Objectives of Together for Sudan Education Projects
University Scholarships Project *To empower disadvantaged, marginalised and displaced women through education *To enhance Sudanâ€™s future by making university education more available to women *To provide university scholarships to undergraduate women in economic need who are living in Sudan.
Scholarship Project to Support Elementary Education *To assist children whose parents and/or carers have died or been incapacitated by HIV/AIDS *To concentrate on kindergarten and basic school education *To encourage people living with HIV/AIDS to have hope for the future
Vocational Training Scholarships Project *To empower disadvantaged, marginalised and displaced young men and women through technical education *To facilitate employment and income generating opportunities for young Sudanese, in particular those who have not been able to complete basic education *To provide technical skills, which will contribute to Sudanâ€™s development
Teacher Training and Support Project *To secure a better future by promoting education for children disadvantaged by displacement, poverty and war *To counter tribalism and religious antagonism and to enhance community cooperation by supporting people to work together for their children’s education *To train teachers in self-help basic schools and subsequently to monitor their performance and pay their salaries until such time as civil authorities are able to take over *To help marginalised and displaced people keep open the basic self-help schools which they have set up
The Women’s Literacy Project *To raise the educational level of disadvantaged Sudanese women without regard to religion or ethnic origin through use of the Reflect Literacy Method *To enable disadvantaged women to engage in their children’s education and to find employment and a better life for themselves *To work in response to public demand and in cooperation with community based Organisations
Objectives of Together for Sudan Educational Support Projects
Eye Care Outreach *To assist displaced and impoverished people by provision of free eye examination, corrective lenses, medication, health education and surgical intervention *To provide basic medications for non-eye related conditions as funding allows
*To give priority to women, children and the elderly * To work in full cooperation with local communities
HIV/AIDS Awareness Outreach *To combat HIV/AIDS through education and in cooperation with community leaders *To counter the spread of HIV/AIDS through awareness outreaches in both the Khartoum area and in the Nuba Mountains *To support through education and befriending those living with HIV/AIDS personally or in the family
The Solar Project *To provide solar lighting panels for community educational, administrative, social and income generational purposes to displaced and impoverished peoples living beyond the electricity grid *To give priority to sites which will concentrate on illiteracy work *To promote community spirit and religious and ethnic tolerance by providing a facility which will enhanced shared evening activities
TOGETHER FOR SUDAN Guidelines for Project to Pay University Scholarships. June 2008 1. Scholarship applications are received by the TFS Local Steering Committee in Khartoum which recommends applicants to the TFS Director. Scholarships are awarded by the TFS Trustees on the basis of individual merit, recommendation by the Director and the Local Committee and available funding at the time of application. 2. All disadvantaged Sudanese women living in Sudan are eligible to apply for scholarship. Scholarships are not provided to male applicants. 3. University scholarships are provided only at the undergraduate level and applicants shall be first year aspirants holding the Sudan school certificate of the same year as the call for applications. With the exception of the vocational training scholars as may be agreed by Trustees, new applicants are accepted only for the first year of University 4. No applicant shall be excluded on the basis of religious belief or affiliation and no religious group shall be favoured. 5. Members of ethnic groups which have been marginalised and have few educated women are given special consideration. 6. Scholarships will not be given for theological education or for education outside Sudan. 7. Applicants shall normally be selected from the first intake so as to shorten the selection process, allow TFS to concentrate on applicants with higher grades and avoid those with lower Grade Point Averages (who can usually only gain admission to more expensive universities). 8. TFS scholarships are for tuition and registration fees only and each scholar must provide for her own living expenses. However, TFS scholars are given priority in the TFS-funded hostel on a space available basis. 9. Selection priority shall be given to applicants in economic need and to applicants intending to study for teaching, medical, political and business careers. Special priority is given to nursing, midwifery and paramedical scholars. 10. Except in special circumstances approved by TFS Trustees, no scholarships will be given to relatives of the TFS Local Selection Committee. 11. Each TFS scholar must reapply annually to TFS Khartoum office for scholarship renewal, attaching her grade record of the previous year. Every effort will be made to
accommodate ongoing scholars but those who repeat twice will not be eligible for continued scholarship funding without the agreement of the Director 12. Pregnant scholars shall be given a one year leave of absence provided that they apply in writing to the TFS Deputy Country Coordinator and freezing of studies for that year has been approved by the university authorities. Reinstatement as a TFS scholar shall require reapplication. 13. If a scholar leaves university without notifying the TFS in writing, the scholarship may be terminated after consultation with university authorities. 14. Applicants who are awarded a scholarship but do not take it up and do not request and receive permission to do so at a later date are disqualified from applying for a subsequent scholarship. 15. Scholars who fail in their studies and are not allowed to continue by the university in which they are enrolled are disqualified from reapplying to TFS. However, if the university in which the failed student is enrolled allows her another semester or year in which to improve her grades, TFS policy is normally to continue the scholarship if funding is available. If the scholar repeats for a second time, TFS will not pay her fees but will keep her name on the list of scholars and will resume paying her fees if her performance improves and she is promoted to the next class. 16. If a scholar changes universities without TFS agreement, the scholarship is cancelled. 17. Scholarship application by a family member of a current TFS scholar shall not be discouraged but the Local Committee shall be notified of the relationship at the time of application. 18. Scholars “under Gasim” are out side Together for Sudan responsibility .As of 2005, there are no more TFS scholars “under Gasim” (meaning that TFS paid the registration fee while Ahfad waived the tuition fee). Any scholars selected solely by President Gasim Badri (normally because they do not meet the TFS Grade Point Average requirement) remain outside TFS responsibility. However, if Ahfad chooses to call these scholars TFS Scholars, they may also be known as such. Nonetheless, when Ahfad waives the tuition fee for certain scholars but requires them to pay their own registration fee, the condition for their acceptance as honorary TFS scholars is that they do so. Such scholars must sign an agreement that they will pay their own registration fees and not seek to persuade TFS to do so. 19. As of the 2006-7 academic years, each new TFS scholar shall be required to sign a statement that it is her intention to remain in Sudan and seek to promote national development rather than to move abroad. It shall be understood on acceptance as a TFS scholar that TFS graduates will be encouraged to return to their home areas for at least one year to promote national development.
TOGETHER FOR SUDAN Guidelines for Scholarship Project to Support Elementary Education. June 2008 1. The primary purpose of the project is to assist children whose parent, parents or guardians have died of AIDS or have been incapacitated by HIV and whose surviving relatives are unable to fund their education. The secondary purpose of the project is to encourage people living with HIV/AIDS to have hope for the future. 2. Scholarships may be awarded with the Directorâ€™s approval to impoverished children whose circumstances do not include HIV/AIDS. However, the majority of beneficiaries of the project shall be children whose lives are affected by HIV/AIDS. 3. Scholarships are normally given only for kindergarten and basic education. However, when circumstances warrant, secondary school scholarships may be awarded. 4. Priority of scholarships would be given to the AIDS orphans registered in the schools where TFS is supporting teachers 5. Selection of beneficiaries shall be by a Local Committee of Sudanese volunteers. The volunteers shall be Muslim and Christian, people living with AIDS and those who are not, medical and clerical personnel and other suitable persons. 6. The number of scholarships to be awarded annually is decided by the Director in coordination with budgetary constraints. 7. The Local Committee shall monitor the progress of individual scholars in cooperation with the TFS office and shall keep details of their work confidential to protect the children from stigmatization. 8. Scholarships shall be awarded on a yearly basis and committee members shall make clear to recipients that renewal is not automatic but that TFS will do its best to keep promising scholars in school. 9. No scholarship shall be provided to children accepted in private schools with high fees. Tuitions fees should not exceed $200 per scholar per year. And there shall be no half scholarship payments.
10. Fees shall be paid directly to the schools by TFS office employees.
11. Verification of the HIV/AIDS status of parents or guardians shall be based on recommendation of reliable and recognised individuals within the local communities and, when there is no reasonable cause for doubt, shall be accepted by the committee. 12. Priority shall be given to children from the poorest family circumstances, to applicants accepted to schools with low tuition fees and to children living close to schools (so as to eliminate the need for transportation fees). 13. There shall be no discrimination in scholarship selection on the basis of sex, race, tribe or religion. 14. Scholarships shall be awarded primarily to Sudanese but may also include children whose non-Sudanese relatives have settled or taken refuge in Sudan (i.e. Ethiopians, Eritrean, Somalis, etc.). 15. The scholarship shall ordinarily consist of school tuition only. However, books and uniforms may be paid for in special cases on recommendation by the Local Committee. Food and medicines may also be available in special cases and as funding allows. 16. The Local Committee shall seek where possible to persuade schools to provide free tuition. 17. Committee members shall be responsible to purchase items such as books, uniforms, medicines and food when these are agreed and to return all receipts to the TFS office. 18. No funds may be spent for purposes other than those for which they have been budgeted. 19. When it is necessary to provide cash for food or medicines directly to a household, this will normally be done by TFS personnel or committee members who shall give priority to female parents and guardians. 20. All use of funds, medicines or other resources for unauthorised purposes shall risk cancellation of the scholarship.
TOGETHER FOR SUDAN POLICY GUIDELINES Guidelines for Vocational Training Scholarship. June 2008 1. Applications for vocational training are received by the TFS Local Committee in Khartoum which recommends applicants to the TFS Director. Scholarships are awarded by the TFS Trustees on the basis of individual merit, recommendation by the Director and the local selection committee and in accord with available funding at the time of application. Both males and females may apply. 2. Vocational training scholarships are for technical, specialist and non-degree training undertaken in Sudan, in particular training which includes critically needed medical and technical skills such as medical assistants, basic nursing, first aid, auto mechanics, plumbing, carpentry, air conditioning, and welding. 3. To be accepted for vocational training, applicants should ideally present a Sudan School Certificate. However, other suitable applicants may also be accepted depending upon their circumstances. 4. Applicants holding first year certificates will be given priority. When there are questions, the Director will be consulted 5. No applicant shall be excluded on the basis of religious belief or affiliation and no religious group shall be favoured 6. TFS scholarships are for tuition and registration fees only. 7. Renewal is not automatic and scholarships shall be awarded on a yearly. However, TFS will do its best to continue supporting promising scholars in the institution in which they are enrolled.
TOGETHER FOR SUDAN POLICY GUIDELINES Guidelines for Teachers' Training and Support Project June 2008. The primary aim of the project is to promote education among displaced and impoverished children and selection of schools for inclusion in this project is primarily on the basis of poverty and displacement. The primary work of the project is to train teachers and to support self-help basic schools by paying teachers salaries. 1. Together for Sudan support is in response to community demand and the requesting schools and community based organisations (CBOs) which partner with TFS shall be responsible for selecting teachers for training and/or salary payments through the school and for facilitating subsequent monitoring of teachersâ€™ performance in cooperation with TFS. 2. Application for participation in the project must be in writing and approved by the TFS Director. An agreement setting out the terms of reference shall be signed by Together for Sudan and the requesting school before the partnership begins. 3. Partner schools shall seek to comply with educational guidelines suggested by TFS, including upgrading teachers and curriculum assistance. 4. Facilitating CBO members shall not receive payment for their work from TFS. However, school organisers who are also teaching may be paid incentive at the discretion of the TFS Director. 5. Wherever possible, TFS will provide in service training for teachers in partner schools and will normally provide the teacher training facilities. 6. TFS sponsored schools or classes shall be opened to both girls and boys without discrimination as to religious or ethnic backgrounds. Special efforts shall be made to encourage female education. 7. Priority will be given to training kindergarten and basic school teachers and to monitoring their subsequent performance during the time in which they receive incentives from TFS. 8. Priority in hiring teachers through their CBOs will be given to trained teachers and to women teachers.
9. Normally training fees and stipends/incentives will be paid for a period of nine months to selected teachers. However, TFS does not have the resources to fund incentives for all teachers in sponsored schools. 10. TFS enters into partnership with schools, not individual teachers, and it is understood that a teacher’s incentive may be discontinued by TFS at any time. All school expenses other than those specified in the partnership agreement are the responsibility of the school itself. It is also understood that teachers under this project are schools' employees and not Together For Sudan employees, thus should not in any way claim benefits from TFS if the later decided to discontinue it is partnership with the schools or CBOs. 11. Schools participating in this TFS project are expected to inform TFS of any funding received from other sources. Schools which do not comply with this request may be dropped from the project. 12. Teachers who benefit from TFS sponsored training are expected to remain in their schools for at least the next academic year. 13. Normally classrooms or shelters for teaching shall be provided by the sponsoring organisation which shall also, where possible, provide teaching aids such as blackboards. 14. Incentive payment by Together for Sudan will be through registered bank accounts wherever possible for areas outside Khartoum and will be received by individual teacher in Khartoum area. TFS requires receipts from each participating teacher for the monthly payments. 15. TFS teacher stipends are part- time incentives paid only during the nine months of the academic year. 16. TFS sponsored schools operate from July to March in the Khartoum area. In the Nuba Mountains schools operate from July to March in the town areas and from October to June in the former SPLM/A controlled areas. Normal holidays are observed but teachers do not receive “paid” vacations. 17. All schools included in this project shall actively seek government registration and shall use the Sudanese government curriculum in their schools. 18. Disagreements between the Project Manager and any school head or teacher should normally be referred to the TFS Country Coordinator. 19. Heads of partner schools shall submit written reports to TFS at the end of each school year focusing on school problems and successes during the period under review.
20. The language of teacher training instruction shall normally be Arabic. However, TFS will consider teacher training in English for displaced southerners who plan soon to return to their homelands.
I have read the project guidelines and agree to abide by them NAME OF SCHOOL/INSTITUTION/CBO: NAME OF REPONSIBLE TEACHER/PERSON:
SIGNATURE OF THE TEACHER AND RESPONSIBLE PERSON INDICATING AGREEMENT WITH THE ABOVE GUIDELINES: 1. Name, position and date _____________________________________ 2. Name, position and date______________________________________
SIGNED ON BEHALF OF TOGETHER FOR SUDAN Name_________________________________ Position_______________________________ Date __________________________________
TOGETHER FOR SUDAN POLICY GUIDELINES Guidelines for the Women’s Literacy Project. June 2008 1. The primary aim of the project is to raise the educational level of disadvantaged Sudanese women and classes shall normally include women only. 2. No tuition fee shall be charged for entry to the literacy classes. 3. Girls under 14 shall normally not be enrolled in literacy classes but exceptions can be made with the permission of the Deputy Country Coordinator. 4. Classes shall always contain a majority of adult women but where the culture of the beneficiaries allows women to sit with men in a class, men may be allowed to enrol with the permission of the TFS Director. 5. No woman shall be excluded from a literacy class on the basis of her religion or ethnic origin and the teaching of religion shall not be part of the literacy project. 6. Together for Sudan’s support for women’s literacy is in response to community demand and the requesting community based organisations (CBOs) are considered to be the owners of the literacy classes and, as such, responsible for selecting teachers for training and for ongoing support for the project, including by monitoring in cooperation with TFS. 7. CBO members and literacy class facilitators who set up classes on their behalf shall not receive payment for this work from Together for Sudan. 8. New literacy classes shall be authorised only after application is made in writing to the TFS Deputy Country Coordinator and approval has been given by the TFS Director. A partnership agreement with Together for Sudan shall be signed by each sponsoring organisation setting out the terms of reference before the class begins. 9. Normally classrooms or shelters for teaching shall be provided by the sponsoring organisation which shall also, where possible, provide teaching aids such as blackboards. Together for Sudan can supply teaching aids/materials only to the extent that current funding allows. 10. Priority shall be given to women when employing literacy teachers.
11. All TFS-sponsored literacy teachers shall be trained in the Reflect method and their performance shall be subject to periodic review. TFS shall not charge for this training. 12. The number of students in each class shall be restricted to 30 in accordance with the Reflect method. Classes shall not be opened with less than 15 students. 13. TFS literacy classes operate from July through March in the Khartoum area, from October through June in the Nuba Mountains and from July to March in El Fasher. Classes meet for three days each week for two or three hours per day. Normal holidays are observed. 14. Literacy teachers are selected by community based organisations (CBOs) which partner with Together for Sudan, but teachers are paid directly by TFS. The teachers work part-time for nine-months each year. Teaching contracts may be renewed on a yearly basis as needed by the project but employment is not permanent. (In 2008 TFS sponsored literacy teachers received a stipend of 132 SDG per month in Khartoum and El Fasher and 110 SDG in the Nuba Mountains for a nine month school year.) 15. Teachers shall come to the TFS office each month during the school term to collect their stipend, to submit a monthly report and to attend a meeting to review the project. 16. At the end of the nine-month course, the Sudanese government literacy test is administered and literacy certificates presented to those who qualify. 17. At the end of the course, the responsible community based organisation shall submit to TFS a final report detailing the success and/or failure of the class or classes which it has sponsored. 18. The language of instruction shall be Arabic unless there is TFS permission to do otherwise. In no case shall more than one language be taught in the class at the same time. 19. TFS will consider applications to open English language literacy classes in the case of displaced southern women who intend to return to their homelands in the near future. 20. Women who have dropped out of class or failed the literacy examination may reregister in the following year so long as there is room for them in the class. Ordinarily any woman who has dropped out or failed the examination more than once will not be admitted to subsequent classes. However, if there are special circumstances, the applicant should discuss these with the Deputy Country Coordinator who may allow her to try again.
TOGETHER FOR SUDAN Guidelines for Eye Care Outreach. June 2008. The Eye Care Outreach seeks to assist displaced and impoverished people, women and children in particular, through provision of eye examinations, corrective lenses, medications, surgical interventions and health education. Dr, Nabila Radi Elias, ophthalmologist, is the Project Consultant and animator and is paid a modest professional fee. Administrative and logistical support and funding are provided by Together for Sudan. Reading glasses and sunglasses for free distribution are contributed by Vision Aid Overseas. 1. Priority is given to displaced and impoverished women and children at sites where Together for Sudan operates another project such as womenâ€™s literacy classes and or where there is an active womenâ€™s organisation such as the Mothersâ€™ Union. Requests from community based organisations and schools are welcomed. 2. Eye Care outreaches shall normally rotate between schools and community centres using a ratio of two schools for each community centre. 3. Applications to the project shall be prioritised according to the date of application and with reference to the last outreach to that area. More than one outreach to individual sites may be carried out as conditions indicate. 4. Medicines for common conditions such as skin rashes, intestinal parasites, infections and malaria shall be distributed according to a specified budget. 5. Medicines shall be given free of charge according to availability. 6. Dr. Nabila shall coordinate her Eye Care activities with the TFS office. Together for Sudan is not responsible for any legal action which might occur in connection with her services for the charity. 7. Transportation costs to examination sites shall normally be borne by the beneficiaries, but this shall be at the discretion of the TFS Project Manager and according to funds available to the project. 8. Community members inviting services of the project shall fully participate in organising and in securing a venue for the outreach.
9. Efforts shall be made to involve medical professionals in providing free services and hospitals in providing concessionary rates. 10. Medicines shall normally be purchased through the General Medical Stores and providers of goods such as corrective lenses shall be encouraged to provide concessionary rates as a community service. 11. No materials donated to the Eye Care outreach may be sold. 12. No individuals shall be denied access to the benefits of this project on the basis of ethnicity or religious background. 13. A specific effort will be made to assist albino individuals by provision of sunglasses. 14. All expenses of the Eye Care Project shall be accountable and verified by standard payment vouchers which shall be presented to the TFS accountant by the TFS Project Coordinator. 15. Proper records of Eye Care Project activities including eye glasses distribution shall be maintained by the TFS Project Coordinator for purposes of reporting and documentation.
TOGETHER FOR SUDAN Guidelines for the HIV/AIDS Awareness Outreach. June 2008 The aim of the project is prevention through education of the spread of HIV/AIDS, in particular among displaced persons living in the Khartoum vicinity. The project also seeks through education and limited home based care to help those living personally with HIV/AIDS or with HIV/AIDS in the family. 1. Priority for HIV/AIDS outreaches shall be to communities of displaced and impoverished people living in the Khartoum vicinity. School teachers living in the displaced areas may be giving priorities for outreach to enable them to pass on to their students the need for prevention and how to live with HIV/AIDS. 2. Community based organisations (CBOs) as well as youth centres, schools, clubs and religious organisations are eligible to apply for the outreach. 3. The HIV/AIDS Outreach is a free service provided by Together for Sudan but communities are expected to help with arrangements and encouraged to provide refreshments. 4. Requests for the outreach shall be submitted to the Together for Sudan office in Khartoum no later than one week, and preferable two weeks, before the anticipated event. 5. Requesters/sponsors of the outreach are expected to participate fully in organising the outreach by supplying the venue and by coordinating organisation and activities with the Together for Sudan HIV/AIDS team. 6. Outreaches or follow ups to outreaches shall be organised according to a ratio of two near Khartoum and one far per quarter for each team. When necessary, the teams should cut down the number of participating volunteers and trainees so as to remain within budgetary limitations. 7. The HIV/AIDS Awareness Outreach respects all religions but favours none. There shall be no discrimination in selection of venues on the basis of religion, ethnicity or politics. 8. During the HIV/AIDS Outreach members shall not conduct or organise prayers but they shall not object if the host community or organisation desires to do so.
9. Outreach lectures shall only be given by qualified Trainers and trained volunteers who have proven capable of providing accurate information and who have been approved by the TFS Project Coordinator. 10. Team Leaders and Trainers are responsible for supervision of activities and for delegation of responsibilities to other team members, including volunteers. 11. The HIV/AIDS Trainers shall keep accurate records of all outreach activities and financial expenditures. They shall fill in the financial and monitoring checklists after each outreach and shall submit these to the TFS office on a monthly basis. 12. The TFS Country Coordinator shall maintain records of the project activities for purposes of reporting and documentation. 13. At the end of each month, each of the three teams shall present a work plan to the Country Coordinator and shall fully coordinate their activities so as to enable other teams to use the office equipment. 14. To avoid damage to TFS equipment, no one other than team members approved by the Project Coordinator shall operate the equipment. 15. All TFS equipment shall be returned to the TFS office immediately after the outreach to facilitate use by other teams. 16. The HIV/AIDS Trainers work under the supervision of the TFS Project Coordinator. They are part-time TFS partners and shall receive no after service benefits from Together for Sudan. Close consultation and cooperation are expected at all times for the efficiency of the overall project. 17. Participation by TFS HIV/AIDS Trainers in publicity events relating to HIV/AIDS activities shall require the approval of the TFS Country Coordinator and shall be requested at least one week in advance of the event. 18. All expenses of the outreaches shall be accountable and shall be verified by standard payment vouchers which shall be presented to the TFS Accountant by the Project Coordinator.
TOGETHER FOR SUDAN Guidelines for Solar Project. June 2008. The purpose of the Solar Project is to provide solar panel lighting, primarily for education but also for income generation and community functions, to displaced or impoverished persons living in areas off the electricity grid. 1. All Solar Project sites must be off the electricity grid and not likely to be supplied by electrical power lines in the near future. 2. Priority in site selection shall be given to locations where TFS has womenâ€™s literacy classes or some other project and/or where there are already established educational programmes for which lighting is needed. 3. Favoured sites are schools and community centres and no site will be selected which denies use of its facilities on the basis of ethnic or religious identity. In other words, a church site would need to be one which welcomes use of its premises for community, educational, medical and other functions which include non-Christians. 4. Selection priority shall be given to sites likely to service large numbers of people. 5. No Solar Panel shall be placed on an individualâ€™s house even if educational and other community functions are carried out there. 6. The solar panel shall remain the property of Together for Sudan and may be removed at the discretion of the Country Coordinator should it be determined that site use rules have been violated. 7. Before placement of a solar panel, agreement shall be signed between Together for Sudan and two responsible individuals of the centre at which the panel is to be placed. The agreement shall verify ownership of the panel by Together for Sudan which retains the right to remove the panel at its discretion. The agreement shall also verify the willingness of the responsible individuals to insure that the solar panel is used for community purposes as listed above and commit them to maintain the panel. 8. Training in panel maintenance shall be provided by Together for Sudan where needed.
9. The responsible persons at the Solar Panel site shall ensure proper use and safeguarding of the panel and shall submit quarterly reports to TFS office on the use of the panel. 10. Solar panels would be placed in basis of a trial period of one year, if TFS satisfied that the community is using it properly, then the panel will be handed over completely to community responsibility and if they failed to maintain the panel or use it properly, the solar panel will be removed. NAME OF SITE: NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTION:
SIGNATURE OF TWO RESPONSIBLE PERSONS INDICATING AGREEMENT WITH THE ABOVE USE OF THE PANEL: 1. Name, position and date _____________________________________ 2. Name, position and date______________________________________
SIGNED ON BEHALF OF TOGETHER FOR SUDAN Name_________________________________ Position_______________________________ Date __________________________________
Published on Jun 28, 2010
*To provide technical skills, which will contribute to Sudan’s development Scholarship Project to Support Elementary Education Objectives of...