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SUNDAY, JULY 27, 2008 WWW.SUNDAYSZAMAN.COM YTL 1.50
‘DEMOCRACY IS NOT A PRIORITY ISSUE FOR TURKEY’
Questýon of the decade: What ýf Ergenekon had succeeded?
NURÝYE AKMAN, ÝSTANBUL
KERÝM BALCI, ANKARA
Ergenekon terrorist organization had managed to execute all its plans successfully? No sane person can claim that Turkey would be on better ground had the organization managed to launch the July operations that would leave members of the judiciary assassinated, people pouring into the streets, provoked masses clashing with the security forces and the terrorist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) renewing its attacks on civilians. However, the Turkey that would have emerged from the tribulation the Ergenekon organization sought to induce would not be the Turkey they dreamed of
either. Members of Ergenekon were staunch Machiavellian pragmatists of the mindset that "the end justifies the means," but the point they missed was that "the means never guarantee the end." In that sense, the question "What if Ergenekon had succeeded?" has two levels: "What if Ergenekon had succeeded in toppling the Justice and Development Party [AK Party] through a combination of illegal activities, psychological warfare and conspiracies?" and "What if Turkey was lost in transition -- stuck in that chaotic state of terror and tribulation?" What if the Antichrist of democracy managed to bring
TURKISH LEFT DISORIENTED BY ERGENEKON AYÞE KARABAT, ANKARA
ERGENEKON: TURKEY’S BEST CHANCE TO SHED LIGHT ON ITS SHADY PAST ALÝ ASLAN KILIÇ, ANKARA
"It was really hard to live in my country. There was always war and blood. So many people lost their lives, and we had to leave our home and took refuge in Turkey." This is how Besma Ahmed Muhammad, one of the many refugees who took shelter in Turkey seeking a new life under better conditions, began telling the story of her life, which took an unexpected turn after a civil war in her home country, Somalia, became intolerable. By BETÜL AKKAYA CONTINUED ON PAGE 05
06 Russian press of smear tactics 17 voters a ‘double whammy?’ Turkish tourism agencies have accused the Russian press of exaggerating minor problems in Turkey's tour and hotel operations and distorting the truth in its reporting on these issues. A number of newspapers in Russia had strongly criticized Turkey for not providing bookings.
Barack Obama and Muslim
Turkish tour agencies accuse
Barack Obama should be able to count on heavy support from US Muslims in the November election, if polls are correct, but he risks offending some members of that faith by having to explain he is not one himself. The number of votes at stake is small.
Featuring news and articles from
The Ergenekon investigation has triggered an animated discussion among the leftists of Turkey about their position regarding the deep state. In this self-critical discussion, the leftists accuse each other either of being supportive of coups d'état or being helpful to the ruling Justice and Development Party (AK Party), which some leftists see as being "democratic only for itself." There are suggestions for a third option, too: not taking sides with either the AK Party or the coups. Prominent leftist intellectual Professor Baskýn Oran claims that the reason for this situation is the obsession of the left with secularism, while another professor, Mithat Sancar, thinks it is right to be suspicious of the AK Party but that the left should not make the mistake of not taking a side. According to Marxist Sungur Savran, there are three types of leftists in Turkey, and their positions regarding the Ergenekon investigation are closely connected to these positions. The globalist left thinks history is a clash between the state and civil society, and that in Turkey the state is the main obstacle to the improvement of civil society. Savran states that for globalist leftists the guarantee of democracy is the European Union. According to Savran, the second type is the nationalist leftist. These leftists believe the aim of globalization is to destroy the nation-state and that the US administration wants to destroy the Turkish Republic, which, in their view, is the best thing that could happen to Turkey. CONTINUED ON PAGE 04
17 Karadzic extradited next week
Serb prosecutor sees Radovan
Aid associations lend helping hand to disasterstricken refugees
Former Parliament Speaker and Justice and Development Party (AK Party) Manisa deputy Bülent Arýnç, who says that until now Parliament's hands have been tied when it comes to the investigation of past unsolved murders past, asserts that the ongoing Ergenekon investigation is in fact an opportunity for an in-depth analysis of the past 50 years in Turkey. Recalling that, during the infamous Susurluk investigation, it was the coalition government of the Refah Party (RP) and the True Path Party (DYP) that was in power, he asserts that the RP, as a coalition partner, made mistakes during this process. According to Arýnç, a former member of the now-defunct RP, the investigation into the Susurluk incident, which revealed shadowy connections between security officials, parliamentarians and criminal elements many years before the Ergenekon investigation began, got stuck because of hindrance by the coalition RP-DYP government that was in power then. CONTINUED ON PAGE 08
about the end of times and the Messiah never came? Professor Ýhsan Daðý was first to pinpoint the "side effects" of an "ulusalcý" (ultranationalist) coup in Turkey. In a March 25, 2008 article published by Zaman daily, he claimed that a possible coup would isolate Turkey from the democratic-modern West and align it with "another block": "A Turkey that ends its European Union accession process, that annihilates its democratic actors and that replaces economic development with chaos and destruction will be dragged into social chaos. … Under such a situation no one can stop Kurds from dividing the country. CONTINUED ON PAGE 04
As the high criminal court of Ýstanbul agreed to review the Ergenekon indictment, crimes attributed to the terrorist organization can already be referred to as near-facts. The crime is there, and the court is to decide who is guilty of what crime and to what extent. Commenting on what the court will decide is legally forbidden, but the meaning of the crime planned and executed for the future of Turkey is something we can discuss freely. What would the face of Turkey look like if the
Retired Brig. Gen. Nejat Eslen, who became well known when he challenged journalist Þamil Tayyar to a duel, believes the July 22 election results constituted a counterrevolution. Eslen stresses that the military is obligated to protect the republic and serve as its watchdog, adding that this duty should be performed in compliance with the law and democratic rules. According to Eslen, who asserts that Turkey's priority issue is not democracy, what needs to be done immediately is creating a new definition of strategy, discussing the merits of Eurasianism and Turkey turning its face from west to east. Eslen states, "Turkey will eventually be either a European, Middle Eastern or Eurasian country," and believes that the Eurasianist movement within the army will settle down and the military will do the right thing. He finds the allegations against former Chief of General Staff Gen. Hilmi Özkök and current incumbent Gen. Yaþar Büyükanýt grave, if they are accurate. He further notes that personal ambitions should not affect state governance. SEE STORY ON PAGE 02
Karadzic will be extradited to the UN tribunal in The Hague at the earliest on Monday, Serbia's chief war crimes prosecutor Vladimir Vukcevic said. The leader of the Bosnian Serbs in the 1992-95 Bosnia war, who is indicted twice for genocide, was arrested this week.
02 SUNDAY’S ZAMAN
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Portrait of a Eurasianist
You may know retired Brig. Gen. Nejat Eslen from his contributions in the Radikal daily, television appearances or his challenging journalist Þamil Tayyar to a duel. He is a strategist. He is a Eurasianist who does not ignore the West. He is a republican. He believes that the July 22 election results constituted a counterrevolution. He says, "Democracy is not a priority issue for Turkey." According to him, what needs to be done right away is for Turkey to redefine strategy, discuss Eurasianism and turn from the West to the East. He holds that the Eurasianist movements within the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) will settle down and the military will do the right thing. He further asks the liberals to refrain from looking at the process of Eurasianism gaining ground as "an ox takes a look at a train." You believe that there is an ongoing struggle between Islamists, nationalists/Eurasianists and liberals. Obviously, this conflict takes place within the army as the clash between pro-NATO actors and Eurasianists. How will the impact of the Ergenekon case on retired Eurasianists affect those still on active duty? I do not know. I have no contact with military officers on active duty. But there may be officers in the army who hold that relations with NATO and the US should be preserved, as they were in the Cold War era, while there may also be some other officers who think as I do. I am saying that our interests and the American strategic and security vision are not compatible in the post-Cold War era. Is the 'east not westwards-facing' view overwhelmingly held within the army? It is natural that there is such a movement within the army. These views will become integrated over time, based on accurate threat perceptions, without causing any serious conflict. We first heard about alignment with Russia and Iran instead of the West from National Security Council (MGK) Secretary-General Tuncer Kýlýnç. Kýlýnç said Turkey would be rid of Western hegemony when it leaves NATO. So this is a matter of discussion within the military. Some circles … [portray] Eurasianism as a bad thing. In the world, the US is the most eager country seeking influence in Eurasia, because it hosts energy wealth. Turkey's interest in Eurasia is logical, just as the US and the EU want to maintain influence in the same region. Many Turkish holdings have investments in Central Asia. The holdings close to the government and even the holding that owns Sabah daily, Çalýk Holding, have investments in Central Asia. But this does not prove that Çalýk Holding is a Eurasianist. It is something different. It is an ideological continental movement that includes Russia and its strategic partner, Iran… You are talking about the concept promoted by Alexander Dugin [the Russian political activist and ideologist of the contemporary Russian school of geopolitics often known as "neo-Eurasianism"] Of course, is he not the most important theorist of Eurasianism? It is quite meaningless to criticize proponents of Eurasianism by associating Dugin's Eurasia concept with those who propose Turkey's move toward Eurasia. Turkey should develop its own geopolitical vision and see where its interests lie. We allocate the majority of our political energy to the EU membership [goal]. Why don't we think about … [benefiting] from the riches of Eurasia as major powers do? Is Eurasianism so innocent? Doesn't Russian Eurasianism aim to destroy Turkishness, weaken the nation state and incite ethnic conflict in Turkey? Are you able to say that Dugin's theses have not been adopted in Russia? Of course they must have been affected by these. It is also true that Dugin was close to the administration. But we cannot possibly say that Russia closely followed Dugin's concept, because he realized that he made mistakes as well and noted that cooperation with Turkey was needed. Of course, the Dugin concept has supporters in Turkey, like Doðu Perinçek, [leader of the ultranationalist Workers' Party] and his followers. Dugin came to Turkey upon the invitation of this group. They invited me as well, but I did not attend. I did not attend the meeting held by the Marmara Group on Eurasia. Dugin said his book, 'Foundations of Russian Geopolitics,' is used as a textbook in Turkish military schools. Could this be true? Courses on geopolitical theory are offered at the War Academies. I do not know whether his thoughts are instructed in this regard. The International Eurasian Movement, led by Dugin, said, 'These arrests are an act of defiance against Russia,' when Perinçek and others were taken into custody. Is this Russia's official line? The arrest of Doðu Perinçek upset Dugin; I do not know what the official Russian policy on this matter is. Dugin is one of Russia's most important geopoliticians. He wants to make Russia a global power based on Slavic nationalism. However Russia is currently dealing with serious minority problems and its population is shrinking. For this reason it is not possible for Russia to become a global dominant power. What makes Eurasianists in Turkey stronger is not Russia, but the impositions of the US and the EU. If today Eurasianism in Turkey and the possibility of Turkey's shift toward Eurasia are being discussed, then the West should engage in self-criticism and ask itself, "Where did I go wrong with regards to Turkey?" Turkey's cooperation with Russia will certainly change the balances in the Middle East and Eurasia. If Turkey shifts its geopolitical axis from the West to the East, this will do the greatest damage to the US and Europe. So if Turkey changes its bloc, a world war will inevitably break out? No. Why would it? Turkey's redefinition of its geopolitical identity is inevitable. In the end, Turkey will become either a Western, Middle Eastern or Eurasian country. Is not Turkey's alienation from the West a dangerous adventure? We have options. We may try to enter Eurasia together with the EU, the US, China or Russia. Or we may act independently. The Marmara group wants to do this with the US. The Doðu Perinçek group wants to
‘Democracy ýs not a prýorýty ýssue for Turkey’
do it with Russia. It is not a crime to think about these options. Turkey's alienation from Europe and America is impossible. Europe is our biggest trade partner. Turkey cannot survive without the West. You say this, but the Eurasianists of Ergenekon describe the EU and US as hyenas. They call Hilmi Özkök a 'horse thief.' They have made some allegations against Büyükanýt. It is too bad if this is true. The military has the duty to protect and preserve the republic. For this reason sometimes they do some brainstorming. They have to do this in compliance with the democratic rules and laws. Personal ambitions should not affect state governance. In my opinion, this is a game played on us by the West. The West has concerns: Will Turkey shift its geopolitical axis toward the East? Will it develop cooperation with Russia, or the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)? What can we do to prevent this? We must eliminate, denigrate and discourage those who may steer Turkey away from the West. This is the gist of what is currently happening in Turkey. The West has started to such an operation in order to eliminate the neo-nationalist groups, i.e., those intending to steer Turkey toward Eurasia. So you think those who were denigrated did nothing bad? Some of them might have committed some offenses and crimes. The judiciary will make the final decision as to who did - and did not do -- what. You challenged Tayyar to a duel because he criticized you. You responded to those who criticized your invitation by saying, 'Dueling is an activity suited to the nobles and knights.' Is there any such class of nobles and knights in Turkey? All military men are nobles and knights. Military men are trained with a noble spirit. Then they commit a noble coup? No. Protecting the mainland, protecting the republic gives them nobility. As a Eurasianist, did Russia inspire you to call for a duel? No, not at all. This is out of despair. I am 66 years old. Why does a man at the age of 66 challenge a younger man? Þamil Tayyar lied about me; he defamed me. If I sue this man, the case will take at least five years. By then I will be 70 years old. I defied him. He got scared; he did not challenge me. How could he possibly challenge you? Would you duel using a gun, sword or the tongue? Now you will get credit by this interview through mockery. He would choose the gun. Dueling may be done in different forms and styles. It could be on the basis of thought as well. This duel thing became popular on Internet sites. Why didn't my interview with Tempo become so popular on Internet sites? I read that interview, and I am asking: Is the republic or democracy in danger? The republic is in danger. Turkey's priority issue is not further democratization. Beware, the priority issue is the republic. This is because the republic comprises democracy as well.
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‘Republic, not democracy is what matters’ with a stronger and integrated Turkey. You also have a complaint about the liberals. Liberals fail to adequately comprehend this process. They have to question themselves as to whether it is accurate to extend unconditional support for the current administration. Beware: An ox watches a moving train, but it fails to perceive it was a train on time. It starts running after the train has passed. This moderate Islam train may hit the liberals as well. Do you call liberals oxes? No, of course not. I am taking a picture. In this process, the Islamists are ahead. But the end of the process is not clear. There are announcers at Kýrkpýnar. They say, "Wrestler, do not become upset because you are losing; do not become joyful because you are winning." Liberals should learn a lesson from this. The current situation may not go like this. New social engineering moves may take place. Will the ultranationalists who still have not been arrested do this? I am not saying this. Chaos cannot go on like this; it goes through a transition. I do not know what it will turn into Hopefully, this will be toward democratization. But you do not have such a demand… A lot of references are made to coups in Turkey, but a counterrevolution took place against the republic in Turkey. We saw it on July 22. Forty-seven percent of Turkey voted for the AK Party [Justice and Development Party]. Do you call the election results a 'counterrevolution'? Of course, social engineering was implemented in Turkey. I cannot find anything to say about this remark… Who voted for the AK Party? Wasn't it those who received small grants of potatoes, onions, coal? [President] Abdullah Gül's headscarf-wearing wife's promotion to [the presidential residence] Çankaya [Palace] is part of this counterrevolution. The regimes in Ukraine and Georgia have been changed via democratic means. Please recall that the German undersecretary for the Defense Ministry has said: "Turkey is secretly becoming Islamized. It is taking place not from above but from below. This is a pretty dangerous approach." When the EU representatives oppose closure of the AK Party you react strongly. But you also quote such remarks by Europeans who point to an Islamic threat. The closure of the AK Party will be decided depending on the political environment. There is an ongoing power struggle between two sides. On one side is the issue of the closure of the AK Party, and on the other side is the Ergenekon issue. From time to time, these sides make their attempts to gain advantage. I want the republic left to us by Atatürk to be protected. I don't want to see a headscarfRetired Brig. Gen. wearing president's wife in Çankaya. Nejat Eslen
I may challenge you to a duel if you say democracy is not a priority issue. Beware, the priority issue is the republic. This is because the republic comprises democracy as well. Is that so? What would you say about the Islamic Republic of Iran and United Kingdom? Where can you find absolute democracy? Is the US a democratic country? Is our republic not a military guardianship regime? This is your view. Turkey's unitary structure and its regime are in danger. We must first concentrate on these issues. If it is to maintain cooperation with our Eurasianists, will Russia want to see a unitary or partitioned state? Russia would want Turkey to be a strong nation state against the US. It is the West which does not want a strong Turkish nation state. But you would do better to ask this to Dugin. Yes, Alexander Dugin says let us divide and partition Turkey. He abandoned these views. Do not consider every Eurasianist in Turkey a Dugin supporter. Europe seeks to contain Russia by enlarging NATO in the Balkans, Black Sea region, Central Asia and the Caucasus. The installation of antimissile systems in the Czech Republic and Poland are part of this. That is why Russia is concerned. Of course, Russia may want to alleviate these concerns by cooperation with Turkey. For this reason Russia would like to cooperate
SUNDAY’S ZAMAN 03
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KONYA ÇANAKKALE DÝYARBAKIR SAMSUN BURSA GAZÝANTEP ESKÝÞEHÝR MALATYA KOCAELÝ
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Hope for the Turkýsh left Critical week begins tomorrow Turkey's agenda will enter one of its most critical weeks tomorrow, when the Constitutional Court will begin to deliberate a case to close down the ruling party, a first in the country's history. Also this week, the top command of the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) will be reshaped by promotions, retirements and dismissals. On one side is the government, which faces the risk of being overthrown by a judicial coup, and on the other side is the most comprehensive case in Turkish legal history. Political analysts point out that the back-to-back critical decisionmaking processes to take place this week have lent the next few days a special significance, and that all will be relieved if the Constitutional Court completes its decision-making process in record time. In previous party closure cases, the Constitutional Court completed the entire case process in eight months and two
years, for cases pertaining to the Welfare Party (RP) and the Virtue Party (FP), respectively. Now, the court has reached the deliberations stage only in four months, and is expected to maintain speed in this final stage. "If the party is to be closed down, the decision should be given by the end of this week. This is because the Supreme Military Council [YAÞ] will convene this week to decide on military promotions and dismissals, which will shape the TSK's top command hierarchy. The YAÞ decision must be undersigned by the prime minister to enter into force. Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoðan may wait for the decision of the Constitutional Court. The military will be disturbed by the fact that the prime minister is uncertain about his position. In the event of a delay in undersigning the YAÞ decisions, the chief of general staff and top commanders will have to be retired," political analysts said. Ankara Today's Zaman
I think one of the biggest mistakes we make in raising our children is forgetting to praise their successes. When our children show us the colorful paintings they have made we have a tendency to take a brief look and say, "That's nice." But when they make mistakes, we give long lectures to them. With this approach, I think we are teaching them to focus on the negative. Every person, nation and group has negative and positive raisons d'être. Only a few of them have only positive raisons d'être, and they are a happy bunch. Unfortunately, people seem to gravitate toward and find common ground over the negative ones. It is a pity that common nuisances and problems bring people together more effectively than sources of pleasure. This fact is particularly visible and tangible in societies that experience more trauma than joy, just as it is in the Turkish left. When I refer to the Turkish left, I am excluding the Kemalist left, which is an important part of this segment. The rest of the left has suffered a great deal from the time they first appeared on the scene. They have been the victims of murder by unknown assailants, torture and exile. The 1980 coup was the peak of their suffering. Since then the left has not been able to return to power. Of course, their plight is not very different from that of leftists across the world. Leftists in other countries have had difficulty in finding solutions to serious problems, but at least they attempt to do something about them. Then again, one could claim that a dissenting left can only exist following the insti-
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tutionalization of capitalism. But even if this is true, it does not fully explain why the Turkish left is so weak. The flaws in the constitution that emerged from the 1980 coup may be one reason behind this weakness. It is one of the obstacles to freedom of expression. But there are other reasons. The Turkish left gave up at some point and began to focus on negative raisons d'être, particularly the trauma of the 1980 coup. It is such a pity to see the leftists talk about the 1980 coup, the necessity of confronting it and punishing those responsible, while at the same time they secretly hold the feelings of helplessness and defeat in their hearts. These feelings bring with them despair and hopelessness. Maybe this is why some leftists in this country prefer to stay neutral regarding the Ergenekon case. They think that the investigation will not be expanded and will not punish the perpetrators of the 1980 coup. This feeling of weakness leads the Turkish leftists to say the Ergenekon case is a fight between the elephants and the grass and that the grass will be harmed in this struggle. In this scenario, they view themselves as the grass, but they are underestimating themselves. This scenario may have
some validity; perhaps the ruling Justice and Development Party (AK Party) will negotiate with the "other powers" of the system and the victims of this negotiation will be the Kurds, which is very important for the leftist ideology. But if this is the case, attempting to be impartial will not bring about any positive results. The negotiations will continue either with the involvement of the left or without it. I cannot imagine even one single leftist who thinks that coup attempts are justifiable, especially since the left has suffered so much from coups in the past. To be exceedingly unhopeful regarding the eradication of the deep state and gangs does not befit the spirit of the left. The belief that evil is unconquerable signifies a silent acceptance of its rule. Some had said "Let's wait for the indictment," but now the indictment is here. I really wonder what the position of the Turkish left will be now. Will it push for the expansion of the investigation? Will it prefer to be impartial, or will it think that if it gets involved the AK Party will benefit, so it is better to keep silent? The Ergenekon investigation may not abruptly change everything. It can only be a good start to a better political and social life and reconciliation within society. But it is a great chance for the Turkish left to improve itself, to renew itself and to get rid of its hopeless mood. If the Turkish left prefers to keep its neutral position regarding the Ergenekon case, it will not be the only one to lose; the country will also lose, and this is why the responsibility of the Turkish left is greater then ever.
04 SUNDAY’S ZAMAN ÝSA ÞÝMÞEK
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Turkish left disoriented by Ergenekon contýnued from page 1
Carrying posters of Kemal Atatürk and chanting anti-government slogans, a group of demonstrators protested the Ergenekon investigation in Ýstanbul on July 19. The placards bear slogans condemning efforts to lift a ban on the headscarf, denouncing ‘imperialism’ and calling for an independent Turkey aligned neither with the US nor the European Union.
Questýon of the decade: What ýf Ergenekon had succeeded? TODAY’S ZAMAN
The Ergenekon indictment shows that members of the organization were ready to kill anyone in order to achieve their aims. The end justified all the means for them, and these means might well include splitting the country, war with the United States and even chemical warfare
contýnued from page 1 … This would mean a civil war that would shake not only the Southeast but also the large cities of the country. The ulusalcý coup makers, on the other hand, won’t stay idle and, using the opportunity, would start an “ethnic cleansing” operation and a forced migration. Daðý’s doomsday scenario included an armed conflict with the United States in northern Iraq, the establishment of a “United Kurdish State” (including southeast Turkey) and joining the camp of rogue states in world politics. Four months passed after Daðý wrote his article. We now know much more about the ideology, strategy, tactics and logistics of the Ergenekon terrorist organization. We now know that they managed to penetrate into the state organs more than we could have imagined four months ago, that they established an evil coalition even with seemingly religious camps, that they had international connections and that they were crazy enough to think of producing chemical and biological weapons. No answer we can give today to the question “What if Ergenekon had succeeded?” can be more optimistic than that of Professor Daðý. AK Party Kahramanmaraþ deputy Avni Doðan believes that if the Ergenekon organization was not discovered, Turkey would have turned into the Syria of not too long ago. “This was the target of the organization. They planned to create a country of anarchy and chaos,” he told Sunday’s Zaman. Columnist Mehmet Altan referred to other dictatorial countries that Turkey would look like and said that the Turkey as envisaged by Ergenekon would strengthen “authoritarian republicanism.” Sunday’s Zaman has published several articles on the issue, noting that if the AK Party and the Democratic Society Party (DTP) were closed down, Turkey’s Kurdish citizens would lose their faith in democracy and the country would practically be divided into two since an overwhelming majority of southeast Anatolia voted for the two parties in the last elections. Had Ergenekon succeeded in toppling the AK Party, its next target would be the DTP and other Kurdish political groups. This would hasten the country’s disintegration. Sezgin Tanrýkulu, the chairman of the Diyarbakýr Bar Association, agrees that Ergenekon would deepen the sense of division. “The risk of civil war would be quite high,” he told Sunday’s Zaman. AK Party Batman deputy Afif Demirkýran thinks that even if the Ergenekon terrorist organization reached its target of inducing a secularist coup, the post-coup Turkey would not be like the Turkey of the post-1960 and post-1980 coups. “We would probably not be able to return to democracy. We would stay as an isolated country, cut off from the world,” he told Sunday’s Zaman. AK
A demonstrator shows his support for retired Brig. Gen. Veli Küçük, a chief suspect in the Ergenekon case, during a demonstration in 2006. Party Samsun deputy Suat Kýlýç does not think that Ergenekon would be capable of staging a coup. “They don’t have enough power for that. But Turkey would continue to be a country of chaos and we would not know the real perpetrators of lots of crimes committed in the recent past,” he told Sunday’s Zaman. AK Party Bursa deputy Mehmet Ocaktan is particularly interested in the Hrant Dink-type murders that would take place in Turkey. Ocaktan was the chairman of the parliamentary commission that probed the Dink murder and thinks that had Ergenekon not been discovered, Turkey would continue to have scandalous events of the similitude of the Susurluk scandal and the Þemdinli incident, both events in which members of the state were cooperating with criminal elements. “We would be a country that took care of its affairs in the dark and would never be a transparent society,” he told Sunday’s Zaman. A particularly alarming prophecy about the future of Turkey came from Murat Belge. Speaking to Taraf’s Neþe Düzel, Belge said that the year 2009 would be a year of bloodshed if the Ergenekon organization had managed to reach its aims. Belge told Düzel that the Turkish public wouldn’t stay silent against the kind of coup Ergenekon would try to induce and this would led to the lynching of the opposition. “Later on, the army would step in and stop the bloodshed. But in the meantime, the unwanted elements in society would have been cleansed,” he said. According to Belge, an Ergenekon-led coup would be worse than the Sept. 12, 1980 coup. “They wouldn’t come and ask us to wear something to go to the Selimiye [prison]. They would crush the doors and cleanse it of all they found
there. This would continue for four or five days and then the army would step in. But then we would lose all the respect we had [for them]; our country would be one where these people would speak of ‘Turkish blood’, [sing songs of how] ‘We came from Ergenekon and went to the Tengri Mountains.’ We would live in this country as long as we could bear it,” he said. All these comments on what kind of a country Turkey would be if the Ergenekon terrorist organization had succeeded were based on the revealed plans of the Ergenekon gang. The indictment disclosed on Friday showed that had the plans of the terrorist organization worked well, the then Land Forces Commander Yaþar Büyükanýt would have been assassinated in 2005. Senior journalists like Fehmi Koru, leading Kurdish politicians like Ahmet Türk and several members of the judiciary, especially those outspoken about their anti-headscarf convictions, would be assassinated. But these are all about what they planned to do. What they were ready to do can be studied not from the confiscated documents, but from remote history. The Committee of Union and Progress came into existence as a byproduct of a gang quite similar to that of the Ergenekon organization. They were ready to kill prime ministers as well as innocent people for crimes they themselves committed. Their understanding of a country was as simple as this, “Let it be small, but let it be ours.” They alienated the Arabs, the Balkan nations, the Armenians and to some extent, the Kurds, crippling the Ottoman state in an unprecedented manner. They used the media to cheat the public; they signed a deal with Germany to join the war on its side despite the fact that Germany’s loss was seen as inescapable and they conspired to bomb Russian ports with German ships flying Turkish flags so as to push the country into the war that cost the lives of millions of Turks, Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, Caucasians, Albanians and other citizens of this country. And when all their dreams didn’t materialize, they fled the country. That is what the Ergenekon terrorist organization is ready to do. The Bible speaks of the end of times that would come about after a period of smaller tribulations and that would induce the worst of the tribulation period. Luke advises that each and every person who lives to witness the time of these tribulations should “watch, therefore, praying in every season that you may be counted worthy to escape all these things which shall occur, and to stand before the Son of man.” (Luke 21:36). The Ergenekon terrorist organization was to bring about the end of times in Turkey and a few brave prosecutors and policemen managed to stop it from desolating the nation.
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Also in order to succeed, the US administration is trying to turn Turkey into a model of “moderate Islam” by using the AK Party. According to the nationalist left, the guarantee of the continuation of the republic is the military. Savran cites the third kind of leftists as the Marxist internationalists, who think globalism is actually a competition among the nations. Their aim is the unification of all the working classes of the world, instead of unifying with the EU, which they consider an imperialist entity. Their focus is the class struggle. Savran’s classification of the left can be helpful in understanding the position of different leftists on Ergenekon. The globalist left strongly supports the Ergenekon investigation and wants to see it expanded. The nationalist left has a tendency to rationalize the actions of Ergenekon or at least to be very hesitant in taking sides on the issue, and the internationalist Marxist left has come out in opposition to both the AK Party and the coup attempts.
Coups: raison d’être of left Ýsmet Demirdöðen, Ankara representative of the Taraf daily and an expert on the discussions within the left, says the main reason the left has not gotten involved in the matter is its distrust of the AK Party and its practices. “To consider the beginning date of the Ergenekon gang as 2003 and not to mention the September 1980 coup is one of the major question marks about Ergenekon. On one hand there was an attempt at a coup d’état and on the other there was a real coup d’etat in 1980 in which 1.5 million were tortured, thousands had to flee the country, 53 were hanged and 650,000 were convicted,” he states. According to Demirdöðen, the left thinks it is not getting enough guarantees from the government to believe that this investigation will be extended because the AK Party does not have the courage or the intention to do so; for example, it is not doing anything to amend Article 15 of the Constitution, which protects the members of the National Security Council (MGK) who realized the 1980 coup from prosecution. Sancar puts forward some existentialist questions, emphasizing the importance of the 1980 coup for the left. “The coup and its cruel system since Sept. 12  has been the main foundation and reference point of the left. The victim mythos, not only in the theories of the left but also in its literature and cinema, is the determining motivation,” he says. “Are the arrests of the coup planners triggering the fear from the loss of raison d’être in the subconscious of the leftists? For instance, perhaps the absolutely decisive role of the military in the political sphere has caused the left to put the blame of every political failure on the dragon that is believed to be invincible, thereby ridding itself of responsibility. If so, when this dragon was observed losing its influence, could this have triggered a panic within the left related to a re-assumption of responsibility for leftist politics? Or, what’s worse, is there a possibility that in the conscious or subconscious of many leftists, the military, while being hated, is at the same time regarded as the eventual assurance for the continuation of the life to which they are accustomed? Is there a love-hate relationship between them?” Sancar questions.
Obsession with secularism Professor Oran proposes that the military pacified the left by using its obsession with secularism.
Baskýn Oran “The military recognized this obsession of the left on Feb. 27, 1997, and silenced the left the next day,” he says, referring to the postmodern coup on Feb. 28, 1997, meant to prevent the alleged Islamization of the political system. For the left, the fear that secularism is being threatened and its many questions about the AK Party led to it taking the position of “neither the coup nor the AK Party,” in other words, not taking a side. “The Turkish left thinks the Ergenekon investigation is basically a power struggle within the system and is not related to democratization. In the past it suffered much in scenarios of the elephant fight, the grass is torn up. Now, the Turkish left is not able to choose between the elephants,” Demirdöðen says. Ufuk Uras, Ýstanbul deputy and the leader of the Freedom and Solidarity Party (ÖDP), says there are many reasons for the hesitation of the left regarding the Ergenekon investigation but that the fundamental one is the weakness of the left in general. “One cannot argue that the left is performing well in other areas but is crippled on the issue of Ergenekon. Currently the leftist movement is so weak that it cannot have much of an influence on the matter,” Uras notes. Sancar recalls that some leftists are trying to downplay the Ergenekon operation because they don’t want to be perceived as allies of the AK Party. This is why they are expending most of their energy emphasizing that they are opposed to coups; meanwhile, the AK Party speaks all the time about the practical mistakes and violations of rights during the operations in order to convey that the result of the Ergenekon operation will not be an enhancement of democracy. Sancar says he understands the left’s suspicions regarding the Ergenekon operation, but that this does not mean it should stand back and not take a side. “To expect that during a power struggle in the system a part of the system will be able to take radical steps forward is absurd,” he states, adding: “The real focus of the left should be taking advantage of the opportunity to confront the past regardless of who was guilty of what. And this does not mean being blind to the insincerity of the AK Party or ignoring social problems.” Uras suggests that the left must struggle against the neo-liberal policies of the AK Party and also the coup attempts. Oran, however, is not hopeful for the future of the left in the short term. He says the hesitation of the left regarding the Ergenekon investigation will cause the already weak left to reach its weakest point. “Only after experiencing the utmost disgrace will the left have the impetus to improve.”
SUNDAY’S ZAMAN 05
S U N D AY, J U LY 2 7 , 2 0 0 8
most don’t have work permits. They need our help. We consider the problems they encounter as “problems of humanity,” he said. An administrator from the Ribat Education Foundation, who asked to remain anonymous, noted that his association meets the basic needs of around 45 refugee families from Palestine, Somalia and Bangladesh. “These refugees took shelter in Turkey because of the civil wars in their countries. They are in need of help because they can’t work to earn the money to meet their basic needs. We give these people food, clothes and other basic supplies. Some other civil society organizations help us in our efforts, too,” he said. The official also defined his association as an organization that acts like a bridge be-
tween the “giving and taking of hands”. Bulan called on all nongovernmental organizations to be more sensitive about refugees and asylum seekers, saying these people should be given a chance to lead a life under the better conditions they long for. “We shouldn’t forget that these people left their countries because conditions forced them to do so. You know, people don’t have the chance to select the country they are born in. If they had not faced intolerable conditions and had been given the chance to lead humane lives, they wouldn’t have left their countries. However, what we are observing is that local officials, such as governors and mayors, make their lives more difficult,” he said. He also recalled that a group of illegal mi-
‘Assisting refugees contributes to universal peace’ Hayrettin Bulan, the head of the Konya-based Compassion Association (Þefkat-Der), a group that runs women’s and refugees’ shelters and works on behalf of oppressed peoples, said refugees in Turkey have to live under unfavorable conditions even though their primary reason for leaving their own countries was the wish to live under better conditions. “We have been lending a helping hand to refugees in Turkey for the last four years. Since then we have accommodated more than 1,000 refugees in the shelters we constructed. What we have observed up until now is that refugees in our country have to struggle to live under tough conditions,” he stated. Bulan stressed that all aid flowing to refugees and asylum seekers contributes to universal peace and friendship. “These people [refugees and asylum seekers] leave their countries because they are forced to. Some prefer to take shelter in Turkey, but don’t have the means to meet their needs, because
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grants drowned when a boat capsized near Ýzmir’s Seferihisar region last December. “Nearly 50 people lost their lives in that tragedy in search of a better life. They wouldn’t have risked their lives if they had been living under favorable conditions, would they? Thus, at this point we need to criticize ourselves, because we are, though partially, responsible for their deaths,” he remarked. Bulan added that people from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds bring diversity to Turkey. “It was not possible to see people from different nationalities in our city a few years ago, but today we have foreigners hanging out in the streets. These people turn our city into a mosaic, bringing together different nationalities,” he said.
contýnued from page 1 “You can’t imagine the situation in Somalia. One wouldn’t want to live there. The war continues without stop. Dozens of people die each day for nothing. My mother and I left Somalia for better living conditions and ended up in Turkey,” Besma says, telling Sunday’s Zaman about the adventure that took her to a foreign country. Besma’s father was kidnapped in Somalia by some men she refers to as the “mafia” when she was 10 years old. “I don’t know why they kidnapped him. Then we heard that they had killed my father. They wanted to kidnap me, too, but my mother saved me. One day she decided to leave Somalia and took me with her. This is how the story began,” she says. Besma is only one of thousands of refugees and asylum seekers taking shelter in Turkey who abandoned their poverty and disasterstricken countries for better living conditions. Another one is Muhammad Ali, who left his country, Sudan, years ago and settled in Turkey. “It was really hard to live in my country. Tens of thousands of people lost their lives in the civil war and many others had to leave their homes. I was one of those who had to abandon their homeland and take refuge in a foreign country,” he said, adding that the terrible developments in his country took his life in an unexpected direction. “The civil war in Sudan became intolerable, especially after 2002. War brings nothing to people but death and pain. People in my country need bread and water, not weapons. The world remains silent about the ongoing tragedy in Sudan. Those who have settled in other countries cannot communicate with their relatives in Sudan, as there is no means of communication there. I don’t know what my mother and sister are doing, or even whether or not they are alive,” Muhammad said. Like many other countries, Turkey is no paradise for refugees and asylum seekers. They have to wait four years on average to begin a new life in a third country and, during these four years, they don’t generally have the means to integrate into Turkish society or find work. They have to pay YTL 370 every six months for their residence permits, and usually they can’t afford this. The children of asylum seekers are able to go to school, and the asylum seekers are provided with basic health services, but treatment is lacking for serious illnesses. Their needs are met by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the government, civil society organizations and municipalities. However, both Besma and Muhammad express gratitude for the helping hand the Turkish nation and civil society organizations have extended to them during their stay in Turkey. “The Turkish people helped us a great deal on various issues. They gave us food and clothes. They gave us a place to take shelter in. We stayed for months in the shelter of a civil society organization. Then the Konya Governor’s Office rented a house for us and paid our rent every month. Turks are charitable and loving people,” says Besma. Muhammad says he will never forget the help he received from the Turkish people. “I fell ill twice while I was staying in the province of Konya. I was taken to a state hospital. Doctors examined me there and gave me medicine. I can never forget the help I received from the Turkish people. If the civil war in my country comes to an end one day and I return to my homeland, I will tell everyone about the charitable Turks. Sudanese people love Turks so very much,” he says.
Aid associations lend helping hand to disaster-stricken refugees
06 SUNDAY’S ZAMAN
SUNDAY, JULY 27, 2008
Turkýsh tour agencýes accuse Russýan press of smear tactýcs Some minor incidents happening to Russian holidaymakers are reflected in the Russian media on distorted mirrors, accusing Turkish hoteliers of intentionally disturbing Russians by depriving them of basic accomodation needs. Antalya’s business tycoons, on the other hand, believe they hold no responsibility in troubles touching Russian visitors. Some even think rival tourism destinations are supporting smear campaigns
Turkish tourism agencies have accused the Russian press of exaggerating minor problems in Turkey’s tour and hotel operations and distorting the truth in its reporting on these issues. A number of newspapers in Russia had strongly criticized Turkey for not providing Russian tourists with accommodation after hotels would not honor bookings from Russian tour operators Lora Tour, Palmira Tour, Grand Voyi, Aztur, Visma and Luk Tour, all of which went bankrupt last year. On July 14, officials at Antalya’s International Airport denied a Russian plane carrying 120 students permission to land on the grounds that it did not fully meet safety criteria. The plane had to head back to Moscow, and its passengers took another flight three hours later to their destination, where they had planned to spend one week on vacation. Their tour operator failed to meet them and eventually these students were sent to Alanya by mistake, though their actual destination was Kemer. The Russian press said the actions by Turkish tourism agencies and hotels were intentionally committed. One newspaper even wrote, “The Russian tourists were left hungry and thirsty in Antalya’s Kemer.” Antalya’s tourism figures indicate that such reporting is harming Turkey’s image among Russian holidaymakers and leading these tourists to choose alternative destinations in the Mediterranean. Turkish Hoteliers Federation (TÜROFED) Chairman Ahmet Barut stated that what Turkey needs is a top-notch promotion program and effective lobbying activities in Russia rather than mere advertising campaigns. “There should be a positive image of Turkey in Russia. Russians should understand that Turkey is not Egypt. Russian visitors encountered many problems in Egypt last summer that occupied the public agenda for weeks. It seems that in Russians’ eyes, Turkey is a very similar country to Egypt, and based on this false assumption, the Russian media exaggerate the negative events in Turkey a lot,” noted Barut.
KENAN BAÞ / ÞABAN GÜNDÜZ ANTALYA
Just landed at Antalya airport, Russian tourists are waiting for their luggage. More than 5 million Russian vacationers visited Turkey last year. Barut stated that the Russian press is conducting a smear campaign against Turkey. “Turkey held no direct responsibility in the recent case in which 120 students ended up in the wrong place due to the poor organization of their tour operator. Russian tour operators are making serious mistakes, but Turkey is being forced to pay the cost,” remarked Barut. Barut recommended a list of urgent measures to prevent similar problems from occurring again. He noted that the priority should be placing more emphasis on clear communication among all involved
parties. Tour operators, hotels and other agencies must meet strict guidelines and be closely monitored, he noted. The tour operators that fail to meet must be barred from operating in this business, he added. An insurance system for foreign visitors should be introduced in which every single tourist entering Turkey is automatically insured, Barut suggested. Spain, Greece and Greek Cyprus, which are Turkey’s biggest rivals in tourism in the Mediterranean basin, are pleased about the bad press that Turkey has received in Russia since this
will help them attract more Russian visitors, Tourism Journalists Association (TUYED) Chairman Kerem Köfteoðlu said. He claimed that Turkey’s rivals are encouraging the Russian media to publish more negative news stories about Turkey. Turkey has the eighth fastest growing tourism revenue in the world, and it is among the top 20 countries in the world in terms of number of foreign visitors. Around 27 million visitors spent $18.5 billion in the country in 2007. This number is expected to rise even further this year.
The World Tourism Organization also confirmed Turkey’s leading position recently, selecting it as Europe’s fastest developing tourism destination. Russia is one of Turkey’s best customers, sending over 5 million tourists annually, with Antalya being the most favored destination among Russian tourists. Russian Federation Consul General in Antalya Mircalol Husanov said tourism has brought Turkey and Russia closer to one another, adding that relations had been adversely affected by such problems as the bankruptcies of certain tour companies. Husanov recalled that Vasco-Detur -- a Russian company that continued to sell tour packages last year despite the fact it knew it was going bankrupt -was the first in a string of such problems, adding that such companies must be brought to justice. After many tourism operators went bankrupt in Russia last year, the Russian government made it a requirement for tour companies to have at least $400,000 of capital. “More than 2 million Russian tourists came to Antalya last year. If these unfortunate incidents had not occurred this number could have reached 2.5 million,” he said. Husanov advised Russians to book tours from professional companies that have good reputations in order not to run into problems. At the same time, he suggested that hoteliers in Antalya must provide the highest quality of service and entertainment to keep their Russian customers coming back. “It is the hotels that make the greatest impression. My advice to the hoteliers is that they should not make concessions on quality. Taking shortcuts on quality in their businesses will definitely harm their reputations,” he noted. Husanov said Turkey has the best hotels in the world. “There might be some people in Russia who for various reasons feel uneasy about traveling to Turkey. A recent example was when there was a traffic accident in Antalya which involved a Russian citizen. Russian TV stations broadcast news about this accident constantly; it was shown on news programs every hour. There was really no need to show it that much.”
It pays to be cheap, sometýmes There's no such thing as a free lunch, except in Turkey. Here in the land of "devlet baba" companies act as parents -- and what parent wouldn't feed its children? Thus the common practice of providing lunch to workers, either in the company cafeteria or with restaurant vouchers. The only trouble with the custom: If you treat workers like children, they will act like children. It's a terrible thing to see a 34-year-old woman crying because her manager canceled the company petrol card. "I want my BP!" The smart manager wants to prevent workers throwing temper tantrums. Say a baby gets hold of your cell phone. The child will wail if you snatch away its "toy," but will quickly get over the loss if you replace the item with another, even if the new plaything is a bright red washcloth and not a YTL 800 Nokia. The same is true of adult workers, who will resent any move to take away a perk. So if you stop providing health insurance, be sure to offer a consolation prize, like free parking. Workers will even complain if the company seems to be cheap in any way. A friend complained to me last week when his manager staged a business retreat outside Ýstanbul and expected the workers to pay for their own transportation. The secret here is to start cheap, to make it clear from a person's first day on the job that he or she should not expect much from the company. You can say it's a small, struggling company. You can say times are hard. This involves some sleight of hand if you are indeed BP, but even there I am sure they have an executive whose sole duty is making employees believe that all those billions of petrodollars don't really amount to much when you get to the very end of the pipeline. Most managers will find it very easy to diminish expectations. My first editor was an expert. After he hired me, he suggested that I find a flat downtown near the office so that I could easily walk to school board meetings, the court house, wherever. The newspaper used cars to deliver the papers, not gather the news. This man was taking something away, the car, before he
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BY THE WATER COOLER
gave it, but he still understood the psychology of providing a replacement item, in my case two items, a pen and a notebook. The editor handed me a Bic ballpoint pen and a reporter's notebook. Now at that time a Bic pen retailed for 19 cents, but my editor knew the transformative power of adding value with a philosophical association. "The pen is mightier than the sword," he said, handing me the tools of my profession. "Wield it with care." He then showed me my desk, a steel beast strong enough to support a massive Underwood typewriter, circa 1948, itself heavy enough to anchor the QE2. I noticed the typewriter had no ribbon, wondered if I should mention it, but I hesitated to ask for a new one, for I might have to pay for it. That hesitation -- I had paid my first dividend on the editor's poor-company ploy. He went into his office -- the only one in the newsroom with a door -- and I quickly filched a ribbon from another typewriter. I focused all attention on the beast as I spooled on my newfound ribbon, then I became aware of the editor at my shoulder… oh God, had he seen me steal this ribbon? A confidential word he wanted. "By the way," he mumbled, "I forgot to mention, but if you need lunch money, just see Betty -- she's in charge of petty cash and can give you an advance on your pay." My heart warmed to this quiet man… not only a father figure, but a friend. The editor of a great daily newspaper had actually thought about me and my stomach.
SUNDAY’S ZAMAN 07
S U N D AY, J U LY 2 7 , 2 0 0 8
What ýs the dollar’s sustaýnable value?
Japan’s consumers under strain as prices surge REUTERS PHOTO
Inflation in Japan is rising at its fastest pace in 15 years, reducing the prospect of any serious decoupling from American and European woes and pushing the world’s secondlargest economy closer to the brink of stagnation. Driven by dramatic advances in the cost of fuel, food and the imported raw materials on which the Japanese industrial juggernaut depends, average prices in June surged by 1.9 percent from a year earlier. The rise marked the ninth consecutive month in which the core consumer price index has lurched higher and is the sharpest non-tax-related spike since 1992. The return to inflation comes after a lengthy period in which Japan was gripped by its exact opposite: a seemingly unbreakable cycle in which prices were generally falling and companies were unable to generate much in the way of a consumer boom. However, analysts are convinced that Japan is now experiencing “bad” inflation. Hiroko Ota, the Economy Minister, said: “I am concerned that rising prices are putting a considerable burden on consumers. I am worried about the steep price rises amid an economic slowdown.” There are few signs that the relentless rise in prices is about to stop. Japanese companies, from food-makers to engineers, have announced an extensive series of price increases that are due to hit consumers’ wallets between now and the end of September. The list includes possible 17 percent price rises for fish, chicken and ham, and 33 percent increases for dairy products. By the alarming standards of inflation elsewhere in Asia -- economies such as
How much further will the dollar fall? Or has it already fallen so far that it will now start to move back to a higher level? For travelers to the United States from Europe or Asia, US prices are dramatically lower than at home. A hotel room or dinner in New York seems a bargain when compared to prices in London, Paris, or Tokyo. And shoppers from abroad are loading up on a wide range of products before heading home. But, despite this very tangible evidence, it would be wrong to conclude that US goods are now so cheap at the existing exchange rate that the dollar must rise from its current level. Although the goods and services that travelers buy may cost less in the US than abroad, the overall price of American products is still too high to erase the enormous trade imbalance between the US and the rest of the world. To be sure, the falling dollar over the past few years has made American products more competitive and has caused the real value of US exports to rise sharply - by more than 25 percent over the past three years. But the trade deficit in 2007 nevertheless remained at more than $700 billion, or 5 percent of GDP. The large trade deficit and equally large current account deficit (which includes net investment income) implies that foreign investors must add $700 billion of US securities to their portfolios. It is their unwillingness to do so at the existing exchange rate that causes the dollar to fall relative to other currencies. In falling, the dollar lowers the value of the dollar securities in foreign portfolios when valued in euros or other home currencies,
Malaysia and Vietnam are facing rates of more than 25 percent -- the increase in Japan’s CPI appears modest. However, analysts gave warning that its effects on consumer sentiment could be devastating. The surge in prices coincides with gloomy signs from Japan’s export sector -- the engine room of the economy. The government said on Friday that shipments in June had fallen by 1.7 percent, a modest drop, but the first decline in 55 consecutive months. With corporate profitability on the ropes, many Japanese employers have not increased their employees’ salaries for a long time -- a ploy that they could get away with during the era of deflation.
Hiroshi Shiraishi, Japan economist for Lehman Brothers, said: “With wage inflation locked at zero, this jump in inflation is basically going to mean a real-income loss for Japanese households. Having lived for so long in deflation, people are getting worried and their reaction will be to tighten their purse strings even further.” Such a scenario, Shiraishi added, would cause severe difficulties for an economy in which consumer spending represents 55 percent of GDP. Throughout the deflationary era, one school of thought about investment in Japan held that the return of inflation would eventually kick-start the consumer economy. © The Times, London
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Martin Feldstein* SUNDAY’S ZAMAN
shrinking the share of dollars in investors’ portfolios. The weaker dollar also reduces the risk of future dollar decline, because it means that the dollar has to fall less in the future to shift the trade balance to a sustainable level. But what is that sustainable level of the trade balance and of the dollar? While experts try to work this out in terms of portfolio balances, a more fundamental starting point is the fact that a US trade deficit means that Americans receive more goods and services from the rest of the world than they send back -- $700 billion more last year. The difference was financed by transferring stocks and bonds worth $700 billion. The interest and dividends on those securities will be paid by sending more “pieces of paper.” And when those securities mature, they will be refinanced with new stocks and bonds. It is unthinkable that the global economic system will continue indefinitely to allow the US to import more goods and services than it exports. At some point, the US will need to start repaying the enormous amount that it has received from the rest of the world. To do so, the US will need a trade surplus. So the key determinant of the dollar’s long-term value is that it must decline enough to shift the US trade balance from today’s deficit to a surplus. That won’t happen anytime soon, but it is the direction in which the trade balance must con-
tinue to move. And that means further depreciation of the dollar. An important factor in this process will be the future price of oil and the extent of US dependence on oil imports. In each of the past four years, the US imported 3.6 billion barrels of oil. At the current price of more than $140 a barrel, that implies an import cost of more than $500 billion. The higher the cost of oil, the lower the dollar has to be to achieve any given reduction in the size of the trade deficit. So a rising oil price as measured in euros or yen implies a greater dollar fall, and therefore an even higher oil price when stated in dollars. There is one further important consideration in thinking about the future value of the dollar: relative inflation rates in the US and abroad. The US trade deficit depends on the real value of the dollar -- that is, the value of the dollar adjusted for differences in price levels in the US and abroad. If the US experiences higher inflation than our trading partners, the dollar’s nominal value must fall even further just to maintain the same real value. The inflation differential between the dollar and the euro is now relatively small - only about one percentage point a year -- but is greater relative to the yen and lower relative to the renminbi and other high-inflation currencies. Over the longer run, however, inflation differentials could be a more significant force in determining the dollar’s path. * Martin Feldstein, a professor of economics at Harvard, was formerly Chairman of President Ronald Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisors and President of the National Bureau for Economic Research. © Project Syndicate 2008
08 SUNDAY’S ZAMAN
SUNDAY, JULY 27, 2008
Ergenekon: Turkey’s best chance to shed lýght on ýts shady past Former Turkish Parliament Speaker Bülent Arýnç, who says that unsolved murders from the recent past in Turkey have been covered up, says: 'But now the circumstances have changed. There is a powerful administration in place, and it is standing firmly behind the police forces. I believe that, at the very least, this period provides the opportunity for an analysis to be made of the past 50 years' to research that. But the whole investigation itself has pushed the DTP into a state of worry and I think this is very significant. I do not know what kinds of ties they have to Ergenekon or what the dimensions might be. But it seems as though they have received orders saying, "Don't get involved in the Ergenekon investigation," with the goal of not having these ties revealed. This state of mind is one that has become a subject of debate within their own ranks. While, on the one hand, they are supporting the investigation proposed by Ufuk Uras, on the other hand their own parliamentary group meetings are full of cries of, "Let's not get involved in this business!" This means that, in the end, they are not very different from [CHP leader] Deniz Baykal. Baykal is getting involved, but from the opposing side. But these are people who are nowhere to be seen when it comes to the real places that need investigation. There was a long period of time that passed between the July 22, 2007 general elections and March 14, when the closure case against the AK Party was announced. Was it not a mistake that, during this period of time, your most important election prom-
ise -- that of a civilian constitution -- did not reach the agenda of Parliament? I too was involved in some of the sections of work on this civilian constitution. The debates did last quite long. We last met in the month of November, and some advances were made. In the month of January we decided that we would give ourselves a three-month period of time in which these debates could continue and that, in the month of April, we would bring this business to Parliament's agenda. Then, after the month of January, the whole headscarf debate entered onto the agenda. The arguments over this lasted for about two months. I suppose that one of the biggest reasons behind the opening up of the court case to close down the AK Party actually has to do with the attempts to bring about the civilian constitution. So you are not blaming yourselves for the lateness on this matter? Well, there might have been some neglectfulness, or lateness, yes.
ly lift these sorts of barriers? Unfortunately, we did bring the concept of the "secret" to the agenda of Parliament, but we have not been able to debate it yet. While I was parliament speaker, we attempted to lift the barriers in the way of commissions when it came to working with events categorized as "state secrets" or "trade secrets." What we wanted was to bring in permanent regulations making it possible for Parliament to debate and discuss events or factors classified as "secret" in closed sessions. But we were unable to make this happen. We are talking about the past 15 to 16 years here. Unfortunately, there have always been barriers and hindrances in the way of actual research and investigation into these sorts of events. Certain people and factions have always done their best to prevent this sort of investigation. … In the year 2000 I was the deputy chairman of the parliamentary group of the Virtue Party [FP]. We presented a request for a parliamentary investigation into Hizbullah at that time. One month after we had submitted this request -- Saadettin Tantan was the interior minister at the time -- the Hizbullah operations began. These things happened at the same time. And we said, "Let's look into what this Hizbullah really is, what it isn't, when it was formed, who it is working against, and what their real aim is." We even asked out loud if Hizbullah was being supported by forces either from within the state or outside the state. There was, at the time, a three-way coalition. What this did in effect was to set in place an atmosphere where this situation couldn't be debated or discussed. Then, exactly a year later, there was the assassination of Gaffar Okan [the former police chief of Diyarbakýr] in the month of April. When this happened, we renewed our request for a parliamentary investigation. But again, we did not debate or discuss it. In other words, there really always has been a thick layer covering draped over these types of events. What is different about today? The five years of the AK Party government is different from the past on two fronts. First, there is a single-party government that displays political determination. It is going into the events and it has decided to follow the entire web of relations wherever it goes. Second, our police forces are much more equipped technically and by means of human resources now. When they have the political will on their side, they are able to go into the events with all their might. So are you saying that the investigation into the Susurluk event actually got stuck because of the coalition government? Yes, that's true. Why weren't we able to see behind the curtains in Susurluk? Because our partner had connections with certain events at hand. While not a single person involved closely in Susurluk had so much as a grandfather from the RP, there were literally people from the right and the left of the Çillers involved in that event. For Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan, the continuation of this coalition was very important, which is why this event was covered over. And this is why the RP really lost a lot of its prestige in this event. It was unable to say, "Do whatever needs to be done," to the security forces at the time. And so that whole business unfortunately just stopped there. And in the case of the Þemdinli bombings, that too was not followed up on. It's true, we experienced the same sort of thing with Þemdinli to some extent. Is the fact that other political parties are not viewing the Ergenekon investigation as a "cleansing of Turkey's intestines" (to use your expression) not a weakness? I didn't use the expression "Turkey is cleaning its intestines" just for the Ergenekon organization or about people whose names were mentioned. I was trying to voice the sounds of all the people who wanted to have a society clean of all criminal organizations running after personal or political interests. Well, the situation with the Republican People's Party [CHP] is already clear for everyone to see, so I won't comment on that. The situation with the Democratic Society Party [DTP] is interesting. … I ask my DTP friends, "Where do you stand on Ergenekon?" They remain silent or they talk all sorts of nonsense, saying, "Well, they have not arrested the real guilty ones, let's look into this or that." So, according to them, we need to research this and we need
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contýnued from page 1 "Why weren't we able to see behind the curtains in Susurluk? Because our partner, DYP, had connections with certain events at hand," he told Sunday's Zaman in an interview. "For Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan [former RP leader], the continuation of this coalition was very important, which is why this event was covered over. And which is why the RP really lost a lot of its prestige in this event. It was unable to say, 'Do whatever needs to be done,' to the security forces at the time. And so that whole business unfortunately just stopped there," Arýnç said. Arýnç also noted that previous attempts by Parliament to investigate unsolved murders have always encountered a variety of barriers and obstacles. But he stressed that the current Ergenekon case is following a different course than similar cases in the past, and that the recent developments in fact call for some indepth analysis of the events of the past 50 years in Turkey. How far back might this investigation take us? Could it reach all the way to unsolved events from the past? It is, of course, better not to come up with a series of fantasy scenarios. Could Ergenekon have anything to do with the murders of people such as Uður Mumcu, Muammer Aksoy, Bahriye Üçok and Hamit Fendoðlu? Well, it might, but then again it might not. Sometimes when something new emerges into the daylight, it is a mistake to try and connect everything else with it. Of course, it is a separate reality of its own that the people accused of crimes in this case did in fact plan, plot and cooperate with various other people from within a certain organization. If we could find the answers to questions like, "What is this extreme rightist doing next to this extreme leftist? And, if this is a movement backed by rightists, why are there extreme leftists involved in this all?" then I think everything would be much easier to understand. On the other hand, if in fact there really is a large target that these people were aiming for and, if everything written in the "red book" was really what they wanted to carry out or, if what is being said is, "We are the real owners of this government and of this state; everything is up to us; we will plan it all out, and nothing can stop us," when you are trying to shed light on this kind of organization, it doesn't matter how far back you go, it is not an easy thing to reveal the real events at hand. I think that certain important clues will be found and, if certain key names can be accused by using some of the evidence and proof that will emerge, then the curtain really might be lifted on certain events from the past. I personally believe that it is not just the unsolved murders from the past few years that need to be solved, but that we need to engage in an in-depth analysis of the events of the past 50 years in Turkey. This is something that needs to be done. It seems as though in very recent years, there are really no unsolved events left. Yes, one of the most important characteristics of the past five or six years has been that suspects in cases like this have been caught on a regular basis. And a great number of these have actually been tried in court, rather than being covered over, as in the past. What was the reason that the Parliamentary Research Commission was not able bring some very critical facts in these cases into the open? Unfortunately, this is an important problem in Parliament. Between 1991 and 1995 there was an Unsolved Events Research Commission that was under the leadership of Sadýk Avundukluoðlu. And this commission, while actually carrying out the research, kept meeting with all sorts of barriers. In fact, the Parliament leadership made the decision not to print the report presented by this commission. So the commission wound up being forced to print their own findings, in a book form, on their own. But why? Well, they heard a command to stop from the military, as well as from civilians and the police. These factions did not let people take a look at the files from this commission. As it is, the Parliament Research Commission is really not very functional. It doesn't bring about any political results. They are unable to do anything in the face of the phenomenon of state secrets and trade secrets. But doesn't it fall to Parliament to actual-
SUNDAY’S ZAMAN 09
SUNDAY, JULY 27, 2008
featuring olive oil saves lives TALAT ALKAN ÝSTANBUL
Dr. Dimitrios Trichopoulos
A weekly diet from Dr. Trichopoulos: A weekly diet for adults should include fresh salads, cooked salads, pulse legumes, grains (particularly pasta) and fruits Fish should be consumed twice a week Red meat should appear on the dinner table four times a month at maximum Grains and dairy products like yoghurt and cheese should always appear in measured form on the table Exercise is always an important part of a healthy life, and it manages to complete and fulfill a true Mediterranean Diet Walking briskly for 30 minutes per day or just dancing are actually activities that provide the same level of advantages
diet is rich in unprocessed grains. While animal proteins are supplied more by fish than by meats and dairy products, this doesn’t mean that meat is forbidden. And dairy products do have a place in the Mediterranean diet, though generally in the form of cheese and yoghurt. How long has your research been going on? The work on the Mediterranean diet has been going on for around 30 years now, under the leadership of Professor Antonia Trichopoulos and her team. I am a member of this team, providing information and expertise on the branch that concerns epidemic diseases. In this branch, we prepared another measure that includes the essence of the Mediterranean diet, which was to show that
this way of eating affects the incidences of coronary disease, as well as the lifestyles of people who have had heart attacks and the incidences of cancer. We looked into all of this. This was research that we started in Greece, but which later we also carried out in other European countries and in Australia. Do you know much about Turkish cuisine? I know that Turkish cuisine is much loved in Greece, and that there are many shared tastes between our two countries. Is there are any particular diet or way of eating that you espouse personally? As much as possible, I try to stay faithful to the classic Mediterranean diet. As I have said, there is lots of oil in this menu, but it is mostly olive oil. By following this diet closely, you can enjoy a healthy and long life. What basic foods are the basis for the Mediterranean diet, and what are their advantages? Most of the foods at the foundation of this way of eating are vegetables, fruits, unprocessed or slightly processed grains and pulse legumes. But I should remind you that this is no vegetarian diet. It is a way of eating that recognizes the wisdom of including small amounts of red meat and dairy products, and supports the consumption of fish. Which specific diseases does this way of eating prevent? First of all, the Mediterranean diet prevents heart disease. Whether you are talking about blocked arteries or people who have experienced heart attacks, the effects of this diet in blocking crises involving the heart have been definitively detected. Spanish scientists have produced new research showing that the Mediterranean diet might also reduce the risk of diabetes. I think there needs to be even more research on this subject. There are also new pieces of research showing that a Mediterranean diet can even reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, though general agreement has not come about on this conclusion yet.
After conducting a long-term research project, Dr. Dimitrios Trichopoulos of Harvard University has announced that a Mediterranean diet can work to reduce the risk of cancer. He calls for a way of eating that includes less in the way of animal-based foods and more in the way of fruits and vegetables, which results in the lengthening of life expectancy and an increase in quality of life. Last week, Harvard University released a report that detailed the results of research carried out involving 26,000 Greeks over a period of eight years. In this report it was concluded that a Mediterranean diet actually reduces the risk of cancer by 22 percent. According to this research, people who keep away from meat and dairy products and stick more closely to vegetables and fruits also manage to distance themselves from cancer. Simply replacing butter with olive oil and meat with pulse legumes brings the risk of cancer down by 12 percent. We met with Dr. Trichopoulos and talked to him about this Mediterranean diet. Trichopulous, who has been assisted by his wife, Antonia, in this research for the past 30 years, insists that, when implemented thoroughly, the Mediterranean diet not only sharply reduces heart problems, but also extends life spans and reduces the risk of cancer. What makes the Mediterranean diet different from other nutritional systems? There are many ways of eating that insist that consuming very little oil in your food is the healthiest way to go. The traditional Mediterranean diet, on the other hand, actually includes a high level of oil. In fact, around 40 percent of the total calories in this diet come from oils. But most of this oil is olive oil, which has the characteristic of being saturated. In fact, olive oil sits at the center of the Mediterranean diet; its importance is not just in its special characteristics as an oil, but as an oil in which to cook vegetables and pulse beans and such. And only the Mediterranean
The unique Melis Göral Color Therapy 2008 Jewelry Collection dazzles Jewelry designer Melis Göral has signed off on a special gathering to introduce her first collection, which she named “Color Therapy.” This crowded gathering allowed guests to get a firsthand glimpse of pieces from this special collection. Jewelry pieces from the Melis Göral Color Therapy 2008 Jewelry Collection feature largely carnelian stones mixed with diamonds and gold. The Melis Göral collection was created and designed under the inspiration of the colors, liveliness and natural beauty of these stones. Each individual piece is expected to create special feelings in the people who wear them. The collection aims to protect the forms of these special stones.
50% off at Çift Geyik Karaca Çift Geyik Karaca, with its influential men's and women's fashion items, calls out to fashion lovers with its sales of up to 50 percent. Çift Geyik Karaca 2008 summer season pieces focus on unique styles and pieces for those who love to wear distinct clothing in chic and modern designs. The pure energy of nature is reflected in these designs and colors: bone, beige, grey, pink, salmon, purple, red and black contrasts. Dresses cut in feminine lines, using satin, viscose, crepe and linen textiles. As for the Çift Geyik Karaca menswear collection, there is a focus on design and color.
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Tergan offers comfortable and chic high fashion items for leather lovers this summer A leading name in the leather accessory sector, Tergan brightens up shopping for shoe lovers with its chic and special sales campaigns. Customers will love the current sales of up to 50 percent on all its items. Large-sized handbags designed using soft, washed and crispy leather attract fashion lovers, as do smaller handbags featuring classic and lined designs. In the men’s shoes collection this season, Tergan boasts comfortable and chic models that can be combined with large men’s bags. There are also wallets, belts, travel kits, cigarette holders, water flasks and many other items appealing to men in this season’s Tergan men’s collection. For more information, visit www.tergan.com.tr
10 SUNDAY’S ZAMAN
S U N D AY, J U LY 2 7 , 2 0 0 8
CULTURAL AGENDA CONCERTS Turkish jazz pianist-composer Kerem Görsev and American jazz singer Larry O'Neill share the same stage for a concert at the Bodrum Castle on Aug. 2 at 9 p.m. Tickets, with prices ranging from YTL 34 to YTL 56, can be purchased at www.biletix.com Lenny Kravitz will be onstage at Ýstanbul's Turkcell Kuruçeþme Arena on Wednesday night for an eagerly anticipated concert that will also be the closing concert of this year's Ýstanbul International Jazz Festival. Tickets at www.biletix.com Icelandic singer Björk will take to the Turkcell Kuruçeþme Arena stage on Aug. 3 at 9 p.m. Tickets, priced at YTL 90, can be purchased at Biletix.com The fifth Gümüþlük Classical Music Festival runs until Aug. 3 in the southwestern holiday resort town of Bodrum, featuring recitals by famous virtuosos at Eklisia, an art centre located in a Byzantine church. Admission is free of charge for all concerts.
FILM SCREENING Forty-two Turkish and foreign movies will be offered in the lineup of the open-air movie nights in this year's Enka Summer Events in Ýstanbul. The program, slated to run until Sept. 15 at the Ýstinye Sadi Gülçelik Sports Complex's Enka Eþref Denizhan Open-air Theater, will open on Aug. 1 with a screening of "Hancock" at 9:15 p.m. www.enkasanat.org The July program of the Ýstanbul Museum of Modern Art's movie theater features three films about design and architecture: "Sketches of Frank Gehry," Sydney Pollack's 2005 documentary about architect Frank Gehry, and two episodes of BBC's Imagine series -- "Inside Out" by James Hunt and "Marc Newson: Urban Spaceman" by Zoe Silver. Showings are admission-free for museum visitors. Full program at: www.istanbulmodern.org
PERFORMING ARTS "Troya," the latest dance production by the Anadolu Ateþi (Fire of Anatolia) dance company, will be staged on July 29, at 9:15 p.m. at the newly opened Aspendos Arena in Antalya. Tickets, priced at YTL 70, can be purchased at www.biletix.com
EXHIBITIONS The Akbank Art Center in Ýstanbul hosts the 27th Contemporary Artists Ýstanbul Exhibition, until July 31, showcasing works of art by nine young artists. Tel.: (212) 252 3500 Around 30 panoramic pictures of Ýstanbul, by Tacettin Ulaþ, are on show at the sports complex of the former Bayrampaþa Prison in Ýstanbul, which was recently closed and handed over to the Greater Ýstanbul Municipality. The "360 Degrees Panoramic Ýstanbul Photographs" exhibition runs until Aug. 6. The art gallery of Ýstanbul's Çýraðan Palace Kempinski is hosting a retrospective of its exhibitions from over the last year, showcasing a selection of works by artists Hikmet Barutçugil, Ýsmail Acar, Devrim Erbil and Sýtký Olçar, among others. The exhibition can be viewed every day until Aug. 26. Ýstanbul's Teþvikiye Art Gallery holds its 2008 summer exhibition, showcasing works by such famous Turkish artists as Komet, Mahir Güven and Þahin Paksoy. Titled "Yazlýklar" (Summer Picks), the exhibit runs until Aug. 30. Tel.: (212) 247 7475 The photography exhibition "Baykuþun Kareleri" (The Owl's Frames) at Ýstanbul's Pera Museum celebrates the 30th anniversary of the Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University's photography department. The show runs until Aug. 31. Tel.: (212) 211 4100 A retrospective titled "Assorted Cocktail" by Magnum photographer Martin Parr is on display at the SantralÝstanbul's main gallery on the third floor until Oct. 30. Open every day 10 a.m. to 8 p.m., except Mondays. Tel.: (212) 311 7360
‘Meze: Medýterranean-style Eatýng’ MARION JAMES ÝSTANBUL
Summertime, and the livin' is easy Fish are jumpin' and the cotton is fine. The languid voice of Billie Holliday perfectly interpreted the feelings of long, hot, lazy summer days immortalized in George and Ira Gershwin's classic song. As I walk to work and see the cats curled up on the sidewalk, too hot to even be bothered to stretch out a paw to swipe a passing fly, this refrain comes to mind. On a hot summer's day, the last thing a cook wants to do is slave over a hot oven. Guests cannot face a full three-course cooked meal, either. In the northern hemisphere, July and August are the months for salads, and cookery and lifestyle programs encourage us to build a deck (the modern name for what a previous generation called a patio) in our gardens for an outdoor meal. It is also the time when men undergo a transformation. Instead of sitting in front of the TV asking when dinner will be ready, they are busy finding charcoal and firelighters. Their apron comes out of the store cupboard, and they take up residence as King of the Barbecue, discussing marinades and techniques for char-grilling with their admiring guests. If summer gourmet is a new fashion in northern Europe, fueled by lifestyle TV programs and summer holidays abroad, we must recognize that it has been a standard way of life in southern Europe for centuries, even millennia. Roman mosaics (such as the wonderful examples in the Gaziantep and Antakya Museums) show tables laden with small dishes of wonderfully light food. In Spain, these are called tapas. In Greece, Turkey and the eastern Mediterranean, these are meze. When I first visited Turkey in 1989, backpacking
with a group of friends in the heat of August, we soon discovered that the most pleasurable way to eat an evening meal was fresh fruit juice and a variety of these delightful dishes. We became expert at saying "kayýsý suyu" (apricot juice) and pointing at the dishes we wanted from the beautifully laid-out tray brought to the table. Melon or cheese, spinach pastry or stuffed peppers, hummus or marinated olives, the choice was endless. Sometimes we enjoyed a dish so much we would make hand signals to say we wanted one (or even two!) more. Anne Wilson, in her beautifully produced yet simple cookery book "Meze: Mediterranean-style eating," introduces us to this essential part of Turkish cuisine. Meze can be enjoyed as hors d'oeuvres or, as we did on holiday, as a complete meal in themselves. My favorite ingredient of Turkish cookery is the eggplant - although, because I am British, I call it aubergine -- and I am always amazed at the wonderful ways this humble vegetable can be presented on the meze table. Eggplant puree, diced eggplant cooked in olive oil, same again but mixed with diced tomatoes, slices of eggplant fried in batter, eggplant in olive oil stuffed with ground meat, the list is endless! So the first item I searched for in the index was eggplant, to see what Anne Wilson recommended. I wasn't disappointed: "Baked eggplant" is a variety of karnýyarýk where garlic, tomatoes, parsley, dill, cinnamon, paprika, sugar and currants are fried in olive oil, and then eggplants are stuffed with this mixture and baked. The inclusion of "Tomato and
eggplant börek," "Eggplant salad" and "Baba Ganuþ dip" also means I have ample opportunity to tickle my taste buds with my favorite flavor. I also checked the recipe for "zucchini patties" very carefully. Mücver is a traditional Turkish snack, and I was burned very badly by a terrible cookbook sold to tourists, where the translations into English were just lousy! The Turkish recipe calls for "kabak." I dutifully gathered together the onion, flour, white cheese, dill, parsley, egg and pumpkin that the book said I needed. It said I had to grate 400 grams of pumpkin. Not having a food mixer, I set out by hand to grate this incredibly resistant vegetable. One hour and a very sore arm later, I had finally triumphed and vowed never to attempt to cook it again. "This must be one of the dishes designed by Turkish men to keep their wives stuck in the kitchen all day!" I thought. When I served the finished result to my neighbors, their reaction was not what I expected. "This is interesting," they said. "It's sweet! We have something like this called mücver." They obviously thought I was serving them a British dish! "This is mücver," I protested. "But that needs zucchini not pumpkin!" I was not impressed with translator who had caused me such suffering in the kitchen by choosing the wrong word for kabak: zucchini = kabak, pumpkin = bal kabaðý. Full marks to Wilson for getting it right! English-language cookbooks often limit their usefulness by either using American measures (cups) or European measures (liters and grams).
"Meze: Mediterranean-style Eating" presents both, and also has a handy conversion guide at the front. There is a picture of every dish, so you know the finished effect you are aiming at. More difficult or unusual steps in the instructions (such as how to trim and fold vine leaves for stuffing and how to make içli köfte) are shown in a series of useful pictures. Recipes are also graded for complexity: easy, a little care needed, and more care needed, so you can choose the level that matches your skill in the kitchen. "Combine the rich colors and textures that are typical of Mediterranean countries, relaxing with good friends, cool drinks, and dappled sunshine and you're nearly there." Although this book cannot guarantee that the sun will shine on your evening meal, the recipes will most definitely chase the clouds away and give an "evening on the Turkish Riviera" feel to your dinner party. What could be more capable of transporting you in your mind to a Turkish resort than lentil patties, fried whitebait, griddled haloumi cheese, feta cheese spread, stewed artichokes, meatballs, mushroom börek, stuffed cabbage leaves and green beans in olive oil? Anne recommends allowing two dishes per person, served with plenty of crusty bread. "Tradition suggests that all the meze plates should be brought out together, allowing you and your guests to have a relaxed meal, picking at a variety of dishes." But she adds, "There are no rules to tell you how to put together a meze platter -- you can be as adventurous as you like!" Just remember, they were designed to be enjoyed with a cool drink and good conversation. Afiyet olsun! "Meze: Mediterranean-style Eating," Anne Wilson, published by Könemann, ISBN: 9783829030137
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‘THE UNBEARABLE LIGHTNESS OF SCONES'
‘SPY PRINCESS' by Shrabani Basu Published by Tempus 9.99 pounds in paperback History and current affairs
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The story of Bertie and his dysfunctional family continues in the fifth installment starring Big Lou, Domenica, Angus Lordie, Cyril and others. With customary charm, McCall Smith has again given us a clever, witty and utterly delightful read in his "44 Scotland Street" series.
“Spy Princess” recounts the life of Noor Inayat Khan. This is the riveting story of the Moscow-born descendant of an Indian prince, Tipu Sultan, the Tiger of Mysore, and the daughter of a Sufi preacher, who became a British secret agent for the Special Operations Executive during World War II.
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‘HOW TO BE WILD'
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by Simon Barnes Published by Short Books 7.99 pounds in paperback Natural history
by Chris Moran Published by Footprint 19.99 pounds in paperback Travel
"We are all wild; it's just that civilization keeps getting in the way." In "How to be Wild," Simon Barnes takes us on a journey through the year, from one raucous spring to the next -- with sparrows and flying squirrels, blackbirds and elephants, badgers, butterflies and mosquitoes.
This comprehensive guide takes you down-hill, cross-country, GPS finding and freestyle riding across over 100 different locations in 16 countries. This unique book includes information on resorts, bike parks and the classic cross-country routes, plus tips, local media and Web sites.
SUNDAY’S ZAMAN 11
S U N D AY, J U LY 2 7 , 2 0 0 8
Rengim Gökme n YSA K IG E R
ÝS TA N
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Today ld, when a ue thei old mae country the mos ts in the r perfor stro belie d ballet in fu t immakes po world ca mances ballet oc nds even ves n only co lyphonic cupy as with co if they ha much sp ntinmusic an that only ntributio daily liv ve ac d Th ns immense e as cine es of its opera an is year, from st ma and citizens d fin income ate Last ye theater is that co ally com on May 19, a from sp ar you in the long-del onsors. untry fu pleted were ap eral for Ballet w ayed pr and the lly deve pointed the Stat as oj lo Sa ec pe fo m t d. un e as the di was sun Stat Opera You he ded. Can the foun and Ba rector ge ld the sa e Opera yo ding of llet for nme post and you co the Sam u tell us the st a se betwee The Sam mpare ory behi sun Stat n 1992 an cond term. sun Stat the tw nd e Opera positive ge d e o ne 19 O p ral projec 95 pera an and Bal developm eriods, d Ballet ts of th let? have th . When was ents in The Stat e Cultu was am aimed at ere bee opera an e Opera re and ong the acting as n high d ballet tant artis To an ur d ism Min Ballet is in Turk an art fa est leve tic institu istr one of th ey? in l of oper ctory, no tions in of depa e most cluding a pieces t perform y. It Turkey. rtments imporvarious with crow It has an ing the , and it 1995. A departm modern extensiv has impr ded grou part fro en da e ts ar ov nc ps , m the A ray tio such as ed its ac , but e groups Ballet Fe spendos children' nal dram tivities , a child stival, it Internat since s ballet, a studie ren's ch founded Internat ional O to foun s. Many orus an iona another pera an d state d educafestival d Van opera an years ago, there Opera an l Ballet Festival] [t , he Bodr were pr d ballets and open d Ballet um de Gaziantep and ojects . 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We ho d Ballet perform so- an -2009 you thin will beco pe that with th is now, d ballet k are th eir own me even and we the Stat not bein e main staff. are cont e reasons g widel Contem inuing ou more effective I do y embr n't for oper than it porary r studie aced by n at e th a s in this interpre which op think that the the soci e respect. interpre tations era and ety? Festival S ix th B o d ru tations seem to ballet ha they are accordin m In te program ve limite domifo re ig g rn n tell us to d audien branches at io n al right. I more ab , rather than ces beca don't be of art fo B al le t out this classics use r Turkis lieve th have a The Bodr . Can year's at cultu h societ specific um Inte you festival ral and y are geograph also falls rnationa th ? e ar m tis ic os tic activ on the al place l Ballet t apprec ities 60th an Festival or time the Stat iated an and Chi niversar 's sixth period. e Opera d succes na. It is ye y of the Today and Balle sful oper not abou cial mea foundatio ar it is abou as are in t. Becaus t being ning. W t be n Ja e pe of in hi of pa cu g le prepar select th n that, it ha develope liar to th oped ed e pieces ing the e West, d. s a speucationa that will repertoi but come to l level. Fo It requires a hi tered Ja re we tr appeal see a ba ghly de r that re pan and to au y to llet for th velason, ev gram w China af branches e first tim diences who ha en e put on ter they if they en can be ve in e. In the a numbe entered ha rd to perform verse ex an r of high Turkey, un de rs ed very amples these -level an nual pro- th ta nd , ex wel pieces, . Contr e rate of d somew pe ri m en while in ary to ex l. We can also th ha ta e gi th t l pe ve aside m populatio op er a an e Bodrum ctations opera is ore spac , in Fran d ba lle n that 86 perc festival e for po has neve t of the lo ce we choo pular A country ent. In German r gone cation [B se to se y it is a to an odrum C pieces. Of cour makes po t artis to the fe lit se, the be tle astle] le tic ly stival. In be ph cinema low that onic mus nds a ve auty and thea this year country. . ic, opera citizens ry specia ter poss 's progra Spain is when it and balle l mood ible in th m Spain a countr is fully de dancing t, opment e daily liv is the gu y widel veloped. and cine is not th es y know est br of Bu ma. We at will gain its t high, it n for fo anches believe the atte may lead if the level of de lkloric do not ha that this ntion of velto the be ve enou are not There is year's fe all of th lief that gh of an really ap st also th those preciate and Bal audience e Aspen e art lovers in Bo ival ballet is d let Fest by or that th somethi dos Inte drum. the soci ival, w ng dispen ey rn et visual, it fill the ha y. Since ational hich ha sabl opera an has enou Opera lls s now there se e feature of A d gh of an becom our num in Turkey, but ntalya. em e an in audience this is no ber of ha But in of perfor s to have been to t enough Unfortu lls and recent mances a decrea for us sin nately, ev their ca years by fore se pa ce en in ci bi in This is ty gg the num ign com Ýstanbul est popu are very a proces , which panies ber ha lation in low. organism s, of co is the ci at this fe Turkey, ll's capa urse. Fe s. Somet ty with stival. the high ci stivals ar the imes th Howev est oper opera ho ty is 1,300 seat e also liv er, the ere may a s. an us Ýs d es tanbul ne Aspendo ing ar ballet , around be ups most un ound si s festiv eds thre and do eight or ique plac x or seve al is he w e ns m 10 es in th . or ber of fo e more th ld in on Atatürk n more e world reign gr e of the eaters an Culture concert . Havin oups in only aim Center d halls, I ing that ga the fest (AKM) believe. . We will was de ival prog large num[in Ýstanb The be trying many ex signed in this ci ram is no ul to penses to refrai ] function is a build ty when t the in the co n from am not as an O its popu incu This au ming pe expectin pera H tumn th lation was just riod. Con rring too la ouse g an in dancers. about 1 crease in u n ch e State sequently But we million. th e Ýs the num O , will alw p I er artists' a and Compe ta n b u ber of fo ays give pieces in Ballet l In te tition as reign more sp will State O rn a ti o part of bul 2010 ace for Can yo pera an nal B prepar foreign u say th Europea d Ballet a ll e t ations festival you talk at the n Capit perform fo s receiv r th A al of C ances. about th spendos e Ýstane enough ul tu is and Bod This de re proj compe We wan coverage pends on ect. Can tition a rum ted to la in Turk more th little m what yo the prep unch a ish med an 70 m ore? u expect arations ballet co ia? illion pe . In a co have ac for 2010 mpetitio of the fo ople, w hieved un an n try un as d e don't also to m with dation of part of the atte Neverth will take think th ntion th ark the the first eless, th at they place be 60th ye ey dese Turkish ere has to previo ar rve in th tween Se guished ballet co been pr us perio e media pt. 8 an ogress in mpany. ballet fig ds. The d . are full 13 It Tu ur da , rkey com and man es in th fact that ncers, w is not an e world pared y distinthe oper ill partic indicatio goals, be , along a ip co an at m e. d pe n ba W cause th with yo tition on that we llet halls e are pl e ca ung an ce every have ac limited. few runs hieved two year ning to conduc The bette pacity of the ha it will re out pr t this s. I belie lls in Tu r you pr you can ach a su estigious ve that rkey is epare th detect th fficient ve af co e ry te e m m le ra country. tr edium, vel to co petitions Lausanne the bette In this re ue rates of that mpete w in New . Apart r to pr spect, I particul ith necessar York, M from th ar form believe y mediu e compe oscow th in a er oduce new Tu m is no and tition, w Turkey. rkish op as that t availabl at, unfortunatel e Sadly, ar ar e planni eras an feature y, the e for op ts and cu ng prioritie d perfor content era and ballet co lture are s. Art is m man related ballet in mpetitio somethi y opnot amon to Turk n will st more im ng that ey for 20 g our so art in 20 portant has inte 10 ci . 08 al Th , llectual thing is but I be e followin depth, an lieve that to be ab g years. d will le to co the We hope ntinue it beat in the hear Ýstanbul in the t of balle for a w t in the eek with this com world petition.
on the c l i m a t e o f o p e r a a n d b a l l e t i n T u r k e y
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Event of the week
July 19 Ten members of the separatist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) were killed in clashes with Turkish military forces in the southeastern provinces of Siirt, Hakkari and Bingöl late on Friday, security sources said. Turkey supports the reunification of Cyprus as a federation of two communities, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoðan said ahead of talks between Greek and Turkish Cypriots on the divided island's future. A solution to the Cyprus problem devised under the auspices of the United Nations will be based on the realities on the island, Erdoðan said after a meeting with Turkish Cypriot President Mehmet Ali Talat. The Democratic Society Party (DTP) held a congress that concluded with the election of Ahmet Türk to the party's chairmanship. Türk was the sole candidate and is considered a moderate.
Ergenekon suspects Kuddusi Okkýr (L), retired Col. Fikri Karadað (C) and retired Capt. Muzaffer Tekin pose together in this file photo.
July 20 Three Germans seized by the PKK during a climbing expedition on Mount Aðrý (Ararat) more than a week ago were released in good condition, authorities said. The three will be handed over to German authorities after a routine medical check, Aðrý Governor Mehmet Çetin told reporters. Iran's chief nuclear negotiator, Saeed Jalili, met with Foreign Minister Ali Babacan in Ankara, who reiterated Turkey's position that Iran has the right to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. "We believe every sovereign country has the right to use nuclear energy for peaceful aims and to have that technology," Babacan said at a joint news conference with Jalili. July 21 Former Trabzon Gendarmerie Command head Col. Ali Öz gave a deposition on the murder of Turkish-Armenian journalist Hrant Dink at a Bursa court. He denied allegations that he had been tipped off about the plot to shoot Dink before the murder was committed. "I don't remember being previously informed about the plot to shoot Dink," Öz reportedly said. Two Turkish engineers, Gökhan Gül and Erhan Gündüz, kidnapped in western Afghanistan last week, were set free and returned home. Armenian President Serzh Sarksyan called for closer ties with Turkey, 15 years after the two nations severed diplomatic relations over the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. "The improvement of ties between Armenia and Turkey is mutually beneficial. "I think we should improve our relations," Sarksyan said at a news conference. French lawmakers narrowly approved a package of constitutional changes that contain a clause making holding a referendum on the accession of new countries into the European Union, including Turkey, obligatory. The vote was the final approval for the constitutional amendment package, which was earlier voted on separately in the National Assembly and the Senate, the two chambers of the French parliament. German police arrested a Turkish man suspected of leading a branch of the banned PKK, state prosecutors said, just days after the terrorist group released three Germans taken captive in Turkey. Police arrested the 47-year-old in the western city of Detmold, Germany's Federal Prosecution Office said. The man, identified as Hüseyin A., is suspected of having been responsible for the PKK's operations in Germany until June, it said in a statement. July 22 The Constitutional Court decided to begin hearing a closure case filed against the Justice and Development Party (AK Party) on July 28. Azerbaijan is not concerned by secret talks between Armenia and regional ally Turkey, spokesman for the Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry, Khazar Ibrahim said. He said that the Azerbaijani government was interested in Turkey's official position, which Ankara said has not changed. An Ýstanbul court ruled against a demand to start an investigation into Ýstanbul Police Chief Celalettin Cerrah and
Court to deliberate Ergenekon case, dozens face terrorism charges An Ýstanbul court agreed on Friday to deliberate a case relating to Ergenekon, a criminal network suspected of plotting a coup against the government, in a move that will begin the trial process for dozens of suspected gang members, including retired army officers, academics, journalists and businessmen. Prosecutors demanded that retired Brig. Gen. Veli Küçük, Cumhuriyet daily columnist Ýlhan Selçuk, Turkish Orthodox Patriarchate press spokeswoman Sevgi Erenerol, former Ýstanbul University rector
seven other police officers, including former Police Department Intelligence Bureau Chief Ahmet Ýlhan Güler, all accused of having disregarded intelligence information regarding a plot to kill Turkish-Armenian journalist Dink, who was shot dead outside his office in January of last year. Both the Trabzon police and the gendarmerie were negligent in not preventing Dink's assassination, a subcommittee of Parliament's Human Rights Commission announced. In a 180-page report on their investigation, Dink murder subcommittee head Mehmet Ocaktan said the commission had reached the conclusion that "there has been negligence, fault and poor coordination both on the part of the police department and the gendarmerie." Three people died and two were injured in an accidental electrocution at a hotel foam party in southern Antalya province. July 23 More than a two dozen people were detained in raids carried out in five cities in connection with an in-
Kemal Alemdaroðlu and Workers' Party (ÝP) leader Doðu Perinçek -- believed to be key members of the gang -- be sentenced to two consecutive life sentences and an additional 164 years in jail each in an indictment presented for review to the Ýstanbul 13th High Criminal Court on July 14. The five suspects will face various charges, including but not limited to "establishing a terrorist organization," "attempting to overthrow the government of the Republic of Turkey by force or to block it from performing its du-
ties," "inciting people to rebel against the Republic of Turkey," "openly provoking hatred and hostility," "inciting others to stage the 2006 Council of State shooting" and "attacking Cumhuriyet daily's Ýstanbul office with a hand grenade." The indictment against Ergenekon took 13 months to prepare and was filed by Ýstanbul Chief Prosecutor Aykut Cengiz Engin. The investigation into the gang began last summer when police discovered a house full of explosives and guns in Ýstanbul's Ümraniye district.
vestigation into a powerful and illegal organization suspected of plotting to overthrow the government. Twentysix individuals, most of whom are editors and writers of the National Solution journal -- known in the past for its proximity to the Islamist National View movement that produced political groups such as the Welfare Party (RP) and the Felicity Party (SP) -- were detained in the raids. President Abdullah Gül, who arrived in eastern Kars province on the border with Armenia, sent a message of peace to neighboring countries, saying Turkey has always wanted peace and stability in the region. Gül traveled to Kars to attend a ceremony to mark the beginning of the construction of the Turkish part of a regional railway traversing Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan. German authorities halted an investigation into a tragic fire that killed nine Turks in February, saying the months-long probe had failed to illuminate what caused the blaze. Despite initial fears that the blaze in the southwestern German city of Ludwigshafen could have been a far-right arson attack, investigators found no evidence of a flammable accelerant, prosecutor Lothar
Liebig said in a statement. "No evidence of arson has been found in the very extensive and intensive investigation," Liebig said. "We can almost certainly rule out arson." Professor Yusuf Halaçoðlu, who had served as the president of the Turkish Historical Society (TTK) since 1993, was removed from office by a Cabinet decision. The decision to relieve Halaçoðlu of office was published in the Official Gazette. National soccer player Emre Belözoðlu signed a contract with Fenerbahçe to transfer to the Turkish club. He was previously with England's Newcastle United.
Photo of the week
Turkish, Azerbaijani and Georgian leaders gathered in the eastern province of Kars on Thursday to launch the construction of the Turkish segment of a railway that will link the three countries and revive the historic Silk Road trade route that once connected Asia and Europe. President Abdullah Gül and his Azerbaijani and Georgian counterparts, Ilham Aliyev and Mikheil Saakashvili, held a groundbreaking ceremony for the $241 million Turkish leg of the railway. The three presidents placed three sections of railway track on a large map of the region in a symbolic launch of the project. "A new economic cooperation zone that is yet to be defined as such has emerged in our region," Gül said at the ceremony, referring to expanding cooperation between Turkey, Azerbaijan and Georgia in the fields of energy, trade and transportation. Construction of the railway is planned for completion by 2011. The Turkish section of the railway is 76 kilometers long. In Azerbaijan, a new track will be constructed to be linked to a renewed existing track. Work on the 29kilometer stretch in Georgia between the Turkish border and Ahýlkelek was launched last year. "This project contributes to peace and stability in the Caucasus," Gül also said.
Construction of Turkey section of strategic railway launched
From right to left: Presidents Ilham Aliyev of Azerbaijan, Abdullah Gül of Turkey and Mikhail Saakashvili of Georgia applaud during a ceremony marking the commencement of the construction of the Turkish stretch of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway.
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July 24 Turkish, Azerbaijani and Georgian leaders gathered in the far eastern province of Kars to launch the construction of the Turkey section of a railway that will link the three countries and revive the historic Silk Road trade route that once connected Asia with Europe. President Gül and his Azerbaijani and Georgian counterparts, Ilham Aliyev and Mikheil Saakashvili, held a groundbreaking ceremony for the $241 million Turkish leg of the railway in Kars. Foreign Minister Babacan, in New York to drum up support for Turkey's bid to get a seat on the UN Security Council in 2009-2010, met with UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon regarding Cyprus, ahead of a key meeting of the Cypriot leaders on Thursday. The military said its fighter jets hit 13 targets belonging to the outlawed PKK in northern Iraq in the latest cross-border offensive against the terrorist group. Ýstanbul was ranked the world's 23rd most expensive city in a recent survey carried out by international human resources and financial consulting firm Mercer. July 25 An Ýstanbul court agreed to hear a case regarding the Ergenekon criminal network, a move that will start the trial process for dozens of suspected gang members, including retired army officers, academics, journalists and businessmen. Turkish and Greek Cypriot leaders agreed to launch historic reunification talks on Sept. 3, a new stage in decades-old Cyprus peace efforts after a UN plan collapsed in 2004. "The aim of the full-fledged negotiations is to find a mutually acceptable solution to the Cyprus problem, which will safeguard the interests of Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots," said Tayé-Brook Zerihoun, the head of the UN mission on Cyprus, after talks between Turkish Cypriot leader Talat and Greek Cypriot leader Dimitris Christofias in the buffer zone dividing the two communities.
SUNDAY’S ZAMAN 13
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The an cien
t ci ty of Pa t a ar
land is Is Me
The queen of the
WHERE TO STAY
Diva Residence Tel.: (242) 836 4255 Hadrian Hotel Tel.: (242) 836 2856 Hideaway Hotel Tel.: (242) 836 1887 Kale Otel Tel.: (242) 836 4074 Villa Tamara Tel.: (242) 836 3273
HOW TO GET THERE A view of Patara
SELAHATTÝN SEVÝ, FATÝH YILMAZ, CÝHAN, AA
ra An cie nt Th ea ter
For the time being, Kaþ has no airport. Most people fly into Antalya and then endure the three-hour bus transfer along the coastal road.
The charms of Kaþ are easy to identify: strolling along the waterfront to eye up the boat-life; pausing for coffee and cake at Café Merhaba or shopping for antiques or hand-woven fabrics on Uzun Çarþý, a delightful cobbled street lined with old houses, their wooden balconies draped with bougainvillea PAT YALE KAÞ
If you ask a foreigner living in Turkey to name their favorite Turkish resort, the odds are high that they will plump for Kaþ, the fishing harbor turned holiday playground that lies midway between Fethiye and Antalya on the famously beautiful Turquoise Coast. This is a resort that has it all -- wonderful sea views, romantic Lycian ruins, upscale shops and enough fish restaurants to stock a second Kumkapý. It's the sort of place where you'll arrive expecting to stay for a day or so but from which you will eventually have to be dragged kicking and screaming and clutching a list of houses for sale. It was the Lycians who first discovered the pleasures of Kaþ, founding the small port of Antiphellos/Habesos here to provide sea access to the larger town of Phellos, near what is now the village of Çukurbað in the mountains above it. The port grew in importance during the Greco-Roman years when it may have acquired its lovely theater, no doubt paid for from the profits of the lucrative trade in sponges. But Antiphellos was always a fairly inaccessible location, hemmed in by mountains, which is perhaps why it was unable to expand in the same way as Fethiye and Antalya. By the early 20th century it was a mainly Greek-populated town to which political dissidents were exiled, much as they were to Bodrum. In the third millennium, Kaþ is swelling rapidly as developers home in on its manifest attractions. However, for the time being it still retains the feel of a living town inhabited by a mixed bag of people, unlike nearby Kalkan, which has been overrun by the British. The charms of Kaþ are easy to identify: strolling along the waterfront to eye up the boat-life; pausing for coffee and cake at Café Merhaba; shopping for antiques or hand-woven fabrics on Uzun Çarþý, a delightful cobbled street lined with old houses, their wooden balconies draped with bougainvillea; then scouring the pick of the restaurants for an empty table once the sun has gone down. It may come as a surprise, then, to discover that the one thing Kaþ is low on is the sort of specific attractions that usually pull in the crowds. In the first place it lacks anything much in the way of beaches, and in the second it boasts very few ancient monuments, despite its long history. Its ancient theater may make a great place for watching the sun dip down into the Mediterranean, but it doesn't take much time to explore it, and the same is equally true of the various Lycian sarcophagi (tombs) scattered about town, including the imposing Lion Tomb which looms over the top of Uzun Çarþý. Not that this matters much because Kaþ makes a great base for exploring the surrounding area. Far and away the most popular excursion is to Kekova and Kaleköy, surely one of the most enjoyable boat trips in all Turkey. A fleet of glassbottomed boats sets sail every morning and passes by the sunken ruins of ancient Simena, which was destroyed by an earthquake in the second century. They then proceed to the picture-postcard settlement of Kaleköy, which is dominated -- as its name ("castle village") might suggest -- by the remains of a castle built by the medieval Knights of St. John. As you climb up to inspect it,
you will have to run the gauntlet of a line of village matrons touting headscarves trimmed with seashells. Luckily the spectacular view out over the azure sea from the castle more than repays the effort of getting there, and on the way down again you'll probably have time to explore a veritable thicket of tumbled Lycian sarcophagi. A second popular boat trip takes a little more advanced planning and that is the excursion to the mountainous Greek island of Kastellorizo (Meis), visible from Kaþ harbor. Immigration formalities have a habit of changing with the seasons. However, normally you have to hand your passport to the boat company either the evening before you want to sail or just before you leave. The Kastellorizo Customs Office is closed over the weekend, so this is an excursion that is only usually on offer Monday to Friday. Before setting off, make sure that you have the sort of visa that will allow you to return to Turkey without needing renewal. What's to see on the other side? Well, primarily a thin strip of attractive waterside houses that stare back out towards Kaþ; inevitably, many of them have been converted into cafes, restaurants and places to stay. A few streets inland you can take a turn around a Greek Orthodox church. There's also the chance to shop for Greek produce not available in Turkey (almond chocolate, anyone?). It all adds up to more than enough to fill an unhurried few hours before sailing back to Kaþ again in mid-afternoon. Fear not if you suffer from seasickness -- there are plenty of excursions which don't involve going anywhere near a boat. Sun-worshippers, for example, will want to head straight for Patara, 42 kilometers to the west of Kaþ, where the 20-kilometer stretch of sand is one of Turkey's finest beaches. Should the sunbathing get too much for you, you can also explore the extensive ruins of ancient Patara strung out behind the sands. History-lovers might want to take a dolmuþ west to Kýnýk to visit Xanthos where the remains of another Lycian town and the nearby ruins of the Letoon temple form one of Turkey's 10 UNESCO-designated world heritage sites. Or you can take a trip inland to visit the small towns of Gumbo and Emil and the beautiful Yeti Golf (Green Lake). Over the last few years Kaþ has also made a name for itself as a center for outdoor activities. Those of an adventurous disposition might want to forego the glass-bottomed boats and instead paddle themselves over the sunken ruins of Simena in a kayak. Even if you don't feel confident enough to go it alone, there are plenty of organized kayaking excursions, which also manage a lunchtime visit to the quaintly ramshackle waterside settlement of Üçaðýz (Three Mouths). Alternatively you could opt to go abseiling in the Saklýkent (Hidden Town) Gorge, a canyon so deep that the sun never penetrates to warm the icy water at the bottom. But Kaþ really comes into its own when the sun goes down and its many restaurants start to fill up with enthusiastic diners. This is one of those rare towns outside Ýstanbul which manages to dish up consistently high-class cuisine; try Chez Evy or Bahçe Balýk for a taste of what's on offer, but be prepared for a kaleidoscope of places to choose from. Unfortunately, many of the more enticing places to stay are out on the Çukurbað Peninsula, a rocky spit of land which juts into the sea on the western side of town. In the summer, hourly dolmuþ into the center make this a reasonable option even for the carless, but if you want to take advantage of the nightlife, you will soon find the taxi bills accumulating.
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Beyond the rhetoric: President Denktaþ and Cyprus
Ergenekon for the Kurds PHOTO
I have been in Diyarbakýr for many days now. And the city itself is not the only thing melting in the July; it is as though everything is changing shape here. This includes politics, people and streets -- everything. Without making it too obvious, Diyarbakýr is preparing for its new role. It is becoming one of the important centers for solutions not just in Turkey, but in the Middle East as a whole. Yes, proud Diyarbakýr is taking its position next to cities such as Jerusalem, Baghdad and Damascus, which have all become key to Middle Eastern politics. What's more, Diyarbakýr is turning into a city that cannot be overlooked by regional actors or global actors. What is going on here these days has pertinence for everyone, from the northern Iraqi regional administration to Washington and from the European Union to Tehran. When, during his Baghdad tour, Prime Minister Erdoðan said, "I am not a Sunni or a Shiite, I am a Muslim," he was really providing a clue about the new regional role being shouldered by Turkey. The presence of tension between the Sunni Arab world and the Shiite world appears to be not only a historical reality, but also a cyclical reality. During this same trip to Iraq, when Erdoðan told Talabani, "I don't want cooperation, I want integration," he seemed to be giving a clue not only as to the direction of Middle Eastern policies in this new period, but also as to what the new headquarters for solutions will be during this period. So it is not at all difficult to perceive that one of these new headquarters is set to be Diyarbakýr. It is, of course, inescapable that regional Kurdish politicians will be reading and interpreting these recent developments on different levels. Ahmet Türk, who was elected as the head of the predominantly Kurdish Democratic Society Party (DTP) at the party's recent congress, has said, "If the Ergenekon investigation doesn't pass east of the Euphrates, the Kurdish problem will never be solved." With these words, Türk showed his awareness of the direction taken by current change in Turkey. The course the nation is currently on makes democratization and the uncovering of all the bad business that has accumulated in the repositories of the state absolute requirements. While certain factions continue to insist that those gloomy and obscure state repositories should be left undisturbed, what they fail to see is a certain simple truth: that many average Turkish citizens have a deep sense and understanding of what is really going on. When I talk about the Turkish people, I mean here the average citizens of the nation, factions that are better able to understand the deeper meanings of the allegations that have emerged during the Ergenekon investigation than even certain Turkish intellectuals and politicians. People are finally aware that the insistent cries of "Look over here, look at this!" that have been ringing out for a quarter of a century now in Turkey have finally made their way, in a certain form, to the pressing agenda of the nation. And the decisive factor in which party will be receiving votes when people go to the ballot boxes is not a bag of pasta or coal from the Justice and Development Party (AK Party), but instead the convictions that arise from this deep sense of understanding of what is actually going on. This must be the case since the AK Party lost support amongst the Kurds during the Turkish military's operations in the Kandil Mountains, and it is now passing through a period of visibly rising support for its decisive stance in the Ergenekon investigation. Passing through Diyarbakýr with these thoughts in mind, everything I see seems to signal some sort of turning point. There is a feeling around that, from now on, nothing is going to be as it was in the past. After all, there is no one in Turkey who knows the name "Veli Küçük" as well as Diyarbakýr's residents do. You can also be sure that the people of this region have also known for years the name Levent Ersöz, a retired Turkish brigadier general who is said to be on the run from the authorities these days. It may be that the Gendarmerie Intelligence and Anti-Terrorism Organization (JÝTEM) is as distant a reality for certain places in Turkey as, say, the British intelligence services are. But here, in this region that surrounds Diyarbakýr, JÝTEM means nightmares and unsolved, nameless crimes. Near the end of the Diyarbakýr Great Mosque, we sit and talk to some local elderly residents in a café frequented by bird lovers -- specifically, grouse aficionados. The talk turns from grouses to politics. Everyone there agrees -- somewhat timidly - that the ongoing Ergenekon investigation represents some hope for them. One elderly man says, "The prime minister will
DTP leader Ahmet Türk underlined the significance of the Ergenekon investigation for Kurds by saying, ‘If the Ergenekon investigation doesn't pass east of the Euphrates, the Kurdish problem will never be solved.’ be victorious if he follows this Ergenekon investigation all the way to its end. But if he becomes afraid and loses his courage, he will lose his head." Of course, in this region it is no simple metaphor when people talk about measuring the success or failure of politicians by way of the possible loss of their heads. The support and sympathy for the AK Party that has come as a result of the ongoing Ergenekon investigation cannot only be explained by the ruling party's determined stance in this all. The people of the region are well aware that the DTP did not, until very recently, adopt a clear stance on this investigation. The real coordinates in this all are not realities that are difficult to sense. People who have experienced pain are closely interested in the final ending of the bad experience they have lived out. The most important factor for a person who has experienced this sort of evil in their lives is the very life that was disrupted by this wrongdoing. What else can explain the fact that the political stance that place people's lives first and foremost is the political stance most able to capture the hearts of the people? Regular citizens in this region now clearly perceive that politics and policies that focus not on bringing to an end these acts of wrongdoing, but on who will best be served by bringing these acts to end, will no longer be accepted. It is necessary to view the most recent developments in Turkey as a test not just for this nation's democracy, but also for its spirit. Perhaps this is Turkey's reality test and history
will record exactly who stood where during this period. What lies on the horizon is not just the hope that we might achieve a real democracy, but also the real coordinates for domestic peace. And it may be the first time that we as a society have been able to approach them so closely Everyone I spoke to in Diyarbakýr expressed the feeling that true goodness and serenity are much more important and critical than any calculations about power that may be occurring in Ankara, because they are the ones whose homes have been burned and who have been personally hurt. They are the ones who are unable to feel Kurdish in their own country. They thus take close interest in the solutions to all of this, not in whom or what might be served by these solutions. But you see, the thing we call politics takes its shape with these emotions and feelings in the average citizens in this city. The DTP is now doing something it has never done before: preparing for the upcoming local elections by installing new lights and planting new flowers along the city streets. I hope that, following the upcoming congress, the DTP will push aside the interests of the PKK and give over all its support to the urgent cleansing of the nation's dirtied repositories. If this happens, the DTP will be contributing to the new role cut out by history for the city of Diyarbakýr, a city that I am sure they are deeply tied to and love very much. * Bejan Matur is a poet.
No sane person believes that former President Rauf Denktaþ has been soft on Greeks, or on anyone else, for that matter. Nor can a sane person believe that he has been weak on Turkish or Turkish Cypriot nationalism. Although his animosity toward Greeks has been, in my experience, greatly exaggerated, there is no way to exaggerate his importance to the creation of Turkish Cypriot identity. He is as much the father of his people as Atatürk was of the Turks. President Denktaþ shares many other qualities with the greatest Turk of all. (1) Courage: Their physical, moral and political courage as has been displayed on the battlefield, in international diplomacy and parliamentary politics. (2) Intelligence: As an academic, I have encountered many brilliant people, none more so than Rauf Denktaþ. Atatürk's genius is well documented. (3) Articulateness: Both men could explain complex ideas in simple and clear language without oversimplifying the issue. (4) Realism: This is the ability to deal with the facts honestly and objectively, no matter how unpleasant they might be. (5) Idealism: This refers to a vision of a better future for their people, one grounded in reality but connected to the conviction that ordinary people deserve the best lives their leaders can help them fashion. (6) Dedication to citizenship: Both men spent their careers transforming their people from subjects of the state into citizens who see the state as their instrument, not the other way round. My understanding of Atatürk does not come only from books. It derives also from observations of contemporary Turkey. In less than a century, Turkey has grown from the world's most devastated country in the wake of World War I, the civil war and the invasion of the Greeks into one of the most prosperous nations in the world. Moreover, Turkey is assuming it natural role as a leader in the Middle East and Central Asia and as a player in world affairs generally. Its future, despite current turmoil, is filled with promise. Turkey now has its most democratic and progressive government, which willing and able to make useful economic and political contributions to both East and West. My understanding of President Denktaþ comes from personal experience. I am proud to call him my friend. I am more proud that our friendship has withstood many political differences concerning Cyprus. He, quite naturally, has preferred a two-state solution; I, a one-state solution to the divided island. This difference, however, should not be exaggerated. There are many kinds of two-state and onestate solutions. Moreover, in my presence, with many other witnesses, President Denktaþ stated that the official policy of the Turkish Cypriot government was a "single state with two personalities." Let me emphasize, he preferred a sovereign Turkish Cypriot state, but supported the "two personalities" option because it better conformed to political realities. This is why he allowed the Annan plan to proceed, despite his opposition to many of its provisions. This distinction between deeply held personal conviction and an assessment of political realities goes to the heart of President Denktaþ's character. It testifies to his greatness. He did more than subordinate his vision of the future of Cyprus to political realities. He allowed his people to vote for their vision of the future. What other leader has done this? What other leader has allowed a vote when he knew its outcome would undermine the work of a lifetime? What other leader trusted his people, a people he largely created, to make their own mistakes? Are their lessons for the current Turkish constitutional crisis to be derived from this level of statesmanship? The current progress on Cyprus owes a great deal to the statesmanship of President Denktaþ. He is unlikely to get the credit he deserves, because he has campaigned against the proposed settlement. Nevertheless, it is impossible to conceive of any peaceful resolution on Cyprus without acknowledging the achievements of its greatest citizen. In Rauf Denktaþ, Atatürk has found a worthy "son." A peaceful, free and prosperous Cyprus will be his greatest legacy. * Christopher Vasillopulos is a professor of international relations at Eastern Connecticut State University.
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SUNDAY’S ZAMAN 15
SUNDAY, JULY 27, 2008
Problems of democracy ýn the Mýddle East We call ourselves a "young nation." In fact, we have an imperial past of 600 years, followed by 85 years of republican history. Yet we are just learning that a lack of freedom does not guarantee security, though we have made security the central aim of government. Not only we Turks, but Arabs and Iranians and others in the Middle East have begun to realize that in the long run, security and stability cannot be bought at the expense of liberty. As long as the Middle East remains a place where freedom does not flourish, it will remain a place of stagnation, resentment and violent upheavals festering beneath public life, ready to cross the border at any time (looking to leave the Middle East) And with the spread of increasingly lethal weapons, the instability and dissatisfaction of the people can wreak havoc in a region littered with authoritarian regimes. That will be costly to all. The most frequently asked question in Turkey since the turn of the 20th century has been "What will become of this country?" Civilians asked it and sought answers in the lustrous cafés of the Champs Elysées and soldiers asked it and tried to find answers in tents surrounding battlegrounds in the Balkans, Egypt, Iraq and Syria during World War I. The question still stands but no viable answer can be produced because the elite that have
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been intrigued by the question saw no need for a democracy in which they would share power and privilege with people who they saw as ignorant and alien to the modern world. On Sept. 11, 2001, the authoritarian ruling Arab elite saw what price the world does pay for the absence of legitimate channels for representation and participation in politics in their part of the world. Their exclusive ways shut away political forces that are mainstream and moderate. The outcome is the substitution of mainstream and moderate forces with radicals breeding in and invading the most legitimate institutions. The foremost of these institutions is religion because participation in religion is open to all and it is the only outlet for frustrated people to socialize with their own kind. This leads to a radicalization of religion or, better, a radical reinterpretation of religion.
The UNDP Arab Human Development Report, released annually, revealed the democracy deficit in the Middle East, mainly owing its existence to authoritarian regimes. Although demand for democracy -or at least for more openness and participation -- is there, it cannot create an institutional infrastructure to sustain itself. There are three reasons for this. First, most of those who want democracy are not really liberal. They are elites who believe in a hierarchical system where the enlightened should rule the ignorant masses. Secondly, the antiimperialist streak (they are mainly old leftists and nationalists for all times) among the modern elite puts limitation on their Western orientation. Thirdly, freedom in the Middle East means independence rather than individual liberties. Hence, freedom is a collective concept rather than an individual right. Lack of individualism has led to the survival of traditional communal organizations or the creation of new ones (mainly religious) to stand against the omnipotent state (or ruling power elite). In the absence of liberal organizations with organized constituencies, democracy becomes a wish rather than a way of life built on independent popular organizations and functional institutions. In voicing demands for participation and taking part in decisions that concern the very lives of the people, Islamist organizations and
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Dýalogue wýth the 20 percent
Obama, hope, change and headaches The two trips could not have been more different. When President George W. Bush came to Ýstanbul for a NATO summit in 2004, the city was locked down tighter than Baghdad's Green Zone. It was not a visit to the city and its people, but a bubble descending from outer space. Security was tight enough for Barack Obama as he scooted through northern Europe, but it's tight when the Rolling Stones go on tour, which is what the presidential nominee's speech in front of 200,000 Berliners vaguely resembled. He is not president yet, but the election seems Obama's to lose, not McCain's to win, and it's the brave soul who believes he will drop the ball. The Obama message, "the world doesn't have to hate the US," was intended to win him a greater share of the center of the center ground next November. Inadvertently, he confirmed that he had Europe's vote. "O-barmy for Barack" was plastered over the front page of (London's) The Sun alongside the higherbrow press. This popularity, and an Obama presidency in general, poses a curious challenge for Turkey -- and not for the bizarre reason that he might refrain from twisting the arm of the House of Representatives if it tried to recognize an Armenian genocide. The truth is that Turkey has grown strangely comfortable with an unpopular American president. Although President Bush does not actually appear as a co-defendant on the charge sheet in front of the Constitutional Court, the United States is named as being behind some of the misdeeds for which the prosecutor wants the governing Justice and Development Party (AK Party) shut down. The prosecutor's office, in common with the sinister Ergenekon plotters (who paradoxically are themselves up for trial), sees Washington as trying to turn Turkey into a tame Islamic state that can do its bidding to implement a Greater Middle East Project. It will come as something of a shock to have a US president who renounces imperial ambitions and intends to do what Turkey publicly wants but privately fears: allow the Iraqis to solve their own problems themselves. And imagine Ankara having to blame its own policies and not Washington's sinister intentions for trouble in its own Southeast. For a little while at least, Turkey might even be forced to suspend its faith in plots and conspiracies. For a little while, too, those who believe they can manipulate Turkish public opinion with plots and conspiracies might decide they might need to adopt a different strategy. Those weaned in Turkey on the politics of conspiracy and cynicism are not about to take Obama's commitment to change seriously. They pray he is not the goody-two-shoes he appears. In time, America will be up to its old tricks, they speculate, even if its new president looks trimmer in his suit and has a far less goofy smile. But then Turkey will be desperately out of step, certainly with the crowds who cheered Obama in Berlin, and probably with the rest of the world. A charismatic Obama will set a tone that will leave many Turkish politicians feeling like the homely girl at the ball who doesn't get asked to dance. Imagine Deniz Baykal declaring to adoring throngs that he believes in change or Devlet Bahçeli (famous for having thrown a hangman's noose into the crowd at an election rally) campaigning on a program of hope. And of course, a snap poll is no remote possibility in Turkey if the Constitutional Court does its worst. Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoðan has always been a feel-good candidate, at least for those who voted him in, and certainly when his party came to power in 2002 it brought with it an expectation of great transformation. However even if the judges decide to acquit both him and his party, he will have been bruised by the whole affair. Next to Bush, he looked spruce, but he will have to consider how to be in the same room as Obama without looking like yesterday's man.
political parties have filled the void. Only they, surviving on the only legitimate space left for popular participation, have taken advantage of the opportunities afforded by restrictive political systems. Their electoral success is thus not coincidental. They have tried to establish themselves as mainstream political actors in the electoral political process where there is no other alternative. The demand for democracy by Islamist organizations is viewed with a lot of skepticism by the secular and Western-oriented circles in Middle Eastern countries just as in the West. But then the question is "whether others, i.e., secular parties/circles, are committed to democracy." The problem is not the sincerity or limitations of Islamist parties and organizations per se, rigid political and administrative systems are no longer capable of handling the challenges of current changes in their respective societies as well as contemporary forms of governance in a global economy. An ever-growing number of educated citizens exposed to world affairs are agents of change to be activated at any moment they see a window of opportunity. With doors and windows shut to the world, stifling popular demands, many Middle Eastern countries are preparing for their own demise, most probably a violent one for that matter.
BTK project: dream comýng true FÝKRET ERTAN email@example.com
Many called it a pipe dream, criticizing it harshly and even mocking it unashamedly. Some tried to kill it even before it started. And some tried to strangle it after it began. Well, despite these ill-intentions and efforts, the BakuTbilisi-Kars railroad project (BTK), dubbed the new "Iron Silk Road," rounded a significant bend this week, with the launch of the Turkish stretch of the line, in an official groundbreaking ceremony in Kars with the participation of the presidents of Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan. The presidents placed three sections of track on a large map of the region in a symbolic launch of the BTK amid confetti and hailed the BTK project and the strengthening of cooperation between their countries, vowing to complete the project. In this context, President Abdullah Gül referred to the BTK project in these telling words: ''Some had called it a dream. It was once shelved. But meetings took place between the three countries, and the political will materialized to build the railway. The three countries also received support from Kazakhstan and China." He reiterated that there was strong political will behind the project and that it would not be weakened because it would benefit the peoples of the region. It is true that there has been a strong political will and, of course, determination behind the BTK for many years. The past and present political leaders of the three countries have shown and preserved that, despite many obstacles placed in the BTK's way. In fact, the project has largely been hindered by the efforts of the Armenian lobby in the US. The lobby has argued that the
project is not economically viable. Furthermore, it pushed for a bill in the US Congress that prevented US banks and financial institutions from providing loans to Georgia to be used for the project's Georgian segment. These obstacles were eventually overcome by Azerbaijan offering a $220 million loan to Georgia. The Turkish stretch of the BTK will consist of a 76-kilometer-long railway. The Özgün Yapý-Çeliker joint venture won the tender to build it last September with a bid of YTL 289.8 million ($241 million), the lowest among 14 submissions. In Azerbaijan, the project involves the laying of new track and the renewal of existing rails. Work on the 29-kilometer stretch in Georgia between the Turkish border and Akhalkalaki (Ahý lkelek) began on Nov. 21, 2007 at Marabda Station, Georgia, with the inaugural ceremony attended by the three presidents. The project is expected to be completed in 2011, with the initial capacity to carry 1.5 million people and 6.5 million tons of freight annually. The capacity is projected to grow to 3 million people and 17 million tons of freight by 2034. The total cost of the project is estimated at $450 million. When completed, the 185-kilometer-long BTK project will be one of the most important connections between Asia and Europe, with 76 kilometers in Turkey, 29 kilometers in Georgia and 80 kilometers in Azerbaijan. It will be augmented with a line to be constructed between China and Kazakhstan's Aktau Port over the Caspian area in the East, and in the West through the undersea railway connection already being built in the Bosporus, thereby presenting enormous possibilities in terms of passenger and freight transportation. The project will also become part of the Trans-Asian railroad line with the Baku-Caspian-Türkmenbashi-Almaty-China route. In short, once called a pipe dream, the BTK project is certainly on its way to becoming a reality in a few years' time, because as always, able and determined leaders can make dreams true, as shown with the BTK.
We are unable to guess the outcome of the Justice and Development Party (AK Party) closure case. But one thing is for sure: Turkish democracy will be strengthened after the decision. The AK Party or its successor, if it is closed, should be ready for victory this time and start engaging in dialogue with the Kemalist 20 percent of the population who are sincerely or ostensibly suspicious of the AK Party and who vote for the Republican People's Party (CHP). This 20 percent comprises well-educated and in many cases affluent sections of society. They are disproportionably represented in the elite circles of media, business, art, academia and bureaucracy. (There are also many Alevis among the 20 percent, but this is a matter for another analysis.) Turkey cannot afford to ignore these people, who seem to be misguided missiles, as the developments in recent years have shown. There might be many insincere and negative true believers in the Eric Hoffer sense among them, but the overwhelming majority of them must be sincere and the AK Party should enter into dialogue with them. I know that it is not easy to engage with them, but it is the AK Party's duty to try innumerable times. The AK Party leaders' cognitive schemata should be full of good examples of this. If the Kemalist section of society cannot be convinced that Turkey will never distance itself from human rights and democracy even if its majority becomes more observant Muslims, we will never have domestic peace in the country and Ergenekons will always flourish. If we analyze very carefully what happened during the Feb. 28 process, we will see that there will always be external and power or wealth-hungry domestic players who will manipulate the sincere fears of the 20 percent. It is very easy but irresponsible for the AK Party to point to these elite abusers in media, business, political and bureaucratic circles and then say dialogue is impossible with this Kemalist section. The AK Party should also stop trying to benefit from the unproductive tension created between itself and this Kemalist population as this fatal cleavage within society could become permanent if allowed to continue for another decade. It is of course not only the AK Party's duty to empathize with the Kemalists and enter into dialogue with them; all other sections of society -- chiefly the 47 percent who voted for the AK Party -- should also proactively and dynamically work toward the "Abantization" of the country. Remember, before 1980 more than 5,000 of our youth killed each other over accusations of being communist or fascist, paving the way for the Sept. 12, 1980, coup, whose leaders imprisoned and tortured many of the remaining leftist and rightist youth. Later it emerged that the country would never become a communist or fascist one, but the sensitivities of these youths were abused by domestic and international players. The same gun killed a rightist in the morning and a leftist in the evening. After many years, in the early 1990s Fethullah Gülen's Abant platform managed to get many leftist and rightist intellectuals on the same platform, and these people who had never spoken to each other up until that time have continued to debate and discuss several sensitive issues. Today, the chairman of the platform is an atheist, intellectuals from all parts of the political spectrum join its events and the Gülen movement continues to fund it. I am sure that 20 years from now, the people who accuse each other of being either despotic Shariah regime lovers or Kemalist dictatorship seekers will come together in "Abantized" environments and will laugh at today's childish threat perceptions. But why shouldn't we take lessons from our history and engage in the dialogue process without falling into the traps of pseudo-Kemalists, Ergenekonians and pseudo-democracy fighters, as we know that they care only for money and/or power?
16 SUNDAY’S ZAMAN
SUNDAY, JULY 27, 2008
Gregorian Calendar: 27 July 2008 C.E. Hijri Calendar: 24 Rajab 1429 A.H. Hebrew Calendar: 24 Tamuz 5768 firstname.lastname@example.org
ÝSTANBUL: Esentepe Cinebonus Astoria: 11:15 12:00 13:15 15:15 17:15 19:15 21:15 22:00 Fri/Sat 23:15 Caddebostan AFM: 11:45 14:00 16:30 18:50 21:30 Fri/Sat: 23:45 ANKARA: Cinebonus Bilkent: 11:20 12:30 14:45 17:00 19:15 21:30 Fri/Sat: 24:00 Cinebonus Panora: 11:25 13:30 15:35 17:40 19:45 21:50 Fri/Sat: 24:15 ÝZMÝR: AFM Bornova Forum: 11:30 14:00 16:45 19:00 21:25 Fri/Sat: 23:15 ANTALYA: Cinebonus Migros: 11:30 13:30 15:30 17:30 19:30 21:30 Fri/Sat: 24:15
ÝSTANBUL: Esentepe Cinebonus Astoria: 11:45 13:45 15:45 17:00 17:45 19:45 21:45 Fri/Sat: 23:45 Altunizade Capitol Spectrum: 11:15 13:15 15:20 17:30 20:00 22:00 Fri/Sat: 23:15
JOURNEY TO THE CENTER OF THE EARTH
ÝSTANBUL: Beyoðlu Atlas: 12:00 14:15 16:30 19:00 21:30 Esentepe Cinebonus Astoria: 11:15 13:15 15:15 17:15 19:15 21:15 Fri/Sat: 23:15 Caddebostan AFM: 10:45 13:00 15:15 17:30 19:40 21:50 ANKARA: Cinebonus Bilkent: 11:45 13:45 15:45 17:45 19:45 21:45 Fri/Sat: 24:00 Ata On Tower: 12:00 13:45 15:45 17:45 19:45 21:45 Fri/Sat: 24:00
Goldmax 07:20 The Pianist 09:45 Domestic Disturbance 11:15 It Takes Two 12:55 SubUrbia 15:00 Beneath The Planet Of The Apes 16:35 Never Been Kissed 18:20 Sol Goode 20:00 Planet of The Apes (2001) 22:00 Author! Author! 23:50 Happy Times (Xingfu shiguang) 01:30 The Great White Hype 03:25 The Sex Monster 05:00 Mulholland Dr.
Movýemax 06:40 Failure to Launch 08:25 Inside the Actors Studio: Morgan Freeman 09:15 The Freediver 10:50 Désaccord parfait (Twice upon a Time) 12:30 The Sandlot: Heading Home 14:15 I Am Sam 16:30 Paris, je t’aime 18:30 Lord of War 20:45 Dude, Where’s my Car? 22:30 Zodiac 01:20 X-Men: The Last Stand 03:15 Cherry Crush 04:50 I Am Sam
‘Watchmen’ aýms to answer blockbuster superhero fýlms Zack Snyder is standing inside a 9,000 pound (4,082 kilogram), tanklike metal pod in the center of the crowded Comic-Con floor. He nonchalantly points out the features of the Owl Ship, a real-life version of the flying vehicle from the award-winning graphic novel “Watchmen.” Snyder, whose adaptation of the graphic novel “300” grossed more than $200 million, says directing “Watchmen” isn’t a job he would have sought, but it’s one that suits him fine: Staying true to a beloved story that dismantles the superhero archetype. The comic is about a group of superheroes as war breaks out. “These modern superheroes, like Iron Man, Batman and Superman, they’re our mythology and [author] Alan [Moore] sort of deconstructed that mythology and said no, they’re us,” Snyder says. “Other superhero movies -‘Iron Man,’ ‘Batman’ -- they’re like a mishmash off all the different mythology. The
ÝSTANBUL: Bakýrköy Cinebonus Capacity: 11:00 12:00 14:15 15:15 17:30 18:30 20:45 21:45 Fri/Sat: 24:00 Niþantaþý Citylife: 11:00 12:30 14:00 15:30 17:00 18:30 20:00 21:30 Fri/Sat: 23:00 24:30 Kadýköy Cinebonus Nautilus: 11:00 12:30 14:00 15:30 17:15 18:45 20:30 22:00 Fri/Sat: 23:30 23:45 Ümraniye Cinebonus Meydan: 11:00 12:30 14:00 15:30 17:15 18:45 20:30 22:00 Fri/Sat: 23:45 ANKARA: AFM Ankamall IMAX: 11:45 15:00 18:30 21:30 Fri/Sat: 24:30 Ata On Tower: 11:00 12:30 14:00 15:30 17:15 18:45 20:15 21:45 Fri/Sat: 24:00 ÝZMÝR: AFM Pastel: 11:00 12:30 14:00 15:30 17:00 18:30 20:00 21:30 Cinebonus Konak Pier: 11:00 12:00 14:15 15:15 17:30 18:30 20:45 21:45 Fri/Sat: 24:00 ANTALYA: Cinebonus Migros: 11:30 14:45 18:00 21:15 Fri/Sat: 24:00
E2 08:00 The Rachael Ray Show 10:00 The Martha Stewart Show 12:00 The Ellen DeGeneres Show 14:00 Desperate Housewives 18:30 Late Night With Conan O’Brien 20:30 It’s Always Sunny In Philadelphia 21:00 The Sopranos 23:00 Comedy Night/Dane Cook 24:00 South Park 01:00 Dirt 02:00 World Series Poker 03:00 Poker Royale 04:00 South Park 05:00 Dirt
South Vietnam briefly became the Republic of South Vietnam, under military occupation by North Vietnam, before being officially integrated with the north under communist rule as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on July 2, 1976. Today is National Sleepy Head Day in Naantali, Finland. Traditionally on this day the last person in the house still sleeping is woken up using water, either by being thrown into a lake or the sea or by having water thrown on them. This day is based on the story of the Seven Sleepers, the Saints of Ephesus who slept in a cave for some two to three hundred years during the Middle Ages to avoid persecution by Decius, the Roman emperor at the time. The story of the Seven Sleepers is told in the Quran and other Muslim texts. Today is National Tree Day in Australia, a day when all Aussies are supposed to help plant native trees and shrubs at a site in their local area. It is held on the last Sunday of July. Contrary to the Schools Tree Day, held on the last Friday of July, not only school children, but also adults participate in this activity. More than 316,000 volunteers participated in National Tree Day in 2006, planting over 1.6 million native trees and shrubs at 3,600 sites around Australia. The planting of these local native trees helps to provide food and shelter for Australia’s wildlife, increasing native biodiversity and combating the habitat loss that threatens many species. By Kerim Balcý
‘The Dark Knight’
THE DARK KNIGHT
cial holiday. Barbosa’s house in Bayamón has been converted into a museum in which many of his awards, certificates, books and other artifacts of interest are exhibited. Today is Septinu Guletaju Diena -- or Feast Day of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus -- in Latvian mythology. Legend states that these Christian saints were Ephesians from Asia Minor and were exiled to a cave by Roman Emperor Decius as punishment for their faith in A.D. 250. Found by masons in the year 479, the Ephesians had thought they were asleep for only one night, instead of the 229 years that had actually elapsed. Once awake, Malchus made his way into town to buy bread for the others, rubbing the sleep of more than two centuries from his eyes. He was amazed to see Christian crosses placed on all the buildings. This was in stark contrast to the earlier times when they had been persecuted. The bakers were amazed at the coins he offered and thought that the young man had found treasure. Latvians believed that if it rains on this feast day, there will be seven weeks and seven days of rain. On this day in 1973, the Paris Peace Accords put an end to the Vietnam War, formally recognizing the sovereignty of both sides. Under the terms of the agreement all American combat troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. Limited fighting continued, but all major fighting ended until the north once again sent troops to the south on April 30, 1975.
Today is Reek Sunday, the last Sunday in July. It is a day of pilgrimage in Ireland honoring St. Patrick, Ireland’s patron saint, who fasted for 40 days on the summit of Croagh Patrick Mountain. Croagh Patrick derives its name from the Irish “Cruach Phádraig” (St. Patrick’s mountain) although it is known locally as the Reek. On Reek Sunday, over 25,000 pilgrims climb the mountain, many of whom climb barefoot. Croagh Patrick has been the site of pilgrimages, especially at the summer solstice, since before the arrival of Celtic Christianity in the first century, possibly since before the arrival of the Celts. At present it is named after St. Patrick, who, in addition to fasting on the mountain, built a church there. It is said at the end of St. Patrick’s 40-day fast, he threw a bell down the side of the mountain, banishing all the snakes and serpents of Ireland. The tradition of pilgrimage to this holy mountain stretches back over 5,000 years from the Stone Age to the present day without interruption. Today is Barbosa Day for Puerto Ricans. Dr. José Celso Barbosa was born on this day in 1857 (died Sept. 21, 1921) in Bayamón, Puerto Rico. He was a medical doctor, sociologist and political leader. He was also the first racially mixed resident to attend Puerto Rico’s prestigious Jesuit Seminary. In honor of Barbosa’s accomplishments, Puerto Rico declared his birthday, July 27, an offi-
Actor Billy Crudup is shown as Jon Osterman in the mystery adventure film "Watchmen." Joker, he’s a great character, but there’s no bible for how that character should be. ... People sort of group ‘Watchmen’ with the ‘Batman’ and ‘Iron Man’ superhero movies, [but] those things don’t have quintessential and set works of literature that support
[them]. They do, but it’s all spread out.” Snyder says his adaptation of Warner Bros. “Watchmen,” slated for release next March, is more true to the source material. He sticks to the story because of the complex concepts involved, he says, such as ex-
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ploring superheroes’ ethical and moral challenges. The story “deconstructs heroes. ... It kind of takes it all the way,” Snyder says. “How far do you take this superhero thing? Do you take a cat out of a tree or do you create world peace? That’s really the dilemma that they face. Superman has the ability to go to all the world leaders and say, ‘I will kill all of you if you don’t behave.’ He could do that, but why doesn’t he?” Warner Bros. said this week that it will release an episodic downloadable video game developed by Deadline Games that will prequel the big-screen adaptation of “Watchmen.” Another game that will take place following the first game will be released later in 2009 at the same time as the “Watchmen” DVD. In the games, players will be able to combat foes as the pointy-eared Nite Owl (played by Patrick Wilson in the film) and inkblot mask-wearing Rorschach (Jackie Earle Haley). San Diego AP
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00:00 Identification and Programming 00:25 Music 07:25 Identification and Programming 07:30 Music 08:30 News (English, French, German) 08:40 Live Broadcast (English, German, Russian) 10:30 News (English, French, German, Greek, Russian) 10:45 Live Broadcast (English, German, Russian) 12:30 News (English, French, German, Greek, Russian) 12.45 Live Broadcast (English, German, Russian) 15:00 News (English, French, German, Greek, Russian) 15:15 Live Broadcast (English, German, Russian) 18:30 News (English, French, German, Greek, Russian) 18:45 Live Broadcast (English, French) 21:30 News (English, French, German, Greek, Russian) 21:45 Live Broadcast (English, Greek) 23:58 Identification
Broadcast Areas: HOW TO PLAY? : The objective of the game is to fill all the blank squares in a game with the correct numbers. There are three very simple constraints to follow. In a 9 by 9 square Sudoku game:
Every row of 9 numbers must include all digits 1 through 9 in any order Every column of 9 numbers must include all digits 1 through 9 in any order Every 3 by 3 subsection of the 9 by 9 square must include all digits 1 through 9
Ambulance: 112 Fire: 110 171 Police: 155 156 Maritime: 158 Unknown numbers: 118 Turkish Airlines: 444 0 849, U.S. Embassy: 0312 455 5555 U.S. Consulate: 0212 2513602-3-4 Russian Embassy: 0312 439 2122 Russian Consulate: 0212 244 1693-2610 British Embassy: 0312 455 3344 British Consulate: 0212 293 7540 German Embassy. 0312 455 5100 German Consulate: 0212 334 61 00 French Embassy: 0312 455 4545 French Consulate: 0212 292 4810-11 Indian Embassy: 0312 438 2195 Pakistani Embassy: 0312 427 1410 Austrian Embassy: 0312 419 0431-33 Austrian Consulate: 0212 262 9315 Belgian Embassy: 0312 446 8247 Belgian Consulate: 0212 243 3300 Egyptian Embassy: 0312 426 1026 Egyptian Consulate: 0212 263 6038 Israeli Embassy: 0312 446 3605
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SUNDAY’S ZAMAN 17
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This former football stadium was turned into a cemetery during the siege of the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. Some 12,000 people died in the city, including 1,600 children. decision known in advance", he told reporters. Karadzic's brother, who visited him in prison, said the fugitive had planned to surrender next year, after a deadline for the Hague Tribunal to open new trials has expired. His thinking was that if he surrendered then, he would have a chance of being tried in a local Serbian court. Vukcevic said that regardless of any possible procedural delays in the extradition process, Karadzic was going to The Hague and would not be getting a trial in Serbia. "These are his hopes," Vukcevic said, "but I think the chances are minimal."
Several hundred ultranationalists -- chanting Karadzic's name and denouncing Serbian President Boris Tadic -- marched Friday for the third straight day of protests in downtown Belgrade in support of Karadzic. The demonstrators briefly scuffled with riot police and hurled at the Belgrade City Council building. They did not follow the lead of Thursday's protesters and also attack reporters covering the demonstration. Vjerica Radeta, a top official and lawmaker from the Serbian Radical Party, also warned the pro-Western Tadic. Radeta said
Tadic may meet a similar fate as Zoran Djindjic, the Serbian reformist prime minister assassinated in Belgrade in 2003 by nationalists opposed to his extradition of Milosevic to The Hague. The Kurier newspaper quoted a married couple who said they sought his services after trying in vain to have children. Their encounter with him occurred in mid-2006. In Serbia, the Vecernje Novosti daily reported that Karadzic has been reading the Bible since in detention, drinking only water and eating whole-grain bread. While in hiding, Karadzic had assumed a false identity of "Dragan Dabic." The real Dabic is a 66-year-old construction worker from Ruma, a town north of Belgrade, government official Rasim Ljajic confirmed, adding that Dabic's ID differed from Karadzic's "only in the photographs." Real Dabic, who has no physical resemblance to Karadzic, was shocked. "Instead of working in the garden, I'm being besieged by reporters and answering telephone calls," he said in Ruma, adding that he had no idea how the copy of his ID ended up in Karadzic's hands. "This is unfair. Instead of finding out who really cooked this up, I'm being questioned by police," he said. Meanwhile in Bosnia, Raffi Gregorian, deputy to the country's international administrator, was quoted Friday by the daily Dnevni Avaz as saying options are being considered on how to confiscate Karadzic's property to compensate victims of wartime atrocities. Victims who fled to the United States during Bosnia's 1992-95 war have sought compensation from Karadzic through the New York-based Center for Constitutional Rights. A jury decided on the sum of US$4.5 billion in 2000. It is not known how much property Karadzic owns. Ýstanbul Sunday's Zaman with wires
Obama and Muslim voters a ‘double whammy?’ AP
ly apologized to the Muslim women who were banned by campaign volunteers from sitting behind the podium at a Detroit rally because the women wore hijabs," he said.
Barack Obama should be able to count on heavy support from US Muslims in the November election, if polls are correct, but he risks offending some members of that faith by having to explain he is not one himself. The number of votes at stake is small since Muslims account for only a fraction of the US population and there are no reliable figures on how many are registered to vote. But with a recent history of close presidential elections, no vote can be discounted when Democrat Obama, who would be the first black president, faces off against Republican John McCain. A survey from the Pew Forum on Religion and Politics found that 63 percent of US Muslims either considered themselves to be Democrats or leaned in that direction, compared with 11 percent who said they were Republican or identified with that party. At the same time, about 12 percent of Americans think Obama is a Muslim, a misconception that has persisted for months and been fed by Internet rumors. The touchy issue was in the news again when The New Yorker published a satirical cartoon on its cover depicting an Arab-garbed Obama and his gun-toting wife in the White House Oval Office with an American flag burning in the fireplace. There have also been unconfirmed reports that the Obama campaign plans to appoint a liaison to the Muslim community. A religion section on an Obama Web site, "Fight the Smears," that was created to deal with such rumors, labels claims that he is a Muslim a "lie" and states he "has never been a Muslim, was not raised as a Muslim and is a committed Christian." "We know he isn't a Muslim but who cares if he is?" said Sofian Zakkout, director of the American Muslim Association of North America. Obama's pledge "to bring communities together" is his appeal, Zakkout said, and "We don't expect him to come to us and say, 'I'm with you.' We don't need that." But Saaqib Rangoonwala, managing editor of Southern California InFocus, a Muslim newspaper, sees a close election in which "American Muslim votes will be needed and it is time for Muslims to take a stand ... "Muslims are not less deserving of Obama's time than other groups that he has met with ... to his credit, he met with a Muslim leader and personal-
Earn their votes "These actions are well and good," Rangoonwala said, but "Muslims need to let Obama know that he has to earn their votes." Ahmed Rehab, executive director of the Chicago office of the Council on American-Islamic Relations, said there was a high level of interest in the presidential election among Muslims, with the main issues being civil rights, peace in the Middle East, immigration, the economy and Islamophobia. But he thinks Obama may be "overcompensating" in trying to correct the misconception he is a Muslim, leaving the impression that being a Muslim is somehow un-American -- a "double whammy." "Many in the Muslim community think he is being sheepish in reaching out to them," he said. Obama already has faced problems within his own Christian church, having to distance himself from controversial comments by his former pastor, the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, that were perceived by some as anti-American. A 2007 Pew report found that US Muslims were mainly middle class and mostly in mainstream society. A later survey of likely voters by the Council on American-Islamic Relations also found them largely Democrats and young, with 75 percent of them US-born or having lived in the country for 20 years or more. The Pew reports have estimated Muslims at just 0.06 percent of the population, although other reports have placed the number higher. In Minneapolis, which has a large concentration of Somali Muslim immigrants, Mohamed Burk, 53, said, "I'm listening and thinking," but he is undecided between Obama and McCain. Abdulaziz AlSalim, 23, a Minnesota native who now lives in Daman, Saudi Arabia, where he works as a financial analyst for Saudi Aramco, the oil company, said he was sad that "being associated with Muslims is a political liability." But he said he would vote for Obama "for the same reasons that everyone else is supporting him. He's a unifier, charismatic and represents change." Chicago Reuters
War crimes suspect Radovan Karadzic will be extradited to the United Nations tribunal in The Hague at the earliest on Monday, Serbia's chief war crimes prosecutor Vladimir Vukcevic said. The leader of the Bosnian Serbs in the 1992-95 Bosnia war, who is indicted twice for genocide, was arrested this week after 11 years in hiding, and is now held in a Belgrade prison. Karadzic's lawyer filed a last minute appeal to the extradition order. "The panel of judges has three days to decide on the appeal, but I assume they will meet on Monday. Then the justice minister has to sign the extradition order." Vukcevic said that in theory, the panel of judges could accept Karadzic's appeal and reject the extradition order. "However, it is highly unlikely," he added. "The earliest he can be extradited is Monday. We have no reason to rush. We have been waiting for him for 13 years." Karadzic and his military chief Ratko Mladic were indicted in 1995 for planning the massacre of 8,000 Bosnian Muslims in Srebrenica and the 43-month siege of Sarajevo, where 11,000 people died from mortars, sniper fire, malnutrition and illness. Karadzic has maintained his innocence, accusing the Hague court of being biased against Serbs. Hardline nationalists agree, and have called a mass protest next week against his arrest and extradition. Local media have reported that death threats were made against politicians blamed for his arrest, such as pro-Western President Boris Tadic. "The Hague tribunal is not a court, it's a mockery of law and justice," said Kosta Cavoski, a Belgrade University law professor and president of a team that has been preparing Karadzic's defence for years. Karadzic's trial in the Hague would be a "court-martial with the
Serb prosecutor sees Karadzic extradited next week
US Democratic presidential contender Barack Obama (R) is seen with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, at the Elysee Palace.
Obama’s foreign trip: Mission accomplished Democrat Barack Obama looked and sounded like a natural in the role of potential US president during a carefully scripted overseas trip this week, passing a big test in the battle for the White House. The first-term senator from Illinois smoothly executed his debut on the world stage, frustrating Republican rival John McCain and disappointing critics waiting for a telling mistake that would highlight his inexperience. For Obama, who concluded the 7-country trip on Saturday, it was a chance to dispel doubts about his foreign policy expertise and display his credibility as a possible commander in chief. "Obama passed the test, which was to show he can handle himself with foreign leaders and avoid a major gaffe," said Steven Schier, a political scientist at Carleton College in Minnesota. "It doesn't transform the race and it doesn't win him the presidency -- but failure could have cost him the presidency. Now he can move on," he said. Polls show Obama's lack of experience in world affairs remains one of his biggest hurdles with voters in November's election battle against McCain, a four-term Arizona senator and former Vietnam prisoner of war. To dispel those concerns, Obama met with foreign leaders, carefully navigated the minefield of Israeli-Palestinian relations, visited US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, and drew a crowd of 200,000 to his speech in Berlin, Germany -- more than double the size of his biggest US audience. The trip, conducted with all the pomp of a presidential visit, produced a stream of warm images for voters back home. Obama, 46, held his first news conference on a Jordan hilltop with a sprawling view of the capital Amman behind him. He delivered his Berlin speech to an adoring throng that reinforced his promise to begin a new era of US diplomacy and restore American prestige abroad. Obama's supporters were happy with his performance. "Obama was auditioning for the job of president this week, and I think he showed he is up to it," said Simon Rosenberg, head of the Democratic advocacy group NDN. "It has been a big week for Senator Obama and his campaign." Obama set the tone early on the trip, stepping on a basketball court before a cheering crowd of US troops and calmly nailing a 3-point shot.
'Bad week' for Republicans
New Yorker magazine's cover shows Barack Obama dressed as a Muslim and his wife as a terrorist. The magazine says the cover is meant to satirize the use of scare tactics and misinformation in the presidential election to derail Obama's campaign, but Obama's campaign called it ‘tasteless and offensive.’
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"As soon as he hit that 3-pointer, I knew it was going to be a bad week," Republican consultant Joe Gaylord said. "His trip had good pictures, good video, good sound bites. I have to admire their work," said Gaylord, a McCain supporter. Obama, who has called for the withdrawal of US combat troops from Iraq within 16 months of his taking office, also benefited from news that undercut two of McCain's prime foreign policy arguments. Iraq Prime Minister Nuri alMaliki told Obama the end of 2010 was an appropriate goal for US withdrawal, putting the two on a similar path. Even President George W. Bush agreed for the first time on a "time horizon" for withdrawal. McCain, an ardent supporter of the war, opposes a timetable for US withdrawal. That left him in the awkward position of bucking the elected Iraqi government -although he said recent security gains might allow troops to leave by the end of 2010. Bush also sent a senior US diplomat to meet with Iranian and European teams over Iran's nuclear program, along the lines of Obama's call for direct talks with Iran. McCain has criticized Obama for his willingness to talk to Iran without preconditions. McCain, 71, has marketed his military and foreign policy credentials in the campaign and goaded Obama into the trip by criticizing his failure to visit Iraq since a lone visit in January 2006. But McCain's aides fumed at the heavy media attention on Obama and struggled to compete. Weather scuttled McCain's plan to fly to an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico to highlight his drilling proposals, and one cable network cut away from his New Hampshire town hall to report the rescue of an injured bear cub in California. As Obama spoke in Berlin on Thursday, McCain had lunch in a German restaurant in Columbus, Ohio. "I don't think McCain's counter-programming worked, but I'm not sure there was anything they could do but hope it all goes away and pray for better times," Gaylord said. "There are some things you can't fight." Washington Reuters
Everton captain Phil Neville signs new contract Everton captain Phil Neville has signed a new four-year contract that could tie him to the club until the end of his career. The 31-year-old Neville, the younger brother of Manchester United captain Gary Neville, has been at Everton for three years since leaving United. The former England international, who now plays in midfielder after spending much of his career at fullback, still had two years remaining on his previous agreement before signing his new deal. Liverpool, AP
SUNDAY, JULY 27, 2008
Tolunay sets sýghts on UEFA Cup thýs year M.BURAK BÜRKÜK KIZILCAHAMAM
Last year, Kayserispor head coach Tolunay Kafkas had said he was determined to grab the Fortis Turkey Cup -- formerly known as the Federation Cup, a soccer competition run by the Turkish Soccer Federation (TFF) in which all 54 teams playing in Turkey’s Super League and Second League compete -- but we failed to take him seriously until the final match between Kayserispor and Gençlerbirliði in Bursa in May 2008. Our eyes were fixed on Tolunay as his team raised the Turkey Cup after 42 years. Now the coach has set his goal for the team even higher, aiming for the UEFA Cup. A year after Kafkas declared his Turkey Cup ambition we found Kayserispor in Kýzýlcahamam, Ankara. Kafkas had agreed to an interview with Sunday’s Zaman at the team’s training camp, and this time we were ready to pay attention to any goal he would declare for the coming season. Yet, what we found was a coach who is realistic and who knows his limits. We discovered that beneath the ambitious and aggressive style is a person who can admit his mistakes. Last year, you had set the Turkish Cup as your goal, and you managed to attain it. What do you plan to do differently this season? This season we will be competing in the UEFA Cup. We attach great importance to this cup as this is a new and important opportunity for Kayserispor. As the whole community is aware, we will give it our best effort. By doing so, we can get through the playoff stage. I believe we
can be quite successful in the group matches. As for the national league, we will continue to play good soccer as our fans expect us to and will earn their appreciation. You are constantly working on selfimprovement. What are your current objectives? I like to learn. I think you can learn something from everyone, and this is what I try to do. Moreover, it is my intention to do a great service for the country’s soccer and for Kayserispor. I believe that success depends on stability. Changing clubs frequently would not bring much success, I surmise. What lesson did you take from seeing Sivasspor’s success in the last season? Throughout my life, I have preferred to take a realistic view of things. I have never made utopian statements. It is the wish of everyone in Turkey to see a champion among Anatolian soccer teams. Statements are frequently made to this effect, but these never go beyond being mere words. Unfortunately, no concrete steps are taken to make this dream come true. As I said previously, currently, I don’t see much possibility that any soccer team other than Trabzonspor will become Anatolia’s champion. Will Gökhan Ünal’s departure be a significant loss? Of course it is a loss, but a true loss would be losing a well-performing Gökhan. Honestly, Gökhan did not play well last season. He had his reasons for his poor performance. People may have highs and lows in certain periods. If he had demonstrated the same performance as he had in the past, we would be near the top of the league like Sivasspor. Sometimes, you want to grab something, but it just slips out of your hands. How would you describe the ideal player? For me, a player should be dynamic and passionate. I like those
types of players and I prefer them in my transfers. Moreover, a player should be strong and able to put all his energy into the game. The players who take the initiative in the game are ideal players in my view. Which of last season’s matches was depressing for you? Actually, none of them was depressing. But some of them were maddening! In one such match, we played against Fenerbahçe and were beaten 2-1. The fans were enraged by the referee’s decisions in that game. And you made some harsh remarks about the referees. Are you bothered by the fact that your matches will be officiated by these bad referees? No, I am not. Frankly, I must tell you that I was acting on impulse in that match. However,
this is the way it is in the world. There are always good and bad referees. Moreover, this is not limited to referees. There are bad seeds among coaches, executives and reporters. What is important is to help the good ones gain the upper hand. Do you regret your actions in that game? Yes, certainly. Sometimes, people may express themselves in the wrong way. Or they may be misunderstood. One such time was after the Fenerbahçe match. Actually, I am keen on using the proper words, but I selected the wrong ones in that instance. It was the outburst of my anger. I admit it was wrong. Sooner or later, I find the correct way.
Alex Ferguson sceptical on British team JAMES DUCKER JOHANNESBURG
this. As a coach, I can control them, and I must do this. Do your ambitions serve as a driving force or are they manifestations of your nature? Both, I think that successful people in this world are the ambitious ones. This is what I tell my players. But I do not do anything unintentionally. I am straightforward in expressing my ideas. I do not fear repercussions in doing so. This was the same when I was a player and this is so now as well. I say what I believe is true, but I do not act disrespectfully in doing so. I take pains not to hurt anyone, but I can be harsh toward disrespectful people. You stressed that there is a peaceful environment at Kayserispor. How long do you plan to stay with the team?
My contract will end in two years. But for the sake of stability, all Kayserispor must be in full agreement about this issue. The club president, executives and fans must have a common stance. There is no doubt that long-term, stable programs will bear fruit. The Turkish Cup being won after 42 years is a good example. Don’t you have any problems within the club? We are in a good shape compared to many clubs. We have no debts. There will always be small problems. For instance, we have problems regarding infrastructure. Yet, it is not easy to become a good brand. These things require certain processes and patience.
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Do you think you are properly understood? One must know me very well to better understand me. My behavior may cause trouble for those who cannot understand me. Both as a player and as a coach you are known for your aggressive approach. When you were playing for Trabzonspor, this approach was acceptable to the fans. How do you perceive yourself as a coach? I do not agree with you about my being aggressive. Last season, only in our match against Fenerbahçe did I act on impulse and it was wrong. I am somewhat ambitious, and I never hide it. But I can control my emotions when necessary. When I was a player, I could not do
M. BURAK BÜRKÜK
‘One must know me to understand me’
Sir Alex Ferguson, the Manchester United manager, has poured cold water on the prospect of the home nations combining to form a Great Britain football team at the 2012 Olympic Games in London. Although the English FA is in favour of the move, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland fear that participation in a Britain team would threaten their independence, with Fifa, the sport’s world governing body, eventually forcing the four nations to merge and play under one banner. Ferguson has been championed by Lord Coe, the chairman of the London organising committee for 2012, as the leading choice to coach a Britain team, but as well as playing down the chances of that happening, the United manager, a fiercely patriotic Scot, was dismissive of the idea of the home nations joining forces. “I’m not so sure - I’m not sure they [the different national associations] would allow it,” Ferguson said. “Countries have their own identity, their own patriotism. It has been mooted for a number of years by Fifa at the World Cup that Great Britain has a team. It would be impractical in that sense. Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, even England, they all have their own identities, so I don’t think it is a starter.” Having indicated that he will retire as United manager in two years, Ferguson would probably be available to coach a Britain team if the idea got off the ground, but he refused to commit one way or the other yesterday (Friday) and pointed out that age could be a factor. Ferguson will be six months short of his 70th birthday by the time the Olympics are staged in London. Speaking during United’s pre-season tour to South Africa, Ferguson said: “I hope I’m still on this planet in 2012 first of all. I’ll be [nearly] 70 years of age then. I don’t need any commitment to anything like that. I would not in any way, shape or form try to commit myself to anything like that four years away.” United play their third and final match of the Vodacom Challenge against Kaizer Chiefs at the Loftus Versfeld Stadium in Pretoria this afternoon before embarking on a 5 and a half-hour flight to Abuja, the capital of Nigeria, 3,000 miles away for an exhibition match against Portsmouth tomorrow (Sunday) evening. Even accounting for Ferguson’s plans to field two different teams, it promises to be an exhausting 48 hours for United’s players. Ferguson made no secret of the fact that money is a motivating factor behind the fleeting visit to Nigeria - United stand to earn at least pounds 1.5million from the trip, even though they will be in the country for only a matter of hours - although the manager will hope that the decision does not backfire through injuries to key players. “We have never been to Nigeria,” he said. “It was just an opportunity and you could say it is partly financial, of course. We have to take into consideration the financial invitations because we have a big operation. The squad is 23-24 players now and it has to be a well-run club to be able to afford all that.” The friendly against Portsmouth will serve as a dress rehearsal for the FA Community Shield at Wembley a fortnight tomorrow (Sunday) , but while touring is a lucrative business for United, Ferguson does not want to see the traditional curtain-raiser to the new season played abroad. “To be thinking of going to other countries, such as Nigeria or Dubai, at that time [to play the Community Shield] when you are one week away from the start of the season is too close as far as I’m concerned,” he said. “I don’t think it will happen and I think it is perfect being staged at Wembley and should be kept there.” United are close to appointing a foreign replacement for Tony Coton, the goalkeeping coach, who was forced to retire this summer because of knee problems. His successor is expected to be named next week. © The Times, London
SUNDAY’S ZAMAN 19
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Turke p o t y aiming to be 020 meda l y2 winner b s c i p in Olym
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international s, bringing large tion is, Atalay say to Turkey. sporting events sports history es that Turkey's Atalay, who not rna tion al the se sort s of inte of few very s incl ude ts and organiIÇ ANK ARA "International even ALÝ ASL AN KIL t of a events, comments: men elop a lot to the dev ect or zati ons con trib ute rts Gen era l Dir more attractive You th and Spo They make sports sure. pas is cult g key rtin Tur spo these sorts of notes that th. And thanks to Mehmet Atalay runserious for the nation's you ting period in the built quickly and get s ing through an exci litie . faci Aug e larg rto be held events, are not only ente 2008 Olympics, beotion occur. Sports of l up to the Beijing prom goa of ls its ill leve number of Turkey will fulf ven tourism. The 8-24, adding that e ing, they also enli ing nations in thes of tain inn one al-w ts med hos five n your nation ing one of the top medals you win whe mass exes by 2020. in turn raises the the Olympic Gam goes up and this at the upts cess even suc of idea interest in sports." Atalay defined his : "It wou ld be citement for and 3, Turkey bein Beij ing , not ing t following 200 er and com ing gam es Atalay says tha spo rtin g five gold, five silv with y awa re inte rna tion al e com great to Athens we to hos t man y mo in gan ago have had rs yea 3 r als. Fou : "Since 200 we ting men num five bronze med com this ging events, s, the World 10 medals, so brin all Championship came away with the World Basketb World Athletics ld be great." mpionships, the ber up to 15 wou Swi mm ing Cha need for more ina n You th was bzo e Tra ther and the Atalay noted that Cha mp ion shi ps onships facilities as well as country's sports rld Tennis Champi vestment in the hos t the ads. And the Wo to mpi is l Oly st rece nt nbu mo Ýsta lete s if key . The Tur in held its be take the cou ntry 's ath fact to are also to for which we and if Turkey is in iterranean Games, Olympics in 2020 the Games. event is the Med win." top five nations at ch I believe we will place among the past five candidate and whi the a in are that e so far been ted hav ligh many laws that es key Atalay, who high not Tur in lay s Ata are the legal of lice nse d ath lete ent in order to prep yea r the num ber rts g from 438,000 passed in Parliam ligh ted spo t spo 500 percent, goin high by e d mor ease the incr the had artm ent of fou nda tion for onal stage. He Mehmet said tha t his dep to take on the nati are mil10 to 2.5 mil lion , etes to athl ion ber and opposit Atalay ed to raise this num administration and government aim of cooperation also notes that both the init iati ve. extensive network t the ir ene rgy to this lion by 2013. An forc es hav e len with an eye on ister Recep ed Min e elop Prim dev n the fact that has already bee inistrations, Atalay points to r Mu rat orships to local adm Spo rts Min iste goal, from govern ations, he to create some yip Erd oða n and aniz d lves as Tay org age ety mse man the soci l s had s to civi g ath lete e Turkey tim bein h of ely bot od lu clos from sports club ioð had working Baþ esg ath lete s the y in all of this . He facilities for itself. they were even s had in favo r of fem ale a larg e adv ant age large new sports n ium ion said, adding that bee in stad inat ed ing varigirls crim hav of t. form the by rest inte ut how ies on this fron and support shown ease the general Atalay talked abo r to come with political part ng populamanaged to incr praises the interest rted by the nt successes of trade arenas in orde 's extremely you ies for effo rts exe Pointing to the rece of transformed into . s istr key Pointing to Turkey been min term num Tur "In , ara in our ng: rts Ank ed team g spo rsifi ous spreadin the voll eyb all new facilities, noti : "We have dive rts and Youth in ion al wom en' s one up with funding for tion, Atalay said the number up the Tur kish nat ts in this nation, Directorate of Spo ch we highpopularity of spor athletes, bringing sports in Turkey. campaign in whi the of g our ess the ter adin succ "Af you spre ease : n and bers of licensed incr said is to But whe Atalay popularity a model girls showing e things we need around 400,000. Australia remains the number of our of the indispensabl to 2.5 million from athletes better s of our popAtalay asserts that lighted volleyball, d the numin the arena facilities to give our panorama in term has nearly surpasse of realizing goals number of sports look at the general the have started up rest in this sport Turkey in terms Our goal is to we ing inte , for go. ted the mak this to hos by do s t y to r way poin a the orde have reached this ing : "W hen opportunities. In ulation, we still rts. our former, older s in the nex t by enber of boys. We of spo rts, not spoke about spo ities,' by turning e attractive and lice nse d ath lete an 'attack on facil middle of the entire country , wit h hav e 10 mil lion here for sports mor cs, the filion osp In mpi con mil great e. atm 70 Oly lent trad and of for arenas in a nat ion went up quickly ructors and teachers stadiums into new dec ade . In fact , sucnumber of athletes stadiums in spots benumber should suring that our inst eme The has new this ia extr both th, tral the you ding to Aus g buil nks ard. bein ents. Tha ught forw our cities, we are more than half of , the transportation as h these numdence to the stud athletes were bro average reached by public ion. When we reac en's volleyball team es away with an that can be easily reach 20 or 30 mill top five as. These are nation which com of our national wom exa the be e aren of ply to cess ts com sim one aim spor as has er We e larg ern, our plac athletes in Turkey every Olympics. well as more mod bers, we will take kind of sport ple we will come number of female of 50 medals from ada, Germany, of hosting every th take these peo mpic Games and ities that are able serve in this, or like Can is because our you facil ia can This nations in the Oly tral ch n , ed. on." whi Aus liha s path plod nati t Nes like field ws the righ building t medals of any cess . Eve ryo ne kno France. We are on imaginable. We are this well away with the mos as mod els of suc England, Italy or ass them. Olympic boxlities are supporting day we will surp . Our first female ! th 24/7. Municipa one now rts you that nel] our spo y eve Dar el beli pla al mir I [De e to and ome a mod great potenti bers in the city." can Taylan, has bec Come on girls, tim do is harness the as are private cham provide both ing champion, Nur All we have to of course need about the aim to in Turkey." youth, though we ions Atalay also talked zat for female children ani d now is lent to us by our ed in and showed nee org t rest al l." grea on wel inte e one ati ion wer ern Int ic populat asserted that rget toy also ene pos rne s lay boys and girls who this lijou n Ata nitie 's faci trai ortu to sports nt leg in Tur key sports the best opp ber of available A thir d imp orta ability in certain petitive naitive disincrease the num peri pos com rt to ng ics sho a mp enti Oly lem only a top by imp though, that in wards becoming sible. He said that ties. He did say,
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China aims for bigger slice of satellite market China aims to build a leading aerospace industry by 2015, when the country would command 10 percent of the world's commercial satellite market and 15 percent of the space launch market, Xinhua said on Friday. Beijing was planning to double the number of aerospace scientific research and production bases to eight. Beijing, Reuters
project, said in a statement. Jeff Snyder of Caltech, who worked on the project, said a thermoelectric device that converts heat from exhaust into electricity could improve a car's fuel efficiency by 10 percent. Snyder, who previously developed such devices for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said the idea of using thermoelectrics had been around for a long time, but the economics did not make sense when oil cost $20 a barrel. Chicago Reuters
Pasadena, California, think they can recycle some of that lost energy with a new thermoelectric material that is twice as effective as current materials. "The material does all the work. It produces electrical power just like conventional heat engines -- steam engines, gas or diesel engines -- that are coupled to electrical generators, but it uses electrons as the working fluids instead of water or gases, and makes electricity directly," Joseph Heremans, who led the
Scientists learn what makes Northern Lights flare The multicolored aurora borealis and aurora australis -- the Northern Lights and Southern Lights -- represent some of Earth's most dazzling natural displays. Now scientists using data from five NASA satellites have learned what causes frequent auroral flare-ups that make this green, red and purple lightshow that shimmers above Earth's northernmost and southernmost regions even more spectacular. Writing in the journal Science, the scientists said on Thursday that explosions of magnetic energy occurring a third of the way between Earth and the moon drive the sudden brightening of the Northern Lights and Southern Lights. There had been debate among scientists dating back decades about what triggers these auroral flare-ups. The findings from the THEMIS satellites and a network of 20 ground observatories in Canada and Alaska confirmed that it is due to a process called "magnetic reconnection." THEMIS stands for Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms mission. Auroral displays are associated with the solar wind -- electrically charged particles continuously spewing outward from the sun. Earth's magnetic field lines reach far out into space as they store energy from the solar wind. The researchers said that as two magnetic field lines come close together due to the storage of energy from the sun, a critical limit is reached and the lines reconnect, causing magnetic energy to be turned into kinetic energy and heat. The release of this energy sparks the auroral flare-ups. "We showed that the process begins far from Earth first and propagates Earthward later," said Vassilis Angelopoulos of the University of California at Los Angeles, who led the research. Washington Reuters
A new, highly efficient material that converts heat into electricity may one day help cars get the most out of a gallon of gas, US researchers said on Thursday. Only about 25 percent of the energy produced by a typical gasoline engine is used to move the vehicle or run accessories like the radio or windshield wipers, they said. Much of the rest escapes through the exhaust pipe. Researchers at Ohio State University in Columbus and Caltech in
New materĂ˝al could help stretch a gallon of gas
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More than 1,000 died in painkiller overdoses At least 1,013 people died of overdoses in several US cities from 2005 to 2007 after illegally injecting the highly potent painkiller fentanyl, US officials said. The fentanyl, at least some of which came from Mexico, was sold illegally by drug dealers on US streets, sometimes mixed with cocaine and heroin, according to a report issued by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Chicago area had the most deaths with 349, followed by Philadelphia with 269, the Detroit area with 230. Other deaths were reported in St. Louis, Missouri, and the states of Delaware and New Jersey. Emergency medical personnel reported finding some victims with the needle still in their arms, not having completed the injection because the drug was so powerful, said retired CDC public health service officer Dr. Stephen Jones, who wrote the report. The fentanyl caused perhaps hundreds of other deaths not reflected in the official tally of 1,013 deaths, Jones said in a telephone interview. "I think this is an extraordinary episode of fatal drug overdoses. But it's got to be recognized as part of the bigger problem of the increasing numbers of drug overdose deaths in the United States." The number of deaths from drug overdoses and other cases of unintentional drug poisonings jumped from 11,155 in 1999 to 22,448 in 2005, the CDC noted, with powerful painkilling drugs playing an important role. The fentanyl used in Chicago and Detroit was believed to have come from an illicit production facility in Toluca, Mexico, that was shut down by authorities in May 2006, the CDC said. Washington Reuters CM Y K