood location ie a4ainot wall

WORKBENCH

LIGHTING Needali4ht from above, parLicularly over viaeo

CLEARANCE Allow 3 feet of clearance around viaea;can be placed a4ainet wall if neceoear,

34


SHOPLAYOUT

TOOTS DRAWINGS OFSTATIOI{ARY SCATE

Layingouta wodtshop onpapel toolsdrawnat a scaleof V+inch viewsof a dozentypicalstationary aboveareoverhead Theillustrations yourtoolson theshopfloor,sketchyourworkshop spaceon to 1 foot.Tofacilitatethetaskof arranging thispage,cut outthetoolsyouneed,andarrange Thenphotocopy scaledgraphpaper. a sheetof similarly thespaceandlightrequirethe bestlayoutfor yourshop.Consider the cutoutsonthegridto determine spaceto eachone.Alsofactorin yourshop'selectrical 32-34)whenassigning mentsof thetools(pages shop andlightingneeds(pages41-43).Usethe samplelayoutsof a small-,medium-,andlarge-size to getyoustarted. on page36 asguidelines beginning

35


SHOPORGANIZATION LAYOUT OFA SMALL SH()P Laying outtheshop Theillustration below shows onewayof making efficient useof thespacein a smallshop-inthiscase,one-half of a two-car garage. Thethreestationary machines chosen areessential for mostprojects: thetablesaw,thejointer, andthebandsaw.The sawandjointeraremounted oncasters sotheycanbemoved if necessary. Withthebenchandtablethereis amplespace for power handtoolandportable toolwork.Thestorage spaceperforated hardboard andshelving-islocated alongthewalls; a lumberrackis positioned nearthegarage door.Anyexposed

f r a m i nign t h ec e i l i n cgo u l da l s ob eu s e dt o h o l ds t o c kR. e f e r to thekeyin the bottomright-hand corner of the illustration forthetypeandlocation of electrical outlets andlightfixtures. (near Notethatthereisanoverhead master swrtch thebench's t a i lv i s et)h a tc o n t r o a l sl lt h r e em a c h i n eAs t. t e n t i oi ns a l s o (represented paidto feeddirection of eachmachine bythe arrowhead in the key);theaccess doorto theshopis always in theuser's fieldof vision. Caution: lf yourshopshares space youwillnotbeableto spray withmotorized equipment finishes.

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SHOP LAYOUT

tlltllllfillllllffilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillltllllllllllllllll 1HO?TI? A s af e att'enti o n-get t er lf the door to t'heehopis outside are aI yourfieldofvieionwhenyou a machine,lhereie the riekIhat' oomeonemiqhl enLerthe ehoV,t'ap youon the ehoulder, and etarLleYou, ourprioee, Io avoidaccident'caueinq mounf,a liqht bulbaI eyelevelnear the t ool and wireNheswiLchNothe doorframeeo thaLthe bulbliqhto whenlhedooris oVened,Wirinq ano|herbulbto the bellcircuiLof Nhe can solvethe problemof relephone misbina ohone calle:Eaih t'ime th e bellrinio,rhe bulbwillliqht.

DOLTY A SHOP or largeprojects Towheelworkpieces theshop,usetheshop-built around dollvshownbelow.Startwiththe

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cutting baseandcornerblocks, plywood to a size themfrom3/q-inch thatsuitsyourneeds,Screwthe cornerblocksin place,thenfasten

a casterontoeachblock(abovd. cut section, To buildtheshelved for theskirtsandthe eightpieces the legsfrom1-by-3stock;the shelf andthe toP from%-inchplywood; Thelegsshould from%-inchplywood. for the topto sit at be longenough height.Screwthe leg a comfortable pieces thenattachthe together, skirtsto the legs'insidefaces.Fasten theshelfandthetopto theskirts. the legsto the basewith Secure brackets. angle

37


SHOPLAYOUT

SAVING SPACE Setting upa shopin theattic Atticshopshaveseveral strikesagainst them:Theyareoftenuninsulated and theirf loorsarenotdesigned to support heavy weight. In addition, headroom is limitedandaccess problems, canpresent e s p e c i a li lf yy o ua r ew o r k i nwg i t hl o n g planks orfull sheets of plywood. Butfor a luthier, carver, orwoodworker whospecializes in smallprojects, an atticcan bean idealspotfora shop.Asshownin theillustration at left,nailing sheets of plywood sheathing-grade to thejoistswill produce a floorthatis sufficiently sturdy to holdup a workbench andoneof the lighter stationary machines, liketheband saw,Thespaces between thestudsand rafters anddownneartheeaves-where theroofandatticf loormeet-areideal forstoring lumber, tools, andsupplies.

Positioning stationary machines in a confined space lf yourworkshop youmay is cramped haveto forego an idealplacement of stationary machines to allowyouto makethemostofyourlimited space. Consider thedesign of yourmachines youneedto andthefeeddirection use;youmaybeableto placetwo machines closetogether if theyare properly. matched Thehightableof a bandsawandthefeeddirection norm a l l yu s e dw i t ht h em a c h i n e f o, r example, makesit an idealmatch rna tightspace witha jointer(right). Thetwocanbe placedclosetogethe r w h i l es t i l lp r o v i d i nagd e q u a t e spaceto operate eachmachine at separate times.

38


SHOPLAYOUT

SH()P LAYOUT OFA MEDIUM-SIZE shop Settingup a basement T h e m e d i u m - s i zseh o pr e p r e s e n t ebde l o w s h a r e sm a n yo f t h e f e a t u r e so f t h e s m a l l shop(page36): the tablesawand jointera masterswitch(thls olanerareon casters: t i m en e a rt h ed o o rc) o n t r o lasl l t h e m a c h i n e s ; t h e m a c h i n ea s r ep o s i t i o n esdo u s e r sw i l l s e et h e d o o rn e a rt h e b e n c h ;p e r f o r a t e d h a r d b o a radn d s h e l v e sf o r s t o r a g el i n et h e p e r i m e t eorf t h es h o p( s u p p l i ecsa na l s ob e s t o r e du n d e rt h e s t a i r s )a; n d t h e l u m b e r

rackis locatednearthe mainaccessdoorat . i t ht h e e x t r as p a c e , t h e f o o to f t h e s t a i r sW , d r i l lp r e s s , t h i s s h o ph a sr o o mf o r a l a t h e a r . w o r kt a b l ef o r g l u e a n da d u s tc o l l e c t o A u p a n df i n i s h i n gi s p o s i t i o n eadt a w i n d o w w i t h a n e x h a u sfta n .T h ef o c a lp o i n to f t h i s s h o pi s t h e t a b l es a w ;i t i s e q u i d i s t a nf rto m t h e s t o c kp r e p a r a t i oanr e ai n f r o n to f i t , t h e w o r k b e n ctho o n es i d e ,a n dt h e w o r k t a b l eb e h r n di t .

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39


SHOP LAYOUT

LAYOUT OFA LARGE SH()P garage Converting a two-car callsfora shown below Setting upa shopwithallthefeatures garage. Thisshophasmanyof the largespace,likea two-car examined earlier, withaddicharacteristics of thesmaller shops thatallowit to handle a wider tionaltoolsandconveniences finishing room, rangeof projects. At onecorneris a spacious partitioned withan fromthe restof theshopandequipped a bathfanto exhaust fumes. Theshopincludes explosion-proof feato themachines roomwitha sinkanda toilet.In addition andplaner. The turedearlier, thishasa radialarmsaw,shaper,

worksurfaces: onein thefinishing shopboasts threeseparate room,oneforglue-up nearthedrillpress, anda workbench would needan indethe table saw. A shop of this size beside panelto power pendent electrical service allthetools.Tokeep witha raised thewiringoutof theway,halftheflooris covered 3/rinchplywood floor;asshownon page44,an understructure is laidontheconcrete flooron 12-inch centers and of 1-by-2s plywood Wires run in the is nailed to theboards. are conduits between the 1-by-2s. undertheplywood

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POWER ELE,CTRICAL paneldedicatedto the shop.Another point to remember:Any woodworking machinethat drawsmorethansixamps (dedicated)cirshouldbe on a separate cuit,unlessthetool'smotor is shielded. Referto theillustrationon page42 as a guideto planningthe electricallayout of your shop.As you plan,remember that evensimple electricaljobs, like extendinga circuit or replacingan outThey can also let, canbe dangerous. causea fairamountof damage-ranging from burned-outtool motorsto a house fire-if theyarecarriedout improperly. Unlessvou arecualifiedand comfortablewiih the ideaof wiring your shop to theelectricalsystem,havea qualified do thejob. electrician

shouldbe f, lectricpowerrequirement I ; considered of earlyin the process planning a shop'slayout. Allow for growth.Then,asyou addnewtoolsand light fixtures,youwill avoidtheheadaches system:repeatedtripof an inadequate ping of circuitbreakersor blowingof fusfunnelingseveral es,andoctopusadapters oowercordsinto oneoutlet. If you planto wire your shopto your panel,be surethat home'smainservice your electrical supplyhasenoughadditional power.You can geta rough idea of how manyamperesyour shopwill draw from the systemby totalingthe of all thetoolsyou planto use amperage the resultin half.If your dividing and able to handle the is barely svstem on it by your being'placed demands probably will needto you household, othentrance-in your service upgrade of amps the number increase er words, theservicepanelcandrawfrom theutility company.If the shopwill be some distancefrom the main servicepanel,it is a goodideato installa 50-ampsub-

Theworkbenchis a naturalwork surface for usingportablepower tools.Mountinga powerstripon oneofthe legsandpluggingit into theneedfor a an outleteliminates cordfor everytool. separate extension

TIPS TAYOUT ETECTRICAT r Whenplanning layout for theelectrical yourshop,makesurethatoutletsfor powertoolsandlightingfixturesareon circuits. seDarate

thatthewiringof yourshopis inadequate.Upgrade thesystemby installing andwiringthemto a sepanewoutlets panel. ratecircuitontheservice

o Unless yourshophasbrightwindows withbattery or yourlightsareequipped includeat leasttwoseparate backups, layout. circuitsin yourelectrical lighting the In theeventonecircuitis disabled, intotheothercircuitwill lightsplugged stillwork.

o Protect or anynewoutletin a garage a ground-fault by installing basement (GFCI). circuitintenupter

r Placeoutletscloseto theeventual locadistribtionof thetoolstheywillpower; all around theshooto allow uteoutlets forfuturetoolacquisitions. . Avoidlocating onthefloor;they outlets filledwithsawbecome willeventually dustandbea firehazard. . Avoidplugging toolsintooneoutlet thiscanoveradapter; usinganoctopus andis a sign system, loadyourelectrical

. Neverworkon thewiringof theservice live panel; wiresmayremain entrance evenwhenpoweris shutoff at the main orfuseblock. circuitbreaker . Makecertain or thatanynewcircuits installed in yourhome service sub-panels to themain aregrounded or outbuilding panel.Individual must outlets service alsobegrounded. . Donottakeoff thecoverof theservice o a nle. o Never workonyourwiringin dampor wetconditions.

4I

. Donottoucha metalfaucet,pipe, or otherobjectwhenworking appliance, onyourwiring. . Neversplicea powercordor an extenprong thegrounding sioncord,or remove plug. froma three-prong . Usean extension cordto supplyelectricityto an areaonlytemporarily-not wrnng. aspermanenl . Neverruna oowercordor an extensioncordundera rug,mat,orcarpet; do notfastenthecordusingtacks,pins, orstaples. . Never replace a blownfusewithoneof a do notusea penny, higheramperage; fora fuse. washer, or foilasa substitute o lf a circuitbreaker tripsor a fuseblows checkfora shortcircuit,and repeatedly, whether thecircuitis overdetermine loaded.


SHOPLAYOUT

ETECTRICAT TAYOUT FOR A MEDIUM.SIZE SH(IP Wiringtheshop Theillustration at leftshowsoneelectrical layoutfor a medium-size shop.The shophassixseparate electrical circuits: fourfortoolsandtwofor lighting. The basicprinciple to keepin mindis thatno circuitusing!2-gauge wireshouldcarry morethan80 percentof its capacity; for 20-ampcircuits, thismeans thecombinedamperage of the toolsonthesame circuitplus25 percent of theratingof the largest motormustnotexceed16 amps.In thisshop,thetablesawandjointerare orfseparate 240 V circuits; theirpower cordsaresuspended fromtheceilingwith twist-type outlets, whichkeepthe plugs in place,Witha combined loadof 15 amps, the bandsawandthedrillpressareon thesame120V circuit;the latheis on another. Additional outletson the 120V circuitscanbeusedforportable tools.The incandescent andfluorescent lighting circuitsareseparate sothatif onefails theotherwillstillwork.

KEY rh \v 24O V outlet 12OVoutlet Incandeecentliqhtinq firtu re t FIuoreacentIiqhtinq fixture Directionof feed

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42


LIGHTING cuttingoff lineor ] f youfindyourself I cannotproperlyexaminea finish unlessyou takeyour work outside,the lightingin yourworkshopmayneedan upgrade.At best,a poorlylit shopwill at worst,it can merelybringon fatigue; work and contributeto sloppy,imprecise to accidents. lightsarethemostpopFluorescent ular type of workshoplighting fixture. light, Theycasta relativelyshadowless andtheyuse thetubesarelong-lasting, 20 percentto 30 percentlesselectricity lightsof the same than incandescent find that Manywoodworkers brightness. light canresultin too muchfluorescent however, andprefatigueandheadaches, and fer the warmth of incandescent tungstenlights, At a minimum, a shopbiggerthan 120scuarefeetneeds2 wattsof incanwalt of fluorescent descentlight or 3/q, light per squarefoot,As in the electricallayoutillustratedon page42, shop from lightsshouldbe circuitsseparate

yourtools.Ideally,thelight fixtureswill circuits. tvvoseDarate bedividedbetween 1600 Asa ruleof thumb,do notexceed wattson one20-ampcircuit.Also,distributelightingfixturesaroundtheshop; mountinga singlefixturein the middle of the ceilingwill makeit difficult to illuminatethe shadowyareasat the edges ofthe shoo. If possible,makethe mostof natural espeIight;thereis no bettersubstitute, finishing. work and ciallyfor hand-tool planing,sanding,and Tryingto evaluate jobs underartificiallight can finishing be frustrating.Both fluorescentand light tendto distortor disincandescent guisethe surfacetextureof naturaland Naturallight, finishedwood surfaces. particularlyfrom the north,hasa soft, quality.If yourshophasa winnon-glare dow that facesnorth, placeyour workbenchunderit. Keepin mind that upgradingthe lighting in your shopneednot entail purchasing expensivefixtures and

llllllllllllllllllllllll IllIilltllllfillIIIfillfillilllllllllllllllI]I1 1HO?Tt? 1,,,,,\, A benah'dog l'lllt'+qil'\'-. lamo oupport " l ----t\ - A " . a-'\ r:--:\ Fora movablesourceof ."r:r'i ,/ liqhl aI your workbench, / \ aitach A desklampNo {-'- *--"'"' oneof the benchdoqe.Dore a holeNheeamediameNer as the ehafLof Lhe lamp into the headof a wooden.do,q +:==::::=--::R-::::-..--=.: -- -------=:*: (pa4e62).The -:] li,ahr, canLhen b:epoeitioned *. - *-<<*.*t3al any of the ja-. _; alonq -__-doqholeo the bench.

43

rewiringthe system.Simplypaintinga concretefloor a light coloror covering the ceilingwith whitetileswill allow to reflectlight,ratherthan thesesurfaces absorbit.

A clamp-onlampcanshedall thelight you needto worksafelyat a tool. Mountedon a drill press,thislamp's flexibleneckaimsa 4)-watt bulb worktable. directlyat themachine's


FLOORS, WALLS,AND CEILINGS

Standingin oneplacefor hourson a concretefloor can strain your feet and legs.An old pieceof carpetor a commercialanti-fatigue mat providesa cushionthat can be easily movedabout the shop.

most workshopsare set up Q i":. or garages, \,, In basements concrete floors are a common feature.Yet for anyonewho hasto spendmuch time standingon concreteor sweepingit clean,the materialcan prove both uncomfortable and inconvenient. The hard surfaceis particularlytough on toolsthat aredroppedaccidentally. Simplypaintinga concretefloor with a paintmadespecifically for thepulpose will keepdown the dust and makethe surfaceeasierto clean.Adhesivevinyl floor tile canbe laid down aswell.Yet manywoodworkerspreferthe comfort of a raisedwoodenfloor.A simolefloor canbe constructed from sheeisof %inch plyruoodlaid atopa grid of 1-by2son 12-inchcenters. Not only is this qpe of flooreasier on thefeet,but wiring for stationarypowertoolscanbe routed underneath the raisedsurfacein %incholasticor steelconduit. Unlikethewallsof mosthomes,those ofseparate workshops seldomareinsu-

Iated.If you livein a northernclimate, you canincreasethe thermalefficiency of your shopby coveringits wallswith wood panelingor sheetmaterial,and filling the gap in betweenstudswith insulation. Woodpanelingin particular creates a warm,comfortable atmosphere. Interior wall coveringwill makeyour shop quietertoo, sincethe wallswill absorbsomeof the din of vour Dower tools.fu a bonus,youcanconceal wiring behindthe walls.Makesurethe basementwallsdo not leakbeforecovering themwith insulationandpaneling. To hide the exposedjoists,ducts, and wiring aboveyour head,consider installinga ceiling.A suspended tile ceiling,in whichthetilessit in a framework of supportshangingfrom thejoists,is onepopularoption.In a largeshop,a droppedceilingsuchasthiswill alsohelp retainheat.Acousticalceilingtilesare an inexpensive alternative;the tiles are attachedto furring stripsthat arenailed to thejoists.

lll1 ljlliltfilllll1 lllillllfirlilutllllllltlllilIIlllllllllll1 fiulllt 9HO7Tt? Making the transition to a raieedfloor lf parl of yourehophaoa raisedfloor,youcan makea smoolh lransilion from Nhelowerconcretefloor with eeveralbeveled 2-by-6o laidend-No-end. Cut a rabbeNin oneedqeof each 2-W-6lo accommodate the plywoodfloor and the 1-by-2 qrid undernealh, Thenbevellhe oppoeiteedqe,forminqa ram? lo f acilitatemovinqit emsfrom onefloort o the oLher.Nailor screwIhe plywoodtothe 2-by-Oe. \

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44


HEATINGAND VENTILATION for mostshops eatingisa necessiry ff I I in North America.Somewoodworkingtasksdemandit; gluingandfinishing in particular require steady Heatingyour shopalso temperatures. makesit more comfortableand safe; numb fingersinvite accidents. If your shopis somedistancefrom your home'sfurnace,a separate heating systemwill be needed.Many woodworkersswearby wood heaqit hasthe addedbenefitof consumingscrappieces. Yetthis meansfrequentlyfeedingthe stoveand cleaningthe chimney;insuring your shopagainstfire canalsobe a units are oroblem.Electricbaseboard to but can contribute moreconvenient, frequently are bills and high utility cloggedwith sawdust. andpropaneburnPortablekerosene ersshouldbe avoidedin the shop,since thev usean oDenflameand emit toxic

exhaust.Coil-typeelectricheatersare alsoa fire hazard. Whichever heating system you keepthe areaaroundit freeof choose, sawdustandplaceit awayfrom the finishingand wood storageareas.And remember, anysystemwill be improved by goodventilation. Consideryour needto controlhumidity. In shopsin humid climates,too much moisturemeansan investment in a dehumidifierto keepwood dry andtoolsfrom rusting.Shopsin more arid climatesfacethe oppositedilemma and mayrequirea humidifier. Finally,everyshoprequiresadequate ventilation.Airbornesawdustandtoxic finishingvaporsmaynot be asvisiblea dangeraskickbackon a tablesawbut thethreattheyposeisjust asreal.While fire or explosions dueto high concentrationsof sawdustor finishingvapors

A good arerare,theycanbedevastating. the air often ventilationsystemchanges enoughto maintainsafelevelsof airbornedustandfumes.It shouldinclude dustcollectionequipmentat eachstationarypowertool that producessawdust (page7B), and a generalexhaust setup(below)to removethe dust and fumesthat remain. Whilewindowfansor bathroom-tlpe ventmodelsarefine for generalexhaust purposes, a finishingbooth or spray room requiressomethingdifferent: tube-axialfan is An explosion-proof Fansare ratedby the recommended. amountof air thattheymove,measured in cubicfeetper minute(cfm).Divide thecubicvolumeofyour shop(itslength timesits width timesits height)by 6 to find the ratingneededto changethe air 10timesperhour-the minimumlevel for safeventilation.

A SHOP VENTILATING exhaust setup Installing a general or lf yourshopdoesnothavewindows proper cross-ventilation, doors to provide to cleantheair. install anexhaust setup Thesystem shown at leftis a simpleone, of anairintake at oneendof consisting to theoutdoors or theshopconnected yourhome's andanexplosionairducts, prooffanmounted in thewallat the with end.Theintakeis covered oooosite e rt o a f u r n a coer a i r - c o n d i t i o nf i lnt g fan air.Theexhaust cleantheincoming causing is placed higher thantheintake, theairthatrisesto bedrawnoutof the orienttheexhaust shop.Forbestresults, axisof yourshop. setupalongthelongest

45


WORKBENCH

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Theirbenchwasa largeaffairthat heworkbenchis thecornertop,a system sporteda laminated with stoneof thewoodshop, anL-shapedtail ofbenchdogholes, a historyalmostasold aswoodvise,and a legvise.The Shaker of primiworkingitself.Examples benchwasnot too differentfrom havebeenfound tiveworkbenches themoderncabinetmaker's bench datingbackmorethan2,000years. picturedon page46. Woodworkersin ancientRome has Thedesignoftheworkbench advanced thebasicdesign,devising little sincetheearly19th changed with simplestopsthat benches Century;onlyits accessories and pieces of allowedthemto secure havebeen mannerof assembly Themakersof thisworkbench capitalized wood.Until that time,craftsmen altered.In fact,someclaimthatthe on the classiclinesof a centuries-olddesign, wereforcedto holdtheirwork,cutonly true innovationhas been creatinga scaled-down benchthat doubles ting or shapingit with onehand ubiquitous inventorRonHickman's asa living roomtable. whilechoppingor planingwith the in the Workmaterv.Developed came other.Furtherimprovements revolutionized thewaymanypeople later. 1960s, theWorkmaterv slowly,however, andviseswereonlyaddedcenturies it providedsomeof theclampbecause an Iookatworksurfaces, With eachrefinementthe workbenchhasassumed portable withacollapsible, It islittle sur- ingabilities of asandardworkbench rolein theworkshop. increasingly indispensable prisethatmanycalltheworkbench themostimportanttoola design. AlthoughtheWorkmaterru hasfoundanichein worlshops woodworker canown. A goodworkbench doesnottakeanactiverolein thewood- aroundtheworld,manywoodworkers-bothamateurand opt for nothinglessthana solidmapleor workingprocess-itdoesnot cutwoodor shapeit-but the professional-still to buildtheirown,believing performanotheressential task: beechbench.Oftentheychoose benchandits accoutrements Theyfreeyourhandsandpositiontheworksoyoucancut, thatthecareandattentionpaidin craftingsucha benchwill in theirlaterwork.Thechapterthat follows In thepast,eventhemost- be reflected andfinishefficiently. drill, shape, workbench, a moderncabinetmaker's sin- showshowto assemble havefallenshortof theideal.Withitsmassive, usedbenches needed to turn an gle-planktop,theRouboBenchof the 18thCenturywas andhowto installthevisesandaccessories yetit hadno tail viseor bench ordinarybench intoa moreflexibleworkstation. popularthroughoutEurope, Thedesignof theworkbench shownonthefollowingpages, instead, thetaskwasdonebya sysdogsto holdaworkpiece; andtechniques, arebased onaplan andanoptionallegvise.Onehundred andmanyof thedrawings temof iron holdfasts in Woodsmithmagazine. improvedon theRoubo. thatappeared yearslater,theAmericanShakers

With its originsrootedin an era without powertools,thestandardcabinetmaker's benchnow incorporatesvisesdesigned for usewith bothpowerand handtools.

47


ANTATOMY OFAWORKBENCH T h. workbenchshownat right is I patternedafteratraditionalcabinetmaker's bench,andis craftedfrom two solidmaple.Thebendrincorporates visesconsidered to be standardequipment a faceviseon thefront,left-hand endof thebench,anda tail visewith a slidingdog block mountedon the oppositeend. Youcanbuildsuc,h aworkbench from materials andinstrucaht suppliedwith tions.Youcanbuytheplansfor abench yourself. andorderthematerials Or,you in canfollowtheinstructionspresented this chapterandconstructa benchto suit your needs.Whicheverrouteyou is assembled in three take,aworkbench distinctphases: thebase(page50);the top (page53);andthedampingacces sories-vises(page56),benchdogs, and hold-downs(page62). Thetop surfaceof mostbenchesis generallybetriveen 33and36inchahigh. Theheightthat is bestfor you canbe the distance determinedby measuring between thefloorandtheinsideofyour wristwhileyoustanduprightwith your armsat yoursides. Finishpur workbench withtwocoats of apenetrating oil-basedproduct, such astungoil. Not onlydo theseproducts penetratethe surfaceand protectthe woo4 but thefinishcanberefurbished simplyby scrubbingit with steelwool andrecoating.

Faae viee Alao knownaa front vioe;jaw aecures work a4ainot bench

Bench dog hole Holda a bench doq for oecurinq work on benchtop

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Arm Supporta top; top edqe of arm atface-viae end relieved' I in aame manner as feet. Uauallyattached to le6a W - , mortiae-and-tenon iointa - l

"relieved" Eottom ed6e ia with a recesa for better aontact with floory ordinarily attached to the le4 with mortiae-and -tenon iointa 5tretcher

Frovidealaf,eralatability to bench;attached to the leg6 in oneof aeveralwayo(paqea 50 and 51)

_l Attachingtheendcapsof a worl&enchto the apronscallsfor a strongand attradivejoinery methodThefingu joint (alsoknownasthebox joint) and thedovetailjoint shownatw are traditionalfavorita.

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48

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WORKBENCH

ToP OfLenlaminal;edfrom a hard and densewoodauchae mapleor beech:boardathat makeup top ehouldbe aelected,prepared,and 7luedup carefullyto provtdea per-fectly fl at Eurf a ce

Theworkbench at left improvedthestandard designby incorporating a tilting toolchest underthetop. Tooltray )

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Aenahdog Uaedwith tarl or face viseto clamp eLock;made of metal or wood.Teneionoprinq keepadoq aL deeiredheiqht;afLer uae, dog io pueheddownbelowaurface of benchtop Sliding dog bloak Lo Lhetail vieeecrew, ConnecLed Lhtsmovableblockcontatnaa benchdog that. eecureework on the benchtop

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49


BUILDINGTHE BASE "f

h. baseof a workbenchtypically J- consists frames of two rectangular connectedby a pair ofstretchers.The framesareessentially identical,eachwith a foot,an arm,andtwo legs.Thearm of the left-handframeis sometimesabout 3 incheslongerthantheotherarmto provideadditionalsupportfor thefacevise. For a benchlike the one shownon pages 48 and,49,use % maple(l% inchesthick aftersurfacing).The feet,arms and legs are made from two boards apieceface-gluedtogether,and then reducedto the properthicknesson the jointer and planer.If you wish to build the basewith mortise-and-tenons, cut four-shouldered tenonsat theendofthe legsand rout matchingmortisesin the feet and arms.Tenonsare alsocut at the endsof the stretchers with mortises requiredin the legs.The illustration

belowshowsa knockdown alternative to assembling thebasewith mortiseand-tenons. Thejointsbetrveen thestretchers and thelegsneedto besolid,yetsufficiently flexibleto betakenapartshouldyou

wantto movethebench.Consequently, knockdownhardwaredesignedfor the purposeis oftenusedto join thestretchersto the legs.The pagesthat follow detailsomeothermethodsof reinforcine knockdownconnections. Bunjoints connecting thelegs of a workbenchto thestretcherscan be reinforcedwith hardwoodknockdow n finings. Thefittings are insertedinto mortises cut into theends of thestretchers; matching machineboltsand nutsare thenusedto securetheioint.

REINF(|RCING KN(ICKD(IWN J(|INERY Using trussrods Instead of usingmortise-and-tenon jointsto buildthebase,usebuttjoints reinforced bytrussrods,asshownat right.Available in kits,therodscanbe loosened or tightened afterassembly for woodmovement to compensate as a r e s u lot f c h a n g ei sn h u m i d i t yR. o u t grooves for the rodsintotheedgesof thestretchers andthe insideedgesof the legs;the depthandwidthof the c h a n n esl sh o u l ed o u atlh er o d ' sd i a m e ter.Test-assemble the baseandmark locations thegroove on the legsand arms.Thenborea holeat eachmark, m a k i n tgh ed i a m e t eerq u atlo t h a to f the rods;countersink the holessoyou candrivethe nutsf lushwiththewood surface. Assemble the base, f ittingthe rodsintothegrooves andholes,and tightening theconnections withwashers andnuts.Cover thegrooves withsolid woodinlayif youwishto conceal therods.

@8

50


WORKBENCH

boltsandwoodblocks Usingmachine between the theconnection To reinforce gluea woodblock legsandstretchers, asthe stockto of the samethickness Theblocks eachedgeof the stretchers. will increase the contactareabetween andthe legs.Oncethe the stretchers glueis dry,cut a tenonat theendof each mortise in the anda matching stretcher leg.Fit the piecestogetherandboretwo the leg boltsthrough holesfor machine countersink andthetenonin the blocks; fast by the holes.Makethe connection fittingthe boltsintothe holes,slipping onwashers andtighteningthe nuts(right).

Usinglagscrewsanddowels wayto stren$hena mortise-andAnother and tenonjoint between thestretchers legsis shownat left.Cuta 1-inch-diamedowelto a lengthequal ter hardwood Then to the thicknessof the stretcher. holethroughthe borea 1-inch-diameter aboullVzinchesfromits end. stretcher Alsoborea holefor a lagscrewthrough the drillwhenthe bit the leg,stopping counreaches the holein thestretcher: tersinkthe holesothe screwheadwill Fitthestretcher sit flushwiththesurface. tapthe dowel tenonintothe legmortise, intoplacein thestretcher, anddrivethe a screwthatis longenough screw.Choose to bitethroughthe dowe,.

51


WORKBENCH

PREPARING THEFEET Relieving thefeet Onceyouaresatisf iedwiththef it of the partsof the base,disassemble thestretchersandlegsandrelieve thefeetonthejointer.Installa clamponthejointer's infeed tableto holdtheguardoutof thewayduringtheoperation. Setboththeinfeedand outfeed tablesfora %o-inch depthof cut, andclampstopblocks to bothtablesto guidethebeginning andendof thecut.To makethefirstpass,lowerthefootontothe knives, keeping it flushagainst thefence andthestopblockontheinfeedtable.Feed thefootacross the knives(/efiluntilit contactsthestopblockon theoutfeed table. Keepbothhandswellabovethecutterhead. Makeasmanypasses asnecessary to completetherecess, lowering thetables%oinch at a time,andreadjusting thestopblocks asnecessary.

Installing adjustable levelers To levela workbench onan uneven shop f loor,installadjustable levelers in the feet.Eachleveler consists of a T-nut portion anda threaded witha plastic tip 0nsel.Boretwoholesintothe bottomof thefootneareachend.Makethehole's diameter eoualto thatof theT-nutand its len$hslightlylonger thanthethreaded section. TaotheT-nutsintotheholes and screwin the levelers(right).Oncethe benchis assembled, adjustthelevelers untilthebenchtoo is level.

52


BUILDINGTHETOP neof themostimportantfeatures is a perfectlyflat of a workbench top.At onetime,a benchtopcouldbe built of solidmapleor beechboards 12incheswideand2 inchesthick.But todaysuchplanksaredifficultto come slabsarebuilt up from by,andbenchtop of ply,voodsandlayers narrowboards, wichedbetweenstripsof hardwood, or laminatedplywoodstripssheathed edgegluing However, in hardboard. solidwoodboardstogetherbutcheristhetimeasshownbelow blockstyle, honoredmethod. Cut from % stock,theboardsare gluedtogetherfirst,thenthe slabis cut to length.To minimizewarping, sothattheendgrain arrange thepieces Alsomakesurethefacegran isreversed.

of all theboardsrunsin the samedirection. Thiswill makeit easierto planethe top surfaceof theslabsmooth.

are bolted to the slab and joined to the aprons by means of dovetail or fingerjoints.

the Aftergluingup theslab,prepare glued up from are They blocks. dog a lengthof% stockandoneof% stock outof the with thebenchholesdadoed block sliding dog The board. thicker for thetail viseis sawnoff beforethe front rail and fixedblockareglued 5a).Next,theslab,fixed together(page dogblock,andrearrail aregluedup (page55);hardwoodkeysand plywoodsplinesareusedto strengthen theconnections. Aftertheslidingdogblock,tooltray, thefinalstep andapronsareinstalled, capsto the the end involvesattaching Thecaps used: are top.Twoconnections

Oncethetop of a benchis installed heldon on thebase,a straightedge edgeacrossthesurfacecanbeused to checkit for Jlatness.

(lFA BENCHT(|P ANATOMY

9lidin4 do7 block

Front rail End cap

53


WORKBENCH

PREPARING THEFIXED D(|GBTOCK

tsenchdoq hole

@tsenchdo4

A JIGFORDRIttIl{GBENCH DOG HOTES lf youplanto useroundbench dogs,youcanusethe shop-made jig shownbelowto boretheirholes afteryouglueup the benchtop. Thejig shouldbeabout10 inches long;the lip is cut troma l-by-2 Kound benchdog

andthe basefroma 1-by-4,After screwing themtogether, boreguide h o l e sa b o u 8t i n c h e a s p a r at n d 3 inchesfromthe lip, Theholes shouldaccommodate thedogsyou w i l lu s e . Tousethejig,clampit to theright endof thedogblocksothe lip is against thefrontedgeandtherighthandguideholeis overtheposition of thefirstdoghole.Usingtheguide holes,borethef irsttwoholesin thebench.Foreachsubsequent hole, remove theclampandslidethejig guide to theleftuntiltheright-hand holeis aligned withthe lasthole bored.Slipa benchdogthrough the holes, clampthejig andbore the left-handhole(right).Repeat the process untilyouarefinished boring alltheholes,

54

Gutting thebench dogholes Benchdogsarefabricated fromtwoboards, soit issimple to cutthedogholesin the glue-up.Twosteps thickerpiecebefore areinvolved. First,cut a rowof evenly spaced dadoes wideenough to accept thedogs;anglethefixed-block dadoes slightly toward thetailvise,andthesliding-block dadoes awayfromthetailvise sothatthedogswillgriptheworkfirmly pressure whenclamping isapplied. Next, clamptheboardto a worksurface and usea chiselto notchthetopof each dadoto acceptthedogheads(lefl.fhat way,thedogscanbepushed downflush withthebenchsurface whentheyarenot in use.Nowthetwopartscanbeglued upto formthefinished blocks.


WORKBENCH

THEBENCHTOP ASSEMBLING 'l

upthetop Gluing gluglueupthetopslab.Before I First, on both routgrooves ingupthebenchtop, andfrontrail,on of thedogblocks sides andbackrail, front apron of the face one ends ofthetop and the edges along and Refer splines. keys and matching Cut slab. page size for the 53 on drawing to the keys, and of thegrooves, andplacement you a tool incorporate want to lf splrnes. rabbets trayin yourbench,cut r/z-inch railand the back edges of intothebottom you process assembly later in the apron; r/z-inch plywood piece form to it of willf a block dog the sliding Set aside thetray. (withthehardwood keysgluedin place) glue spread back aprons, andfrontand (right), and clamp surfaces, on all mating onthe thebaror pipeclamps alternating work. of the tooandbottom r) Attaching theendcaps L m " e n dc a p sc a nb ea p p l r ewdh i l e (page 57). thetailviseis beinginstalled thebenchtop Whenthatisdone,invert recess at eachend, androuta T-shaped Cuttworectheedges. centered between so f ittingsfromscraphardwood tangular thattheyfit in thebaseof eachrecess. Notchonesideof eachfittingto accept nut,andplacea fittingandnut a 7e-inch Settheendcapsin oosiin eachrecess. the theycontact tionandmarkwhere At eachmarkborea holefora recesses. otgh eb o l t %-inch b o l t c, o u n t e r b o rsi n in each heads areflush.Routa groove e n dc a pt o a c c e ptth e p l y w o osdp l i n e , rabbetonthe bottom androuta r/z-inch inside edgeof thebackrailto acceptthe thetailviseontherighttooltray.Install glueon handendcap(page5/). Spread fit theendcaps surfaces, thecontacting (\efl, andboltthemin place(inseil.Finally, andtooltray fit thefrontandrearaprons a n 0c r a m p .

55


VISESAND ACCESSORIES \ / isesarethe toolsthat transform V the workbenchfrom a simple,flat surfaceinto a versatile work station.The modernwoodworkingbenchincorporateshvo tlpes of vise:the facevisethat secures work to the front edgeofthe bench,andthetail visethatuseswoodor metalbenchdogsto securework on the top of the bench.The pagesthat follow examinewaysof installingboth the tail vise (page57) and facevise (page58). Facevisesmadeentirelyof wood are rare.However,a woodenviseis preferableto a metaltypebecause wooden jawscangrip work withoutmarringits surface.A good compromisecan be reachedby buyingthe hardwarefor a metalviseand mountingwoodenface blocks.Youcanextendthe capacitvof

a faceviseby boringholesin thebenchtop andsecuringwork betweena bench dog in the vise'sjawsand one inserted in oneof theholes.

Thil visesareavailablein two types: an enclosed modelthat incorporates a slidingdog block (belowandpage57) and one that featuresan L-shaped block,asin the photo at left. Sometail visesextendacrossthe entireend ofa workbenchand havetwo screws;these areknown asendvises,andtheyextend the utility ofan alreadyversatiletool.

Sometail vises,like theoneshown at left,incorporate an L-shaped shoulderblock.Theblockallowswork to be clampedbetweentherearjaw of the viseand theendof thebench.

ANATOMY OFA TAIIVISE Fixed doq block

Apron

Vieeflanqe

Viaecollar

-

56


WORKBENCH

A TAILVISE INSTALLING thevisehardware 1 Installing h ith I T o i n s t a al l t a i lv i s eo na b e n c w thevisecoldogblock,position a sliding sideendcap theright-hand laragainst theholeforthevtsescrew. andoutline board onthedrillpress Thenseta support tableandclamptheendcapontopof it. bitslightly witha spade Fitthedrillpress thanthevisescrewandborea hole larger throughthe end cap(nearright),Screw thevisecollarto theendcapsothetwo dog thesliding secure holes lineup.Next, the andclamp in handscrews end-up block Position to a worksurface. handscrews thevisef langeontheblockandmark i t ss c r e wh o l e sB. o r ea p i l o th o l ea t to the theflange eachmark,thenscrew block(farright).

r) Assembling thevise dogblockin thebench L f ttthesliding keysin the blockrun sothe hardwood i n t h eg r o o v ei sn t h es i d e so f t h e r a i l . thevise Thread thevisescrewthrough test-fit theendcaponthebenchcollar, topandlocktheballjointontheendof thescrewintotheviseflange.Setthe against thedog frontapronin position of blocks(/eff)andtestthe movement lf theslidthescrew. thevisebyturning i n gb l o c kb i n d sr,e m o vteh ee n dc a p , d o gb l o c ka, n de a s e a p r o na, n ds l i d i n g thekeyswitha chisel. thef it byparing O n c ey o ua r es a t i si ef dw i t ht h e v i s e ' s endcaps, movement, attachtheaprons, procedures outfollowing the trays and linod nn neop 55

57


WORKBENCH

ANATOMY OFA FACE VISE fixea ,,',------l doq block Apron

Face block

Faceplate

INSTALTING A FACE VISE thefaceblock 1 Preparing 3/a-by-31/z I Cutan 18-inch-long inch hardwood support blockandscrewit in placeunderthe frontleftcornerof the bench,afterboringa rowof clearance h o l e sf o rt h e b e n c hd o g sN . e x t b, u i l d up thefaceblockbygluing twopieces of 7ahardwood together; cut it to a finalsize of 5-by-18inches. To markandborethe holesforthevisescrewandguiderods, marka lineacross thefaceof theface block;offsetthelinefromthetopedgeby thethickness ofthebenchtop slab(notthe frontaprondepth).Nowusethecarriage as a template: Centeritstop edgeon thelineandusea brad-point bitto accuratelymarkthe position of thethree holes(right)andborethem.

58


WORKBENCH

r) Preparing thebench L Oncethe holeshavebeendrilled thetr through thefaceblock,transfer apron. Setthe location to theworkbench on sawhorses faceblockandbenchtop to holdtheblockin andusebarclamps position the against theapron;protect stockwithwoodpads.Makesurethetop edgeof theblockisf lushwiththebenchtopanditsendisf lushwiththeendcap. ontheapronusing Marktheholelocations the biI (right).Remove the brad-poinI f a c eb l o c ka n db o r et h eh o l e st h r o u g h theapronandbenchdogblock,

Mounting thevise thefaceAttach theviseassemblyplate,screw, andguiderods-totheface b l o c kT. u r nt h eb e n c h t oupp s i d de o w n , p l a c et h ev i s ec a r r i a goent h eb e n c h ' s andfeedthevisescrewand underside, guiderodsthrough theholesin theapron Makepilotholes andintothecarriage. andfasten of thebench ontheunderside in place.Next,fastenthe thecarriage guiderodbushings Remove to theapron: t h ev i s ea s s e m b lfyi t, t h eb u s h i n gosn t ea s s e m b layn, d t h er o d sr, e m o u nt h ontheapron. location outline thebushings' againand theviseassembly Thenremove sotheapronis facsecure thebenchtop andstraight bit,cut ingup.Witha router withintheoutforthebushings recesses to the lines(left).Screwthe bushings in theaoronandattachthevise recesses topis Nowtheworkbench to thebench. to the base.Laythe readyto beattached topupside downonthef loor,placethe anddrivelagscrews basein position, thearmsintothetop. through

59


WORKBENCH

JIGSFORIRON.JAWED BENCH VISES

Eaeia auxiliaryjaw

Tapered vieejaw

V-grooveviaejaw

Fitting wooden inserts to metaljaws lf yourbenchis equipped witha metaljawedviseliketheoneshown at thetop of page61, fittinginterchangeable auxiliaryjawscanextend thevise's versatility.Thewooden inserts shownabove will notonlybe lessdamaging to workpieces thanmetaljaws,buttheycanalsobe jobs.Eachinsert custom-made forspecial r/z-inch-thick is madefrom solidstock witha rabbeted 1-by-1blockgluedat e a c he n dt o h u gt h ee n d so f t h ev i s e j a w .A l t h o u gah p a i ri s r e q u i r e do ,n l y o n eo f e a c hs a m p l ies i l l u s t r a t eTdh. e basicjaw (above, left)willdo moststand a r dc l a m p i njgo b s . T htea p e r e jda w (above, center)features a wedge-shaped stripforholding tapered stockefficiently. jaw(above, TheV-groove rghf) includes a stripwrtha groove cut downits middle for securing cylindrical work.

fillfilllll}tlllfillfilllllltlllill}Illtllllllitlllltlllfilltlllilllltll 5HO?TI? A quiak-owitahvise lf you are reluclanlto boll your benchvioeonlo your workbench, atlach it ineheadtoaT-shaoed basemadeof 5/+-inch \ plywood.Join Ihe twopieceeofthebase\ to7etherwith a dado iointand 5crew6.5 ecure Lheverlical parl of Nhe b a s ei n e i N h eLr h et a i l o r face vieeof the bench.

60


WORKBENCH

BENCH STOP A SLIDING is a standard lf your"workbench" to tablewitha benchvisefastened at oneedge,thejig andfenceshown Cut rightcanlendit someversatility. t h ea u x i l i a rvyi s ej a w sf r o mf - i n c h of theT-shaped stockandthepieces visejig from%-inchwood.Youwill forthejig:a topand needtwopieces oneauxiliary a lip.Routa dadoacross jawto accommodate thelipof thevise jig andanother of ontheunderside jaws theauxiliary thejig top.Screw a cutforthe to thevisejaws,making thenglueand visescrewif necessary, screwthe lip to thetopof thejig. Cutthe slidingfencefromr/z-inchAuxiliary thickstockandcut twostopped viaejaw grooves carriage throughit for Yq-inch bolts.Tomountthefence,boretwo holdtheworkpiece snugly andclamp andwingnuts.To usethejig thetableforthebolts, washers holesthrough thevisejaw andfence, slidethelip intotheauxil- it in placebytightening theholesand feedtheboltsthrough a n dw i n gn u t s . iaryjaw,adjusttheslidingfenceto thegrooves andfastenthemwith

VISERACKING PREVENTING a stepped block Using a workpiece at oneend Whensecuring of a facevise,theotherendof thevise the i s l i k e l yt o r a c k - o rt i l t t o w a r d bench-and cause theworkto slip.To prevent racking, usea stepped hardwood b l o c kt o k e e pt h ej a w ss q u a r eC. u ta series of stepsin onefaceof theblock, suchas spacing themat equalintervals, r/zinch.Placethe blockin theopen endof theviseat thesametimeyouare theworkpiece sothatthevise securing is parallel to theedgeof thebench(/eft).

6l


BENCHDOGSANDHOLD DOVNS p enchdogsareasimportantasvises Ll in maximizingthe flexibilityand workbench.A utility of a well-designed setof benchdogsworkslike a second pair of handsto secureworkpieces for planing,chiseling,mortising,carving, or otherwoodworkingtasks. Althoughthe benchdog lookslike a deceptivelysimplepeg,it incorporates designfeaturesthat enableit to hold a workpiecefirmly without slippingin its hole. One featureusuallyis a thin metalspringattachedto one sidethat presses againsttheinsidewallof thedog Tohelpstrengthholein theworkbench. en the grip of benchdogs,the holes arealsoangledtowardthe viseat 4o. Benchdogs can be either round or square.Round dogsare easierto incorooratein a benchthat doesnot yethJvedogholes;it is simplerto bore holesthan to makesquaredog holes. Sinceround dogs can swivel,their notched,flat headsenablethem to clamp stockin practicallyany direcSome tion. Thiscanbe a disadvantage: woodworkersclaim that round dogs tend to slio in their holesmorethan squaredogi, which cannotrotate. Benchdogscanbe madeof either metalor wood.Metaldogshaveaweight, thatwoodenones strength,andstiffiress cannotmatch.Yetwoodendogshave their advantages-asanywoodworker who hasnickeda planebladeon a metal dogwill attest. Benchdogsarenot the only method ofsecuringstock;benchhooks,carving andhold downsarealso hooks,wedges, usefulfor keepingstockin place.The followingpagesillustratea numberof andshop-made optionsto commercial keepworkpiecesput while you work.

This benchdogfeaturesa threadedscrewthat converts it into a miniature tail vise. Usedin conjunction with other benchdogs,it excekat clamping small or irregular work, like thepanel shown above.

BENCH DOGS Making bench dog a wooden fromhardwood Benchdogscanbecrafted stock; theoneshown at leftusesanangled wooden tongue asa spring. Cutthedogto fit theholesin yourworkbench, thenchisel outa dadofromthemiddleof thedog. Sawa shortkerfintothe lowercornerof thedado,angling thecutsothetongue willextend beyond theedgeof thedado, making it Cutthetongue fromhardwood, aboutaslongasthedado,aswideasthe . l u et h e doga , n da st h i c ka st h ek e r f G tonguein thekerf.

62


WORKBENCH

bench dog Making a spring-loaded be made to fit snugly A wooden benchdogcan it with a metal spring cutfrom byequipping your hacksaw blade. Cut an oldbandsawor recess for dogto size,thenchiselouta small recess Thewidthanddepthof the thespring. of the shouldeoualthewidthandthickness shorter spring, butits lengthshouldbeslightly Press thespringinto thanthatof thespring. holdthe metalwill bowoutward, therecess; ingthedogfirmlyin itshole.

bottomof the dog,exceptfor the a lipthatwillbutt head. Thisprovides againstthe edgeof the bench(/eff). To usetheedgedogs,placethe left-hand dogin a holein thef ixed onein dogblockandtheright-hand dogblockof thetailvise. thesliding Tightentheviseuntiltheworkpiece (below). is heldin the notches

EDGE DOGS SHOP-MADE Edgedogslikethoseshownat right a workpiece areidealfor securing alongtheedgeof yourbench.They featurea rounddowelat oneend thatdropsintoa benchdoghole andangledheads thatbuttupagainst the edgeof the benchandhold the work. Startby cuttingthe dogsfrom and hardwood stock.Bothleft-hand with dogsareneeded, right-hand in opposing directheheads angled hole tions.Borea t/z-inch-diameter theends,anddrivea 3-inch through lengthof dowelin eachhole.Then insertthe dowelin a benchdog holeandanglethedogsoit extends beyondthe edgeof the table.Mark a 90' notchfor the headperpendicularto theedgeof thebenchand cut it out.To holdtheedgedogin p l a c ew h e nc l a m p i npgr e s s u ri se sawa %-inch-slice off the applied,

3/+"x21/+"x8"

63


WORKBENCH

Makingandsettingupcarvingdogs Usinga standard benchdogasa model, youcanfashiona pairof customized dogs thatwill gripa carvedor turnedworkpiece,orsecureirregular-sized work,such To makethese as miteredmolding. accessories, cut bevelson eithersideof the headof a standardbenchdogand drivea smallscrewor nailintothecenter of the head;snipoff the fastener's headto forma sharppoint.To usethe placeonedogin a dogholeof devices, thebench's fixeddogblockandtheother in thetailviseor a slidingdogblockhole (above). Tightenthe visescrewuntil the pointscontactthe endsof theworkpieceandholdit securely.

64


WORKBENCH

ANDBENCH STOPS HOLD-DOWNS

a hold-down clamp Using a hold-down clamps canbeusedaloneorwithbenchdogsto secure Commercial features anadjustable Thetypeshown in placeanywhere ona workbench. workpiece (insef). Touse holethrough the benchtop holdingboltwhichsitsin a counterbored thenotchat thebaseof theclamp. theclamp,raisetheboltheadandslideit through o v e( l)n. t h e i l l u s t r a S e t t h e w o r k p i e c e u n d e r t h ej ac w l aamnpd t i g h t e n t h e s c( ar ebw pressure to bothsiilesof a doorframe.) tion,a woodpadis beingusedto applyequal To remove theclampfromthebench,slideit off theboltheadandlettheboltdrop of thetop. belowthesurface bench stop Making andusinga temporary A clamped-on benchstopcut from7ainchplywood willsecure a workpiece to without thehelpof bench thebenchtop dogs.Cutthebenchstopto size,then wedge, typically 3 markouta triangular inches shorter thanthestoo.Cutoutthe Tousethebench wedge andsetit aside. stop,clampit to thebenchtop andslide workpiece into the notch, butting one the straight edge of the noich. sideagainst the tapping Secure thepiecewiththewedge, (/eff). place in with a mallet it tightly

65


WORKBENCH

Installing a wedgestop A wedgestopcanalsobe usedto secure (left).Thestopconstockon a benchtop sistsof a fixedrailanda movable rail thataresecured bydowelsrestingin a doublerowof holesboredintotheworkbench.Together witha triangular wedge, therailskeepa workpiece frommoving. Cuttherailsandthewedgefrom%-inch (Youcanchoose plywood. thickerstock fortherails,depending onthethickness of yourworkpiece.) Boretwo L/z-inchholesin eachrail,thengluea diameter 2-inch-long dowelin eachhole.Bore tworowsof %-inch-diameter holesin the workbench for the dowels.To usethe stop,placethefixedrailat oneendof the rowof holesandthe movable railthe appropriate distance awaysothewedge, whenpositioned between the rails,will keeptheworkpiece steady.

Making a benchhook jig shownat rightwillensure Theshop-built youmakeon theworkthatthe crosscuts plywood benchwill besquare.Use3/a-inch for the baseandstripsof 2-by-2stockfor the lips.Makethe baseat leastas long asthewidthof yourworkpiece andwide enough to supportit. Screwthe lipsto theguide,attaching oneto eachface. To usethe jig, buttonelip against the edgeof the benchand pressthe workpiecefirmlyagainst the other.Alignthe cuttinglinewiththeedgeof the baseand makethe cut (inset).

66


WORKBENCH

stop Making a flip-up at rightproTheflip-upbenchstopshown wayto makequickguided videsanother Cutthetwo crosscuts on a workbench. pieces Screw of thestopfromhardwood. on to theendof thebenchtop; thepieces theinneredgeof the thebenchshown, pivoting pieceis linedupwiththeedge a convenient of thetooltrayto provide upa crosscut. reference lineforsquaring piecein placewith thestationary Screw andtheflip-uppiecewithone twoscrews, sothatit canpivot.Whennotin use,the pieceshouldlie on edgeatop pivoting piece. To usethestop,flip thestationary piece,butttheworkpiece upthepivoting it, andmakeyourcrosscut. against

hook andusinga miterbench Making benchhookto Customize a standard make45" anglemitercutsbyaddrng kerfsto oneof thelios.Builda bench hook(page66), thenusea backsaw to cut twokerfsin thelip at opposing 45'anglesandoneat 90" (/eff).Use themiterbenchhookasyouwould a standard benchhook,liningupthe c u t t i n gl i n eo n t h ew o r k p i e cwei t h thedesired kerf.

67


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-72:i*.ii;*''{

;ilH:.t.:i:,::ii::?,#,:, of ailments, inclt'ding dermatitis,

of breath,anddizziness. generated shortness Mostof thewoodchipsandsawdust varniih *ore smoothlythin with haveshownthat Recent studies bythisl0-inchtablesawarecapturedbya abrush.Butwiththeadventofsuch inhalation ofwooddust long-term neglected system. Ofien portable collection dust pneumatic nailers, comtoolsas a central is at leasta contributingfactorin hasbecome pr.rrotrir. foundmorefrequent- in thepast,dustcollection of thetongue,tonsils'lung, woodworkers cancers iy, .u.n in smallhomeworkshops. tort"i, of manysafety-conscious *9 planningthelayout of their shops. in are discussid Air-poweredtools b.fnt' Whenyouad{ 1otheequation startingonpage72. floor,there amongthose thefireriskandthehazardof a dust-covered.lhop arefindingaplace,especially Geniratorsltoo, dustcolkind of for installing some reasons poware compelling from home and away their irait whotake woodworkers with provide you Pages 78 to 87. yo_ur shop. in lection system onpageTl'. erlines.Theyareexplored central both and-maintain you need to set up_ will information imporMore tool sharpening. canspeed of course, Grinders, a centralsysdesigning Remember.that tantly,asyouwill seeonpage76,theycanpermityouto mod- andportablesystems. an{Precise calculation carefrrlattentionlo temrequires edges. cutting ifi'tools andreclaimdariraged {etail ' plansand To be safe, checkyour requirements. ofyour specific consean unavoidable Airbornedustoncewasionsidered system. installing the before an engineer figures with on emphasis increased quenceofworkingwith wood.Butthe

this air-poweredsander Hookedup to a compressor, is compactenoughn holdin onehand.yet it smooths woodasfficiently asan electricsander.

69


A STOREOF SHOPACCESSORIES

Planerscancreatea substantial moundof sawdustin shortorder. A portabledustcollectorwill keep mostof thedustfrom thisand otherpowertoolsoffthe shop Jloorand out of theair.

High-volume,Iow-preaeure (HVLP) epray syltem For applyingataina and finishee. FeaLureeelectric turbinethat ouppliea auppliealar4e laraeamount amount of air at low preaeure nreaartre throuqh air ir hoae hogeto epray aprav 7un; aun:compared comoaredto lio ionvenconventional, compressed-airtype eyateme, HVLFallowa hiqherpercenta1e of fi niah to contact workpiece

Multitester Aleo knownaa volt-ohmmeter, or VOM.tsatte ry- powered to ol uaed in troubleahootinaand repairing electric deviceZ:meaeures reeiatanceand AC or DC voltaqe in a circuit

Air compreaoor Supplieaatream of highpreeeureair throuqh hoaeto powera variety of air-operated toola, auch aa aandere, epray qune,and drilla; coneumer4rade modeleranqe froml/a to 5 nor9ePowerand can qenerate uP to 2OO pounda pâ&#x201A;Źr oquare inch (pei) of air preeaureand O.3 to 15 cubic feet of air per minute (cfm).


SHOPACCESSORIES

Generator Typically ga aoline' powered,featu ri nq uo to four 12O-and 24O-volt outleta. Motors on congumer'qrade qeneratoro ranqe batween 3 and B horaapowerand produce 5OO to 4OOO watto of output; moet modela weiqh leaathanlSOpoundoand can befitted with wheelafor eaay portabili$

thop vacuum Cleanaup duat and liquid apills; hoae can be attached to individual tools to collect duat as it ia produced. Typically featurea 1%-to 2%-inch' diameter collection hoae and 5- to 1O'qallontank; some modelecan double aa portable blower

Bench grlnder Coarse wheel(left) 6quarea, aharpena,and amootha bladeaand bits; cloth wheel(ri4ht) poliahea and cleana.Features a 1/+-tol/z' 'horoepower electric moton eye ahielda, adjueiable tool resta, and wheel1uarda atandard on most modela,Benchtop grindero ueually bolted to work aurface

Wheeldreeeer Used to true or reehapabench4rinderwheel. gtar-wheel dresaer (above) ueea uP to four ota r- ohapedwheela;diamond-pointdreaser (below)fiatureal/+'carat diamondaet in bronze tip and metal shaft

7T


AIR COMPRESSORS canbefittedwith A n air compressor A a larsenumberof toolsandattachments,riaking it a convenientshop accessory. In someshops,a compressor can representan alternativeto some electrictools.Forothers,it canbea valuablesupplement.

Pneumaticdrills,grinders,sanders, performat leastaseffecandwrenches tivelyastheirilectric-poweredcounterparts.Sometools, like sprayers, nailers,andabrasivecleaners,areclearly superiorto the alternatives. Compressors and the tools they driveareinherentlysimple:The air is drawn in, pressurizedby a diaphragm or one or more pistons,and usually storedin a tank.Whenthetriggeron an air-driventool is pressed, the air travels througha hoseto powerthe tool. Because they containno heavyelectric motor, most air tools arelighter, cheaper,and easierto repairthan their cousins.Theycannotoverheat,andthere is no dangerofelectricalshock.

Compressed-air power does have somedrawbacks, chieflythe costof the compressor itselfandmaintenance. Air drills and the like must be oileddaily. And you will investseveralhundreddollarsin a compressor that is capableof driving typicalshoptools. Someair-powered toolsrequirea sizablevolumeof air,usuallymeasuredin cubicfeetperminute(cfm);othersneed a minimum level of air pressurein poundsper squareinch (psi).When choosinga compressor, considerthecfrn or psi requirementsof the air-powered toolsyou plan to useand buy a compressorwith slightlymorepower.You never know when you will want to expandyour tool inventory.

AIR-POWERED TOOTS ANDACCESSORIES

Jitterbug sander )rbital eander capableof producina 25OO atrokes oer minute: weigholeas than 5 pounda.Keauirea6.5 cfm at '9O pai; muat be uaed with tank-mountedcompreeaor with at leaat 3 horaepower

Drill 3/a-inch drill that turna bita at 25OO rpm; wei4heonly 2 %pounde.Kequirea5 cfm at 90 pei; muet be ueedwith tank-mounted compresoor with at leaat 'l horeepower

Air-poweredtoolswork bestat a pressure specific indicatedin the owner'smanualfor theparticular tool.Beforestartinga job, thecompressor's air regulatorshouldbe adjustedto thepropersettingfor thetaskat hand.

9pray gun Heavy-duty aprayer with adjuatablefluid and air controle. Kequiree5.5 cfm at 40 pai; can be uaed with any compreoaorwith more than t horeepower

72


SHOPACCESSORIES

TIPS SAFETY C(|MPRESSOR o Readyourowner's carefully manual or any a compressor beforeoperating tool. air-powered

. Alwayspluga compressor intoa grounded outletof the appropriate amperage.

r Donotresetanyswitches on or valves theyhavebeenpreset the compressor; at safelevelsat thefactory.

r Relieve pressure slowlywhendepressurizing thetank.

. Check plugs, wires,pipes, thehoses, andthe andtubesof thecompressor, toolair inletsbeforeeachuse.Donot or toolif anypart usethecompressor is wornor damaged. o Wearsafetyglasses proandhearing tools. tectionwhenusingair-powered . Donotexceed rating the pressure of an airtoolor accessory.

o Donotpressthetriggerof an airtool it to anairhose. whenconnecting r Donotremove the beltguardof a beltwhenthe machine drivencomoressor is operating. . Turnthecompressor off if it produces pronoiseorvibration, an unfamiliar or conair pressure, ducesinsufficient excessive oil;havethemachine sumes operations. serviced beforeresuming

. Allowthecompressor to coolbefore performing wear anymaintenance; gloves to disconnect anypartsthatare stillhot. r Turnthecompressor off beforemovingit. o Donottouchthecompressor while after;themachine usingit or immediately veryhot. canbecome r Drainanymoisture lromthetankafter rust;tankpressure eachuseto prevent than10 psiwhen shouldbe nohigher it. draining . Replace thetankif it hasanypin holes,rustspots,or weakspots at welds.

Brad ffniahing nailer Nailqun for drivinq 3/u-to 1%-inchNo.1Bfinishin7naila: wei1haleas than 3 pounda. Narrow nose eets naile with' out. marrinq workpiece:ma4azine holds up to 11Onaila. Requireo.2b cfm at 90 paito drive 10 naile per minute; muet be used with compreaaorwith at leaetl/z horaepower

j:i,2";:#:fi;"",. ww Presgor Or Connect? two len4thaof com' preeeor hooe toqether

Quiak coupler Uaed with hoae connectora to attach air tools to compreeeor hoseor to join lenqthaof compreooorhoeetoqether; auto' matically ahuta off air when uncoupledfrom compreeeor

Router %-inchdirect-drive router that turns bits at 2O,OOOrpm; wei1hajuat over 1pound. Featuree neoprenerubber qrip to reduce vibration, Requiree90 poi; will function with most compreoaore

73


PORTABLE GENERATORS ,| heaverage homeandshopissowell Thereareseveral factorsto consider I equippedwith electric fixtures, out- whenselecting agenerator, andthechart lets,andextension cordsthatit is easy onpage75canhelpgurdeyou.Thegento takefor grantedtheessential rolethat eratormustproduceenoughpowerto playsin our lives.Yeta pow- startandrun thetoolsandanyother electricity er outagecanquicklyremindyou of electrical youpluginto it. The devices thatrole.At sucha time,a portableAC wattageratingslistedon thechartare generator becomes an indispensable typical.Youshouldreferto theactual accessory for yourhome,yourshop,or ratingof your tool,whichis usually in a remotecabinwherepowerlinesdo printedon thetool body.Ifnot, you not reach. cancalculate theratingby multiplying AC,or alternating current)genera- thetool'samperage ratingby thevolttorstypicallyfeaturea gasoline motor age.(Forexample, a 3-amptool operthat drivesan alternator.Modelsare atingon 120voltswouldhaveawattage availablewith motorsrangingfrom3 to ratingof 360.) producing500to 4000 8 horsepower, Thewattageratingof a generator wattsof power. refersto itscontinuous runningwattage.

Portablegeneratorsare a handysourceof electricity duringpower outagesor in locationswhere a conventional electrical supplyis unavailable. Ratedat 3500watts,this modelis ableto drivevirtually any electricworkshoptoolor appliance.

74

Althoughall modelsfeaturea surgeor maximumratingasmuchas25percent higherthan the running value,you shouldrelyon therunningwattage ratingwhenchoosing a generator. A generatorwith morepowerthanyouneed will run more smoothlyfor longer stretches andrequirelessmaintenance. Mostgenerators areequipped with oneto four 120-volt outlets.Manymodelsalsohavea 240-voltoutletanda12voltDC outputfor charging batteries. Makesurethatanygeneratoryoubuy is equippedwith an effectivemuffler. Alsocheckthesizeof thefueltank.The generator shouldbeableto run for at least90minuteson a frrll tank.


SHOPACCESSORIES

WATTAGE RATINGS POWER TOOL TYPICAT Watts(Start-up) Tool (%-hp) Aircompressor Tablesaw(10") Sabersaw saw(7%") Circular saw(6%") Circular Beltsander ('t-hp) Benchgrinder Orbitalsander Router Electric drill(%") Electric drill(%") plane Power drill(%") Electric Random-orbit sander HVLPspraysystem

4000 4000 2500 2500 2200 1500 1500 900 900 800 600 600 500 500 400

Watts(Running) 2000 1500 1200 1200 1000 600 r200 360 700 600 350 450 250 360 240

with Choosing a generator rating a suitable waftage morepower to All electric toolsrequire running. The startupthanforcontinuous chartat leftgivestypicalpowerrequireof tools.When selectmentsfora number ratmakesureits wattage inga generator, wattage ingis higherthanthestart-up tool.Adda safety of yourmostpowerful percent about 20 to the commargin of wattage of all toolsyou binedrunning plug operate at will intothedevice and thesametime.

TIPS SAFETY GENERATOR . Readyourowner's manualcarefully a generatot. beforeoperating o Neverruna generator likeany indoors; engine,it produces internal combustion fumesthataredeadly carbonmonoxide space. in a confined . Donotfill thegenerator's fueltank or hot. whilethemotoris running

e Keepgasandoilonlyin containers specifically forfuelstorage designed FUEL.Keepthe marked andclearly awayfromsources of heat containers andflames. r Checktheengineoil leveleachtime yourefuelthegenerator. . Checkthegenerator's fuelIinesand if younoticeany connections regularly; off andhave leakage, turnthemachine beforeresuming operations. it serviced

r Addfuelto thefueltankat least10 feet of fromyourworkareaandanysources heator flames.Donotfill thetankrightto witha faulty ahdoverflow. o Neverusea generator thebrim;thefuelcanexpand exhaust system or damaged . Donotsmoke whilefillingthefueltank. . Ground following the thegenerator o Cleanupanygasoroilspillsimmediinstructions; thiswill manufacturer's divertanystraycurrentfroma shottcirately,wipinguptheareawitha clean reducing theriskof elecit up withan absorbent cuitto ground, cloth,or soaking material suchascatlitterorvermiculite; tricalshock. whichiscomavoidusingsawdust, a 240-volt toolor appliragsin sealed . Donotconnect bustible. Placefuel-soaked of themfolanceto a 120-voltreceptacle. anddispose metalcontainers regulations. lowinglocalenvironmental . Donotoverload by plugthegenerator r Donotremoveanysafetyguards,covgingin power with toolsor appliances higherwattage ratings thanthatof the while fromthegenerator ers,or screens generar0r. isoperating. themachine

7\

. Never wirethegenerator to theelectriof yourhomeor shopin an calsystem powerduringan outattemptto provide knownas"backfeedage.Thispractice, asit ing,"is unlav'rful in someareas, poses working onthe a riskto anyone electrical system. . Keepyourhandsandfaceawayfrom has whenever theaircleaner carburetor a suddenbackfire--or beenremoved; cylinderexplosion of fuelin anengine serious burns. cancause . Donottouchthegenerator engineor pipingwhilethemachine is runexhaust ningor immediately afterturningit off; veryhot.Allow thesepartscanbecome to coolbeforeperforming thegenerator anymatnlenance. r Turnthegenerator off beforeperforming anymaintenance on it; alsodisconnect to prethesparkplugwireandthebattery ventaccidental startupof themotor. r Generator byfederal useis regulated in someareas; conandstatelegislation in your authorities tacttheappropriate laws. community foranyapplicable


BENCHGRINDERS and shapingmetalto f, rom dressing I squaringandsharpening bits,plane irons, and chisel blades,the bench grinderis an invaluableworlshop maintenancetool. Grindersare classified accordingto their wheeldiameter.The5to 7-inchbenchtopmodels,with %- to %-horsepowermotors, are the most popularhomeworkshopsizes. Theycan be mountedon a work surfaceor fastenedto a seoarate stand. Grindingwheelscomein manygrits and compositions. Medium 36- and 60-grit aluminum oxide wheelswill handlemost tasksadequately, but you may need a finer wheel,with either 100 or 120 grit, for delicatesharpeningjobs.Buffingwheelsfor polishing metal,and wire wheelsfor removing rust and cleaningmetal,are also worth owning. Most grindersoperateat one speed, or allow a choiceof two speeds-typi-

cally2950and3600rpm.Somenewer modelsoffervariable speeds, a particularlyvaluable optionfor polishing and

A grinderis thebesttoolfor restoring thecorrectbevelangleon a nickedor out-of-square chiselblade.Thetip of theblademustcontactthegrinder wheelat an angleof 25" to 30".

DRESSING A GRINDER WHEEL Truing thewheel Totruea grinder wheelandsquareits edges,usea star-wheel dresser or a diamond-point dresser. Forthestar-wheel dresser, movethegrinder's toolrestaway fromthewheel.Withtheguardin position,switchonthegrinder andbuttthe tip of thedresser against thewheel. Then, withyourindexfingerresting against the toolrest,movethe dresser side-to-side across the wheel(right).Forthediamondpointdresser, holdthe devicebetween theindex finger andthumbof onehand, set it on thetoolrest,andadvance it toward thewheeluntilyourindexfinger contacts thetoolrest(inset). Slidethetip of thedresser across thewheel,pressing yourf ingeronthe lightlywhilekeeping toolrest.Foreitherdresser, continue until theedgesof thewheelaresquare andyou haveexoosed freshabrasive.

76

cleaning,and for grindingwith speeds low enoughto maintainthe temperof a steeltool. No grindershouldbe usedwithout loweringtheguardmountedaboveeach wheel; the tool should also come equippedwith adjustable tool restsand wheelcoverssheathing75percentto 80 percentof the wheels.More expensive grindersmayhaveotherfeatures,suchas sparkarresters, a watertray for cooling tool tips,and exhaustoutlets. Checkyour grinder wheelsregularly for fracturesand, as the wheel wears,adjustthe distancebetweenthe tool restandthegrindingwheelto about r/tinch.A grindingwheelwill eventually becomedull and cloggedwith metal particles,and its edgesmaygo out-ofsquare.As shownbelow,a wheeldresser is a specialtool that is usedto true the working faceof a grinding wheel and squareits edges.


SHOPACCESSORIES

U^

JIG GOUGE.SHARPENING Thejig shownat rightguarantees willcontact thatthetip of a gouge at thecorthewheelof yourgrinder the bevelonthe rectangleto restore c u t t i n ge d g eT. h ed i m e n s i o ni ns will accommodate the illustration mosrgouges. Cutthe baseandthe guidefrom plywood. Screwtheguide %-inch andfastenit to the base together fromunderwithscrews countersunk creneath.Makesuretheopening to atedbytheguideis largeenough freely. allowthearmto slidethrough Cutthe armfrom1-by-2stock from%-inch andthetoolsupport plywood. Screwthetwopartsof the thenfasten toolsupporttogether,

Tool9upport (back)'1"x2"x2'1" (bottom)%"x1%"x2'/o" Ouide (rop)%"x1%"x9" (atdee)'h"x1u/a"x9"

the bottomto thearm,flushwith oneend.FortheV block,cut a small woodblockto sizeandsawa 90" wedge outof oneside.Gluetheblock to thetoolsupport. To usethejig, secureit to a work surface sothearmlinesup directly wheel.Seatthe underthegrinding gougehandle in theV blockandslide edgeof the thearmsothe beveled gouge wheel. sitsflatonthegrinding Then,with Clampthearmin place. switch thegouge clearof thewheel, andreposition thetool onthegrinder e ith i n t h ej i g .H o l d i ntgh eg o u g w bothhands,rotateit fromside-toedgerunsacross sidesothe beveled thewheel(left).Checkthe cutting andstopgrinding edgeperiodically whenthebevelforms.

77


DUSTCOLLECTION system hasoneaim: A dustcollection A to capturemosiof thewooddust createdat eachofyour woodworking machinesandpreventit from endingup on the shopfloor, or, worseyet, in the air.Therearea seriesofvariables in every systemthat must be coordinatedto ensurea strongenoughflow ofair: the powerof thecollector;the locationand requirementsof the machinesin the shop;and the type,size,and layoutof the duct work. Thedesignofa centralsystembegins with a simplebird's-eyeview sketchof your shop,like the one shownbelow, arrangingthemachinesandcollectorin theirpreferred locations. Then,drawin a main line runningfrom the collector throughtheshop.Sketchin branchlines as needed to accommodateeach machineandanyobstructions-joists, beams,or fixtures-that may require specialrouting.For the bestair flow, keepthe main line andbranchlinesas

shortandstraightaspossible, andposition themachines thatproducethemost dust closestto the coilector.Youmay chooseto run ductingalongthe ceiling of the shop,or, to increasethe efficiencyof the system,at machinetableheightalongthe walls. Sincein mosthomeshopsonly one woodworkingmachinewill beproducing dustat a time,4- or 5-inch-diameter duct is sufficientfor both the main andbranchlines.Thereareseveralsuitabletypesofduct availablefor dustcollectionsystems. Thebestchoiceis metal duct designed specifically for dustcollection.However,manywoodworkers opt for plasticpipe,typicallyPVC or (and ABS.It is easier to sealandassemble disassemble for cleaning),Iessexpensive,and morereadilyavailable. plasticis an insulator,howBecause ever,staticbuild-up insidethe pipe can reachdangerous levels duringuse-possiblyhighenoughto ignitethedustpass-

DESIGNING A SHOPF()REFFICIENT DUSTC()LTECTION Layingouta shop Thediagram at rightillustraies a typicalhomeshop layout. Thepower toolsanddustcollection system havebeenarranged formaximum dustcollection efficiency. Withtheexception of thetablesaw,allthe machines aresituated ontheperimeter oftheworkarea. Theducting forthecentral dustcollection system runs close to thewalls.Despite requiring a relatively long m a i nl i n et,h i sd e s i ganl l o wfso rs h o rbt r a n c lhi n e s andminimal directional changes-both efficient arrangements. Thespace takenup bythedustcollectionsystem is minimized byplacing thecollector out probaofthewayin a corner of theshop.Theplaner, blythe heaviest dustproducer, is positioned closest to thecollector to reduce strainonthesvstem.

78

ing throughit. To preventthis, ground all plasticductsby runninga barecopper groundwire from eachtool, insidethe duct,to an electricalground.As a safety precaution,havethe systemchecked by an electrician. Smooth-wallrubber hoseandflexibleplastichose,frequently usedas branchducts to connect machines to themainline,areotherduct optionsfor thehomeshop.Mostof these producsalsorequireelectricalgrounding. A centraldust collectionsystem requiresa selectionoffittings to route andjoin lenghsof ductanddusthoods. Theinventoryon page79 illustratesthe elements of a qpical dustcollectionsystem.If you run the mainline alongthe ceiling,you cansecureit in placewith wire strapsnailed to furring strips mountedbetweenthejoists. Fittingsdirectlyaffectthe efficiency of thesystem, sochoosethemcarefully. As a rule,gentlecurvesarebetterthan sharpturns,souseY fittingsinsteadof


SHOPACCESSORIES

wherever Tsfor branchconnections, possible. A blastgateshouldbelocated ateachbranchoutletto sealductswhen theyarenotbeingused,therebyincreasing air flow to the machinein use. madeor Hoods,whethercommercially asclose shop-built, shouldbepositioned aspossible to thesourceof thedust. Youhavea choiceof methodsfor ductwork.Manyductsand connecting fittingscanbefrictionfit andsecured hoseclamps. Ducttape with adjustable

join plasticpipe,but canalsoeffectively it is unsightlyandwill decayovertime. isprobaA high-quality silicone sealant permanent for a sysblyabetterchoice flow metal tem.Toensuresmoothair ductsshouldbejoinedwithrivets,rather thanscrews or bolts. thelayout Onceyouhavecompleted andselected thetypeof ofyoursystem ductyouwill use,it is timeto calculate yourdustcollection needsandselecta Thisinvolves determining the collector.

requirementsof the heaviestdust collection taskvour svstemmust handle. This usually'willbi the sum of system lossesandthe air volumedemandedby the machine most distant from the collector.Purchasea collector with slightlymore capacity.Systemlosses are causedby such inefficienciesas bendsin the line, corrugatedducting, leaks, and hoods without flanges. Usethechartsandinformationon page 80 to sizeand selecta collector.

(lFA DUST COTTECTION SYSTEM ETEMENTS

Metal duct )tanda rd duat aollection pipe;availablein wideranqe 'of diametera Elaet' gate ?ipe fittin7 with alidin7qate which ia openedor cloaed to direat.duat collection air flow to a partiaular machine

PVCpipe Plastic pipe for emall ehop duat, collection system6; availablein different diametere and wall thiakneasea

Reduaer Connecta duct of different diametere; alao used to increaeeauction in oyatem or ioin a branah line to hood

Splice Forjoinin6 two len4tha of duct

Corrugated fl exible hoae Kibbedplaatic hose uaed for ahort runs or to connect machineaf,o main duct: smooth-aided rubber or plaatic varietiea aloo available

ffi \--J

_

Hoee alamp 9lotted metal band and acrew ueed to join two len4the of duct or hoae

Hood Duat- capt uri n4 d evicepoai' tioned cloee to aource and connected to branch line

Adaptere Joina non-atandard hose and duat to atandard dust colleotion hoae:also uaed to abtach collection hoae to facto ry- ineta lled porte on etationarv maohines

79

Elbow Att,acheeto duc-t' to chan1edirection of line

I' T aonneator Connectetwo ducte at 90" anqle

!

Y conneator Joina two ducte at 3Ooor 45" an6le

Floor aweep Attached to branch duct of central eyetem to vacuumduat off ahop floor


SHOPACCESSORIES

CATCUTATING DUST NEEDS C(|LTECTI(|N Determining staticpressure loss Dustcollectors areratedbytheirabilityto movea certainnumberof cubicfeetof air per minute(cfm)against a specif ic staticpressure.Themostimportant variable to keepin mindwhenchoosing a dustcollector foryour shopis staticpressure loss,whichis a measureof thefrictionairencounters asit passes through a duct.Thelonger theducting andthe morenumerous thesystemrosses, thegreater the staticDressure loss.To determine the youneed,calculate sizeof collector thestatic pressure lossforthe heaviest collection task in theshop.In thediagram on page78, it is thejointer.Thefollowing calculations are based on it. Foryourownshop,youmayneed to dothecalculations for a fewmachinesfromthecollector thosefarthest andat the endof branchlines-andchoose a collector based onthehighest resultyouobtain. Startwithchart1 (right,top)to calculate theequivalent lengthof theductingrunning In ourexample, to the machine. thereare 45 straightfeetof smooth4-inch-diameter ductandtwo90'curvedelbows. Theequivalentlengththerefore is:45 feet+ 20 feet= 65 feet.Thenusechart2(middle) to determrnerneexnausr reourremenrs rncTmoTrne machine; forthejointer,it is 300 cfm. Finally, usechart3 (bottom)to determine staticpressure lossfordustcollection at the machine. choose fromeither thethirdorfourth columnof thechartdepending on whether the machine is joinedto a main-line duct (3500feetperminuteof airvelocity, orfpm) ora branch line(4000fpm).Inthisexample, a 300-cfmmachine connected to a 4-inchdiameter mainlinehasa staticoressure loss of .05 inchesperfoot.Thusthestaticpressurelossfor thisjointeris: 65 feetx .05 = 3.25 inches. inches/foot Addtwoinches for unmeasured losseslikeair leaksandthe valuerisesto 5.25 inches. Theshopon page 78 wouldneeda collector witha 300 cfm ratingat 5.25 inchesof staticpressure. A system20 percentlargerwouldallowfor futureexpansion.

(1)EOU|VAIEI{T TENGTH 0FSYSTEM EIEMENTS Equivalent Lengh,in Feet Actuallength 1.5x actuallen$h

Ductor Fifting pipe Smooth-wall pipeor hose Corrugated Unflanged duct,hose,or hoodconnections

10

90" sharpelbow 90ocurvedelbow

20 10

90" hosebend

10

45' curved elbow 45" hosebend

5 5 20

Sidelegof 90" T Sidelegof 45" Y

5

(2)AIREXHAUST V0LUME RE0UIREMENTS FOR MACHINES Machine CubicFeetperMinute(CFM) Jointer @-r2') (upto 12") Discsander

300

(upto 6") Vertical beltsander (up Bandsaw to 2" blade)

350

300 400 300

Tablesaw(upto 16") Radial armsaw (upto 20") Planer (%"spindle) Shaper

350 400 300

(1"spindle) Shaper Lathe

500

Floorsweep Drillpress

350

500 3OO 300

Jigsaw

(3)STATIC PRESSURE L(ISS PERF00T0FDUCT AT3500Al{D21000 FPM Ductdiameter 4' 4u

CFM 300 350 400

4' 5u

500

80

3500 fpm '05 in/ft '05 in/ft

4000 fpm '07 in/ft

,05 in/ft .04 in/ft

.06 in/ft

.07 in/ft .06 in/ft


SHOPACCESSORIES

DUSTCOLTECTORS

llllllllllilllllllllllillllJ ill llllllllllllllllll IllJ llltilllllllilt1 1HO?TI? Electrioal ewee?6 lor riqht-anglejointo lf you uee?VCpipetor yourduet collecsubstit'uhe9O" electrical Lion6yoNem, ewee?o(far riqht) for convenlional90" elbowe(near riqht) to reducefricLion of your oyeand increaselhe efficiency oupplyhoue' tem. Available al elecNrical ee,Nhesefittin4e feaNurea 24-inch radiuscurve,whichie muchqent'ler than Ihe 5- to |O-inchradiuscurveof etandardelbowe,

81

Choosing between singlecollectors andtwo-stage are Twobasictypesof dustcollectors stngleand available forhomeworkshops: In single-stage coltwo-stage machines. leclors(above, /eff),debris-anddustl a d e na i ri s d r a w n t h r o u gahn i m p e l l e r , heavy actiondeposits wherecyclone dustanddebrisintothewastecontaindustrisesto er below whilethelighter t h ed u s tb a g .S i n g l e - s t acgoel l e c t o r s a r er e l a t i v elloyu da n dt h ed u s ta n d d e b r i tse n dt o w e a ro u tt h e b a ga n d quickly. In two-stage collectors impeller (above, right),Iheimpelleris located a b o v teh e i n l e td u c ts ot h e h e a v i e r p a r t i c l edsr o pi n t ot h ew a s t ec o n t a i n the through er beforeanyair passes i m p e l l earn db a gT. h i si s q u i e t ear ,n d wearontheimpeller anddust reduces aresomewhat bag.Two-stage collectors moredifficultto clean.


SHOPACCESSORIES

DUSTHOODS

Adapter CollecLion hoae

Connecting a dustcollection system to toolswithdustports Usea commercial adapter to attacha collection hoseto a machine dustport.Theadapter shouldbesizedto frictionf i t w i t ht h ec o l l e c t i ohno s ea t o n ee n da n ds l i oo v e trh e

dustportat theother,asshownonthe bandsaw(above, left). Fortheradialarmsaw,a hoseclampis usedfor reinforcemenl (above,right).

Hooking a planer upto thesystem A hoodliketheoneshown at rightcan becustom-built to caoture mostof the dustgenerated byyourplaner. Makethe hoodfromgalvanized sheetmetal,cuttingthepieces withtin snips.Leave tabs wherethepieces overlap sotheycanbe popriveted together. Makeflanges on thesidesto imorove thesealanda hole in thebackforthedustcollection hose; youwillalsoneedto create a lipalong thetopto connect to the ledgeof the planer's chipdischarge chute.Usean a d a p t et ro j o i nt h eh o o dt o t h eh o s e , inseding oneendintheholeinthehood a n dt h eo t h e e r n di n t h e h o s er;e i n forcetheconnection witha hoseclamo. Fasten thelipof thehoodto theplaner withsheetmetalscrews.

82


SHOPACCESSORIES

llll fitlrlllllllllttlllllllllllllllllllllllllllfiIllllllllllllllllll]I1 1HO?TI? Adapt inq st andard sheet' metal ducts as dust,hoode Commercial eheet-metal duc|'scan bemodified Lo eerveae efficienthoodetor your ohop'e oyofem.Someexampleaare duet,collecLion shownhere.UeeLin sniosI'o cuNNheducLt'o a ehapethaNouit6 the tool aI hand.TheducN shoulAfi1;enuqlyaroundthe chipdiocharqe Vort )crew iL in Vlace or dusNopoutof the machine. wibheheet melal screwe.

B3

Connecting a collection hoodto a router table to thefenceof a router A hoodattached tablewillcollect mostof thedustproducedbythetool.Cutthehoodfrom l/z-inch plywood, sizingit sothesides edges of thefence's hugtheoutside Thebottomedgeof supportbrackets. restonthetable; thebackflange should s i t o n t h et o p t h et o pf l a n g es h o u l d assembling the edgeof thefence.Before pieces of thehood,cuta holethrough hose.Also the backforthecollection thesides boreholes forscrews through andscrewangleironsto the backso edges areflushwiththe thattheirinside forthehose.Screw the hood opening hose together, thenfit thecollection in theback.Usea hoseclampto secure thehoseto theangleironsandposition thehoodonthefencebbove).Screwthe sidesof thehoodto thefencebrackets.


SHOPACCESSORIES

upa shop-made sanding station Setting Toreduce of dustgenerated theamount stall bypower sanding, builda portable Cutthe thatfitsona tableorworkbench. back,top,andsidesfrom%-or %-inch plywood. Taper thetopedges of thesides openworking to createa comfortable, liketheoneshownabove. Cutan space, fora dust outletin thebackof thestation collection hoseor branch duct.Assemble Position thestation withscrews. thesandingstationsecurely onyourworksurface; attachthecollector hoseto theoutlet. youbegin Turnonthecollector before a sanding operation.

lllrlllllll}l|llllllllrllllllllril lllltl|tllllIl11 l]illllrllllfiillll1 1HO?TI? Shop-madeblaotgate Tofaohionan inexpeneive blael qabefor a saw halfway Ihrouqhrhe Vipe. ducl, Vlaelic Cut a 4aIe from plywoodor hardboardto fii in lhe kerf.)aw a eemicircle in one half of the qate Ihe sameeizeas lhe ineide diameter of NhepiVe;lhe olher halt shouldorolrudefrom the kefr Lo form a handle.To eealthe slol when|he machineie in use,cuL a eleevelrom lhe eamesizeof pipewilh a d i a q o n asl l i Lt o a l l o w iL t o elideoverNhekefr.

84


DUSTCOLLECTION PORTABLE may system I centraldustcollection A soundlikeoverkillto thecraftsman with asmallhomeshop.Althoughsuch efficientthan aregenerallymore systems canbecostthey collectors, independent If space. considerable ly andconsume only and is restricted, area yourshop atatime, will beoperated onemachine portable dust collector. a consider Manytypesof portabledustcollecMost are strong tors are available. yet system, power a central enoughto the around toted light enoughto be shop.Ifyou areplanningto setup a shoparound portablecollectionsystem, that collector for themosttransportable in mind Keep canhandleyourneeds. thatyoumaywantto expandto a cenlater. tral system will find Manyhomewoodworkers not thatashopvacuum,although ideal, jobmostof thetime candoasatisfactory if you arewillingto work aroundthe

Althoughyou canhookup a bandsmu system, to a centraldustcollection anothersolutionis to attachit to a portableshopvacuum.Thevacuum's hosecanoftenbeslippedaroundan existingporton themachineusing reducer. a simplecommercial

aredesigned Shopvacuums drawbacls. to movea smallvolumeof air at high hose. velocitythrougha small-diameter on the otherhand, Dust collectors, movea largeamountof air at a lower dusthood,thereA shopvacuum speed. verycloseto fore,shouldbepositioned thetool.Largerchipswill tendto clog requiringfrequentcleanvacuumhoses, powered by univering.And,vacuums salmotorstendto wearout quickly. electric Modelswith induction-type motorswill lastlonger,but costmore thana portabledustcollectorof the sameDower. systemIf thereisnodustcollection portableor central-in yourshop,try startingonpage described themethods meth86to controlairbornedust.These to supplements odsarealsoeffective that suckup a majorityof collectors shopdust,but stillleavesomeparticles floatingin theair.

SYSTEM C(ILLECTION DUST PORTABLE ANAUXILIARY a dustcollecto/scapacity Expanding Youcanmorethandoublethecapacity or shop dustcollector of yourportable drumor a 55-gallon vacuum byattaching cola largeplasticbarrelasa mid-stage lector.Installplasticintakeandexhaust oortsonthedrumasshownat leftand mounta hoseto the intakeporton the wooddustandchips.The drumto collect 90" elbowonthe intakeportwillcreatea forcing effectinsidethe barrel, cyclone against the sawdust chipsandheavier dustwill be wallsof the barrel.Lighter portintothe theexhaust drawnthrough Foreasy or dustcollector. shopvacuum usepipefitanddisassembly, assembly tingsthatforma frictionfit withthe hose or collector. fromyourvacuum

85


SHOPACCESSORIES

CONTROLLING AIRBORNE DUST settinguppositive-pressure ventilation Tomaintain clearairin a shopwhenyou aregenerating a greatdealof airborne dust or chemical fumes,setupa positive-pres(PPV) sureventilation system. Openall the windows in theshopandposition a fanoutsidethedoorasshownat rightsothatthe airflowit produces will envelop thedoorway.Thestream of airwillfollowthepath of leastresistance-through thedoorand shop,andoutthewindows, clearing airbornedustandfumesquickly. PPVhas somelimitations, however. Thesystem will properly onlyfunction if thewindow openingsarelargeenough to handle a sufficient volume of air.Also,therestof yourhome mustbewellsealed off fromtheshoo.A morepermanent alternative to PPVcanbe fashioned bymounting anexplosion-proof exhaust fanin a shopwindow. Setupto pullairoutof theroom,thefanwillcrepressure, ate negative expelling f umes anddustin larger volumes thanis possiblewithPPV.

filllllltlt'lltllt'lll-llll tIIiltt'Ixl IItlltll|l'lllt lllfil'fiI'l||l 1HO?TI? Vaauumeareeningramp Forcleaninqdust off Xheohopfloor,builda wedqeehapedecreenin7 ramVfroml/z-inchplywood. Oeforeaeeemblinq Ihe piecee,cut an inlet porl in Ihe backto fit a dust collectionhoseand five rowe of 2-inch-diameLerholes lhrouqhthe Iop.When dust and chiVoare 6we\ u? onbothe ramp,emaller parlicleewillf all throuqh lhe holeeand conNinue on Io the colleclor.Largerrefuse willremainon bhe ramotor eaeydiopoeal. aL^a^-)

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86

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SHOPACCESSORIES

l|Ilillllllllllllll lllilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllltllllll]l} 1HO?Tt? ?anty hoee ahop vacuum ftlt'er Uoedpanty hoeecan oerveao an lo replaceinexpeneive alt'ernaLive ableshopvacuumdust'filNero.Fit the waieLbandaroundIhe loam filf,ersleeveon Lhe undereideof lhe molor houein4of the vacuum and knotIhe lege.)lide the ret'aininq rinqaroundIhe panty hoset'o aecureiNin place.

87

Filtering shopair quickandeasymethod of rtdAnother dustusesa furdingtheshopof airborne room nacefilteronthebackof a podable Whenthefanisturnedon, fan(above). willholdthefilterin placeand suction dust outof theair.Thedustwill draw on the filter,whichcanthenbe remain outside orvacuumed. brushed off


STORAGE,

n'd'ub'laccumula'fesliffi# rate:Lumber astonishing drills blades, saw saws, filt chisels, planes, clamps,

frfi*[T"i!,{if.#i-.

h * d * d p o * . ' t o o l s t h a t m u s t b e c o m m e r c i a l s t o r a g e d e v i c e s ' o n t h e market,but you canbuild a tool shellacs, productslikelacquers, Flammable whenneedavailable conveniently to-yourneeds cabinetcustomized attention. sltecial paint require thinners and not. way when of the ed-and out (p^qT: inexpensively easily and explosionin a-doubfe-lined, items these Storiig lumber scraps, the Addto these ?!) onpage98ffills Thedesignshown solution. isonesensible priof steet cabinet nails,spire locks,hinges,screws, cabinet twoneedsin one:a storage pars,'andlontainershaHill of fin Hardware work surface. a-sturdy serves as and folds down you that very soon-and some day invaluable to be isher-all sure compartsubdividedinto separate canbesortedin drawers, stoiageproblem.mayhavethemakingsof a monumental For tools glass y, in containers. greater "i:t!lt for ments or, two accomilish should goalg: storage workh6p Adequate awheeled shop, consider over the used all that are like clamps reach ofeach eaiy within kept bi fooh andmaterialsiliould 105).. shouldencroachaslittleasrack(page devices andthestorage operation, y.ou choose,you whatdevicesandtechniques No matter particular needs, your matter what lio pbssible onworkspace. provides morespace not only proper storage find that may space thit conserve ideas of storage youshouldfinda number purpose and. order a sense of conveys but and conrrenience, in thischapter. producpleasant and more an even your shop make that two by taklg begin options yourownstorage tn evaluating ryill place work. to tive of the other materials and your toolsand oni'of inventories: .

Whateveritssize,a toolchestcanserveasa cabinetmaker'scallingcard.Thisportablecarver'schestkeepstools organized"safefrom damage,and within easyreach.

89

l


STORINGWOOD p roperlystoredlumberandplyr,vood I. arenotonlykeptoutofthewaybut straightand dry, too. For most shops, this involvesstoringlumber in racls that hold the wood off the floor. Wood shrinksand expandsaccordingto the amount of humidity to which it is exposed.A wet floor canwarp lumber and delaminatesomeplywoods.The lumberracksfeaturedin thissectionare easyand inexpensiveto build; you shouldbe ableto find a suitabledesign and adaptit to your needs. Ifyou havethe space,you cansetup an end-loadinglumber rackliketheone shownon page91.Sucha systemis relativelyeasyto constructbut youwill need a walltwicethelengh of yourlumberto allowfor loadingandunloading.If space in your shopis at a premium,considera front-loadingracklike the one shown below.If versatilityis needed,examine

therackon page92,whichallowsyou to storeboardsboth horizontallyandvertically.AvoidusingZ-shapedbrackets; theywastetoo muchspace. Thetypicalshopcanstockhundreds of poundsof lumbet so it is crucialto anchoryour rack firmly-to at least everysecondwall studor floor joist. Make the most of spacesthat you would not ordinarilyconsiderasprime storage areas.Ifyour ceilingis unfinished,nail furring stripsacrossthejoists for handyshelvingto storeshort stock and dowels. Everyitem in a workshopdemands its own storagemethod.Thedowel rackat left,builtfrom 3/t-inchplywood,1-by-4stockand6-inch-diametercardboardtubes,sortsdffirent sizesof dowelswhiletakingup a minimum offloor space.

A LUMBER RACK planks Storing andboards Thestorage rackat rightfeatures vertical supports screwed to wallstuds.Cutfrom 2-by-4stock,thesupports buttress shopmadewoodbrackets, whichholdupthe lumber. Youwillneedonesupport at each e n do f t h er a c kw , i t ha n a d d i t i o noanl e every 32 inches alongthewall.Afterboltingthesupports to thestuds,prepare the brackets bycuttingthesidesfrom%-inch plywood andthemiddleshelfpiecefrom 2-by-4stock1% inches shorter thanthe brackets. Anglethetopedgeof thesides byabout5'so the brackets willtilt up slightly(inset)and prevent thelumber fromfalling offthe rack.Screw themiddleshelfpiece to thesides, thenscrew thebracket io the vertical supports.

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90


STORAGE

RACK A TUMBER-AND.PTYWOOD both to accommodate Designed panels, therack andplywood boards shownrestson theshopfloorand to joistsin the ceiling. attaches ontotherails Lumber is loaded canbe fromtheend,whileplywood in thetroughat thefront stacked bar. andheldin placebythehinged Referto thecuttinglistfor suggesteddimensions.

Tobuildtherack,firstcuttherails andstilesfrom2-by-4stock,then (rnsef): Starting notchthemtogether endof the fromthebottom 24 inches of 3%-inch-wide, stiles, cuta series 24 inchevery dadoes 1%-inch-deep at bothendsof each es.Cutrabbets inthestiles. railto matchthedadoes therailsandstilestogether, Screw thenboltthetopendsof thestiles them48 thirdjoist,making to every

CUTflNO LI5T Rails (9): 11/2"x 31/2"x 36" 'l ?tilea (6): 1/2"x 31/2"x 96" Croeebars (2)t 3,/+"x 3t/2" x 1OB" Trough - back 1"x B" x 1OB" - bottomt 1"x 10" x 1OB" - lip: 1"x 3" x 1OB" Hinged bar: 3/c"x 3 1/2"x 65"

9l

inches apart.Oncethegridisfixedto theceilingjoists,screwthecrossbars them to thefrontstiles,centering therails. between troughwith the plywood Assemble it to the botscrewsbeforefastening attach tomof thefrontstiles.Finally, barto thetroughlipwith thehinged in a butthinge,andcuttwonotches thefreeendof the barfor a looped cordto holdthebarupright.


STORAGE

ADJUSTABTE LUMBER RACKS

piperack Building anadjustable (inset), Therackshown above, madeof 4-by-4stockandsteelpipe,is thecrosspieces making sureall thecrosspieces in pipes attached to wallstuds.Thesteel shouldbe roughly 24 thesamehorizontal rowwillbeat thesamelevel.Boreholes incheslongand% inchin diameter. Theycanbe inserted into i n t ot h eu p r i g h tasn dc r o s s p i e cf eo srt h ep i p e sd; r i l lt h e anyof the holesdrilledintothe vertical supports or cross- holes3 inchesdeepand6 inches apart,angling themby pieces, allowing lumber to bepiledonthepipesorstacked on about5' sothepipes willtilt up slightly. Boltthe uprights endbetween them.Beginbycuttingtheuprights to lengthand to thestuds,thencut the crosspieces to lengthandtap markeachpointon themwhereyouwantto locatea cross- t h e mi n b e t w e etnh e u p r i g h twsi t ha m a l l e tF. i xt h e mi n piece.Cutdadoes in thesidesof theuprights to accommodate placewithglueor bydrivingin screws at anangle.

92


STORAGE

i l i l i l i l t t i li i t ti l i l t t r ri l i i t i t it i i l l l i t t r l il l i l l l l i l l i l l l l l l i l l i l i ri l l l ili i$ llt ii.l ul i$ iil d.ui$ {iJ t$ tti {ti l$ i$ iti i$ i.U

1HO?TI? Anahoringlumber raaka in aonarete einceordinarywoodor eheet melal ecrewedo noN faetenere holdwellin concrele,you willneed,d,ifferenf' anchore(top) comNhanyouwouldueefor wood.Lead, binedwith laqbolloare ideallor anchorin7t'o concrel'e. Nheanchor lneertedinto a holedrilledin I'heconcreLe, ae Nheboll io driven exVands eideeof inlo it, qrippinqtrhe the holetiqhNly.Another conoVtioniethe eell-LaVpin4 crele ocrew(bottom),lle eerratedlhreadehold fasL in concreNe.

93

lumber shelves Setting upadjustable system A commercial lumber storage of consists liketheoneshownabove andbrackets thatf it metalstrapping Therack intoholesin thestrapping. oneon page is similar to thewooden it is metal,thisrack 90, butbecause heavier loads. support cantypically directly to thewall Boltthestrapping supports fastened studs,orto vertical to non-exposed studs.Makesurethe y allow s t r a p as r ea l i g n e lda t e r a l tl o youto position at eachrowof brackets Formostapplications, thesameheight. to thestrapping attachthe brackets apartvertically. about24 to 36 inches


STORINGTOOLSAND SUPPLIES ((

[ placefor everythingand everyA thing in its place."That timeworn adageis especially appropriatefor the homeworkshop.From shelvesand racksto tool chestsand partitioned drawers,many deviceswill eliminate clutterwhilekeepingtoolsand supplies easilyaccessible. A few methodsare shownin the followingpages. For certaintools,particularlyitems that arevaluableor dangerous enoughto be out of the reachof children,wallmountedboxeslike thoseshownbelow areideal.For a moretraditionalsystem ofenclosedstorage, you canbuild a tool cabinetor cupboardin the shop (page 96).Butnot everystoragedeviceneeds Shelves arean idealtoolstorageoption.Thisshop-built to be elaborate. As shownon pagel0l, unit featuresgrooves and cleatscustom-cutto hanga suspendinga tool from a fastenerdripanoplyof took in full viewoyera workbench. veninto a wall canwork just fine.

WALL STORAGE portable Installing cabinets Theboxat rightcanbehungsecurely on a shopwallandeasilymovedif plynecessary. Buildit from3Z-inch woodwitha hinged top.To hangthe cabinet onthewall,cuta 45' angle beveldownthemiddleof a 1-by-6, thencrosscut thetwopieces slightly lessthanthewidthof thebox.Screw oneof theoieces to thewallasa batten,withthebevelpointing upand f a c i n gt h ew a l l ;a n c h oar s m a n y of thefasteners as oossible in wall studs.Screwthe otheroieceto the backof the boxwith its f lat edge buttingagainst the lip andthebevel pointing downandfacingthe back. Thetwopiecesinterlock whenthe boxis hungon thewall(inset).

SIDEVIEW

Wall

tsalten

94


STORAGE

Adapting drawers to holdsmallitems much of somesimpletrayscanmakedrawers Theaddition forsmallitemslike storage units,especially moreefficient whichcanbeeasilylost.Thejarorganizer screws andwashers, jarsin order.Theshelfraisshownabovekeepsdifferent-sized jarsto makethemmoreaccessible. Beginby esthesmaller onesnearly thesame thejars:Findsomelarger collecting onesabouthalfthat heightasthedrawer andsomesmaller plya pieceof 7z-inch Makethedivider bytrimming height. Layoutthejarsontheplywood woodto f it insidethedrawer. Usea holesawto cut holesforthe andmarktheiroositions.

jarsslightly Holdthedivider larger thantheiractual diameters. (above). supports andtheshelfin placewitha pairof plywood (inseil. fhe organizer is theslidingtray Another usefuldrawer Thedividers are trayis a basicboxthatfits insidethedrawer. nails.Attach withfinishing notched together andthensecured thetray. sidesto support a pairof slidesto thedrawer

95


STORAGE

Leathereaw etrap

A TOOL CABINET Thetoolcabinet shownaboveis handyforstoring andorganizing handtools.Although theentireunit is portable, thedrawers areremovable,making it possible to carry around onlythetoolsthatareneeded.Buildthecabinet fromeither7ainchplywood orsolidlumber. The sizeof theboxwilldepend onyour needs but40 inches highby30 inches wideby 15 inches deepis point.Position a goodstarting the divider in thecenter of thecabinet sothatthesoaces on bothsidesof it areequal,making thedrawers interchangeable.

Cutthepieces to size,thenprepare thesidesof thecabinet andthedivider forthedrawers: Routa series of 7+by-%-inch dadoes ononefaceof the sidesandonbothfacesof thedivider. Makethespacebetween thedadoes plus equalto theheight of thedrawers, Ya-inch forclearance. Glueupthecabinet,shelf,divider, anddoor,using thejointof yourchoice. Thecabinet in theillustration wasassembled with joints.Naila leather plate,or biscuit, straoto the insideof thedoorfor hanging iools,adda woodstripto prevent smallitemsfromfalling out, thenattachthedoorto thecabinet withbutthinges.

96

Next,buildthedrawers. Sawthe pieces plywood to size,usingVq-inch forthebottom; orientthepanels so thegrainof thefaceveneer runsfrom thefrontof thedrawer to theback. Cutthesidesslightly shorter thanthe depthof thecabinet if youareworkingwithlumber, to allowforwood movement. Makethedrawer front12inchwiderandcut a rabbetalong its bottomedgeto conceal the bottom,andnotchthetopedgefor a handle. Cutdadoes in thesidesfor dividers. Glueup thedrawers; the bottoms shouldextendbeyond both sidesbyVqinchto formslidersthat fit in thecabinet dadoes.


STORAGE

A TOOICUPBOARD abovefeatures twin Thecupboard forstoring small,lighttoolslike doors andscrewdrivers, aswellasa chisels for bigger largemaincompartment from32tools.Cutthecomponents to theapproinchplywood or lumber priaiesize,depending onthenumber shown of toolsyouown;thecupboard and5 aboveis 48 inchessouare doors. inches deepwith3-inch-deep using Next,assemble thecupboard A method of yourchoice. thejoinery jointis oneof the dovetail through pleasing andmostvisually strongest

a Butyoucouldchoose options. method assimpleascounterbored screws concealed underwoodplugs, asshownabove. To helpyouinstalltheshelves, on its backand laythecupboard olacethetoolsto bestoredin their theshelves designated spots.Position andscrewthemin place. accordingly To keepsupplies fromrollingoff a shelfor the bottomof the doors, gluea ledgealongthefrontedge. l f y o uw a n t o s u b d i v i daes h e l,f screw1-by-1cleatsacrossit or installvertical dividers between

97

t h es h e l v e s . Equiponeor bothdoorswithslotto holdtoolslikechisels tedshelves Borea seriesof andscrewdrivers. thanthetool holesslightly smaller handles, thensawa kerffromthe edgeof the shelfto the holeto e n a b l yeo ut o s l i pi n t h e b l a d e . to thedoor. Screw theshelves Hangthedoorsonthecupboard w i t hb u t to r p i a n oh i n g e sU. s e perdoor.Mount threebutthinges your to thewallabove thecupboard workbench, if desired, byscrewing it to thewallstuds.


STORAGE

A FOLD-DOWN WORKBENCH ANDTOOL CABINET ldealforsmallworkshops, thestorage feacabinet shownbelowandopposite turesa doorthatserves double-duty as a sturdyworksurface thatfoldsup out

of thewaywhenit is notneeded. Mounted on a framethatis anchored theunitis builtwithan to wallstuds, shelfanda perforated adjustable hardboard backfor organizing and hanging toolsaswellasa worktable

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Frame

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11

Fiano hinge

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CUTTINGLI9T Frame - Raile(2):3,/+"x 21/2"x 48" - Stilee (2):3/+"x21/2"x 24" Cabinet - Back:1/a" x 24" x 48" - Top:3,/+" x 10"x 48" - Eottom:3,/+"x 10"x 48" - 1ides (2):3,/+" x 10"x 221,/2" - Divider:3,/q" x 10"x 221,/2" - thelf 3/+"x 10"x 3O1/2" Workbenah - Top:3,/+" x 23 1,/+" x 48" - Eenchtoprail:3/+"x 4" x 48" - Bencht'opatileo: (2):3/+"x 4" x 221/2" - Hingebrace rails (2):3/+"x 31/2"x 461/2" - Hingebrace stilea (2):3,/+" x 31/2"x 16" - Lege(2): 11/2" x 31/2"x 34" - Legrail: 11/2" x 3 1/2"x 461/2"

9B

supported by foldinglegs.Thecabinetbenchcan be madeentirelyof %-inch plywood, exceptfor the legsand legrail, whichare cut from 2-by-4stock;the 1-by-3frame;the 1-by-4hingebrace assembly; andthe hardboard back.


STORAGE

Buildtheunitin threesteps,startthe ingwiththeframe,thenmaking andfinallycutting cabinet section, theworktableandlegs. andattaching Referring to thecuttinglistfor suggested in the cut rabbets dimensions, thenglueand framerailsandstiles, Nexi,screwthe screwthemtogether. frameto thestudsin yourshop.Be theframesothatthe sureto position will beat a comfortable worksurface off height, typically about36 inches secthefloor.Nowbuildthecabinet

tion,cuttingthepartsto size.Before boretwoparalthepieces, assembling lelrowsof holesonthe insidefaceof face onesidepanelandtheopposing of thedivider. Drilltheholesat l-inch in fromthe intervals about2 inches Byinserting comof thepanels. edges in available shelfsupports mercially theholes, theheightof theshelfcan to suityourparticular beadjusted of theshelf, needs. Withtheexception thencutthe screwthepartstogether, to sizeandnailit to the hardboard

99

theframe Fittheunitagainst cabinet. to attachthecabinet andusescrews to theframe. to Sawthepartsof theworkbench size,thenscrewthehingebracerails railand andstilesandthebenchtop of the benchto the underside stiles (above, benchright). Altach the top section of the cabinet tooto thebottom piano the hinge, making sure witha perfectly aligned. are twoedges foldeddown Withtheworkbench parallel to thefloor,meaandheld s u r et h ed i s t a n cfer o mt h e h i n g e b r a c er a i lt o t h ef l o o ra n dc u t t h e legsto fit. Attachthe legsto the railwithhinges, thenscrewlevelers to the bottomof the legsandadjust to levelthebenchthemasnecessary to each top.Adda foldingmetalbrace screwing the legfor addedsupport, flat endof the braceto the hinge bracestileandtheotherendto the outside edgeof the leg.Alsocut a the legsand legrailto f it between s c r e wi t i n p l a c eF. i n a l l yi n, s t a lal onepartto the hasplock,screwing topof thecabinetandtheotherpart rail. to ihe benchtop


STORAGE

STORING SAWSANDBLADES

Baak 1/+"x 9" x 29 3/+u

5aw holder 1/+"x10"x291/2"

3/+"x8"x29"

Turnbuakle /

re .J-

/

I00

Building a handsaw storage rack Thehandsaw storage rackshownat left saves spacebystoring sawsupright. The handles fit on oieces of woodthesame shape astheholeinthehandle. Theblocks aremounted to a holderthatslidesin grooves cut in thetopandbottomof the box.Cutthepartsof theboxto size,then equipyourtablesawwitha %-inchdado blade.Toaccommodate theoutside saw grooves holders, cut %-inch-deep 2% inches fromeachendof thetopandbotgroove tom.Sawanother oneachpiece centered between thefirsttwoforthethird sawholder. Screw thetopandbottomto thesides, thentackthebackin place. Trace theoutline of theholein eachsaw handle ona blockof woodandcut outthe piece. Glueandscrewit to thesawholdpieceof woodto er,thenscrewa pivoting thetooof the blockto serve asa turnbucklethatwillkeepthesawin placewhenit is beingstored. Usea sabersawor a band sawto cut handles in theholders to make it easier to slidethesawsin andoutof the box.Place themat staggered heights so theydo notinterfere witheachother. The dimensions shown will makea boxthat canholdsawthreesaws.lf youwantto storemoresaws,simplymakethetopand bottomwiderandspaceadditional grooves 1% inches apart.


STORAGE

HOTDER A HANDSAW rackfor handBuilda wall-mounted dowsawswith a fewwoodscraps, eling,andsomerubberhose.Cut the basetromr/z-inchplywood from4-by-4stock; andthedividers be 10 inches should thedividers long.Cuta taperat theendof each 4-by-4,asshownat right.Screwa edgeof the base, 2-by4alongone in place, thenscrewthedividers leavingaVz-inchgapbetween arecutfrom4them.Thestoppers inchlengthsof l/z-inchdoweland slightlylargerrubberhose;use hosewithridgesratherthansmooth gardenhose.Slipa sawintothe thentugdownon rackfrombelow, willpinch Thestopper thehandle. the bladein place.Markthedowandscrewit to the base. el'sposition

fiIlllljlll lll lll]llllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllltlltllltlttlIlll )HO? TI? Hangingportable ?owertoole from the wall eolutionto t'he A eim?lebuVeaoilyoverlooked problemof elorinqNoolswherelhey can be eeenie Nohangbhemfrom Nheohopwall. Drivea nail,ecrew,or lhreadedeyehook into lhe wall,makinqsure iNis anchoredf'o a elud. Loopa lenqlhof nylonropearound Nhetool handle,lhenhan6t'he ropefrom Ihe faslener,Leavet'he ropehanqinqfrom Lhewallwhenyou are uoinqt'helool ae a reminderNorelurn it to it'e riqhtfulplace whenyou are finiehed.

101


STORAGE

0rganizing circular sawblades Keepyourcircular sawblades visible andprotected in a custom-made storageboxliketheoneabove. Buildthe plywood, boxfromt/z-inch cuttingit a fewincheslarger thanyourlargest bladeandwideenough to holdallyour blades. Makethedivrders outof t/qplywood; inch f irstcut rectangles 1 inchlessthanthesizeof thesides, t h e ns a wt h e mi n h a l fd i a g o n a l l y . Screw theframetogether, thenglue andnailthedividers to thebottom andback.Leavel/q inchbetween the dividers. Tokeeptheblades fromrolling outof thebox,cuta battenfromscrap stockandnailit to thedividers near thebottom of thebox.

llltlllrllliltlllltlll1 tllllltilllilllillttlllljltrllllllttllllltlllll 9HO7Tt? A aircularsaw bladeaarrier Toavoiddamaqin4your circular eaw blades,or nickin4youreelfwhenLhebladesare beinqotored or Nranoporled,usea commercial blade carrier.Themodelshown accommodahee up to 10 bladee,protecNinq the cuNtinq edqeewiNha plaoLic rim whileleavinq Lhebladee vieible.WheneNorinqoeveral bladesal once,oeparate Nhemwilh cardboard6?acere lo prevenllhe Neethfrom makinqconlacN.

r02


STORAGE

TOOLS ORGANIZED KEEPING

tool-tray dividers Adding sawa 2-by-4to a drawers, To protecttooledgesin storage thedrawer sides.Thencut lengthequalto thespacebetween onesideof theboardto holdthetools-inthis dadoes across file blades(above). dadoes to accommodate case,narrow

handtools Storing toolsapartandsimThetooltrayshownabovekeepsdifferent protect a needwhile making to them helping ilaronestogether, advantage of has the additional Thetray ed itemeasyto locate. joists valuit up no so that takes fromoverhead suspended being to joists,spacing two2-by-4s Startbybolting ableworkspace. bottom endsof the thetray.Cutoffthe themto accommodate the tray, cutting height. Next,build Z-by-4s at a convenient the and dividers thesidesfrom%-inchstock,andthebottom plywood. according to forthedividers Cutdadoes from7+-inch your you group together tools,thenscrewthesides how wishto tnthedadoes andscrew Gluethedividers andto thebottom. Screwthe backto wallstuds,or, thesidesto the 2-by-4s. wall.lf youplanto install to a concrete usingleadanchors, through wood drivethescrews asshown, thetrayat anangle, placed thetrayandthewall. between wedges

103


STORAGE

Usinga LazySusan{ype storage cupboard lf yourworkshop hasan unused corner -an areaundera counter, for example,installa commercial LazySusantypecupboard to storeworkshop tools andsupplies. Thedesign of thedevice makes anyitemonthetrayseasily accessible.Themodelshown above features a carousel withtwotraysthatrevolve around a metalshaft.Using%-inchplywood,builda cabinet liketheoneshown above to house thecarousel andsupport themetalshaftat boththetooandbottom.Assemble thecarousel following the manufacturer's instructions.

flIlrll1 llljllllrullllllllilllfiIjfiIlfillllljlllllll ljllljlllllllllr 1HO?Tt? Amagnetictool mck KeepmelalNoolo or4anized and accessibleon a commercialmaqnelic Noolrack.The modelshownfeaEuresa heavy-duLy b a rm a q n e N l h a L w i l l holAany iron-basedlool eecurely-from screwdrivers, chieels,and hammerolo Lry equareeand ocieeors.To mountf,herack,screwNhemaqneN lo a woodetrip and anchorLheotrip Nowalle|uds aboveyour workbehch,

t04


STORAGE

RACK CLAMP A MOBITE to store. canbea nuisance Clamos in accumulated Thesheernumber mostshoos-andtheirawkward stretcheventhe sizeandshape--can to the system storage mostorganized

clamprackshown limit.Themobile of clamps. a widevariety below stores underthe mounted Withcasters base,the rackcanbe rolledto any partof theshopwhereclampsare thewall, agatnst thenstored needed,

CUTTINO LIST -Raile (top, bottom, and median) (6): t 3/+"x 31/'2"x 231/2" " " " -gtilee (2): 1 / x 3 / x 44 / -Croaspiecea (3):11,/2"x 3t/2" x 23t/z -Eaeai/+" x 23 1/2"x 23'/2" -1kirt piecea (4):1/2" x 3t/2" x 23 i/2"

105

Referto the cuttinglistfor suggested dimensions. and therails,stiles, Startbycutting to sizefrom2-by-4stock. crosspieces together using Thenjointhe pieces Toprepare the lapjointsandnotches. routendrabbets railsforthejoinery, t h a tw i l lf i t i n t ot h e n o t c h easn d Therabbets dadoes cutintothestiles. s i d ea n d3 4 s h o u l db e I 1 / zi n c h e w inchdeep.Next,notchthetopendof eachstileon threesidesasshown, near dadoes thenroutback-to-back e n da n dm i d d l eo f t h e t h eb o t t o m 3% inches stiles;makethedadoes wideand3/qinchdeep.Alsocut a nolch3t/zincheswideand7q inch of eachstile. deeofromthebottom therailsand Whenyouassemble of eachrail stiles, alignthetwohalves withthe face-to-face andassemble together, dristile.Screwthe pieces thejoints, through vingthefasteners to therack, Tojointhecrosspieces in themiddadoes cut3%-inch-wide dleof eachandscrewthemin place. willreston Themiddlecrosspieces will rail.Thetoppieces themedian of the shoulders restontheoutside notched topof eachstile. Finish t h er a c kb yc u t t i n gt h e fourpieces fortheskirtfrom2-by4 stockandthe basefroml/rinch plywood. in the Sawtwonotches the baseandskirtto accommodate strles,rabbettheendsof the skiri pieces, to andscrewthemtogether to attach forma box.Usescrews attach theskirtto thebase.Finally, of theskirt casters to the underside at eachcornerof therackandfasien thebaseto thestilesandbottom fromunderthescrews rail,driving neaththe base.


STORAGE

A SHETF FOR CTAMPS Builtfroml/z-inchplywood, the shelfshownat rightfeatures a seriesof notches for supporting barandpipeclamps alonga shop wall.Cuttheshelfabout10 inches wideandas longasyou needforthenumber of clamps youwishto store.Cutthe notchesat 3-inchintervals witha sabersawandmakethemwide enough for theclampbarsor pipes;17+inchesis aboutright for mostclamos,Thenscrew shelfbrackets to the underside of the shelf,centering them between the notches. Fasten the shelfto a backingboardof Vzinchplywood, thenanchor the boardto thewallstuds.

llllIIlllt'filt IIltll'ffiIIllllllllilltfit'IllilIt filtlllllltttlll )HO? TI? ?toring alampein a oan Atraeh canfilhedwitha ehoomadelid eeryel as a conveniertl wayto sLoresmallbar or pipe plvclampe.Cul a oieceof 1/z-inch wooAinto a ciicle oliqhtlyemaiti, lhan the diameLer of lhe can'orim. Thenscribea seriesof concenlric circleson trheplywoodto helpyou localethe holesfor the clampbare, 1Vacetrhe circlesaboutb inchee apart and markpoinLeevery3 inchee alonqlhem, Borea f-inch-diameter holethrouqheachpoint, fit, the pieceof plywoodin the can and drop the clamoslhrouahlhe holes.

106


STORAGE

FOR CLAMPS TWOWALIRACKS

theracks Making andinstalling areasfor Shopwallsmakeidealstorage barandpipeclamps.Forbarclamps (above,left),nailtwocleatsacrossthe the uppercleatwallstuds.Position to keep enough madeof plywood-high theclampsoff thefloor;makethe lower so onefromtwo2-by-4snailedtogether willtilt towardthewall. thattheclamps right),nail For pipe clamps(above, plywoodto the studs cleatsof 3/q-inch to thecleats. andscrewbroomgrippers Position thecleabonthewallsotheclamps willrestabout1 inchoffthefloor.Then cut the basefrom 1-by-4stock,and borea rowof holesintoit at thesame Fastenthe intervalasthe grippers. basealongthefloorsothe holesline upwiththeclamps.

t07


STORAGE

ITEMS SMALL STORING

glassjarsundera shelf Mounting nails,andboltscanbestored Screws, including in a variety of containers, jars,or mason tennisballcanisters, pill bottles. Mounting thecontainers will keepthe undera shelf(above) itemsoutin theooenwithoutclutteringa worksurface.Fastenthe containerlidto theshelf.thenscrewthe to the lid. container

108


STORAGE

A SCRAPBOX to keepfromclutUsea scrapbox teringthe shopfloorwithcut-offs, The shavings, andotherrefuse. designshownat leftcanbe built quicklyfrom%-inchplywood; castrolled where to be ersallowtheunit it is needed andmovedoutof the waywhenit is not.Sawthesides to andbottomto a sizeappropriate yourneeds, four corner thencut blocksfrom2-by-2stock.Screw drivingthe thefoursidestogether, Turn screws intothecornerblocks. theboxoverandnailthebottomto thecornerblocksandsides.Adda thetopto hidetheplyliparound Finally, woodedges. screwcasters to eachbottomcornerqnda pull handleat oneend. f'{'

particularly Somestoragedevices, thosedesigned for smallitems,are lesstroubleto buy than to build. Thesystemshownat leftfeatures openplasticbinsthat canbelined Thebinsaresusup or stacked. pendedfrom plasticstripsthat are screwed to thewall.

109


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WORKSreS With its myriaduses,the sawf t isatruismthatnoworlshopis horseis alsotheworkhorse of the I everlargeenough;it is equally tan serveasa set shop.A sawhorse true that no woodworkereverhas of legsfor a fold-downwork table sawhorses, enoughtables,benches, (page116)or asimplepropfor sawstands,or propsto supportwork ing stock.With a fewnotchescut Thetraditionalworkin progress. into their crosspieces, horsescan usefulor necessary bench,however (supage46),isonlythebeginning. form part of theframefor a shopDa).Clamped madegluerack(page Formanyuses,it is too high,too to a2-bv-4attached to a commersmall,or tooimmobileto behelpfuL a cialroller,a sawhorse becomes Whenit istimeto marktheelecustom-builtrollerstand. the mentsof a joint or assemble Outfeedtablesandrollerstands manypieces of a chair,a solidwork that hold unwieldypanelsor long table,like the library-styletable plankssignificantly expandthevershownonpage113,canserveasthe satilityof toolsliketablesaws, band Bettercontrolproduca betterresults, commandcenterof your shop, Setup at saws,and drill presses. Secured to aband smr'soriginaltable,a becoming thefocusof manyopertable, a large thesamelevelasa machine's shop-madeextensiontablelceeps a spaations.Thisdesignfeatures it, theseprops or fractionallybelow hardboardsheetlevel duringa curvedcut. cious work surfaceand sturdy canbeaswelcome asa secondset Theonlvdrawback construction. to handlelargeworka tool'scapacity is size:onewouldneeda fairlylargeshopto accommodate of hands,enhancing thistable.Fora smallershopwith crampedquarters,consid- piecesefficientlyandsafely. for a lack Worksurfaces canevenberiggedto compensate on page115.Offeringalmostas erthefoldingtablefeatured Thestandshownonpage134 machines. of firll-sizestationary muchsurfaceareaasthelibrary-styleversion,it canbefoldto letyoumountabenchtoptoolat acomfortable The isdesigned edout of thewayagainstthewallwhenit is not needed. tool tablefeaturedon page temporarytableillustratedon pagell7 offersyet another workingheight.Thethree-in-one spaceandconve- 136cantransforma router,sabersawandelectricdrill into solutionto theconstantconflictbetween tools. workingsur- mini-stationary nience,satisfying boththeneedfor a substantial will ofwood,werywoodworker Givenaneedandafewpieces Restingon sawhorses, thisplywood faceandeaseof storage. improvehisor hertools.Theexamples that isrequired, devise somewayto aflatsurface sheettabletopcanbesetupwhenever forit isimposibletolimittheimagyourprojectmoveson followaremeresuggestions, andput awaywhen thenbedismantled for improvingtheworlshop. inationwhentheneedarises to anotherphase.

Thedoor of this storagecabinetfolds downfrom a shop wall to becomea sturdywork surface.Supportedby solid lumberlegs,it is an idealwork tablefor light-duty operasmallcarcases. tionssuchasgluingup and assembling For detailson how to built this unit, seepage98.

l1l


WORKTABLES chores, {",'or manylightwoodworking l" frourrnarkinsout iointsto asselnblingpiecesof furniture,a simplework tablefits thebill aswellasa traditional woodworker's bench.This sectionfeaturesseveral tabledesigns. All arequick, easy, andinexpensive to build.Thetable shownoppositeis sufficiently largeand sturdyfor nlostjobsiifspaceisat a premium, a goodcompromise wouldbe oneof the fold-upversions shownon pagesI 15and I 16.Youcanalsoconserve spaceby incorporating storageshelves, drawers, or cabinets in yourdesign.For assembling carcases andotherpiecesof furniture.vou mavfind thelow-to-thegroundtableon page1l4 handierthan a standard-height work surface. Whicheverdesignyou choose,be carefulof thenailsor screws you useto constructa table-particularlywhenfasteningthe tabletopto the frame.Thke thetime to countersink or counterbore screwheadsand setnail headsbelow thesurfaceto preventthefasteners from marringyourwork.

Alnrostas strongas a traditional workbench,this commercial work table is a versatileworkhorse,especiallywhen paired with a woodworker'svise.The cabinetand drawersprovide storagespace,and can be lockedto secLtre valuobletools.

Despiteits lightweight,conlpoctdesign,the Black d* Decker Workntate'- can support loads up to 550 pounds. It okofolds virtually Jlat for easystorage. A specialpivot designallows the visejaws to be tmgled,for sectn"ingworkpieceslike the tapered Iegshown in thephoto.Thisparticular Workmate''' featuresa storagetray and a top that Jlips up for verticalclamping.TheWorkntatetMhasa long, colorfulhistory.By 1968,theprototype,featuring a patentedfolding H-frante, had beenrejectedby everymajor tool manufacturerin Britain. Four yearslater,the inventor of the Workmate'*, Ron Hickmon, persuadedBlack 6 Deckerin England to massproducehis invention.International distribution rights werenegotiated thefollowing year.Popularsuccess for the Worknnte'n' was olntostinmrcdiate:Worldwide salesof the tableare closeto 20 milli on un it s-an d coun ting.

rt2


WORK SURFACES

WORK TABLE A LIBRARY-TYPE Theall-purpose tableshownbelowis of lumber builtwitha combination Referto thedimenandplywood. fora work sionsin the illusiration surface that is 5 feetlong,3 feet wide,and3 feethigh. Sawthe legsto lengthfrom4-by4 stock,thenprepare themforthe rails:Cuta two-shouldered tenonat thetopendof eachlegwithshoulders3/ainchwide(inset).Next,cut

andbraces to therails,stretchers, lengthfrom2-by-4s. Sawmitersat bothendsof thebraces sothatone the inside endsitsf lushagainst edgeof the legsandtheotherend buttsagainst thebottomof therails. Prepare thefront,back,andside bybeveling their railsforassembly to accomendsandcuttingrabbets Screw modate thelegtenons(insef). to the rails,spread the stretchers glueonthecontacting of surfaces

the legsandrails,fit the pieces together, andscrewtherailsto the to the legs.Next,attachthebraces legsandrailswithscrews. Cutthetabletoo from3Z-inch plywood andscrewit to the rails. Finally, cuta pieceof %-inchhardas boardto thesamedimensions thetopandnailit to the plywood protective cover. asa replaceable Besureto setthenailheadsbelow thesurface.

Tabletop %"x36"x60"

Brace

'l%"x 5%"x 12"

Front rail 'l %"x 3%" x 60"

9ide rail 11/2"x3%"x36"

Leo 3%"x5%"x36"

113


WORKSURFACES

Front and backraila 11/2"x51/2"x29"

Side rails 1 1 / 2x" 3 1 / 2 "x ' 1 9 "

. , / % \- -

Erales

1 1/2"x 31/2" x

% '16"

31/2"x31/2"x25"

Building a lowassembly table Foroperations thatareawkward to perform table, ona standard-height usean assembly tableliketheone shown at left.ldealforjobslikegluingup carcases, thetablecanbe in theshopwitha small builteasily amount of wood.Refer to thedimenfor a work sionsin the illustration s u r f a cteh a ti s a b o u t1 2 i n c h e s l o w etrh a na s t a n d a rt da b l eS . aw the legsfrom4-by-4stockandthe railsandbraces from2-by-4s; cut mitersat theendsof the braces so theybuttagainst the legsandsit flushwiththetooof therails.Screw the therailsto thelegs,thenfasten braces to the legsandrails(inset). from%-inch Next,sawthetabletop plywood; it willoverhang therailsby about3 inches on all sides.Screw thetopto therails,countersinking covthefasteners. Cuta replaceable er fromr/q-inch hardboard andnail it to thetabletop; setthenailheads belowthesurface of thecover.

II4


WORKSURFACES

WORK TABLES STOW.AWAY

worktable a fold-down Making andinstalling a largeandsturdyworksurThetableshownaboveincorporates spacebyfoldingup against a wallwhen face,butstill conserves yielda work in theillustration it is notin use.Thedimensions legs,rails, measuring 20 by48 inches. Cutthebracing, surface from2-by-4stockandscrewthe bracingbetween andstretchers thereshouldbeonebracefor everypairof thewallstuds(insef); thefrontlegsto theside studsalongthetable'slength.Fasten on both railsusingcarriage boltsandlocknuts;placewashers to allowthe sidesof the legs.Leave the boltsjustlooseenough theframe, legsto pivotwhenthetableis foldedup.Tocomplete

top attachthefrontrailsto thesiderails.Adda 45-inch-long between the rear rearrailandfastentwo l7-inch-longstretchers railandthetopfrontrailto provide addedsupportfor thetop. the fasteners. Next,screwthetopto the rails,countersinking screwshimsto Toallowthetableto folddownwithoutbinding, theendsof the bottomsiderails,thenattachthetableto the foreachoutsidebrace, bracing withbutthinges; usetwohinges frontrailanda catch Finally, driveaneyeboltintothebottom intothewallto secure thetablewhenit is foldedup.

115


WORKSURFACES

Suppoiling a fold-down worksurfaceonsawhorses Rather thanbuildinga framework for a fold-down worksurface,youcanusea panelof %-inchplywood hingedto the wallandsupported bysawhorses. Thesurfacecanbeof any size.Beginbysettingthe panelontwosawhorses; oneedge of thepanelshouldbeflushagainst thewall.Marka point onthepanelat every wallstud,theninstallbutthinges, screwing oneleafof eachhingeto a studandtheotherleaf to thepanelat a pencilmark.Tosecure thepanelwhenit is pieceof 2-by-4tothestudclosfoldedup,screwa notched estto themiddleof thepanelat a heightthatwillallowthe notched endto slipovertheedgeof the panel(inset).

116


WORKSURFACES

wolksurface Settingupa temporary six2-by-4s of twosawhorses, Consisting panel,the unitshown anda plywood andeasyto put aboveis inexpensive provtdes yet it a largeandstatogether, thatcanbesetupand bleworksurface quickly.Startbyfitting disassembled cut from withcrosspieces the sawhorses 2-by-6stock,thencut the 2-by-4sto thesamelengthasthepanel.In three cut a notchabout8 inchof theboards, should esfromeachend;thenotches beabout2 inchesdeepandaswideas Cut of the crosspieces. thethickness in thetop edgesof notches matching Centerthe unnotched the crosspieces. edgeof the notchedboardsalongthe faceof the other2-by-4sandscrew to formthreeT-shaped themtogether supThesawhorse supports. tabletop portscanbe usedto holda largesheet for ripping,or a permanent of plywood to the 2-by-4s. top canbescrewed

rt7


SAWHORSES havecountless usesin the Q awhorses rJ woodworkingshop,from tablelegs to tool stands.Occasionally it seems thattheiroriginalpurpose-to support boardsfor sawing-is only an afterthought.It is easyto seewhy sawhorses areconsidered for theircomsoversatile, pactdesignmakesthemespecially useful in shopswith limited floor space. Somecommercialmodels,liketheonesin thephotoat right,canbeadjustedto differentheightsandfoldedup for easystorage.Wth commercialbrackets(.below), you can slzesawnorses to sult your needs.The shon-made horsesfeatured on page119canbe disassembled and put awayafteruse. Differentoperationsrequiredifferent-sizedsawhorses. For supporting stockfor handsawing or holdinglarge workpiecesat a comfortableheight, smallhorses about18incheshieh are ideal.Tallersawhorses areneededifthey areto be usedto holdup a worksurface

or asoutfeedsupportsfor a tablesaw Theyshouldbeabout%inchlowerthan the sawtable.Whateverthedimensions of your sawhorses, nevermakethem tallerthantheirlength,astheywill tend to be unstable.

MAKING SAWHORSES Using commercial sawhorse brackets A pairof metalsawhorse brackets can helpyoutransform a coupleof 2-by-4s and1-by-3s intoa sturdysawhorse, like theoneshown at right.Sawthelegsand crosspiece from2-by-4s, thencuta bevel at the bottomof the legssotheywillsit flatonthefloor.Fitthelegsintothebottomof thebrackets, insert thecrosspiece andspread thelegs;thebrackets willgrip t h ec r o s s p i eacneds t a b i l i zt e h eh o r s e . Screw thebrackets to thelegsandcrosspiece.Foraddedstability, addbraces anda stretcher. Thebraces arecutfrom 1-by-3s andscrewed to the legs,making surethattheendsareflushwiththeoutsidefacesof the legs.Forthestretcher, cuta 1-by-3 to sizeandscrewit between thebraces.

118

This sawhorsefeatures leg extensions that can be adjusted to a variety of heights.The legsretract into the crosspiece,making the unit compactand portable.A pair of theseslendermetal horsescan supportone ton of material.


WORKSURFACES

sawhorse Building a knock-down of lumber and Withonlya smallamount plywood time,you anda fewminutes' sawhorse canmakea sturdy,knock-down Cutthe legs liketheoneshownabove. thensawa 3-inchfrom7+inchplywood, deepnotchin the middleof thetopof Next,cut the crosspiece bothpieces. from1-by-6stockandsawa 1%-inchdeepslot8 inchesin fromeitherendto fit intothe legs.Angletheslotsroughly 5ofromtheverticalsothe legsspread Foraddedstability, slightlyoutward. 1-by-2cleatsto the screw4-inch-long on eachsideof the slots. crossoiece

119


WORK SURFACES

Assembling a frame-and-foot sawhorse Lightweight, compactf rame-and-foot sawhorses liketheoneshownat leftcan bebuiltfrom2-by-4stock.Startbycuttingthelegsto a suitable height, then prepare themto jointo theotherpartsof theunit:Cuttenons at thebottomends, routthrough mortises halfway up the faces, andsawl-inch-deep notches in themiddle of thetopends.Cutthefeet to lengthand,for addedstability, cut recesses alongtheirbottomedges, Ieavinga 2-inchpadat eachend.Routmortisesthrough themiddleof thefeetfor thelegtenons.Next,sawthestretcher to fit between the legsandcuttenons at bothends.Cutthecrosspiece andsawa notch4 inches fromeitherendthatwill fit intothe notchat thetopof the legs. joints, Toreinforce themortise-and-tenon sawa pairof kerfsin theendof each tenonandmakewedges to f it intothe kerts(inset). Tapthewedges in to expand thetenonwhenthejointis assembled.

WEDGED MORTISEA1{D-TENON JOINT

uu

llillllilllllltllllilt lltuillil lll I]llilI]illrfitlilltilltllllllltfitl iltl

9HO?TI? ?addingsawhorses To prevenla sawhorsefrom marrinqyour work,coverils croeeViece wilh a ebripof old carpeN.Foldthe caroet over theNopedqeoflhe crosspieceand ocrewit,to the eidee.Fora smoolherourface,usean oldNowel or blanket,ralherthan a i i .^r^^^ -c pieceof car?et.

r20


WORKSURFACES

sawhorse Makinga heavy-duty andsimplejoinery,the braces, by a stretcher, Reinforced shownabovewill endurefor yearsasa sturdywork sawhorse to lengthfroma2-by-6andcut Sawthe crosspiece surface. dadoesin the edgesabout4 inchesfromeitherendto accomroughlyLOofromthevertimodatethe legs.Anglethe dadoes cal.Next,sawthe 2-by-4legsto lengthandcut 1%-inch-deep anglednotchesintotheiroutsideedgesto housethe braces. Thetopof eachbraceshouldrestabout1% inchesbelowthe topsof the legs.Alsocut bevelsat bothendsof the legsso

theywillsit flatonthefloorandlieflushwiththecrosspiece. is a 2-by-4cut to the samelengthasthe crossThestretcher piece;cuta notchin eachendto lineupwiththe brace,leavSawthe bracesfrom2-by-6stock, inga lL/z-inchshoulder. mrtering theendsto beflushwiththe outsidefacesof the a 2-inchdeepnotchin themiddleof thetop legsandsawing glueup thesawhorse, strengthFinally, edgeforthestretcher. andbraces the legs,crosspieces, eningthe jointsbetween withscrews.

r2r


WORK SURFACES

Top railo 3/o"x5%"x36"

Corner half-lap joint

(fl

W

Hingedcro66brace 3/^"x5%"x16"

half-lap joint.

a

IW a\) 3A"x5%"x54"

Building a folding sawhorse Madeentirely from1-by-6stock,with a hinged crossbrace andtop,thislightweightsawhorse foldsflatto storeeasily in eventhemostcramped workshop. Cut thelegsandrailsto length. Then,cut joints. notches in thepieces for half-lap (inset, UseTtypehalf-laps bottom)to jointhelegsto thebottom rails,andcor(inset,top)to jointhetop nerhalf-laps railsto thelegs. Assemble andgluethe twosections of thehorse, andreinforce thejointswithscrews. Whentheglue jointhetwosections hascured, at the pianohinge. toprailswitha continuous Finally, cutthecrossbrace; besureit is longenough sowhenthehorselegs spread, thepianohingeis recessed between thetop rails.Sawthecrossbracein halfandconnect thepieces witha piano hinge, making surethatthe hingeis installed sothebrace willpivot upwards. Then,fasten thecrossbrace to bothsiderails, again usingpiano hinges.

l]lllll1 tll]tllltllltlllllltr fiulll1 filtfit]lllllll1 llllll11 lltlfilJ iill 1HO?TI? Seouringworkpieaeo edge-upon sawhorses Clamphandscrewe ln lhe croeepieceeof Iwo sawhoreee to eupport workedqe-upwhena bench viseie not,available. Toprevenllhehandscrewl from pivoNinq, aecureeachwithlwo C clampeas shown. Uoeao many sawhorses and handscrews as neededNo ade-

6u??ort I quabe,ly I

Tne ?ECe,

r22

I^


WORK SURFACES

Notched wood block 1%"x3%"x4"

panelsupport frame Sawhorse proper is needed to keep support largepanels, Whensawing onthebladeasthecut is andbinding theworkfrombuckling made,andto stopthecutofffromfallingawayasthecut is finjobs,construct this thesecumbersome Toaccommodate ished. frame,whichis easilyheldin placewith 4-by-8-foot support woodblocks.Cuttwo4-footandtwo8-footlengths notched six of 2-by-4fortheendsandsidesof theframe.Cutdadoes from and18 inches fromtheendsof the4joot lensths inches

jointsthat forthecrosshalf-lap theendsof theS{ootlengths Thencuttwo4-inch-long asshown. holdtheframetogether notch,wide blocksfrom2-by-4andsawa two-inch-deep in themiddle notches 7%-by-I%-inch deep fit over enough to plan you use. Screw to the sawhorses of of thecrosspieces pieces and and assemble the end the bottom of theblocks to bymatglueuptheframe.Secure theframeto thesawhorses withthosein thecrosspieces. in theblocks ingthenotches

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WORKSURFACES

A VARIABLE.HEIGHT WORK SURFACE

24" Building thebox Constructing a boxwithdifferent width, lengh,andheight dimensions willprovideyouwitha worksurface thatcanbe usedatthreelevels. Thetoosurface of theboxshownat right,forexample, can beeither 24,30,or36 inches high.Saw allthepieces from1-by-4stock,making eightboards 36 incheslong,eightboards 23tlaincheslong,fourthatare30 inches long,andfourmore29tl+incheslong. joints(lnset)assemble Usinghalf-lap theboards intosixframes: twomeasuring 30 by36 inches, twomeasuring 23Ll+ by 29tlqinches, andtwomore23% by36 inches. Oncetheframes areassembled, cuta s/e-by-3/e-inch rabbet alongallfour edges of eachofthesixframes. Usea lightweight woodlikepineto makethe boxeasilyportable. lf youchoose to reinforce thejoinery at thecorners with screws, besureto countersink the screwheads.

II t

?HO?TI? A ehop-madeglue raak A rack madefrom two mef,al-brackettyp e eawhoreee way Vrovideoa coinvenienN to holdbar clampofor qluinqup panele.To buildlhe ji6, replaceihe crooepiece of your sawhorseswilh oubstitutea thal are at leaet ao lonqao lhe boards t'o be6luedt o6ether.Notch oneed6eof eachcrooopiece at, 6-inch inlervalo,mAkinq bhecuts wideenouqhto holda bar clampenu6ly and deepenou7hlohold the barlevelwith the top of t'he croeepiece.

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WORKSUPPORTS Q upporlinglongplank andlargepanJ elsasthevarefedacrossa sawtable ranksasone of the mostcumbersome taslsin thewoodworkingshop,Outfeed but to mostsaws, tablescanbeattached theytendto takeup a lot offloor space. Oncesidesupportsareaddedto your machine,your shopmay becomean course. obstacle liketheone rollerstands, Commercial shownin the photoat right,makebetter useof shopspace;they canalsobe movedeasilyto wheretheyareneeded to whateverheightis suitandadjusted standsdescribed The shop-made able. pageshare following and orthe below jigs Thereareotherwork-support varistore-bought ofthe theadvantages The vise in shop. life easier the that make of being benefit with the additional ety, standshownonpage127,for to build. They extension easyand inexpensive of keeping solves theproblem when example, stored and canalsobe dismantled vise. in a bench edge-up long boards not needed.

a rollerstandsupports A commercial boardbeingrippedon a radialarm saw.Thestandshouldtypicallybeset l,/t-inchbelowthelevelof thesawtable andpositionedtwofeetfrom itsedge.

ROLLER STANDS TW()SHOP.MADE upa temporary stand Setting and twoC clamps, Withonlya sawhorse, youcanmakea simroller, a commercial plerollerstandliketheoneshown at left. mastfortherollerthat Makea T-shaped i s l o n ge n o u gtho h o l di t a t a s u i t a b l e theroller to thehorizontal height. Screw partof themast.Adda brace to theside forclamping themastin of thehorse place:Cuta I-by-4to spanthelegs bracket andthe thesawhorse between braceandscrewit to thelegs. original and to spanthetwobraces Cuta 1-by-2 guidefor screwit in placeasa vertical therollerstandto themast.Tosecure clampthemastto the thesawhorse, making sureit isf lushagainst braces, theguide.

r25


WORKSURFACES

Building anadjustable rollerstand To buildtherollerstandshown at right, startbyconstructing theframeforthe roller, cutting thefourpieces from1-by-4 stock.Gluetheframetogether withbutt joints,adding screws to reinforce theconnections. Thenborea holeinthemiddle of eachsideof theframefor a t/t-inchdiameter carriage bolt.Locate thehole 3 inches fromthebottomof theframe. Insert theboltsfromtheinside of the frameandscrew therollerto thetoo.As wellasthecommercial rollershown, two variations thatpermityouto feedthe workpiece fromanydirection areshown pieces below. Cuttheremaining of the standfrom1-by-6stock,referring to the provided, dimensions thenroutar/q-inchwideslotdownthe middleof thetwo uprights; theslotshouldbeabout14 incheslong.Screw thecrosspiece to the uprights, aligning thetopof thepiece withthe bottomof theslot.Fasten the uprights andrailsto thefeet.Toguide theroller frame, nail1-by-1 cleats to the uprights aboull/qinchin fromtheedges. Tosetupthestand,position theroller framebetween theuprights, fittingthe carriage boltsintotheslots.Slipwashers ontheboltsandtightenthewingnutsto settheheishtof theroller.

/^ rnaaniera

3/+"x51/z"x19"

Plate-mounted aaatere

t26


WORKSURFACES

STAND A VISEEXTENSIOI{

Making andusingthestand is dry, Oncetheadhesive otherfoot.Gluethetwofeettogether. standis usedto Alsoknownasa benchslave,a viseextension piece and swivel the upright to the feet. Cut the support screw in the shoulder a long board clamped free end of the support in the illustration bars,anglingthetopof thesupportpieceabout10" (inset).To Referto thedimensions viseof a workbench, jointhesupport pieceto theswivelbars,boreholesfor %-inchmost workbenches. well with that works for a stand diameter dowels throughthe pieceandnearthe endsof the and, starting 5 upright to length cut the the stand, To build gluethemin place.To intotheholes; bars, and slip the dowels inlernotches at2L/z-inch saw angled from the bottom, inches r/z at the top endof the swivelbars the stand, insert the dowel 1 inch long and use about Cut the notches its length. valsalong for the heightyouneed slot in the upright along in the appropriate length and cut recesses feet to Then saw the inchwide. joint: piece. prop your workpiece on the support Cut a and a cross lap the feet with edges. Join theirbottom lap in thetop edgeof onefootandin the bottomedgeof the

t27


WORKSURFACES

(lNTHEBAND LARGE PANELS CUTTING SAW

Making andusingthejig Formaking circular cutsoutof largepanels onthebandsaw,use plywood, a jig liketheoneshown above. Buildthejigfrom3/q-inch cuttingthepieces sothetopof thejig is levelwiththesawtable whenthefeetarescrewed or clamped to a worktable.Before assembling thejig, drivea IV+-inch-long screwasa pivotpoint through thecenterof thetoppiecesothetip of thescrewprojectsfromthesurfacebyaboutVzinch(inset).Thenscrewthe topandfeetto thesidesof thejig, andattachthetriangularshaped supportbrackets to thetopandsides;besureto counter-

sinkthefasteners. Before settingupthejig, markthecenterand circumference of thecircleontheworkpiece. Thencut fromthe edgeof thepieceto themarked circumference andbackto the pointforthecircular edge,creating a starting cut,Nowsetupthe jig:Attachit to a tableandplacetheworkpiece onthejig sothe marked centerof thecirclecontacts thepivotpoint.Position the tablesothebladebuttsagainst themarked circleandthe pivot pointisaligned withthecenter of thebladeandthemachine's centerline.Cutthecirclebyrotating theworkpiece intotheblade.

t28


EXTENSIONTABLES liketablesaws, Q tationarymachines come J bandsaws,anddrill presses with equipped fromthemanufacturer for mostroutablesthatareadequate But therearesome tine ooerations. longplanlsor pantasls-crosscutting long elson thetablesaw,performing cutson thebandsaw,andsmoothing witha sanding drumonthe largepieces drill press-thatcanbe awkwardor to attemptwithout evendangerous table. thesizeof themachine's extending a newprobOften,thesolutioncreates the because increasing lem,however, machine with apersizeof a stationary manentadditioncancrowdeventhe roomiestworkshop. illustrate avariThefollowingpages ety of devicesfor extendingthework Almachines. areaof woodworking thougheasyto build anduse,eachjig isdesigned to beremoved or foldedout of theway. An extensiontablegreatlysimplifiesthetaskof crosscuttingwide panelson thetablesaw.Thiscommercialmodelmorethan doubles thesawtable'ssurfacearea.It also featuresa speciallydesignedrip fencethat canbemovedto any positionacrossthetable.

1HO?TI? Double-dutyworkNable To qet maximumueefrom lhe worktablein your ohop, buildit oo the too ie althe oame heiqht,or eli7hr,lylower than lhe levelof your table oaw.lnadditrion bo beinq a handyworkeufiace tor light jobo,the lable can butt againotthe saw lable to

eervea5 an outfeedoup' port.lf neaee' oary,modify the iableto male liqhtly with you?eaw by cutlinq a nolch in the top to clearthe blade7uard or' oth er obsl,r ucIi ons.

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WORKSURFACES

EXTENSION TABTES

Building anextension tablefora radialarmsaw Madeentirelyfrom2-by-4and 1-by-3stock,the extension tableshownabovecanbe attached to theoutfeed or infeed endsof a radialarmsawtable.Using2-by-4s, cut the legs, rails,andstretchers to suitthedimensions of yoursaw,makingthe lengthof the legsequalto the distancebetween the topof thesawtableandtheshopfloor,lessthethickness of the stretchers. Attachthe railstretchers sothattheirtopsare flushwiththe rail'stopedges. Attachthe legstretchers to the legs,thenscrewthe legsto the insideedgesof therails. Makecertaintheoutsiderailstretcher is buttedagainst the topsof the legs.Cutthe bracesfrom 1-by-3sto reachfrom the bottomof thesecondrailstretcher to the insideedgesof

the legs,Miterthe endsof the bracesandscrewthemin place.Tofastentheextension tableto thesawtableshown, cut twowoodstripsandscrewoneendof eachpieceto the underside of the insiderailstretcher, Settheextension table flushagainst thesawtableandfastentheotherendof the stripsto the underside of thetable,usingshimsor spacers asneeded. lf youpreferto spanthetable'srailswithrollers (inset),ratherthanwoodstretchers, cut the rail stretchers longenoughto fastenthemto the bottomedgeof the rails. Thenscrewcommercial rollersto the topsof the stretchers, placingshimsunderthe rollers,if necessary, to setthemlevel withthetooof thesawtable.

130


WORK SURFACES

table outfeed outfitting a tablesawwitha fold-down A h a n d ye x t e n s i otno y o u rs a wt a b l ef o r c u t t i n gl o n gs t o c k t, h e s h o p - m a dj ei g s h o w na b o v es w i n g sd o w no u t o f t h e w a yw h e n i t i s n o t n e e d e dS . t a r tb y c u t t i n gt h e t o p , s i d e s ,a n d s u p p o r t b r a c k e t fsr o m% - i n c hp l y w o o ds, i z i n gt h e p i e c e st o s u i t y o u r needs.Thensawthe bracesandcleatfrom 1-by-2stock,adding an anglednotchat the bottomend of both braces.Screwthe Next,get readyto the fasteners. sidesto the top, countersinking a t t a c ht h e l i g t o t h e s a wh o u s i n gF. i r s ta, t t a c ha n a n g l ei r o nt o e a c hs i d eo f b o t hs u p p o r bt r a c k e t sT.h e n ,h a v ea h e l p e rh o l d t h e t o p a g a i n stth e s a wt a b l e ,m a k i n gs u r et h e t w os u r f a c easr e l e v e l l; e a v ea s l i g h tg a pb e t w e e tnh e t o p a n ds a wt a b l es o t h e l i g w i l lf o l dd o w nw i t h o ulta m m i n ga g a i n st th et a b l e .N o wd e t e r by buttingeachagainst minethe position of the supportbrackets . a r kt h e h o l e si n t h ea n g l ei r o n s t h e i n s i d ef a c eo f a s i d ep i e c eM . r i l la h o l ef o r a m a c h i n es c r e wa t e a c h o n t h e s a wh o u s i n gD ne m a r ka n df a s t e nt h e a n g l ei r o n st o t h e h o u s i n gR. e p o s i t i ot h jig againstthe sawtableand boreholesfor a carriage boltthrough underthe nutsand Usewashers the sidesandsuooortbrackets. t h e s i d e sa n d b r a c k e t sA. t t a c ht h e b o l t h e a d sa, n d b e t w e e n

bracesto the sideswith boltsspacedabout8 inchesfrom t h e b r a c k ebt o l t s .L e a v ea l l t h e b o l t sl o o s ee n o u g hf o r t h e . h e n ,h o l d i n gt h e j i g l e v e a l gain, s i d e sa n d b r a c e st o p i v o t T . a r kt h e p o i n t s s w i n gt h e b r a c e tso w a r dt h e s a wh o u s i n gM a n ds c r e wa c l e a tt o w h e r et h e b r a c e sc o n t a ctth e h o u s i n g t h e h o u s i n gs o t h e c l e a t ' st o p s u r f a c ea l i g n sw i t h t h e t w o points.To setthe jig in position,restthe braceson the cleat. To fold the tabledown(insef),raisethe top slightly,move t h e b r a c e so f f t h e c l e a ta n ds w i n gt h e j i g d o w n .

131


WORK SURFACES

Building anextension tablefora bandsaw A na u x i l i a b r ya n ds a wt a b l ew i l l s i g n i f i c a ni n t lcyr e a st hee m a c h i n ev' se r s a t i l i tTyh. ee x t e n s i ot anb l es h o w n a b o v ei s e s p e c i a lhl ya n d yf o r c u t t i n gl o n go r w i d ep i e c e sU. s i n g7 a , t t h et o po f t h ej i g t o a s u i t a b ldei a m e t e r . i n c hp l y w o o d cu Cutoutthecenter andtheedgeto fit thetoparound thesaw tableandthroatcolumn. Sawa 1%-inch-wide channel between thecutouts sothetopcanbe installed withoutremoving the blade.Next,prepare twocleats thatwillbeusedto attach the sawtableto thejig top.Forthese,two1-by-3s shouldbecuta fewinches longer thanthesawtable.Thenposition eachone in turnagainst thesideof thesawtablewiththreaded holes, sothattheyare3/qinchbelowthetablesurface, withat least t/qinchof stockabove (Makesureyourmachine the holes. hastheseholes; mostbandsawshavethemformounting an

accessory ripfence.) Depending ontheposition of thethreaded holesonyoursawtable,youmayhaveto posrtion thetop of thecleats closer than3/tinchto themachine tabletop. ln thatcaseyouwillhaveto routgrooves forthecleatsonthe u n d e r s i doef t h et o pt o a l l o wt h et a b l e t otpo s i t f l u s hw i t h the machine's table(inset,left).Markthe holelocations onthecleats,borea holeat eachspot,andfastenthecleats provided to thesawtablewiththescrews fortherip fence. Thenplacethetabletop onthecleatsandscrewit in place (inset, right);besureto countersink thescrews. Thetopshould sit level withthesawtable. Youmayneedto cutclearance notchessothatyoucanreach themachine screws oncethejig is completed. Toremove thejig, loosen onlythemachine screws, leaving thecleatsattached to thetop permanently.

t32


WORK SURFACES

table Fitting a drillpresswithanextension t r i l lp r e s s ewsi l ln o ta d e T h es m a l l t a b ltey p i c aol f m o s d extenquately A customized manylargeworkpieces. support you keep a workpiece to tool will enable table for the sion likea sanding drum levelasyoufeedit intoanaccessory (above). intoa Startbycuttinga pieceof 7+-inchplywood your Then mark a needs. that suit with dimensions square piece cendraw two circles the and middle of linedownthe fromthe back oneabout4 inches teredon theline.Locate press column. the drill it to fit snugly around edge,sizing make its diameter chuck; hole under the thesecond Locate r/z planto you greater largest accessory than the about inch you pinpoint of hole, the center To help insertintothechuck.

fromthe thedistance install a bit in thechuckandmeasure jig onthedrillpress to installthe column to thebit.Prepare a alongits backedge,leaving tablebycuttingtworecesses "ear"thatprotrudes behindthebackhole.Then rectangular carriage theearfora Vq-inch-diameter borea holethrough andcut bolt.Next,sawthejig in twoalongthecenterline Youmayneedto makeothercutsto clear outthetwocircles. protrusions drillpress. 0n themodelshown, onyourparticular rack. forthetableheightadjustment a notchwasneeded screwa butthingeto thefrontedgeof thejig to join Finally, (inset). Thecarriage boltandwing together thetwohalves t h et a b l ei n p l a c e . n u tw i l lc l a m p

t33


TOOL STANDSANDTABLES stand or table can transforma portablepowertool into a reasonablefacsimileof a full-sizestationary machine.Whattheyconcede in power to theirlargercousins, bench-mounted toolscompensate with portability,ease of storage, andlowerprice. There are commercialstandsfor benchtoptools,but you caneasilybuild a standliketheoneshownbelow.Storase shelves anddrawerscanbeaddedto cuitomizethe basicdesign.Thereis one requirement, however: Ensurethestand's surfaceareais largeenoughfor your needsand that it supportsthe tool at a

comfortable height.Theextension router tableshownoppositenot only converts a routerinto a mini-shaper, but canbe easilyremoved whenit ii not needed, A moreelaborate, but versatileoption is illustratedon page136.Thethree-in-one portable power tool table features replaceable insertsfor a router,anelectric drill, and a sabersaw. Because of its centralrole in woodworking,the routermeritsa dedicated tablein most shops.The shop-built benchtopversionillustratedon page139 allowsyou to takeadvantage of this tool's greatversatility.

HeId upsidedown in q commercialtable, a router becomesa stationary tool. Here, it is cutting a groovefor a sliding dovetail joint. Many woodworkersconsiderthe router table to be the singlemost important accessory you can add to your tool.

SUPPORTS F()RPORTABTE POWER TOOLS Building a benchtop toolstand Thestandshownat rightis constructed from4-by-4and2-by-4lumberandplywood.Sawthe legsfrom4-by-4s andthe railsfrom2-by-4s, sizing thepieces to suityourneeds. Notchthelegsat thetop and6 inchesdownfromthetopto fit therails,thencutmatching rabbets at the endsof all therails(inset). Glueupthe legsandrails,adding countersunk screws to reinforce thejoints.Cutthetopfrom 3/o-inch plywood. lf youplanto placea tablesawon thestand,sawa square holeoutof thecenter of thetopasshown to allow sawdust to fallthrough; place a boxunderneath to catchthewaste. Finally, screw thetopto thelegs a n dr a i l sa, g a i nc o u n tersinking thefasteners. Whenusinga toolon thestand, secure rttothe topwithscrews orclamps.

Toprail

134


WORK SURFACES

router table a removable Making andmounting tableshown or table,theextension Attached to a workbench be when router tablethatcan stored serves asa compact above your parts needs. Start according to Sizethe it is notneeded. b yc u t t i n g t h et o pf r o m3 / a - i n cphl y w o o ad n, dt h er a i l sa n d longer than stock. Sawtherails6 inches from2-by-4 braces thetopandcanbe under thewidthof thetopsotheyextend of thebenchusingnutsandhanger fastened to theunderside to reach from should belongenough braces bolts.Thehinged Cuta bevel of therailsto a legrailonthebench. theunderside notchat thebottom andanangled at thetopendof thebraces sub-base is attached to thetopwitha square end.Therouter stepsarenecessary to fit Several madeof l/q-inch clearacrylic. First,laythe andthento therouter. thebaseto thetabletop s q u a rseu b - b a si net h ec e n t eor f t h et a b l ec, l a m pi t i n p l a c e , of thesubwitha pencil. Markthecenter andmarkitsedges thebaseandthe baseanddrillapilotholecompletelythrough

to Remove thesub-base andturnyourattention tabletop. recess to plowa 7a-inch-deep thetabletop. Useyourrouter Then,usingthepilot withinthepencil outline of thesub-base. asa template, cuta round andyourrouter holeasa center standard thetabletop thesizeof yourrouter's holethrough drilla hole Thetabletop is nowready. In thesub-base, base, router bit, larger thanyourlargest in thecenter thatis slightly machine usingcountersunk andscrew thebaseto therouter, in thetablerecess andscrewit Laythesub-base screws. All surfaces should the wood screws. down,countersinking 3/rinch pieces plywood and flush. For a fence, cut two of be notch out of the in an L shape. Saw a screw themtogether yourlargest btt,then edgeto accommodate fence's bottom Attach a for added stability. screw onfourfencesupports plastic guard it be with a hinge io allow io clearsemicircular (inset). place. in way The fence is clamped raised outof the

135


WORK SURFACES

PORTABTE POWER TOOI TABLE Easyandinexpensive to build,theveryouto satiletableshownbelowallows portable power convert threedifferent toolsintostationarv tools:theelectric

drill,therouter, andthesabersaw. Thetablefeatures a soacious tabletop,an adjustable fence,a storage shelf,anda conveniently located On/offswitch. Thetabletoo includes

a rectangular cutoutto accepta custom-made insertforeachof thethree powertools. plywood Use3Z-inch forthetabletop,theshelf,thecleats,the inserts

Eottom rail

Le4

CUTflNG LIST - Tabletop:'1"x 25" x 40" - Lega(4): 1%"x 31/z " x 30" - Suppott bracketa (6):1/+ " x 9" x 9" - Front and back rails (4):5/o"x 2'/2"x 40" - 1lde raila (4): 5A"x 2 %"x 25" - thelfr "/o"x 25" x 33" - Cleats (2): %" x 3" x I %" - Cleate (2): %" x 5" x 16" - Inserte (3): 3A"x 121/2"x 14%"

r36


WORK SURFACES

plywood for andthe fence;14-inch lumsolid and brackets; thesupport berfor the otherparts(2-by-4sfor fortherails). the legsand 1-by-3s for suggested list the cutting Referto dimensions. thetableby preparStartbuilding for ingthetabletop thetoolinserts. holeoutof itscenter Cuta rectangular Then the samesizeasthe inserts.

of screwthecleatsto the underside a ledgeto whichthe thetop,forming insertscanbefastened(below). thetable,routa %Before assembling thetableabout inch-deep dadoacross endto fromthe left-hand 12 inches Then a mitergauge. accommodate screwthe partsof thetabletogether. Uselapjointsforthetoprails(placed flat),thenscrewthisframeontothe

t37

topof the legs.Screwthebottomrails (placed on edge)to the legs,then attachtheshelf.Youcaneithercounor counterbore tersinkthefasteners thescrew andthenconceal theholes, withwoodplugs. heads sizNext,sawthethreetoolinserts, in theholein ingthemto f it precisely therouterinsert Prepare thetabletop, asyouwouldthetopof theremovable


WORKSURFACES

routertableshownon page135.To mountthe insertin the table,set it in placeon the cleatsandbore a holethroughthe insertandthe cleatsat eachcorner;the holes shouldbecountersunk. Screwthe insertto the cleats. Fortheelectric drillinsert,bore a holethroughthe centerof the insertthat isslightlywiderthanthe youplanto use. largestaccessory Thenscrewa commercial drillguide to the underside of the insertsothe drillchuckwill becentered in the hole.(Youmayneedto drillholes through thebaseof thedrillguide to fastenit in place.)Thebit or accessory in thedrillchuckshould protrude fromthetop of the insert withoutthe chuckbeingvisible. Placewooden washers underthe guiderodsof the drillguideto adjusttheheightof thedrill,if necessary@bovel Forthesabersawinsert,position thetool'sbaseplatesothe blade willbein thecenter. Makea plunge pass cut to the bladethroughthe insert,thenscrewthe saw'sbase plateto the insert(left).lt thereare fewerthanfourscrewholesin the baseplate,drilladditional holes. Mountthe drillandsabersaw inserts to thecleatsasyouwould the routerinsert. Makethefencethesamewayyou wouldfor the routertableon page 135,andattachit in thedesired position withclamps,

138


WORK SURFACES

router table a benchtop Building router tablewith isa full-size above tableshown Thebenchtoo version, including of themanufactured mostof thefeatures thetop quickly fence.Beginbycutting adjustable a pivotrng, thetableillussizedto suityourneeds; from%-inchplywood, Thefourtoprailsshould 24 by36 inches. tratedmeasures in place(counternextbecutfrom1-by-2stockandscrewed andtheentiretop hereandin futuresteps), allscrews, srnking l/q-inch plastic piece laminate, with a of be covered should you canscrew table over so Turn the the edges. at chamfered legs to the attach the inside edges and the around supports feet can be constructed legs, and supports, top. The railsand by willbedetermined thefinaldimensions of %-inchplywood; long your at least the legs are Make sure table. thesizeof the Toprepare ampleroomforyourrouter. to furnish enough inches from the about 8 a hole for the router, drill tabletop routerbit. thanyourlargest larger makeit slightly frontcenter; the holeand router over center the of the top, Ontheunderside plow within %-inch recess to a the router Use traceitsoutline. (or, plate your make an router base theoutlineto accommodate page Mark the 137). shown on mount it as and acrylic sub-base holes, drillcounterbore location of thebaseplatescrewholes, place. Next, conyou router in fasten the to and willbeready thanthetop)outof two structthefence(about6 incheslonger piecesof 1-by-3stockscrewed in theformof an L. together

carrtage Through thebaseof theL, drilla holefora t/q-inch thefence fromoneend.Nowcenter boltaboutsixinches fromtherearof thetop,marktheposition about6 inches bolt,Slipa boltthrough of thehole,anddrillforthecarriage thehole;usingthatasa pivot,swingtherightendof the theholeyoucutfor Whenthefencereaches fenceforward. onthefence.Thatis therouterbit,markthehole'sposition your youwillcuta clearance notchto accommodate where soitwillswing thatis hinged router bit.Makea guard largest your on page136.Screw outof thewayliketheoneshown thecarthefencebyinserting router to thetopandassemble andwingnutsto usingwashers riageboltfromthebottom, tightenit. Adjustthefenceforanywidthof workbyptvoting freeendwitha C clamp. it intoplaceandsecuringthe

r39


GLOSSARY A.B-C Bench dog: A round or squarepeg of metal or wood that fits into a hole in a workbench to grip and hold a workpiecein place. Bevel cut: A cut at an anglefrom faceto facealong the length or width of a workpiece. Box joint: Identical interlocking fingersthat meshto form a cornerjoint.

Countersink: To drill a hole so that the headof a screwor bolt will lie flush with or slightly below the surfaceof a workpiece.

Facejointing: Using a jointer to cut shavingsfrom the faceofa workpieceuntil it is flat and square with the edge.

Crosscut A sawcut acrossthe wood grain of a workpiece.

Faceviss A vise that holds work againstthe front apron of a workbench.

D-E-F Dado: A rectangularchannelcut into a workpiece.

Butt joinery: A method of joining wood in which the end or edgeof one board is setsquarelyagainst the faceor edgeofanother.

DecibehThe standardmeasuring unit of sound intensity; the decibel (db) scaleextendsfrom 0 to about 130,with 0 representingbarely perceptiblesoundsand 130delineating the averagepain level.

Carcase:A box-like construction that constitutesthe body of a piece of furniture.

Dedicated circuifi An electricalcircuit to which only one tool or fixture is connected.

Cheek The faceof the projecting tenon in a mortise-and-tenonjoint.

Dovetail joinery: A method of joining wood at cornersby means of interlocking pins and tails; the name is derived from the distinctive shapecut into the endsof the joining boards.

Circuit: Continuous path for electrical current; from the main service panel in a houseor garage,a branch circuit runs to a seriesof outlets, wall switches,and light fixtures, and returns to the panel. Counterbore: To drill a hole that permits the head of a screwor bolt to sit below a wood surfaceso it can be concealedby a wood plug.

Dowek A wood pin usedto reinforce certaintypes of wood joints. End cap:A pieceofwood that covers eachend of the top slab of a workbench; bolted to the slab and glued to the aprons by meansof dovetail or finger joints. Facegluing: Bonding several boardstogetherface-to-faceto form a thicker workpiece.

140

Featherboard:A pieceofwood cut with thin fingersor "feathers"at one end;usedin conjunctionwith clamps to hold a workpiecesecureagainst the fenceor table of a power tool. Fence:An adjustableguide designed to keep the edgeor faceof a workpiece a fixed distancefrom the cutting edgeof a tool. Furring strip: A thin board that is nailed to a wall or ceiling to provide a flat or levelsurfacefor securing drywall or paneling.

G-H-r-J Ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI): A tFpeof electricaloutlet that trips instantly when it detects a short-circuit leak in current. Hanger bolt A bolt with no head; one end of the bolt has screw threadswhile the other end features machinethreads. Inlay: A decorativestrip of metal, hardwood, or marquetry that is glued in a groovecut into a workpiece. Joist:A horizontal support for a floor.


GLOSSARY

Kerf: A cut made in wood bythe thicknessof a sawblade.

Mortise-and-tenon: A joint in which a projecting tenon on one board fits into a mortise on another.

Stretcher:A board running between the legsof a workbench to provide additional support.

Kerf splitter: A metal device that holds a kerf slightly open during a sawcut to preventthe blade from binding.

Push block or stick A device used to feed a workpiece into the blade, cutterhead,or bit ofa tool to protect the operator'sfingers.

Stud: A vertical member forming walls and supporting the framework of a building.

Kickback The tendency of a workpieceto be thrown back in the direction of the operator of a power tool.

Rabbet A step-likecut in the edge or end of a workpiece;usuallyforms part of a joint.

Knockdown fitting: A piece of hardware that acceptsa screw or bolt, allowing the quick assembly and disassemblyof a workbench or other furniture.

RaiL A board running along the bottom edgeof a tabletopto which the legsofa table can be attached.

Tirilvise: A screw-typevise on the right-hand end of a workbench incorporatinga sliding dog block to securestock on the top surface ofthe bench.

K-L

Lap joint A typ" ofjoint in which matching dadoesor rabbetsoverlap to connecttwo boards. Lead anchor: A type of fitting that is insertedinto a hole in concrete or masonry; expandsto hold a screw or bolt securely. Legvise: A visethat securesstock to the front left-hand leg of a workbench. M-N-O-P-Q-R-S Miter cut A cut that anglesacross the faceof a workpiece. Mortise: A rectangular,round, or oval-shapedhole cut into a piece ofwood.

T.U-V-W-X-Y-Z

Service entrance: A box containing circuit breakersor fuses,from which power is distributed to house branch circuits. Shoulder: In a mortise-and-tenon joint, the part of the tenon that is perpendicularto the cheek. Shouldervisq A fixed type offace vise with a jaw that moYesto clamp a workpiece againstthe front apron ofa workbench. Sliding dogbloclc A wood block, part of the tail vise of a workbench, that appliesthe clamping faceto hold a workpiecebetweenthe bench dogs. Static pressurs A measureof the friction encounteredby air asit movesthrough a duct; often expressedin inchesper foot.

t4r

Tenon:A protrusion from the end of a board that fits into a mortise. Truing: Squaringthe end of a blade or the working surfaceof a grinder wheel so that it conforms to its original shape. Trussrod: A type of threadedmetal rod usedto reinforce the legsand stretchersof a workbench. Wheel dresser:A star-wheelor diamond-point deviceusedto true the working surfaceof a grinding wheel and exposefresh abrasiveparticles.


INDEX Pagereferencesin ltalicsindicate an illustration of subjectmatter. Pagereferencesin bold indicate a Build It Yourselfproject.

ABC Air compressors,69, 70, 72, 73 Air-powered tooIs, 68,72-73 Attics: Workshop layout, 38 Axtell, Peter,6-7 Band saws: Curved cuts circle-cuttingsupportjigs, 128 Dust collectionsystems,82, 85 Extensiontables,111,132 Workshop IayouI-,j2, 38 Bar clamps: Shop-madeglueracks(ShopTip), 12a Storage,106, 107 storing clampsin a garbagecan (ShopTip), 106 Basements: Workshoplayout,39 Bench dogs,62-63 Carving dogs,64 Edgedogs,63 Holes,54,54 Benchgrinders,71,76 Gouge-sharpe ning jrgs,77 Workshop layout, 34 Benchslaves.122 Black& DeckerWorkmater",47,112 Build It Yourself: Benchgrinders jigs,77 gouge-sharpening Safetyequipment featherboards, 22 pushsticks,20-21 Shoplayout shop dollies,37 Storage fold-down workbenchand tool cabinet,98-99,I10 handsawholders,101 lumber-and-plywoodracks,91 mobile clamp racks,105 scrapboxes,109 shelvesfor clamps,106 tool cabinets,95 tool cupboards,96 Workbenches benchdog holes,54 edgedogs,63 slidingbenchstops,6l Work surfaces Iibrary-typework tables,113 portablepowertool tables,136-138 Carving dogs,64

Circular saws: BIades circular sawbladecarriers(Shop Tip), 102 storage,102 Clamps: Storage,LO5,106,107 Storinghandscrews(ShopTip), 107 Collins,Martha, 8-9 Compressed-airtools. SeeAir-powered tools

DE Doors: Opened-doorsignals safeattention getters(ShopTip), 37 Dowel racks,90 Drill presses: Extensiontables,.133 Workshop layout, 33 Drills: Nr-powered,,72 SeealsoElectricdrills Dust collectionsystems,69, 70, 78-81 Dust hoods,82-84 adaptingstandardsheetmetal ducts asdusthoods(ShopTip), 83 Electricalsweepsfor right-anglejoints (ShopTip), 81 Portable,85,87 shopvacuums,71,85,87 Shop-madeblastgates(ShopTip), 84 Vacuumscreeningramps(ShopTip),86 Electricalsystems: Electricalshock,27 Portablegenerators,71, 74-75 Powercord covers(ShopTip),42 Powertool ratings,75 Safetyprecautions, IZ Shoplayout,41-42,44 Electricdrills: Tables,136-138 Emergencyprocedures: Fire,16 SeealsoFirst aid; Safetyprecautions Extensioncords,l7

FGHII Fasteners: Anchoring lumber racksin concrete (ShopTip), 93 Storage,108,109 Featherboards, 22 Finishes: Safetyprecautions,14,15 Fire,13,16 Fire extinguishers,16 Fftstaid.23-27 Eyes,24 Shock,26 electrical,27 Wounds,25-26

t42

Garages: Workshop layo:ut,36,40 Generators, 71,74-75 GIueracks: Shop-made glueracks(ShopTip), 124 Ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs),17 Handsaws: Storage,100,101 Hand tools,/ront endpaper Safetyprecautions,14 Hearingprotection, .18,19 Heatingsystems,45 Hickman,Ron,47,112 (HVLP) High-volume,low-pressure spraysystems,70 ,. Jlgs: Band saws circular cuts, 128 Benchdog holes,54 Benchgrinders jigs,77 gouge-sharpening Vises steppedblocksto preventracking, 6.1 Workbenches benchstops,61,65-67 carving dogs,64 edgedogs,63 woodeninsertsfor metal-jawed vises,60 Iointer/planers: Workshop layout, 33 Iointers: Pushblocks.2l Workshop layout, 33, 38

KLMNO Lathes: Workshop layout, 33 Lee,Leonard,l0-ll Lighting: Bench-doglamp support(Shop Tip), a3 ShopLayout,43 Lumber: Sizes,backendpaper Lumber racks,94 9l Adjustable,92-9j Anchoring lumber racksin concrete (ShopTip), 93 Multitesters,T0 Nail guns: Air-powered,73 Outfeedtables,125,I 29-I 33

PQR Pipeclamps: Storage,106, 107 storing clampsin a garbagecan (ShopTip), 106 Planers: Dust hoods.82


Plywood: Storageracks,91 Powertools: Hanging portablepower tools from the wall (ShopTip), l0.l Multipurpose, 30 Safetyprecautions,14 disablinga power tool (Shop Tip), 14 featherboards,22 noiselevels,-19 pushsticks,20-21 Wattageratings,75 Workshop placement,30 spaceand light requirements,32-34 SeealsoLir-poweredtools Protectiveclothing, 13, 18-19 Pushsticks,20-21 Radialarm saws: Dust hoods,82 Extensiontables,130 Workshop Iayout,j2 18,19 Respirators, Roller stands,125-126 Routers: Air-powered,73 Tables,134,136-137,139 dust hoods,83 removablerouter tables,135 workshop layout, 32

STUV Sabersaws: Tables,f36-f38 Safetyprecautions,13 Anti-fatigue mats,44 air, 73 Compressed Door-openedsignals safeattention-getters(ShopTip), 37 Electricalsystems,12 Finishes,14,l5 Flammableproducts,89 Generators,75 Hand tools.14 Powertools, 14 disablinga power tool (Shop Tip), 14 Protectiveclothing, 13, 18-19 Tool storage,94 SeealsoToxic substances Sanders: Air-powered,68, 72 Sandingstations,84 Storingsandingdisks(ShopTip), 108 Workshop layout, 34 118-120 Sawhorses, FoIding, 122 Heavy-dfiy, 121 (ShopTip), 120 Paddingsawhorses Panelsupport frames,123 Securingworkpiecesedge-upon (ShopTip), 122 sawhorses Shop-madeglueracks(ShopTip), 124

(ShopTip), lI9 Stackingsawhorses 109 Scrapboxes, Scrollsaws: Workshop layott,34 Shapers: Workshop layout, 33 Shopdollies,37 ShopTips: Dust collectionsystems,81,83,84, 86,87 Safetyprecautions,14 Storagesystems,93, 101,102,104,106, 107,108 Workbenches,60, 64 Workshop layout, 37, 42, 43,44 117,119,120,722,124, Work surfaces, 129 Shopvacuums,71,85 Panty-hoseshopvacuumfilters (Shop Tip),87 Smokedetectors,l6 Solvents,15 Sprayguns: Ait-powered,72 Storagesystems,8-9, 89 Flammableproducts,89 Tool chests,88 TooIs,94-95,96, 97, 103-104 clampracks,105,106 fold-down workbenchand tool cabinet,98-99, 110 handsawracks,104 101 hangingportablepower tools from the wall (ShopTip), JOI magnetictool racks(ShopTip), 104 SeealsoLtmber racks Tables,lll,112 Assemblyand finishing tables,34 Extension tables,129-133 double-dutywork tables(Shop Tip),129 Library-typework tables,113 Low assemblytables,114 Stow-awaytables,115- 116 Temporary,117 stabilizinga temporarywork surface(ShopTip), 117 SeealsoWorkbenches Tablesaws: Extensiontables,129 double-dutywork tables(Shop Tip), 129 fold-down outfeedtables,I3-l Safetydevices,12 Wheelbases,29 tablesawon wheels(ShopTip), 3i Workshop layout,29, 31, 32 Telephones: Visual ringing signals,37 Toxic substances: rlnrsnes.15 Woods, backendpaper,13, 15 Ventilation systems,45

r43

Positive-pressure ventilation, 86 SeealsoDust collectionsystems Vises: Extensionslands,127 Workbenches,56 facevises,56, 58-59,60, 61 quick-switchvises(ShopTip), 60 tail vises,56-57,60, 62 woodeninsertsfor metal iaws,60

WXYZ Wheeldressers,71,76 Wide panels: Circle-cuttingsupportjigs, 128 Support frames,123 Tablesaws,129 Wood: Toxic effects,backendpaper,13, 15 SeealsoLumber Workbenches,10-ll, 46-49 Bases,50-52 Benchhooks,66, 67 Benchstops,65-67 sliding benchstops,61 Black& DeckerWorkmater',4T,112 Carvingscrews(ShopTip),64 Fold-downworkbenchand tool cabinet,98-99, 110 Hold-downs,65 Tops,43-55 Vises,56 facevises,56, 58-59,60,61 tail vises,56-57,60, 62 woodeninsertsfor metal jaws,60 Workshop layo:ut,j4 SeealsoBenchdogs Workshop layout,29-31 Dust collectionsystems,78 Electricalsystems,41-42,44 Floorc,44 Largespaces,40 Lighting, 43 Medium-sizedspaces, 39, 42 Scaledrawings,28, 30, 36,39, 40, 42 tools,35 Smallspaces,36-39 Workshops: Ceilings,44 Floors,44 making the transition to a raised floor (ShopTip),44 power cord covers(ShopTip),42 Heatingsystems,45 Planning,6 Ventilation systems,45, 86 Walls,44 SeealsoDust collectionsystems; Workshop layout Work surfaces: Tool stands,134,135,136-138,139 Variable-heightwork strfaces,124 SeealsoT ables;Workbenches


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Theeditorswishto thank thefollowing SAFETY AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; DeltaInternational Machinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; FisherHill Products,Inc.,Fitzwilliam,NH; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, Ont.; LeeValleyToolsLtd.,Ottawa,Ont.; Sears,Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; VermontAmericanCorp.,Lincolnton,NC and Louisville,KY SHOPLAYOUT Black& DeckerPowerTools,Towson,MD; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; Hitachi PowerToolsU.S.A.Ltd.,Norcross,GA; LeeValleyToolsLtd.,Ottawa,Ont.; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; ThoroughbredSawhorses and Equipment,Divisionof the Ivy Group,Inc.,Valparaiso, IN WORKBENCH AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division), Millbury, MA; Hitachi PowerToolsU.S.A.Ltd.,Norcross,GA; The WorkbenchBook (TauntonPress,1987)by ScottLandis; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; RecordTools Inc., Pickering,Ont.; RobertLarsonCompannInc.,SanFrancisco, CA; SandvikSawsand ToolsCo.,Scranton,PA;Sears, Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; ThoroughbredSawhorses and Equipment,Divisionof the Iry Group,Inc.,Valparaiso, IN; VermontAmericanCorp.,Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY; Woodsmirh,2200GrandAve.,DesMoines,1A50312 SHOPACCESSORIES CampbellHausfeld,Harrison,OH; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; DewaltIndustrial Tool Co.,Hampstead, MD; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),Millbury, MA; Ingersoll-Rand CanadaInc.,Rexdale, Ont.; Sears, Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; WagnerSprayTechCorp.,Minneapolis,MN STORAGE AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Ont.; Hitachi PowerToolsU.S.A.Ltd.,Norcross,GA; The WorkshopBook (TauntonPress,1991)by ScottLandis; LeeValleyToolsLtd.,Ottawa,Ont.; RobertSorbyLtd., Sheffield, U.K./BusyBeeMachineTools,Concord,Ont.; SandvikSawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; StanleyTools, Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; VermontAmericanCorp.,Lincolnton,NC and Louisville,KY WORKSURFACES AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; Black& DeckerPowerTools,Towson,MD; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter Cable, Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Ont.; HitachiPowerToolsU.S.A.Ltd.,Norcross,GA; The WorkshopBook (TauntonPress,1991)by ScottLandis;LeeValleyToolsLtd.,Ottawa,Ont.; RecordToolsInc.,Pickering,Ont.; SandvikSawsand ToolsCo.,Scranton,PA; Sears,Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc.,Montreal,Que.;StanleyTools, Divisionof the StanleyWorks,New Britain,CT; ThoroughbredSawhorses and Equipment,Divisionof the Ivy Group,Inc., Valparaiso,IN; Tru-Align ManufacturingInc.,Tempe,AZ; VermontAmericanCorp.,Lincolnton,NC and Louisville,KY Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted in thepreparationof this book: Ren6Bertrand,ElizabethCameron,DonnaCurtis,LorraineDorâ&#x201A;Ź,RdjeanGarand,GraphorConsultation, Irene Huang,CarolynJackson,LeonardLee,GeneviEve Monette

PICTURE CREDITS Cover RobertChartier 6,7 RobertHolmes 8,9 RaymondGendreau 10,ll Ron Levine 30 CourtesyShopsmith,Inc. 47 CourtesySjcibergs of Sweden 49 CourtesyWoodcraftSupplyCorp. 70 CourtesyMakitaCanadaLtd. 89 CourtesyIustrite ManufacturingCo. l12 (upper)CourtesyShureManufacturingCorp.

t44


I I

t t t I

t t I I I I I I I I

t I I I I I I I I I I I I

t I

.r

GPU I D E WORKSHO Toxtc w00Ds yourself fromtoxicspecies Protecting canposehealth Thedustfrommanywoodspecies ailments to skinanc risksranging fromrespiratory chemicals that contain eyeirritations. Somewoods cancausetoxiceffects(page10. Thechartbelow health of species andtheirpossible listsa number to dustfroma To reduce directexposure effects. reaction, keepyour woodthatmaytriggeranallergic andweara dustmask shopcleanandwellventilated, handling thespecies, Before forcutting,operations. creamonyourskinor wearprotective spread a barrier gloves, gear,including and longpantsandsleeves, ^^J^+.,

^l^^^^^

5drur.y Brd55cs.

Arborvitae Ash

Blackcherry Blacksoruce Boxwood redwood California Cashew Chestnut Cocobolo Douglas-fir Ebony European larch EUrOpean spruce lmbuia lroko Lacewood African Mahogany, Mahogany, SouthAmerican 0ak Pine Redcedar Rosewood. Brazilian Rosewood, EastIndian Ceylon Satinwood, Silkyoak Teak

Walnut Wenge Westernredcedar Whitecedar R = Respiratory ailments S = Skinandeyeirritations T = Toxiceffects

RS RS RS RST RS RS RS RST RS RS RS RS RS RS RST RS RS RS

Al{DACTUAT 1{0M[{At TUMBER SIZES SOFTWOOD

dry Surfaced

green Surfaced

l-by-2

3h-by-It/z

25h2-by-IeA6

1-by-3

3/+-by-21/z

25/zz-by-2eA.o

1-by-4

3/q-by-3r/z

25/zz-by-3e/rc

1-by-6 1-by-8

3h-by-5t/z

25/zz-by-55/a

3h-by-7th

25Az-by-7Vz

1-by-10

3h-by-9|h

I-by-12

3h-by-Ilth

25/zz-by-IIr/z

2-by-2

I1/z-by-Ir/z

Ts/rc-by-leAo

2-by-4

I1/z-by-31/z

Ie/rc-by-3e/rc

2-by-6 2-by-8

Ir/z-by-St/z

Iehe-by-55/a

Ir/z-by-7th

leAa-by-7 Vz

2-by-I0

lVz-by-91h

Ie/rc-by-9Vz

2-by-12 3-by-4

I1/z-by-IIth

Is/rc-by-IIVz

4-by-4 4-by-6

2t/z-by-3t/z

2sAo-by-3s/rc

3r/z-by'3r/z

3e/rc-by-3e/rc 3eAe-by-55/a

3Vz-by-51/z

THICKI{ESSES STAI{DARD FOR HARDWOOD SURFACED l{ominal (rough)

Actual (surfaced twosides)

3An

3/:.a"

v' %'

%ott

,1.

slu"

1u

% "o r ' % e "

7Yo'

IrAe"

T''' 2', 3'

I5lu"

23/o'

4"

3%',

RS RS RS RSI RST

Actual (lnches)

ilominal (lnches)

l % "o r I % "


THE ART OF WOODWORKING Vol 01 Home workshop  

Home workshop

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