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Copyright Š2015 To Love Children Educational Foundation International Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this curriculum may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, web distribution, information networks or information storage, and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher Rebecca House International Publishing Company ISBN 978-0-945522-02-7 SAN 247-1361 Published in the United States of America Second Edition, First Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

REBECCA HOUSE Office: 410.528.8294 Mobile: 443.831.0085 Website: https://www.tolovechildren.org E-mail:davidkennethwaldman@tolovechildren.org Editor-In-Chief: Dr David Kenneth Waldman Adapted with permission. Maria Ekstrand, PhD, Healthy Oakland Teens (HOT) Curriculum. The Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco

To Love Children is a 501(c) 3 non-profit Special Consultative Status to the Economic & Social Council of the United Nations (2006) To Love Children is neither responsible nor liable for any products, services, other information, advice, ideas, course of treatment, diagnosis obtained through this book of the To Love Children website.

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An Integrative & Multidisciplinary Community Public Health Conversation for Youth Development –Second Edition

“Healthy and Smart is a game changer because it is founded on using culturally relevant, interactive teaching approaches and focuses on the holistic skills required to empower and change one’s life.” Margaret E. Meador, MPH Vice President of International Public Health, To Love Children “To every youth—this conversation is for you and your future. Live a long and healthy life.” Dr. David Kenneth Waldman, Founder/President/CEO. To Love Children

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Introduction The goal of the Healthy & Smart Programme is to support community-based public and global Health Programmes. Healthy & Smart: Designed to accommodate community, instructor-to-student, peer-to-peer, or parent to child instruction in formal or informal settings. The Programme’s strengths lie in its short, comprehensive chapters and adaptability. Healthy & Smart is easy to use, does not require many resources, and can be adapted to address any, nation, state, or a local community’s need for health education, in any setting, anywhere in the world. To maximize its usefulness and accessibility, local volunteers may translate it into a local language. Our focus to prevent HIV transmission is part of our overall integrated educational strategy and mission to provide sustainable educational development and leadership opportunities for girls. TLC believes this approach ultimately breaks the cycle of poverty. What is new in the second edition: Healthy & Smart Second Edition continues as a work in progress; updates posted on our website reflect the latest research, methods, best practices, and information. A new chapter on Leadership and Leadership Core Competencies, added in alignment with United Nations Governance and Post-2015 Development Framework. Healthy & Smart is indispensable for students, teachers, social workers, health workers, community leaders, and parents trying to understand the complex integrated process by which to remain HIV/AIDs free. The editor’s goal was to justify unmistakably the relationship of critical thinking, mental health education, empowerment of girls, use of creativity, and happiness theory for practitioner’s and youth to discuss and implement a peer to peer conversation to become healthy and smart. The new edition borrows Paulo Freire’s approach to pedagogy in order to deepen community between peers, family, elders, community, and schools. An integrative and multidisciplinary approach of all public health and related actors, stakeholders, youth and adults, communities, and all institutions, invested in public health is required to keep our youth healthy and smart. Fully revised and updated, Healthy & Smart, second edition provides:  Inquiry questions in each chapter to enable students to develop creative critical thinking to expand perception in which to find solutions to stay healthy and smart.  New chapter on authentic happiness, artistic expression and creativity

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Medical Disclaimer The information in this book or on To Love Children web site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this book or web site is for general information purposes only. To Love Children and Rebecca House International or the reviewers, consultants or contributors makes no representation and assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of information contained on or available through this book and web site, and such information is subject to change without notice. You are strongly encouraged to confirm any information obtained from or through this book or web site with other sources, and review all information regarding any medical condition or treatment with your physician.

Never disregard professional medical advice or delay seeking medical treatment because of something you have read or accessed through this text or To Love Children Website. To Love Children does not recommend, endorse or make any representation about the efficacy, appropriateness or suitability of any specific ideas, theories, services, opinions, links, or any providers or other information that may be contained on or available through this book or web site.

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FOREWORD The accumulation of knowledge about HIV and AIDS has been fast and fascinating. Since the 1980s, when the disease was officially identified and medically described, a phenomenal amount of information has been gathered about HIV and AIDS. Much more requires to be known and even some of the available information requires to be verified. However, there is now a huge body of concretely and scientifically grounded knowledge about the disease. Thus, it is appropriate to select, teach, and transfer this knowledge to the youth of the world, who are our current and future generations.

Healthy & Smart uniquely focuses on peer-to-peer training to equip youth to prevent themselves

from getting HIV/AIDS, but also to challenge their thinking and curiosity to acquire more knowledge and seek better solutions. Thus, this training should enable them to design strategies towards eliminating HIV/AIDS from the face of the earth. The dream is that an AIDS-free generation is realized. The teaching of this Programme is going to spark off many questions from youth, some of which may not be answered by this Programme—indeed not, even by using current available knowledge. Inevitably, these questions will lead to more research and improved revisions of this curriculum. The Healthy & Smart programme may be adapted and taught at various school levels and ages. For practical learning purposes of prevention of HIV and AIDS, Healthy & Smart: A Prevention Programme for Youth’s focus has a broad and holistic approach. It includes relevant aspects such as: basic facts of biological science, the human body, the virus; sexual and reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases; it also includes AIDS associated issues: drugs, alcohol, stigma, and mental illnesses. Additionally, the book has integrated new and old values, and decision-making, building life skills; and it has employed culturally relevant teaching methods. Healthy & Smart promotes a multi-pronged ‘ABCDEF’ approach to behavioral change to prevent transmission of HIV. A = Abstinence, B = Be Faithful, C = Condom, D = Drugs, do not take, inject, share needles, E = Empowerment with life skills, and F = Financial Independence It is my hope and wish that the Healthy & Smart curriculum provides the inspiration and guidance to teach the youth of the world about HIV/AIDS prevention and at the same time enables us all to learn ever better ways of managing this global pandemic. Sam Agatre Okuonzi MD, PhD is a member of parliament in Uganda. He was previously policy advisor to the Ministry of Health Honourable Okuonzi wrote the over-arching HIV & AIDS Policy for Uganda

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Healthy & Smart Programme Rationale Dr David Kenneth Waldman developed the idea and To Love Children implemented the Healthy & Smart Programme in response to the escalating HIV/AIDS crisis, particularly among young women. HIV has not only significant biological and social costs, but is also detrimental economically, as HIV and AIDS are known to hamper efforts to reduce poverty, have negative impacts on educational development, and often increase the numbers of people living in extreme poverty. The domino effect occurs because AIDS without treatment usually kills sexually active adults; thus, it tends to affect a country’s labour force most, as documented by The World Health Organization (WHO). The resulting poorer economic revenues then negatively affect the education and health services, which in turn leave behind orphaned children and grandparents, an added burden on the community or the state. In addition, one of the more unfortunate corollaries to a HIV-related death in poorer households is the removal of the children (especially girls) from school. Often school uniforms and fees become unaffordable for families and a child’s labour and income-generating potential are now required in the running of the household. Young women in particular are especially vulnerable in the current AIDS pandemic. Not only are they physically more susceptible to HIV during heterosexual sex, they are often socially disadvantaged in preventing HIV contraction. Many countries still have patriarchal rules governing women’s place in sexual relationships. 

Women in some cultures are not allowed to select sexual partners or the person they choose to marry. In such situations where men dominate, a woman is unlikely to be able to insist on the use of condoms, or to take measures to protect herself from HIV.

The cost of HIV within a family also affects women disproportionately, as the burden of care usually falls on them.

Older women frequently assume the duties of caring for ailing adult children and subsequently parenting their orphaned children.

Women are often also responsible for producing an income or food crops, which may suffer because they are unable to assume so many responsibilities at once.

Women caring for orphans and sick children may also be isolated socially because of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, which also means that family support, is not a certainty.

Moreover, when women themselves become HIV-positive, they, too, are often rejected, and may have their property seized when their husband dies.

Healthy & Smart was conceived as a transitional Programme to effect change by educating the younger population about HIV/AIDS risk and prevention. Due to the power differential between genders that exists in many societies, educating both girls and boys may be a more effective means to help girls in particular to break the larger cycle of poverty. Moreover, HEALTHY & SMART

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TLC recognizes the critical role that youth of both genders play in adopting health-protective attitudes and behaviours that will help prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Healthy & Smart Programme To Love Children (TLC) consulted with the World Health Organization, in the development of the Healthy and Smart Programme. Additionally, HIV/AIDS experts on traditional teaching methods were consulted in order to make the Programme interactive and impactful by using activities, communication channels, and graphics accepted by and/or familiar to the peoples we aim to serve. Healthy & Smart assumes “Current officially sanctioned school-based HIV/AIDS programmes fail to effect real social change because their approach is didactic, literacy-based, and Eurocentric, and ignores oral and traditional forms of communication.” A multi-pronged ‘ABCDEF’ approach to behavioural change to prevent transmission of HIV A = Abstinence: Do not have (sex); or postpone initiation of sexual activity until married. B = be faithful: with only one partner. C = Condom: Use condom. D = Drugs: Do not take illegal drugs! Do not inject drugs. Do not share needles, and do not share unsterilized needles. E = Empowerment: with education and life skills. F = financial independence: livelihood skills, train unemployed adolescents and help protect youth from exploitation and risky behaviours. TLC recognizes that much remains to ensure that youth remain virus-free, and to address the most vulnerable populations. Healthy & Smart uses a national, local government, and local communitybased approach that seeks to maximize the involvement of all relevant actors and stakeholders. TLC also recognizes that students, youth, and young adults who participate in Healthy & Smart come from a range of cultural backgrounds, traditions, and learning styles. The reviewers of the Programme provided alternative and culturally relevant teaching approaches. TLC believes the use of non-western communication and a range of teaching methods to allow flexibility in how to implement Healthy & Smart’s Programme.

Strategies and Goals Healthy & Smart Programme standards may be aligned to the expectations of colleges, workforce training programs, and employers. Standards promote equity by ensuring all students equal access. TLC collaborates with local schools, communities, state, and national stakeholders in order to strengthen the capacity to coordinate and manage a multi-sectored response to the epidemic.

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Prevention efforts such as those inherent within the Healthy & Smart Programme support the first goal of reducing HIV prevalence. Healthy & Smart includes an interactive Programme, which focuses on building critical thinking and creativity skills and uses culturally relevant teaching methods. Healthy & Smart complements local, state, and national HIV/AIDS standards and policy. Healthy & Smart’s target population is male and female students, ages 14 to 19 years and vulnerable and disenfranchised females, ages 14 to 19 years.

TLC’s objective To start with prevention to these populations as a primary focus of discussion, expanding as the Programme becomes accepted and sustainable, the overall goal to reach all interested stakeholders, students, and adults

Healthy & Smart Monitoring & Evaluation Plan Students, teachers, and community peer trainers may be asked to participate in various aspects of a monitoring and evaluation of the Healthy & Smart Programme. The purpose of this monitoring and evaluation (M&E) plan is to identify specific data in order to evaluate the results and successes of the Programme. TLC recognizes that a reliable and verifiable M&E plan can lead to a much stronger Programme; it also elucidates the Programme’ s capacity to effect change and address local community needs. In addition, a well-conceived M&E plan can: 1) generate positive publicity, increasing the number of stakeholders providing community support and, 2) lead to funding opportunities that will help sustain the Programme. Monitoring and & Evaluation plan for the Programme is integral to ensure accountability and enable improvement of Healthy & Smart. Most importantly, our plan is designed to help facilitate collection of data on the growth of HIV prevalence and incidence in targeted populations. Additionally, this data will help support, meet and exceed United Nations Millennium Development Goals & Post 2015 Goals TLC is committed to ensure the highest ethical standards are maintained throughout the Programme. We recommend anyone involved in gathering, providing data, handling or managing data, or educating others about ethical research to obtain Ethics and Informed Consent training through the local Institutional Review Board for Ethical Research.

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Publisher’s Note This program may be implemented in formal schooling, after school Programmes, as well as in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps or, in villages where a trained peer volunteer can gather a group of youth after school ends for an hour .All discussions can be adapted to meet the educational and cultural needs and settings. This Programme is not a prescription or a means to secure mental or physical health. Healthy & Smart is an educational tool intended to be a solution-oriented approach. Healthy & Smart editors have selected British English for this international edition due to the fact that British English has official or special status in at least seventy-five countries with a total population of over two billion. One out of four of the world’s population speaks British English to some level of competence; however, demand from the other three-quarters is increasing. In order to maximize our outreach and Healthy & Smart’s usefulness and accessibility, local volunteers may translate the text into the local languages of communities. Explore related issues, topics, ideas, event, and opportunities. Contribute & solve ongoing problems ‘‘Challenges to life develop and unfold from a myriad of circumstances, people, and places and in time. Therefore, they can be solved.” Dr David Kenneth Waldman

It is recommended that you add to your Conversation the follow Components Critical Thinking: Definitions in order to enhance thinking, and explore perspectives and solutions to problems Problem Solving: Thinking outside the box. Explore innovative and entrepreneurial approaches to problems and or events Timeline and Multicultural Perspectives: Historical perspective of other places and people Science and Technology—Environment and Ecology: An understanding of the role of environment, ecology, science, and technology plays in solving social science issues and problems Literature/Film/Music/Art: film, music, art and literature to further our understanding and gain diverse perspectives of complex issues Historical Look: Look at the same issues over time Point of View: A look at different perspectives and cultures and traditions Careers: Information to pursue careers in fields that children learn about

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Table of Contents Chapter 1

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) & AIDS Basic Facts: The Immune System

Chapter 2

Body Basics: How it Works

Chapter 3

Sexuality Information & Education: Comprehensive Sexual & Reproductive Health

Chapter 4

Drugs, Alcohol & Their Risks

Chapter 5

Stereotypes, Stigmas, & Discrimination

Chapter 6

Mental Health: Mindfulness, Happiness, Family & Community Connection

Chapter 7

Values Based Education: Behaviours, Ethics, Morals, & Action

Chapter 8

Decision Making: Education & Youth Participation

Chapter 9

Intercultural Communication

Chapter 10

Prevention: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STIs) & HIV Prevention

Chapter 11 Emotional Intelligence, Creative Thinking, Artistic Expression, Creativity & Authentic Happiness: Process of prevention—Creative Process & Activities Chapter 12

Women Leadership & Core Leadership Competencies

__________________________

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“A Healthy & Smart Programme identifies and leverages community capacities and resources, and harnesses community assets. The challenge is to mitigate cultural barriers and obstacles.” Margaret E. Meador, MPH

Ngoma Teaching Methods The students who participate in Healthy and Smart come from a range of cultural backgrounds, traditions, and learning styles. Our goal is to provide some alternative and culturally relevant teaching approaches that can help supplement the main curriculum. These methods are optional, but we feel they are important to include as they provide options for instructors that will allow more flexibility and tailoring in how material is presented to unique audiences. To Love Children has embraced Ngoma as an exciting alternative or supplement to other, more common educational approaches; we believe that the use of non-western communication and teaching methods in conveying preventive health information to international populations will strengthen the ability of our messages to have their intended effects.

Why Use Ngoma in HIV/AIDS Prevention? Programs involved in the prevention of HIV/AIDs in youth, in general, need to meet the following requirements to be successful:  Bridge cultural distance  Use appropriate verbal and non-verbal language that reflects the youth's reality  Motivate and empower to bring about meaningful changes in behaviour and attitude  Use local cultural performance

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Chapter One HIV & AIDS BASIC FACTS1 The Immune System & Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Portions of this chapter are adapted with permission from Teaching AIDS Network Publications, Santa Cruz, CA. 1

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To Love Children (TLC) firmly adheres to principles of working in collaboration with the communities in which it serves. Involving the community establishes the roots of sustainability through local solutions and ownership. Thus, prior to implementation, Trainers and teachers of To Love Children and your teachers and trainers of Healthy & Smart will develop contacts and advocates in your community and will work to enlist the consultation and involvement of local NGOs, experts, community leaders, head teachers, and government leaders. Therefore, it will be important to assess current health curriculum policy, current national HIV/AIDS Community Involvement. TLC firmly adheres to principles of working in collaboration with the communities in which it serves. Involving the community establishes the roots of sustainability through local solutions and ownership.

General tips In this first chapter you are introduced to the following Learning Outcomes  Understand the basic functioning of the immune system.  Analyse how diseases, particularly viruses, can infect the body, reproduce, and consequently may be, transmitted from one person to another.  Explain differences between exposure, infection, being a carrier, and feeling or looking sick Your teachers and trainers will first work with you to include strategies to build trust and rapport with the class, consideration of learning styles, and teaching techniques. Specific tips with regard to instructing on the topic of HIV/AIDS include understanding the social context of the teaching environment, getting to know the students, goal-setting, and understanding the curriculum content. The aim of these discussions is to help both individuals and the group arrive at a mutual understanding of its “comfort level” in addressing the sensitive issues related to HIV/AIDS prevention and enter into teaching with a greater understanding of body and your immune

Student as Active Learner To facilitate greater understanding you and your teachers or trainers will initiate group discussions based on a list of open-ended questions designed to provoke dialogue about attitudes, beliefs, and misconceptions surrounding a number of topics which help you to integrate HIV/AIDS into your overall health prevention program.

The Immune System & Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Transmission Your body has a number of ways to protect you from danger. You are probably already aware of some of the ways your body protects you. Your skin can tell you if something is hot or cold and your brain tells you to pull your hand away if you are about to touch fire.

Protect your Body Our skin, when healthy, keeps out many germs and viruses. In the bloodstream, white blood cells also protect us against germs and viruses, and repair damaged tissue. For example, when you scrape your HEALTHY & SMART

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knee, white blood cells kill the germs and help repair the skin. White blood cells are part of the immune system. Your skin also works to keep many harmful germs from entering your body. Your immune system, if in good health, works to protect you from germs and diseases, without you even knowing. Your immune system works to stop germs that get past your skin and into your body in order to prevent them from causing some diseases. Reflect how your immune system functions to protect you against common and not-so common diseases. Examine how a virus called the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) can make it hard for your immune system to do what it is supposed to do. Discuss what is the immune system? There are many types of white blood cells and other agents in the body to protect it and repair it. Together, they are the immune system.

Immune System When the immune system fails, the body is more likely to become infected by germs or pathogens. It is also likely to become sick because of the infection. HIV is particularly dangerous because one of its main targets is the immune system. HIV kills the cells that protect the body and leave it defenseless against harmful pathogens that are often in our environment. If you feel healthy and spend time with a person with the AIDS virus, that person is more likely to get sick from you than the other way around. The reason is that while you may feel healthy, you may also carry a harmful pathogen that your immune system is fighting. On the other hand, the person with HIV with a weakened immune system does not have the antibodies to fight the infection.

Virus Infection After a virus enters the body, the immune system produces proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are like soldiers guarding a castle. As soon as they see that the virus does not belong in the body, they chase after it and fight it off. Antibodies and white blood cells are always on guard, circulating in the blood stream to protect the body against infections.

What is a virus? A virus is a tiny organism or particle that carries instructions for reproducing itself (called the genetic material). However, it must invade a living cell (such as one in a person’s body) to reproduce. Have you ever been invaded by a virus? You have, if you have ever had a cold, the flu, or chicken pox.

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Understanding Disease A disease is an upset or breakdown in the way your body usually functions. Most diseases make you feel sick or that something is not quite right with your body, but some diseases upset places in your body that you cannot really feel, like your blood, your bones, or your internal organs. Signs are the changes that others can see when you have a disease. Coughing can be a sign of having a cold. Symptoms are not noticeable to others, but felt by the affected person. Examples of symptoms are muscle aches or nausea. Some diseases take a long time before you exhibit any noticeable signs or feel symptoms; during this time, you may actually have the disease without noticing any signs or symptoms. People recover from some diseases in a short time. Others last a long time or leave permanent damage, and diseases may cause death. What can cause a disease? While a healthy person infected with a cold virus might just get a runny nose, someone with AIDS might develop pneumonia.

Diseases caused by pathogens are germs that can invade the body from outside it and cause illness. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites can all be pathogens. None of these organisms can be seen without a microscope. Big parasites like intestinal worms coming out in feces may be seen with naked eyes. One important fact about infectious diseases is that some of them can be passed to other people through different ways, such as contact of body fluids of the infected patients with mucosal surfaces or broken skin of healthy people. Mucosal surfaces are the covering of internal parts of the body, like the inside of the nose, mouth, and reproductive organs.

Diseases & Transmission Diseases that can be passed, or transmitted, from one person to another are called infectious or contagious diseases, like the common cold.

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Illnesses such as a heart attack or cancer are not contagious. Different infectious diseases spread in different ways: air or saliva. HIV spreads by sexual contact. After exposure to an infectious disease, similar to a common cold, the signs and symptoms of illness appear rapidly. For other infectious diseases, symptoms appear much later; therefore, a person may never know exactly when he/she was exposed to the illness. Certain kinds of viruses can only live in cells in blood and other fluids in our bodies, such as semen and vaginal fluids. They cannot be passed by people touching the same surfaces or by breathing the same air. They are passed if the blood or body fluid of an infected person enters the body of another person. The only way to avoid getting HIV and other STIs is to abstain from sexual activity or wear a condom on the penis every time you have sex. Diseases that can be transmitted via sexual intercourse are called Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). HIV is a sexually transmitted disease. It can also be transmitted by sharing tattoo needles, by sharing of needles for intravenous drug use, and by mother to child before or shortly after birth. Transfusion of blood and blood products that are screened for HIV should not transmit HIV. Only semen, vaginal fluids, blood, and breast milk of an HIV-positive person can transmit HIV. HIV and other STIs can be passed from one person to another every time they have sex. There is no way to know if you are going to get a STI from another person.

HIV cannot be transmitted by:            

Ordinary social or casual contacts Shaking hands Through the air by coughing or sneezing Through food or water Through sweat and tears By sharing cups, plates, and utensils with a HIV-Positive person By shared clothing By sharing toilets and bathrooms with an HIV-Positive person By living with an HIV-Positive person By touching or kissing (as far as it is a ‘dry kiss’) By mosquitoes, fleas and other insects Through breastfeeding

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system of the human body, you may also hear it called the AIDS virus. It is the virus that causes AIDS. When HIV enters the body, it reproduces within the white blood cells. There may be no indicators for years, however, it reduces the number of certain types of white blood cells until the immune system breaks down and cannot defend against infections (with other microorganisms) and cancers. Certain types of infections and cancers define the AIDS stage.

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It generally takes 7–10 years after entry of HIV into the body to develop AIDS. This is the final stage of disease in adults. The first stage is called HIV-positivity. A person does not have any signs or symptoms but may still pass the virus to others. The period of AIDS usually lasts 1–3 years in adults. Throughout this period, patients are more susceptible to certain infections, viruses, germs or certain cancers. To date, while medications for HIV can prolong life without treatment, patients typically survive three years once they develop AIDS.

When a person who has HIV (or is ‘HIV positive’) gets sick with one of these other diseases or infections, ONLY then do we say that he or she has AIDS. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome HIV is difference from other viruses because it prevents the body’s ability to fight off other diseases. Before a diagnosis of ‘AIDS’, a person is only ‘HIV-positive’. He or she may be unaware of the infection.

Therefore, it is essential to know your status and test for AIDS. Virus Infection People infected with viruses other than HIV often never know it. Their immune system fights off viruses effectively. These people still may be carriers. A carrier is a person who may still be contagious and transmit the infection to others, even though she or he feels and looks perfectly healthy. Carriers can be called asymptomatic, that is, without any symptoms of illness. Symptomatic means having symptoms of the illness. People who are HIV-Positive will have this asymptomatic carrier state and will eventually manifest the signs and symptoms of disease. Viral infections can affect people in different ways. People may become sick/ill only very briefly and then get better; their immune systems fight off the infections well. A number of people become ill after infection by a virus while some people may die from infection. Have you ever noticed when someone got a cold and only had a runny nose? The same virus may have infected a variety of people in the same vicinity who may have become sicker, with a cough and sore throat.

Doctors Fight Infections Another way for the body to make antibodies is through using a vaccine. [In order for the previous sentence to make sense, you need to talk about antibodies in the previous section – that the body naturally makes antibodies when it is exposed to virus.] Scientists have created substances, which help make the body produce antibodies. This may protect against a particular pathogen. Vaccines are generally given to healthy people before they may be confronted with a pathogen. They are meant to prevent the disease if the person is exposed to the pathogen after vaccination. Vaccines are usually delivered as ‘shots’ injected under your skin by a doctor or nurse. HEALTHY & SMART

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Antibodies die naturally over time and they have to be regenerated to guard against infection. Therefore, a booster shot has to be given several years later. There is no vaccine for HIV that works yet. Scientists are working hard to produce one. Along with the immune system, medicines like penicillin can help fight infectious diseases. However, most viruses cannot be cured with medicines. There is no cure for HIV, which means that scientists have not found a way to stop the virus from breaking down the immune system. The currently available medicines for HIV are called antiretroviral. They only lessen the speed of immune system breakdown. However, some infections that HIV/AIDS patients get may be treated with medicines. These infections are called ‘opportunistic infections (OIs)’.

Infants and Young Children “Identifying and testing the HIV-exposed infant as early as possible is crucial, as timely diagnosis of HIV allows timely access to life-saving care, including antiretroviral therapy for those who are infected. Without antiretroviral therapy, the majority of HIV-infected children will die before reaching their second year of life” (UNICEF United Nations Global Aids Response Progress Reporting 2014 Your body has several ways to protect you against getting a disease from germs carried by other people or in your environment. The most important defense you have is your immune system. The immune system is made up of several kinds of white blood cells and proteins that work together to find and eliminate germs that get inside your body. Your immune system usually works well to protect you, but HIV is particularly threatening. HIV infects and destroys the cells of the immune system. AIDS is the condition you have when your immune system is badly damaged by HIV. AIDS leaves you vulnerable to a variety of illnesses that you normally would not develop. HIV cannot get inside or infect you unless it enters your body through the blood, penile, or vaginal fluids of another person. This means you can only get HIV if the blood of an HIV-positive person touches your blood through a wound or broken skin, or if you have unprotected sexual intercourse with someone who has HIV. Unprotected sex means that you do not use a male or female condom.

Glossary HIV: A name for the virus that causes AIDS Immune System: A body system that works to fight off infection, cancer and help repair injuries Transmit: Transfer germs from one person to another HIV-Positive: When a body is invaded by the HIV virus Carrier: A person who HIV-positive but does not necessarily feel or look sick Antibodies: What the body produces to fight off a virus Vaccine: A substance that causes the body to produce antibodies to protect against a disease

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The best protection to avoid infection with HIV is abstinence and practicing safer sex with the use of a male or female condom. Have your blood tested frequently in order to avoid infecting the people you care about and love. Adolescent girls, young men who have sex with men, those who inject drugs or are subject to sexual coercion and abuse are at highest risk. They face many barriers, including harsh laws, inequalities, stigma and discrimination, which prevent them from accessing services that could test, prevent, and treat HIV. There are several vaccines to help your body fight diseases from your environment, but there is no vaccine for HIV.

March 2014 supplement to the 2013 consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection Recommendations for a public health approach

New UN guidelines address specific needs of millions of adolescents with HIV

“26 November 2013 –the United Nations World Health Organization “There are over two million adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years living with HIV, World Health Organization (WHO), with millions more at risk of infection. The failure to support effective and acceptable HIV services for adolescents has resulted in a 50 per cent increase in reported AIDS-related deaths in this group compared with the 30 per cent decline seen in the general population from 2005 to 2012.” Craig McClure, Chief of HIV programmes for the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). “Adolescents face difficult and often confusing emotional and social pressures as they grow from children into adults.” “Adolescents need health services and support tailored to their needs. They are less likely than adults to be tested for HIV and often need more support than adults to help them maintain care and to stick to treatment,” Gottfried Hirnschall, Director of World Health Organization HIV/AIDS Department. “Every person counts,” “If we are going to keep our pledge of leaving no one behind – we have to make sure HIV services reach everyone in need. About one-seventh of all new HIV infections occur during adolescence. Unless the barriers are removed, the dream of an AIDS-free generation will never be realized.” Michel Sidibé, Executive Director of UNAIDS.

World Health Organization (WHO) pointed out that many young people do not know their HIV status? For example, it is estimated that only 10 percent of young men and 15 percent of young women (15-24 years) in sub-Saharan Africa know their HIV status and, in other regions, although data is scarce, access to HIV testing and counselling by vulnerable adolescents is consistently reported as being very low.

WHO recommends governments review their laws to make it easier for adolescents to obtain HIV testing without needing consent from their parents. The guidelines also suggest ways that health services can improve the quality of care and social support for adolescents. In addition, they highlight the value of involving this age group to create an adolescent-centered approach to the services that work for people of their age.

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The Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) reported accelerated progress in combating the epidemic in much of the world, with significant decreases in new infections and deaths, but worrying signs persist that some regions and countries are falling behind in the global battle. New infections globally were estimated at 2.3 million in 2012, a 33 percent reduction since 2001 and AIDS-related deaths dropped by 30 percent since the peak in 2005 to 1.6 million, as access to antiretroviral treatment expands, the agency said.” Leadership: As facilitator, join a discussion of inquiry. Use art, music, and or words to communicate how you take preventive measures to avoid HIV/AIDS. Reflection “Young people remain at the Centre of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in terms of rates of infection, vulnerability, impact, and potential for change. Many still lack comprehensive and correct knowledge about how to prevent HIV infection. This situation persists even though the world has agreed that young people have the human right to education, information, and services that could protect them from harm.” UNFPA Analyse: how you protect yourself against disease and find alternative solutions you can implement. Apply: Create music, art, or write and act out a short scene or from a play you have found that expands on this question or ask new questions. Communicate: ask questions, get educated, and take action. Use innovative methods to share what you learned and educate other youth about services and information required to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS. ____________________________________

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Facts about HIV and AIDS Common False Myths      

HIV/AIDS is a "white-man" disease.2 False: HIV/AIDS can affect any person regardless of race, skin colour, religion, or any other characteristics. HIV is spread by casual social contact such as living, eating together, touching, and hugging one with the HIV/AIDS.3 False: Nobody can get infected with HIV through day-to-day, usual contact with infected people. Blood donation can lead to getting infected with HIV.4 False: Donating blood or giving blood for other reasons at a professional clinic, such as a laboratory examination, cannot lead to infection with HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through anal intercourse.5 False: In fact there is a much greater chance for getting infected with HIV through anal intercourse compared to vaginal intercourse. A person can contract HIV as a result of using a toilet seat that has just been used by an HIV infected person.6 False: HIV cannot be transmitted through usual daily activities. Birth control methods can protect also against HIV infection.7 False: The only birth control methods that can also protect against HIV are abstinence and latex condoms. All other contraceptive methods, like the birth control pill, spermicidal lotions, and rhythm method and withdrawal methods have little or no effect against HIV and other STDs. Intercourse with a virgin can 'clean' an already infected man.8 False: There is currently there is no way to 'get rid of' HIV. Intercourse, either with a virgin or non-virgin woman, can by no means clean a man from his infection; it can only affect the woman, being virgin or not. The chances of getting the HIV virus are greater for developing girls than mature women.

Test items for student evaluation9 Short tests can be used to motivate students to learn and digest the activities in the programme. They can also inform the students on their progress and provide them with an opportunity to apply information to life situations. They enable the teacher to monitor learning and adjust the programme. Correct answers should be discussed with students after the test. Besides those questions included in the activity sheets the following additional True-False question may be used in creating a test for students:

HIV/AIDS Basic Knowledge TRUE: 2

Osinubi TS, Amaghionyeodiwe LA. (2005). Myths surrounding HIV/AIDS in Southwest Nigeria. Int J STD AIDS, 16: 85. 3 Osinubi, 2005. 4 Osinubi, 2005. 5 Gray LA, Devadas RP, Vijayalakshmi O, Kamalanthan G. (1999). Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among Hindu students from a government women's college of south India. Int J Advance Consul, 21: 207-219. 6 Lau JTF, Tsui HY. (2000). Surveillance of HIV/ADIS-related attitudes and perceptions among the general public in Hong Kong from 1994 to 2000. ADIS Edu Prev, 14: 419-431. 7 Medical Women's International Association. (2004). Training Manual for Adolescent Sexuality. 8 Leclerc-Madlala S. (2002). On the virgin cleansing myth: gendered bodies, AIDS, and ethno medicine. Af J AIDS Res., 1: 87-95. 9

FRESH Tools for Effective School Health, First Edition (2004). http://www.unesco.org/education/fresh Retrieved February 23, 2008 from http://portal.unesco.org/education/admin/ev.php?URL_ID=35500&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201 HEALTHY & SMART

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             

A person can “pass” an HIV test, that is, be negative, but still be infected with HIV. Men may pass HIV on to others through their semen. HIV is found in semen, vaginal fluids, and blood. A person may get HIV by sharing drug needles. Once you are infected with HIV, you are infected for life. Women may pass HIV on to others through their vaginal fluids. You may get infected with HIV by having sex with someone who shares drug needles. It is not dangerous to hug a person with AIDS. People infected with HIV do not necessarily look sick. People with AIDS die from serious diseases. HIV may be passed from a mother to her unborn or new-born baby. Having sex during the menstrual cycle increases the risk of getting HIV. You may get HIV by cutting the skin with a knife or razor blade used by someone with HIV. The time from getting HIV until a person becomes sick with AIDS can be as short as 6 months to as long as 10 years or more.  A person who has AIDS usually will die in 6 months to 2 years.  The reason that you see so few teenagers with AIDS is that it takes years for AIDS to develop after a person has been infected.  If a person has an STD, his or her chances of being infected with HIV are increased.  AIDS is caused by HIV.  HIV is not spread from one person to another through daily activities.  Teenagers infected with HIV when they are 14 may not show any AIDS symptoms until they are in their middle twenties.  A person may pass on HIV even though he/she has no signs or symptoms of AIDS.  The more partners a person has, the greater the chances of being infected with HIV.  Everyone infected with HIV, whether they have symptoms of AIDS or not, can spread HIV to others. A person can have HIV for years without getting AIDS.  A negative HIV test means there are no antibodies to HIV in the blood. FALSE  You may get HIV by sitting on a toilet seat that a person with AIDS has used.  You may get HIV from drinking from the same glass or water fountain that a person with AIDS drank from.  You can tell if someone has HIV by looking at them: they are usually very thin and sickly.  Some people have been infected with HIV by swimming in the same water as someone with AIDS.  You may get HIV from a mosquito bite.  Someone with AIDS can spread HIV by coughing and spitting.  There is no way to kill HIV on a drug needle.  There is no way you can find out if you are infected with HIV.  You can be cured of AIDS if you are careful to take medicine the doctor gives you.  You cannot get HIV from sharing needles for tattoos or ear/nose piercing.  It is difficult for women to get HIV/AIDS. HIV may be spread by wearing clothes from a person with AIDS.  A person may get HIV by donating blood. A person is infectious (able to pass HIV on to others) only when she/he has AIDS.  A vaccine is available to protect people from HIV infection. There have been reported cases in which HIV was spread by kissing. A person who has tested positive for HIV is said to have AIDS.  There is evidence that some insects can actually spread AIDS. HIV can be spread by contact such as hugging, kissing or holding hands.  You can tell if a person has HIV by how they look.  You may get HIV from toilet seats.  Married people don’t become infected with HIV. HEALTHY & SMART

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 

If you only have sex with people who look healthy, you won’t become infected by HIV. HIV is the same thing as AIDS.

Responsible Behaviour: Delaying Sex TRUE  Delaying sex and not using injecting drugs are very good ways for teenagers to avoid getting HIV.  One way to avoid getting HIV is by not having sex.  Not having sexual intercourse is the most effective way to avoid being infected with HIV.  An example of showing affection without sex is cuddling and caressing.  Aggressive people get what they want without any thought about the feelings of the other person.  

A passive person often gives in to what others want. If a person tries to get you to do something you do not want to do, you should refuse, or bargain safer alternatives, or delay the decision. FALSE  There is no way to protect yourself from HIV/AIDS.  Assertive people get their way by overpowering others.

Responsible Behaviour: Protected Sex TRUE  Condoms used correctly and every time one has sexual intercourse protect from HIV and STD and prevent pregnancy. FALSE  You cannot get HIV if you only have sex once or twice without a condom.  You cannot get HIV while having sex for the first time.  Condoms offer complete protection against HIV.  Vaseline is a very good lubricant to use with a condom.  Lubricated condoms break more often than those that are not lubricated.  If a condom slips off in the female vagina she will become sick.  A condom can be safely reused.  It is important to keep condoms in a warm, moist place.

Care and Support for People with HIV/AIDS TRUE  A person with AIDS who has sweating, vomiting and diarrhoea needs extra fluids.  People who are ill with AIDS should be encouraged to do what they can for themselves.  There have been no cases of HIV from living with a person who has HIV or AIDS.  A person with HIV who is not allowed to attend school is an example of discrimination. FALSE  You can get HIV by eating food prepared by an HIV-infected person.  People with AIDS should stay in hospitals all the time, not at home. Beginning of the End of AIDS starts with YOU! About one-seventh of all new HIV infections occur during adolescence. Unless the barriers are removed, the dream of an AIDS-free generation will never be realized.

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Chapter Two Body Basics: How Your Body Works

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Basic information about common human physiology, organs, and organ systems such as circulatory, respiratory, & functioning of the five senses is important to identify the characteristics of a healthy immune system. This is important to recognize the value of the overall functioning of the body. One advantage is that HIV may spread from one person to another. Therefore, it is imperative to understand that HIV passes through blood, semen, and vaginal fluids. This can happen when people share needles or have sex without a condom. You cannot tell from looking at someone if he/she is HIV-Positive [HIV-positive and HIV-Positive are used inconsistently}, so it is important to be careful all the time. HIV affects the immune system once you are HIV-Positive. Over a period, HIV weakens an immune system and diseases, like pneumonia, tuberculosis, and certain cancers, can progress. When this happens, we say that the person has AIDS. You can have HIV for years without getting a disease that is related to being HIV-positive. When a person with HIV actually gets sick with a disease due to immunodeficiency or when their immune system becomes damaged seriously, then we say a person has AIDS.

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Understand how your body works How you can keep your body healthy. Express your understanding through art, music, dance, poetry, and or words and communicate what happens to your body when you exercise. Creative Solutions: Express through a drawing, writing a poem, comic book, cartoon, and story, dance, which represents an overview of how exercise strengthens the immune function and protects the body.

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Understand Definitions of the Human Body Appendix: This organ, attached at the end of the large cecum, its function is not known. Bladder: Collects urine that has been excreted and cleaned by the kidneys. Brain: Controls everything in the body, including voluntary movement (like moving your hand to pick something up), breathing, thinking, body temperature and emotions. Bronchi: Tubes that connect the right and left lungs to the trachea. Diaphragm: A dome-shaped muscle under the lungs that helps you inhale and exhale. Heart: A muscular pump that propels blood throughout the body. It beats about 100,000 times a day, and about 2.5 billion times in a 70-year lifetime. Kidneys: Filters out waste from your blood. When the waste is combined with water, it becomes urine. Liver: Filters out harmful substances or wastes from food digested in the small intestine. The liver also stores certain vitamins and a type of sugar your body uses for energy. Large Intestine: Last chance for the body to absorb any remaining water from broken down food. The large intestine is 1.5 metres long. Lungs: Transports oxygen from the environment into your body while also releasing waste carbon dioxide from your body back to the environment. Oesophagus: Where food travels through to get to the stomach once it has been chewed up in the mouth. Ovary: Organ that creates eggs and releases one or more once every month in the female reproductive system. Also secretes oestrogen and progesterone, two female hormones. Oviduct: Where the egg travels along after being released by the ovary in the female reproductive system. This is the location where an egg can be fertilized by sperm. Fallopian tube is the more regular name, or “uterine or womb tubes� by women and their doctors. Pancreas: Releases chemicals that help break down food in the small intestine. Also produces insulin and glucagon, which helps regulate blood-sugar levels in the body. Penis: The male reproductive organ contains the urethra, removes urine from the body, and can deliver sperm to the female reproductive system. Rectum: All the leftover waste is turned into faeces and stays here until you are ready to go to the bathroom. Small Intestine: Breaks down the liquid mixture from the stomach so that your body can absorb the nutrients. The small intestine is 6.7 metres long! Spleen: Filters blood and allows white blood cells to rid the body of particles that should not be there.

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Stomach: Stores food and breaks food down into a liquid mixture. Testis: (Plural: testes), Produces sperm and testosterone in the male reproductive system. Trachea: Sometimes also called the windpipe, allows air to be pumped into your lungs. Ureter: Tube where urine travels from the kidney into the bladder. Urethra: Tube where urine leaves the body from the bladder. In males, this is also the tube where semen is ejaculated. Uterus: Also known as “womb�, it provides nourishment and blood for fertilized eggs during pregnancy in the female reproductive system. If a woman is not pregnant, she will shed the nourishing layer (called endometrial lining) during menstruation. NERVOUS SYSTEM: Controls the body's activities. 1. Brain 2. Spinal cord 3. Nerves ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: Regulates many body processes by creating hormones. 1. Ovaries 2. Pancreas 3. Testis 4. Pituitary gland/ Hypothalamus/ Adrenal gland/ Thyroid gland/ Parathyroid CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: (Also known as circulatory system) Transports material around the body. 1. Heart 2. Veins/ Arteries RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Supplies the body with oxygen 1. Nasal cavity 2. Pharynx and Larynx 3. Trachea and Bronchi 4. Lungs 5. Diaphragm DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: absorbs nutrients from food and delivers them to the bloodstream, through which they will reach all the body organs. 1. Mouth, teeth, tongue 2. Oesophagus 3. Stomach 4. Small Intestine and appendix 5. Large Intestine, rectum, anus 6. Liver 7. Pancreas 8. Rectum CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: (Also known as circulatory system) Transports material around the body. 1. Heart two. Veins/ Arteries URINARY SYSTEM: Removes waste from the body. 1. Bladder HEALTHY & SMART

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2. Kidney 3. Ureter 4. Urethra REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Allows a person to have children. Male 1. Penis 2. Testes 3. Scrotum/ Vas Deferens Female 1. Ovary 2. Oviduct of Fallopian tubes 3. Uterus and its Cervix 4. Vagina 5. Vulva SKELETAL SYSTEM: Provides framework and support to the body, protects internal organs and provides attachment points for muscles.

MUSCULAR SYSTEM: Moves and supports the body with the skeletal structure; includes the heart muscles.

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Chapter Three Sexuality Information & Education: Comprehensive Sexual & Reproductive Health

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Comprehensive Sexual & Reproductive Health Sexuality Information & Education is taught to youth based on each community’s Cultural practices, Morals, Ethics, Religion, status of Gender Equality, and Gender Equity, Family Values,– Dating customs, Sexual Behaviours such as the teaching of Abstinence. In chapter you will examine in order to understand changes which occur in puberty and their affect physically and emotionally on youth. To achieve a lower Teen Pregnancy rate, avoid Sexually Transmitted Infections, and reduce the HIV/AIDS rate will enable a society to reach national and International United Nations Post-2015 goals for Gender Empowerment. This chapter’s purpose is to understand the biological aspects of sex and pregnancy. Examine different ways of expressing affection and different forms of sexual activity. First it is essential to recognize:

Reasons Why Youth Have Sex.        

Love For Enjoyment To prove love Physical attraction Because girls lack the confidence to say “No.” Temptation when young couples are alone Coercion Getting intoxicated Source: International Rescue Committee. (2003). Protecting the Future, Kumarian Press.

Our personal relationship: self-confidence, self-image, self-respect, pride, and self-esteem determine your behaviour. Discuss with your peers and trainers, family, teachers, and community leaders:    

What are relationships like in your school? For many students, just attending school may result in risks for their safety. In some cases, for girls just attending school may be a risk. What are your feelings of ‘wanting to feel safe’ while you get your education?

What is puberty? Puberty refers specifically to the physical and mental changes people go through during adolescence. Insight into the Teenage Brain Dr. Adriana Galván TEDxYouth@Caltech Assistant professor, Department of Psychology and Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Director and Principal. Incorporate what you have learned and experienced on the way your body changes as you go through puberty/adolescence. How do these changes affect your feelings and actions? Sexuality Information & Education

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  

Understand and explain the physical changes during puberty. Explain how physical changes during puberty affect your new role as a young adult. Explain how to bring together adult changes in your body and the maturity, emotional intelligence, and acceptance of the responsibility required to become a parent.

Creative Solutions Express through a free verse poem, feelings which represents your understanding of the responsibility that comes with the physical changes of puberty. Free Verse: a form of poetry composed of either rhymed or unrhymed lines that have no set fixed metrical pattern.

Female Reproductive System Egg cells develop in the ovaries even before a girl is born. At puberty, they begin to release an egg once, each month. In addition, the lining of the uterus thickens and is richly fed by blood. This is in order to prepare a hospitable environment for a fertilized egg. If no egg is fertilized, this lining sheds and is eliminated through the vagina during a normal process each month called menstruation. Once a girl has started to menstruate, she is physically able to become pregnant. However, more physical, intellectual, and emotional conditions must be met before she can have a safe pregnancy—that is, with the least threats to her and her foetus/newborn child. Pregnancy in the teen years poses certain physical, psychological, and social risks that should be avoided. There are necessary bodily and intellectual/emotional evolutionary steps to occur in order to complete puberty. Diseases and deaths occur to pregnant teens and their babies, both before and after delivery.

Male Reproductive System In boys, sperm cells begin to develop in the testes (or testicles) at the time of puberty. At puberty, they are released in the white, thick secretion called semen. This occurs through an ejaculation from the penis, which has temporarily become engorged and erect. Erection and ejaculation occur not only during sexual activity, but also can occur during sleep, known as ‘wet dreams,’ or when awake while thinking about sex. Once a boy begins to have ejaculations, he is physically able to make a female pregnant. Just as in girls, however, it takes several more years for the body and mind to develop into adulthood. The teen years from 13 to 19 years of age are a time of many changes. The major visible physical changes of puberty usually occur in the following sequence: Girls: Height increases, breasts develop, hips widen, pubic hair grows, underarm hair grows, menstruation begins, and voice lowers. Boys: Height increases, testicles enlarge, penis grows, pubic hair grows, underarm hair grows, beard grows, voice lowers and coarsens, body hair increases, and shoulders broaden. Nocturnal ejaculation of semen during sleep

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Expressing Affection There are many kinds of love and ways to express love and affection How do you express affection between parents and children, brothers and sisters, friends, and show your romantic love? Humans are social beings who need to express affection and love. However, showing love does not have to result in sexual activity, or sex. Love does not equal sex. Vice versa: sex does not equal love.

Reflect any emotional or personal changes you have noticed in yourself or others in the last year. Are there changes in the way you feel about yourself: Are your dreams, goals, ambitions, friendships, relationships with parents different from a few years ago?

Sexual activity ‘unprotected’ or ‘unsafe’ It is considered unsafe if fluids are passed from one person to another. It is also through contact between semen and vaginal fluids that a female can get pregnant. Proper use of condoms reduces the risk of transmission of HIV and other STIs, as well as risk of pregnancy.

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Reflect: How have you changed physically, mentally, and emotionally during the last year. Discussion: Work in small groups and describe what it is like to be in your teen years. What are the kinds of physical, emotional, and mental changes that youth go through during this time in their life? . What you share will be kept strictly confidential and will not be discussed outside the classroom. The exception is when, as required by law, to disclose information, such as, sexual or physical abuse. Sex can be safe in certain circumstances, even if unprotected. Sex can be unsafe even if protected in some other circumstances. Since youth may not have A complete understanding of the topic, it should be better to explain and differentiate safe, safer, and unsafe sex. Otherwise, lack of knowledge or misinformation may continue to exist or even deepen after reading a convoluted text

Sexual Information and Education Anal intercourse involves the insertion of the erect penis into the anus/rectum of another person. This carries a greater risk of HIV transmission, since tiny tears in the internal lining of the anus/rectum may occur, even though unnoticed. Oral sex involves the contact between the mouth of one person and the genitals of another person.

‘Unsafe’ Sexual Activity Sexual activity, which is ‘unprotected’, is ‘unsafe’ when it involves the mingling of the natural secretions. It is considered unsafe because it is through these fluids that HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are passed from one person to another. Proper use of condoms reduces the risk of transmission of HIV and other STIs, as well as risk of pregnancy.

Getting Pregnant: Once the semen has been deposited in the vagina, the sperm in the semen travel up through the female’s cervix (lower opening of the uterus), into the uterus, and out through one of the two fallopian tubes toward the ovary. Near the ovary, the sperm find the egg, which has been recently released (ovulated), and surround it. The egg is many times larger than each sperm. Only one sperm penetrates (fertilizes) the egg. The fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube for about 8 days and then buries itself (implants) under the surface of the uterine lining. Once safely implanted, the fertilized egg begins to grow. Pregnancy has begun.

How Do You Know if You Are Pregnant? Pregnancy tests may be ‘positive’ for pregnancy from as early as one to two weeks after a woman fails to menstruate (misses her period). Many women know that they are pregnant even before the hormone levels are high enough to be detected through the tests because they do not menstruate or because they notice body changes like weight gain and breast swelling or tenderness.

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Collaborate with each other through art, music, dance, poetry, and or words and communicate how you can avoid unsafe sex. Express how you can show affection without sex. Creative Solutions You and your significant other have been dating for six months now. He/she says that he/she loves you and the only way that you can express that to one another is to have sex. Draw, write, stage a mini-performance, and dance to demonstrate how to express love without sex.

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Chapter Four Drugs, Alcohol & Their Risks

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The first question is why people use drugs and alcohol? What follows is to teach youth alternative ways to a fulfilling life. One danger in some communities is that drugs are commonly used; our purpose in this chapter is to understand how use of how use of illegal drugs can affect families and communities.

Express through art, music, dance, poetry, or words the way you make responsible choices. Do you have control over your choice about taking drugs and or alcohol? TED TALK How Culture Affects Your Choice to Do Drugs Sheena Iyengar “Research has shown that there are many reasons leading up to a person making the choice to take drugs or not take drugs” Reflection   

Understand why people use drugs or alcohol. What are their reasons for using or not using drugs and or alcohol? Are there any positive uses of drugs? What are your feelings about friends who take drugs?

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How can your culture help you to make good decisions for your emotional, mental, and physical well-being? Creative Solutions

  

Describe alternative approaches to prevent drug use. Develop s role your school, family, friends, and community take to make responsible choices? Role-play or create a simple drama about why youth may want to use drugs.

Drugs, Alcohol, & HIV

There is a connection between using drugs testing HIV-Positive. People who use needles to shoot drugs are directly at risk, exposing himself or herself to HIV virus. People who drink alcohol are also increasing their risks. Alcohol and drugs affect your judgment. It is easier to forget to protect yourself with a condom when you are drunk or high. If you use drugs you are more likely to get HIV by having unprotected sex.

Examine the pros and cons of drug use

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                

Pleasure (to get a high) Relaxation Escape problems, Relieve anxiety and stress Rebel against parents or authority Experimentation Peer pressure Be sociable Feel mature Relieve boredom Addiction False expectations of becoming more alert, energetic, or staying awake Act unpredictably Anger Shame Violence Financial burden can lead to crime

Effects of Drugs on Families & Communities Prescriptions & Medications Medications, which are prescribed by physicians or health workers, simple ‘over-the counter’ medications like acetaminophen, and vitamin tablets are not included in the category of ‘illicit drugs’. Using drugs and alcohol

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increases the chances of having sex without protection and exposing yourself to HIV. By “drug”, we mean any substance that can be abused.

What Emotions and Values are affected?    

Love Trust Respect Friendship

Different Drugs and Their Effects Focus on needle use: Intravenous drug users (IDUs) get drugs into their body, by injecting a drug directly into their veins or under the skin with a needle. During this process, some of the blood from the drug user’s vein may be drawn up into the needle and syringe. Sometimes the IDUs deliberately draw blood into the syringe and push it with the drug back to the vein. When the needles are passed from one person to another, small amounts of blood stay on the needle and syringe and are injected into the next person’s vein. Even if syringes and needles are sterile, drugs that are mixed in containers (including spoons or bottle caps) and are shared, or drugs shared from a common container, make for very risky injections. HIV and Hepatitis can be transmitted in this way. Drug use with needles is very dangerous and can cause many different and fatal illnesses, including HIV. Inexperienced and first-time users may ‘overdose’ or sometimes the substances used to dilute the drugs may lead to sudden death.

How will you lead a healthy, drug-free life?

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Chapter Five Stereotypes, Stigmas, & Discrimination

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How do you feel when you are classified because of the way you dress, act, based only on your ethnicity or religion?     

Describe how stereotypes affect people. Analyse specific stereotypes. Understand what a myth is. Explain how stereotypes create peer pressure. Describe how to treat each other with respect.

Stereotypes Affect You and Others Why is it important to talk about stereotypes and why are you learning about HIV and STI prevention?

Stereotypes may influence people think untrue thoughts. Stereotypes prevent people from talking to each other. Is it difficult to talk with people who act, dress, eat certain foods, and pray differently than you and your friends? Together we can confront stereotypes with people who have HIV and AIDS. In breaking down stereotypes, you learn that you can trust other people values and behaviour. People can start to see you as you really are.

What are Stereotypes? Stereotypes are what you think is true about how people look, act, think, talk or feel because they belong to a certain group. Stereotypes make a person assume certain behaviours and attributes about a group.

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Gender Discrimination In July 1997, the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) defined the concept of gender mainstreaming as follows: "Mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in any area and at all levels. It is a strategy for making the concerns and experiences of women as well as of men an integral part of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres, so that women and men benefit equally, and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal of mainstreaming is to achieve gender equality." The word gender mainstreaming is a “globally accepted approach to achieving gender equality” (UN Women). People make assumptions about others based on their race or ethnic background. Racial or ethnic discrimination is about your race or ethnicity assumes that you act, think, talk, dress and feel certain ways because of your genetic or cultural background. They might not have anything to do with how YOU really are. Gender discrimination is a danger for young girls and women who may become vulnerable and become a victim HIV/AIDS: Stereotypes, Stigma, & Discrimination can be prevented by men and boys.

Gender Stereotypes are linked to stigma. Stigma means shame or disgrace, and can be described as shaming (either on purpose or unintentionally) either people who live with or are associated with HIV or AIDS. People may decide not to take actions to protect themselves or get tested for fear that in doing so they are associating themselves with HIV and having been “at risk”. This creates an environment where people cannot speak freely about HIV/AIDS. This creates an environment in which the disease may spread easily.

Show how you overcome HIV-based discrimination to your peers.

This stigma is often developed out of underlying stereotypes of sex and intravenous drug use, two primary routes of HIV infection. HIV and AIDS-related stigma builds upon and reinforces existing stereotypes, and often widens existing social inequalities, especially those of gender, sexuality and race. Discrimination often follows stigma. Discrimination is the unfair and unjust treatment of an individual based on his/her real or perceived HIV status. When stigma exists, people may ignore their real or possible HIV status. This is because people become more afraid of the stigma and discrimination associated with the disease than of the disease itself. When this happens, people may choose to ignore the possibility that they may already be, or could become, HIV-positive -- even if they know, they have taken risks.

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Stereotypes Stereotyping is one way that people try to assign values or traits to each other. One stereotype of males’ states: manly men lose their virginity as a teenager and do not use a condom. It can be very hard to sort out these messages from how you really feel or what you want for yourself. It is not easy to break down stereotypes and allow you to be true to yourself. Have respect for each other. When we talk about specific stereotypes, try to think about the kinds of pressure stereotypes put on people, especially when it comes to sex, drugs, and actions that may place you at risk for STIs, pregnancy, or HIV/AIDS. Finally, stereotypes linked to stigma and discrimination may contribute to behaviour, which places a person at risk for HIV. Fear of stigma and discrimination often increases the spread of the disease and creates a society for people with HIV or AIDS that tells them they are beyond hope, of lesser value, and incapable of being productive humans.

Understand how stereotypes create peer pressure. Be mindful that people actions are behaviour are linked to wanting to be accepted. What are the different ways that people can be stereotyped? Think how you can respond positively when someone tries to stereotype you. Communicate to your friends and family how to overcome stereotypes. Analyse where stereotypes come from. Explain how a stereotype may be harmful to society. Create display through art, music, dance, poetry, and or words and communicate how stereotypes create peer pressure to produce myths of why people act in order to be accepted. HEALTHY & SMART

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Chapter Six Mental Health: Mindfulness, Happiness, Family & Community Connection

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Organize a school-to-school campaign in order to increase awareness on the importance of Mental Health. What actions can you take today that will enable mental health education become part of your school curriculum? The first step is to understand the factors which affect your mental health. This gives you the intellectual and emotional capacity to empathize how it feels to be a person living with HIV or AIDS. How would you cope with your emotions if you or someone you love had HIV or AIDS?

EMPATHY The power of understanding and imaginatively entering into another person’s feelings. Identification with and understanding another’s situation, feelings, and motives

GO TOGETHER – KNOW TOGETHER TEST FOR HIV TOGETHER Several psychological and social factors increase the likelihood of testing HIV-Positive. Risky sexual behaviour or drug abuses, in an otherwise healthy person increase your odds to become HIV-Positive. When we better understand the range of emotions which people impacted by HIV/AIDS experience, it increases our empathy.

What is Mental Health? Mental health is described by the World Health Organization as "a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stress of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a meaningful contribution to his/her community”.

Actions that affect mental health Individual factors 1. Emotional experiences 2. Social interactions 3. Societal structures 4. Available resources and cultural values all affect mental health. Reflect: How poverty, disease, stable place to live, ability to find work, productive life, nutritious food, access to clean water, local ongoing wars or conflicts, substance abuse, peer or family pressures, and love in one’s life may affect mental health.. Poor mental health may, in turn, induce risky sexual behaviour and drug abuse, and thus increase the chance of contracting HIV. Mental health also plays a critical role in the well-being of people living with HIV.

HIV & Mental Illness A HIV-positive person and his/her family members and loved ones may respond differently to a new HIV diagnosis. They may also deal with social, economic, and educational impacts of being HIV-positive in different ways.

There is no universal normal for grieving or coping responses The Psychology of Health is Psychological well-being

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Health psychology specializes in exploring biological, psychological, cultural, societal, and environmental factors of life, and how each of these affects physical health.

Mental Health Impacts of HIV/AIDS on Families & Communities Psychosocial Issues of Children Affected by HIV It was hard to stay with my uncle, as he was a cruel man. He had many children and he favoured them when we shared food and gifts and I was overlooked like a slave. The other children did not do any work, just me. -- Mpando, a child orphaned by AIDS Caregivers who are not able to provide basic nurturing, love, and attention can have profound negative effects on children’s mental, emotional, and social development. Therefore, it is not surprising that children affected by HIV are also more likely to suffer mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. The loss of a parent to AIDS can have serious consequences for a child’s access to basic needs such as shelter, food, clothing, health, and education. In addition to the huge emotional burden that these children are forced to carry, children affected by HIV/AIDS may have to quit school because of the cost of school fees and uniforms. Children may also have to leave school early to attend to ill family members, work, or care for siblings. In addition to missing out on educational opportunities, orphans may also miss learning valuable life-skills and practical everyday knowledge that would have been passed on to them by their parents. Without this knowledge along with missing school, these children may be more likely to face social, economic, and health problems as they grow up. Promote Mental Well-Being of all people affected by HIV/AIDS How is your Community Affected? Communities may worsen the negative situation by stigmatising or discriminating against HIV-positive individuals and their families.

Mental Health is as important as Physical Health           

Stigma and discrimination Risky sexual behaviour Substance abuse Child abuse Social exclusion Can create unpredictable behaviour, violence, rape May undermine community cooperation May undermine community trust and respect Death of victims is an unaccountable loss to future generations Sadist behaviour may occur Increase in crime

Think about what YOU and your community can do to make a difference to prevent HIV/AIDS, teen pregnancy, and violence against girls.

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Chapter Seven Values Based Education: Behaviours, Ethics, Morals, & Action

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What are the values which are most important to you, your family, and community? Why do people make important decisions concerning their health based on correct information and not based on their personal values? Examine how you define what a value, ethical, or moral is and how it shapes your decision making and ethical behaviour.  Values are principles that influence behaviours.  Ethical values develop character Values-based schools look for and encourage an educational philosophy based on valuing self, family, friends, community, and the environment and ethical values.

Core Ethical Values Trustworthiness Do what you say and say what you will do A person who is trustworthy: Acts with integrity - Is honest and does not deceive - Keeps his/ her promises - Is consistent - Is loyal to those that are not present - Is reliable - Is credible - Has a good reputation Respect Treat others, as you would like to be treated A person who is respectful: Is open and tolerant of diversity - Is considerate and thoughtful - Conducts conflicts peacefully without anger, disagreements, and/or insults - Uses good manners - Treats others the way they want to be treated Responsibility Do what you are supposed to do without being asked A person who is responsible: Acts with self-discipline - Thinks before acting - Understands that actions create certain consequences - Is consistent, and accountable for his or her actions Fairness Play by the rules. A person who is fair: Open-minded and listens to others - Takes turns and shares - Does not lay the blame on others needlessly - Is equitable and impartial Caring Show you care. A person who is caring: Expresses gratitude to others - Forgives others Helps people in need - Is compassionate Citizenship Contributes to society A person who is a good citizen: Cooperates - Shares information - Stays informed - Is a good neighbor Protects the environment - Obeys the law - Exhibits civic duty - Seeks the common good for the most people (Copyright 2000 Josephson Institute of Ethics)

Values and Ethics Ethical behaviour toward people living with HIV or AIDS. Are all values, morals, or ethics either right or wrong? Why or why not? How your family, culture, religion, school did shaped your values, express through art, music, dance, poetry, and or words and communicate your values or ethics.

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Chapter Eight Decision Making: Education & Youth Participation

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–Youth Decision Making What influences your decision making process? Are there any choices that may not be right or wrong? How do you make a decision? What community health resources do you use to make informed decisions to stay healthy? Create Explain through art, music, dance, poetry, and or words and communicate how you make a decision. What is a decision that you have had to make recently? How did you go about making that decision?

WHAT DIFFERENCE WILL YOU MAKE IN THE WORLD?

Guide to Decision Making: A step-by-step approach to making decisions (Source: University of Mass—Dartmouth) Step 1: Identify the decision to be made. You realize that a decision must be made. You then go through an internal process of trying to define clearly the nature of the decision you must make. This first step is a very important one. Step 2: Gather relevant information. Most decisions require collecting pertinent information. How do you know what information is needed and the best place to find it? Information must be sought from within through a process of self-assessment and; other information from books, and people... Step 3: Identify alternatives. Through the process of collecting information you will probably identify several possible alternatives. You may also use your imagination to construct new alternatives. Step 4: Weigh evidence. Draw on your information and emotions to imagine what it would be like if you carried out each of the alternatives. Step 5: Choose among alternatives. Once you have weighed all the evidence, you are ready to select the alternative which seems to be best suited to you Step 6: Take action. You now take some positive action. Step 7: Review decision and consequences. Experience the results of your decision and evaluate whether or not it has “solved” your need. What is more important— learning knowledge—or understanding WHY?

How can you make the best use of your valuable time in school? What skills do you need to practice—reading, writing, grammar, and mathematics? Can you use the library, internet, and access to art or music to better understand how different people express their understanding of the world using different tools of literacy? Children who go to school and learn to understand the wealth of subjects and topics have a greater chance to more fully understand the world they live in. They life healthier lives and become more involved in the issues that faces their community and nation. They also have a greater opportunity for a rewarding and fulfilling career as they get older and enter the workplace. HEALTHY & SMART

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Historical Education means learning how to communicate. How many different ways over the course of human history have people used to communicate? People used an oral tradition and memory for a long time. How many different ways can you learn to increase and expand your ability to communicate? 

Written word- what different materials were used by different cultures over time?

Electronic- E-mail is a new invention, what about the telephone, telegraph, ticket tape machine, radio, movies and T.V. How does the message change by the use of each of these means?

Verbal and non-verbal expressions- How can the use of your hands, face and words and sounds make a difference in the meaning in what you wish to say?

Music—Art Find a theme whether it is sports, friendship, family, or a current event and express your understanding of that topic only by song, instrument or through some form of art. What can you say that you can’t say in words alone?

Silence how is being silent a form of communication? Try being silent for a few hours and note the reactions of those around you.

Life Style Choices & Careers Librarian Teacher Author Scientist the door to all careers start exploring by

Politician

Doctor

Artist the gift of education opens

What education do I need to become a (fill in your career choice)

Can I talk to someone or write to someone in the field of my choice to learn what the career is like?

Can I work for myself?

What do I want to accomplish, what are my dreams, goals in life that I can turn into a career.

FIVE Ways to a Drug-Free Lifestyle 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Maintain a routine of positive and healthy habits Update plans and goals Celebrate accomplishments Stay inspired with positive messages Stay active and exercise

Ask Questions 1. Ask questions. 2. Where will you find the information? 3. What are the keywords and how do you use Boolean searching on the internet to find relevant information that narrows and not expands your search to meaningless pathways? 4. Research a variety of perspectives HEALTHY & SMART

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5. 6. 7. 8.

Evaluate the information Ask do I have the information that I need? Expect the Unexpected. What information do I needed? Present your understanding in creative ways. Learn to ask better questions and focus on information that is relevant to the question based on the feedback you receive. 9. If you want better answers, ask better questions.

“The first beneficiary of compassion is always oneself. When compassion, or warm heartedness, arises in us and our focus shifts away from our own narrow self-interest, it is as if we open an inner door. It reduces fear, boosts confidence and brings us inner strength. By reducing distrust, it opens us to others and brings us a sense of connection to others, and sense of purpose and meaning in life.� Dalai Lama

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Chapter Nine Intercultural Communication

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Communicate your feelings verbally and nonverbally What are verbal and non-verbal aspects of assertive, passive and aggressive behaviour. It is important to communicate how you feel, however be mindful of: Gender Sensitivity – Gender Equity Leadership & Human Rights & Social Equity.

Create: through art, music, dance, poetry, and or words and communicate how to express your right to say no, be gender sensitive, leadership, or the concept of gender equity or human rights.

ALL HUMAN BEINGS ARE BORN FREE AND EQUAL IN DIGNITY AND RIGHTS. THEY ARE ENDOWED WITH REASON AND CONSCIENCE AND SHOULD ACT TOWARDS ONE ANOTHER IN A SPIRIT OF BROTHERHOOD

Intercultural Communication The elements of intercultural competence are: (1) awareness (2) policy maker for international nongovernmental or civil society (3) national leader or international leader (4) attitude (5) communication

Peer Pressure R. Y. Langham, Ph.D. (2013) “During adolescence, teenagers often feel pressure to make friends and fit in with their peers. Many times these teens let their friends influence their decision to have sex even when they do not fully understand the consequences associated with the act. Teenagers have sex as a way to appear cool and sophisticated, but in some cases the end result is an unplanned teen pregnancy.'

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You have heard it a thousand times: "Just say no." It sounds easy, but actually, there are many times when it is hard to say "no" to someone. If your peers are pressuring you into something you do not want to do, he/she may try to make you feel like there is something wrong with you if you say "no."

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Chapter 10 Prevention: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STIs) & HIV Prevention

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Common STIs are: gonorrhoea, herpes, chlamydia, syphilis, and bacterial vaginosis. Of course, there are others, too. Infections involve common symptoms: abnormal genital secretions (any thick, discoloured or bad-smelling vaginal secretions, or any non-clear penile secretions that is not ejaculate or urine), genital itching, pain with urination, or sores. Reflect on the following: Explain risky behaviours that puts you at risk for STI and HIV infection. Explain various STIs, their symptoms, how they are transmitted, and how they can be prevented. What do you know about sexually transmitted diseases (STIs)? What are the names of some STIs that you have heard of? How does someone get an STI? Is there more than one way to get an STI? How can you tell if someone has an STI?

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs) All about STIs STIs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases), also can be known as STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections), is a particular group of infections caused by contagious microorganisms or viruses. Most commonly, these infections are passed ("transmitted") from one person to another during sexual activity (vaginal, oral, anal, or digital sex). Mothers can also transmit some of these infections to their unborn children during pregnancy, during birth or after birth. There are many different STIs, some causing only minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, and others causing serious illness or death. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a serious STI because there is no cure and it may lead to other serious complications. However, most of the time, STIs occur without any symptoms at all, so that one person may get sick from his/her partner, but both may feel healthy. Most STIs can be diagnosed by a doctor and are treatable, which is why it is important to get tested for STIs every six months if you are sexually active. Most STIs are caused by bacteria (unlike HIV, which is caused by a virus). Bacterial STIs include: gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis, and bacterial vaginosis. These diseases are curable and if caught early and treated, do not cause serious damage to the body. However, if they are not caught early and treated, these diseases can cause infertility or other harmful complications. The STIs that are caused by viruses are herpes/genital warts, hepatitis, HIV and HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). Since these diseases are caused by viruses, they are not curable, but they are often very treatable. Once a person gets any of these diseases, he/ she has that disease for life, but he/she can get treatment for the disease to make the symptoms less severe. For example, herpes/genital warts can cause oozing growths in the pubic area, but there are medicines that make these growths not show up. However, even though a person can get rid of a symptom, he/she still has the disease. NOTE: There is no absolutely no such thing as “safe sex�, since all sexual activity comes with a risk of an STD or unplanned pregnancy.

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HIV PREVENTION Healthy & Smart promotes a multi-pronged ‘ABCDEF’ approach to behavioral change to prevent transmission of HIV or STIs.

A = Abstinence B = Be Faithful C = Condom D = Drugs, do not take, inject, share needles E = Empowerment with life skills F = Financial Independence ABCDEF approach is based on Margaret Meador’s research who studied HIV in its broader social context. She also considered skill building components of HIV/AIDS programmes, A decision was made for TLC to expand the “ABC” intervention concept to “ABCDEF”: Abstinence, Be faithful, Condom use, Do not do drugs, Empowerment with life skills, and Financial independence through livelihood skills training for adolescents to provide them with chances for gainful employment and help protect themselves from exploitation and risky behaviors.

“Vaccines stimulate the body’s immune system to provide protection against infection or disease. Vaccines against HIV are being developed, and they are in various stages of clinical trial but at present none have proven effective” (World Health Organization). Most of the time, you cannot tell just by looking at someone whether they have an STI. With some STIs, the only way to detect them is to be examined by a doctor or to have tests on the bodily fluids. Since it is hard to be sure about yourself and your partner(s), it is important to be tested for STIs on a regular basis. Those with multiple sexual partners should get tested at least every six months; those with one monogamous partner should get tested at least every year. There may be access to a clinic in the community or nearby that have free and confidential STI testing. Knowing your STI status and asking your partner for theirs is important to stay healthy.   

Why is it important to know the difference between an STI caused by a virus and bacteria? Describe common STI symptoms. Do all STIs have symptoms? Understand why it is important to protect yourself from an STI.

Create through art, dance, music, poetry, or words and communicate the danger of risky sexual behaviour.

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Chapter Eleven Emotional Intelligence, Creative Thinking, Artistic Expression, Creativity & Authentic Happiness: Process of prevention—Creative Process & Activities

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Authentic Happiness Authentic Happiness is the homepage of Dr. Martin Seligman, Director of the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania and founder of positive psychology, a branch of psychology, which focuses on the empirical study of such things as positive emotions, strengths-based character, and healthy institutions. This website has more than 2 million users from around the world, and you are welcome to use all of the resources available here free. The best place to start is by learning more about the latest theory and initiatives in positive psychology, by taking one of our well-being questionnaires, or by checking out recent presentations and selected media. Artistic expression and creativity are powerful techniques to organize and convey HIV and AIDS education. These non-formal strategies are aimed to increase the participants’ perception and representation of the matter as well as address sensitive issues through performing arts and drama. Poetry, movies, shows, songs, pictures, public speaking, and other effective tools of learning will help to motivate young individuals to learn and communicate their feelings about the illness. Non-formal tools of learning will contribute to the process of prevention of HIV and AIDS. All creative activities will be linked to the learning goals. Thus, a play on health issues can be performed. A children’s book about a person living with AIDS can be written. A poem or song addressed HIV issues can be recorded. A comic book or documentary movie about people with AIDS struggling negative societal attitude can be demonstrated. The possibilities of using creativity in HIV- and AIDS-related education are endless. Imaginative approach towards this matter will help educators and youths to raise their awareness, promote knowledge, and prevent multiple issues.

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How are you going to help fight AIDS?

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You are at the beginning of a Healthy & Smart lifestyle Now it is up to you, your friends, family, school, and community to take action.

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Chapter Twelve Women Leadership & Core Leadership Competencies

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Core Leader Competencies Leaders Others

Extends Influence

Provide purpose, motivation, inspiration Build trust

Leads

Enforce Standards Balance mission and welfare of others

Creates a positive environment Set the conditions for Develops positive climate Build teamwork and cohesion

Understand sphere, means and limits of influence

Display character

Communicates Listen actively

State goals for action Lead with confidence in Ensure shared adverse conditions understanding

Demonstrate Negotiate, build confidence consensus, resolve conflict Prepares self

Develops leaders

Be prepared for Assess developmental needs. Develop on the job expected and unexpected challenges Support professional and personal growth. Expand knowledge

Encourage initiative Demonstrate care for people

Leads By Example

Maintain selfawareness

Help people learn Counsel, coach and mentor Build team skills and processes

Get Results

Achieves

           

Provide direction, guidance and priorities Develop and execute plans Accomplish tasks consistently Accountability & Taking Responsibility Change Management Coaching & Mentoring Communication Conflict Resolution Empowerment Motivation & Attitude Improvement Professionalism Relationship Building

Teamwork

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Leadership Empowerment Twenty-Eight Leadership Core Competencies are divided into five levels. Managing Self 

Integrity/Honesty: Behaves in an honest, fair, and ethical manner. Shows consistency in words and actions. Models high standards of ethics.

Interpersonal Skills: Treats others with courtesy, sensitivity, and respect. Considers and responds appropriately to the needs and feelings of different people in different situations.

Continual Learning: Assesses and recognizes own strengths and weaknesses; pursues selfdevelopment.

Resilience: Deals effectively with pressure; remains optimistic and persistent, even under adversity. Recovers quickly from setbacks.

Oral Communication: Makes clear and convincing oral presentations. Listens effectively; clarifies information as needed.

Written Communication: Writes in a clear, concise, organized, and convincing manner for the intended audience.

Flexibility: Is open to change and new information; rapidly adapts to new information, changing conditions, or unexpected obstacles.

Problem Solving: Identifies and analyzes problems; weighs relevance and accuracy of information; generates and evaluates alternative solutions; makes recommendations.

Managing Projects 

Team Building: Inspires and fosters team commitment, spirit, pride, and trust.

Facilitates cooperation and motivates team members to accomplish group goals.

Technical Credibility: Understands and appropriately applies principles, procedures, requirements, regulations, and policies related to specialized expertise.

Accountability: Holds self and others accountable for measurable high-quality, timely, and cost effective results. Determines objectives, sets priorities, and delegates work.

Accepts responsibility for mistakes. Complies with established control systems and rules.

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Decisiveness: Makes well-informed, effective, and timely decisions, even when data are limited or solutions produce unpleasant consequences; perceives the impact and implications of decisions.

Influencing / Negotiating: Persuades others; builds consensus through give and take; gains cooperation from others to obtain information and accomplish goals.

Managing People 

Human Capital Management: Builds and manages based on organizational goals, budget considerations, and staffing needs. Ensures employees are appropriately recruited, selected, appraised, and rewarded; takes action to address performance problems. Manages a multisector workforce and a variety of work situations.

Leveraging Diversity: Fosters an inclusive workplace where diversity and individual differences are valued and leveraged to achieve the vision and mission of the organization.

Conflict Management: Encourages creative tension and differences of opinions.

Anticipates and takes steps to prevent counter-productive confrontations. Manages and resolves conflicts and disagreements in a constructive manner.

Public Service Motivation: Shows a commitment to serve the public. Ensures that actions meet public needs; aligns organizational objectives and practices with public interests.

Developing Others: Develops the ability of others to perform and contribute to the organization by providing ongoing feedback and by providing opportunities to learn through formal and informal methods

Managing Programs 

Technology Management: Keeps up-to-date on technological developments. Makes effective use of technology to achieve results. Ensures access to, and security of, technology systems.

Financial Management: Understands the organization’s financial processes. Prepares, justifies, and administers the program budget. Oversees procurement and contracting to achieve desired results. Monitors expenditures and uses cost-benefit thinking to set priorities.

Creativity / Innovation: Develops new insights into situations; questions conventional approaches; encourages new ideas and innovations; designs and implements new or cutting edge programs/processes...

Partnering: Develops networks and builds alliances; collaborates across boundaries to build strategic relationships and achieve common goals.

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Political Savvy: Identifies the internal and external politics that impact the work of the organization. Perceives organizational and political reality and acts accordingly.

Leading Organizations 

External Awareness: Understands and keeps up-to-date on local, national, and international policies and trends that affect the organization and shape stakeholders’ views; is aware of the organization’s impact on the external environment.

Vision: Takes a long-term view and builds a shared vision with others; acts as a catalyst for organization change. Influences others to translate vision into action.

Strategic Thinking: Formulates objectives and priorities, and implements plans consistent with the long-term interest of the organization in a global environment, Capitalizes on opportunities and manages risks.

Entrepreneurship: Positions the organization for future success by identifying new opportunities; builds the organization by developing or improving products or services.

Takes calculated risks to accomplish organizational objectives

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How Schools Can Start Their Own Clubs Creating school clubs focused on HIV awareness and prevention is a great reinforcement for the health education provided in Healthy and Smart. Clubs are also excellent ways for students to apply their new knowledge and develop skills to become peer trainers. Key components of successful school clubs are listed below: 1. Existence of appropriate structures: Structures can include the involvement of the school authority (i.e., the principal, vice principal, teachers, etc.) and involves getting permission from the school to go ahead with the club formation. 2. Information: Interested students should be selected and trained thoroughly on adolescent reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues, including life building skills such as communication skills, negotiation skills, building healthy relationships, building self-esteem, etc. as well as peer training techniques. 3. Organization: Efficient leaders should be elected among the students. The leaders should have good leadership skills to enable an efficient running of the club. The club officials will include patrons, president, vice president, secretary, treasurer, etc. 4. Comprehensive resource base: The club should be linked to an NGO (Non-governmental organization), or NGOs as the case may be, or other government functionaries. The duties of the NGO are to train and educate club leaders, support the club financially, and provide resource materials such as banners, flyers, posters, megaphones with batteries, face caps, T-shirts, etc. 5. Club activities: Activities include the programs and projects carried out by the club. Clubs can be creative about the kinds of activities they choose, and focus on things that would be most appealing and/or useful to club members and those who may participate. Some examples are organizing lectures and seminars on issues such as adolescent reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, life skills building, creating media messages, etc. Social activities can include dramas, quizzes, debates, etc. The club may also choose to go on campaigns and rallies in their community. Activities should encourage club members to interact with other students and community members. 6. Monitoring and evaluation: The progress and efficiency of the club should be monitored and evaluated periodically to ensure clubs are operating effectively and determine ways to improve functioning.

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Cross-Cultural Communication Women Leadership Self-Assessment Tool Part 1: Awareness Decide whether the statement below is true or false and reflect on each statement. 1) Awareness of different cultural meanings in language improves the performance of a leader. True False 2) A social justice approach in a society with weak to non-existent democratic governance institutions is a better alternative than a human rights approach to advance rights for women. True False 3) Most cultures are not aware of their negative stereotypes or feeling superior.

True

False

4) A woman does not respond to a specific political context equally the same as a man.

True

False

5) A woman is more aware of how she is perceived and accepted as a leader than a man.

True

False

6) It is not possible to alter the views of men in any culture to accept women as equals.

True

False

7) Education is the only 100% method of increasing the number of women to leadership positions in a culture that views women as having different societal roles. True False

Part 2: Policy Maker/International Nongovernmental Leader/Civil Society 1) I perceive myself culturally educated and can adapt to different cultural environments, traditions, ethics, and values. 2) Responses to social issues are not tied to my social identity e.g. race, class, gender, age, ability, etc. 3) I perceive intra-cultural differences within my society e.g. race, class, gender, age, ability, sexual orientation, etc. as positive diversity 4) Bias that comes from other cultures influences my policy choices in the international arena on human rights. 5) Bias that comes from other cultures influences my policy choices in the international arena on human rights. 6) I understand how to communicate cross-culturally international human rights treaties e.g. Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women in a cultural context other than my own culture.

Part 3: National Leader 1) Only my own personal values and ethics affect my approach to ethical dilemmas and conflict resolution. 2) Different cultural responses from differing cultural values e.g. ethical frameworks, human rights, social justice are not acceptable 3) It is not effective to merge values and ethical perspectives into a United Nations international treaty to address a specific human right for the entire world.

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4) Differing national cultural styles and language affect the international community’s ability to gain consensus on the issue of gender equality.

Part 4: International – Ambassadors and United Nations Representatives 1) International representatives have not reached a sufficient level of cultural communication competency in terms of gender sensitivity, empathy, and solving ethical issues, 2) The cultural communication competency of international leaders varies from nation to nation and is dependent on internal national politics more than cultural traits. 3) United Nations and its agencies have not devoted enough resources to overcome the lack of intercultural communication development. 4) Solving complex social issues is dependent on the degree of cultural communication competency a leader demonstrates in terms of being ethical as a communicator or mediator. 5) Women leaders are more flexible in intercultural contexts more than men leaders when faced with multicultural perspectives and ethical complexities.

Part 5: Attitude 1) What my colleagues think of my values and ethical conduct is not a factor in my ability to treat all values with equal respect. 2) When communicating in another culture I think it important to use that person’s language. 3) I am confident I behave appropriately in the context of another cultures value system. 4) It is not my emotions and frustrations of another culture’s value system that informs my actions. 5) I always try to learn from colleagues’ cultural perspectives.

Part 6: Communication 1) I am able to communicate verbally within the appropriate cultural context of gender, language, ethics, and values in a variety of situations and contexts. 2) I adapt my communication style in accordance with the perspective of a specific culture. 3) I am conversant with communication theory and can adapt to be culturally appropriate when talking to either civil society, individuals, local, national, or international leaders. 4) Cross-cultural communication means being flexible and adaptable to all cultural groups with mixed gender, religious views, and perspectives of human rights.

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For Public Managers, Civil Society, & Political Leaders CROSS SECTOR COLLABORATION WITH CIVIL SOCIETY Dr David Kenneth Waldman reasoned that policy collaboration based in both practice and theory would meet local and national needs of any marginalized population TLC wanted to serve. After much thought, TLC Programmes focused on sustainable educational development opportunities for girls. This goal had widespread support from public managers who looked for expertise to implement programmes that addressed complex social issues. Although many socio-economic issues necessitate the education of public officials, due to the United Nations global focus on HIV/AIDS prevention, educational training of public managers on HIV/AIDS prevention as a human right was not necessary. Governments were already informed and responsible signatories of international human rights treaties and global social development targets such as UNCHR International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights (2006) and the Millennium Development Goals, (Goal 6 2000). Still, how does civil society motivate public managers who are charged with the implementation of national social policy to advocate on an issue as complex as girl children social development? Waldman and Meador’s objective was to induce public managers to include a gender justice and human rights tactic when implementing public health policy. Public managers already had difficulty with carrying out social policies due to the lack of financial resources. To overcome this challenge, TLC trained public administrators to accept the advantage of gaining additional resources from working with a nongovernmental organization (NGO).

Social Change and Policy Implementation To Love Children acquired knowledge to empower girls from best practices along with evidencebased research. This process-cultivated relationship with public managers who were ready to champion girl empowerment thereby ensuring a social justice policy, which centered on gendered equality. Waldman and Meador’s specific strategy was to take account of community based organizations and the private sector. However, targeting local groups necessitated more than understanding best practices and the qualities of effective programmes and policies. Dr David Kenneth Waldman and Margret Meador, MPH recognized the importance to improve intercultural communication skills to create lasting and meaningful policy dialogue. This awareness affected how TLC communicated with public managers to win sponsorship of key local actors To strategically gain access to substantially more sustainable human and financial resources advocacy among a culturally diverse range of appropriate stakeholders was critical.      

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Healthy & Smart HIV/AIDS Prevention Program for Youth  

Healthy & Smart was conceived as an education tool to effect change through educating local communities to educate youth concerning the H...

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