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CB governor: Economy may see a slowdown in second quarter page07

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Yo u r Way o f U n d e r s t a n d ý n g Tu r k e y

Wanted: A good local goalkeeper!

Turkey taking action to devise national sign language for signs used by hearing-impaired around the country

ALÝ ÜNAL PHOTO

European court verdýcts place heavy burden on turkey ERCAN YAVUZ, ANKARA

three in 1995, five in 1996, eight in 1997, 18 in 1998, 19 in 1999, 39 in 2000, 218 in 2001, 99 in 2002, 123 in 2003, 171 in 2004, 290 in 2005 and 317 in 2006. According to the Justice Ministry data, only 26 judgments of the court were in favor of Turkey. Some 513 cases ended in friendly settlements between applicants and Turkey. The court has ruled that 198 applications were inadmissible during this period. The court has dropped another 16 applications. Turkey has paid 4.6 million French francs in friendly settlement cases. Another 4.7 million francs were paid to cover court costs. Complaints against Turkey were mostly on political matters in the past, with most of the complaints relating to right to life, freedom of expression, prohibition of torture, right to liberty and security. In recent years, the nature of the complaints has changed dramatically, as recent applications pertain mostly to property rights. Some 70 percent of the applications filed after 2000 related to delays in the payment after nationalization of private property, violation of property rights and delays in court proceedings. Particularly after Loizidou secured more than 1 million as compensation from Turkey, the applications from the Greek Cypriot citizens soared to 2,250. CONTINUED ON PAGE 16

DEBATE

CAN SREBRENICA RULING BENEFIT TURKEY ON ARMENIAN ISSUE? E.BARIÞ ALTINTAÞ, ÝSTANBUL

IHD DRAWS GLOOMY PICTURE OF HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION Dutch queen receives warm welcome in Ankara

US Vice President Dick Cheney was whisked into a bomb shelter immediately after a Taliban suicide bomber struck the main American military base he was visiting in Afghanistan on Tuesday. Up to 14 people were killed, including one US and one South Korean soldier, in the Bagram Airbase attack which rebels said was aimed at Cheney. He had been in his room at the base where he had unexpectedly had to stay the night after bad weather forced postponement of his trip to the capital, Kabul, about 60 km (40 miles) away. CONTINUED ON PAGE 16

Upon her arrival in Ankara, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands was welcomed yesterday at the airport by the children of Dutch Embassy staff to Turkey singing the song "Long Live the Queen." The queen, accompanied by Crown Prince Willem-Alexander and Princess Maxima, as well as Foreign Minister Maxime Verhagen and a large delegation of businessmen, is in Turkey at the invitation of President Ahmet Necdet Sezer for a four-day visit. CONTINUED ON PAGE 04

The acquittal of Serbia on a charge of genocide was not easy for Turkey, while it was unacceptable for the Bosnians who were direct subjects of the worst massacre on European soil since World War II. However, the judgment is still considered an important landmark in international law. The ruling of the UN International Court of Justice (ICJ) is significant for it confirmed that a genocide had taken place in Srebrenica and also that Serbia had the power to foresee and prevent the slaughter, but had failed to use it. Moreover, the judges found that Serbia failed to comply with its obligations to punish those who carried out the genocide. All in all, however imperfect Monday's decision was, it might serve to clarify the definition of genocide and the responsibility of states to prevent it in terms of international law, which is very important for Turkey, a target of claims that mass deportation of Armenians in 1915 at the hands of the Ottomans was tantamount to genocide. CONTINUED ON PAGE 16

Turkish, Egyptian 04 been lesser player 11 of victims protest 04 forintellectuals without Turkey exoneration of Serbia Rehn: EU would have

A new beginning

The ‘Turkey-Egypt Conversations’ conference in Cairo tackled a variety of matters concerning both countries, including modernization processes, Islam and the West

prediction

Cheney takes refuge in bomb shelter after blast

dialogue

Both the Turkish and EU publics were dragged into an artificial debate on human rights last year as if the absence of freedom of expression in the country were the sole problematic area, although other kinds of human rights violations still exist in numerous cases, according to Yusuf Alataþ, president of the Human Rights Association (ÝHD). Alataþ unveiled the IHD's annual human rights “balance sheet” for 2006 at a press conference held Tuesday at the IHD headquarters. “Particularly following the formal opening of entry negotiations between the EU and Turkey in 2004, the human rights issue lost its priority on the country's agenda both for Turkey and the EU. Instead, the infamous Article 301 of the Turkish Penal Code has been put on agenda as an artificial item,” Alataþ said. CONTINUED ON PAGE 05

AHMET DÖNMEZ, ÝSTANBUL Former Chief Customs Inspector Necati Can, who had said “Feb. 28 was a period when corruption was at its highest” during testimony before Parliaments' Fuel Smuggling Investigation Commission, has further elucidated his claim. “Even 10 years after the post-modern, or light, coup d'etat, only illegal actions and corruption cross my mind when talking about it,” said Can. He also called for further investigation into how Turkey was robbed and human rights and freedoms were violated. “Feb. 28 instituted an oligarchy of thieves,” Can said, adding that this oligarchy made billions of dollars in fictitious exports through illegal trading at Customs alone. Can said he had prepared a report clearly identifying every detail of the fraudulent acts and malpractice carried out in Customs and submitted it to then President Süleyman Demirel in 1998. CONTINUED ON PAGE 07

With approximately 12,000 cases brought against it at the European Court of Human Rights, Turkey has paid 45 million euros in a total of 1,310 judgments rendered by the court

Turkey has paid more than 45 million euros in compensation since the European Court of Human Rights ruled against it in a number of cases, most of which involve a violation of property rights, according to Justice Ministry data. In a high-profile case, Turkey was ordered to pay more than 1 million euros to Greek Cypriot applicant Titina Loizidou for blocking her access to her property in northern Cyprus. There are 2,250 similar cases pending. In 2004, out of a total of 44,128 applications filed at the European court, 3,930 were against Turkey. While Turkey was in the ranked third following Russia and Poland with respect to applications filed against them in 2004, it moved to the second place after Italy as of the end of 2006. Turkey became a party to the European Convention on Human Rights in 1954 and allowed its citizens to seek justice at the European court in 1987. Although the first personal application against Turkey was filed as late as in 1993, Turkey has become the highest compensation paying country over the 14 years since then. Following the first application from Turkish citizens in 1993, the European court delivered some 1,310 judgments;

‘FEBRUARY 28 PROCESS INSTITUTED OLIGARCHY OF THIEVES’

European Union Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn said the EU of 2057 would have missed a ‘tremendous opportunity’ had Turkey been rejected from the enlargement process.

Survivors, relatives

verdict

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Are pricey Oscar campaigns a thing of the past? Scorsese’s 'The Departed' sets new precedent

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WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 2007 WWW.TODAYSZAMAN.COM YTL 1.50

Muslim survivors and relatives of victims of the Srebrenica massacre staged demonstrations in Sarajevo Tuesday in protest at the decision by the UN's highest court to clear Serbia of genocide.


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02 TODAY’S ZAMAN

’ ’

F OOD FOR THOUGHT

Q UOTE OF THE DAY

Should Iran choose not to proceed down that pathway, then there will be consequence such as diplomatic isolation from the rest of the world. State Department spokesman Sean McCormack

CROSS READER

FATMA DÝÞLÝ

PRESS REVIEW

W E D N E S D AY, F E B R U A R Y 2 8 , 2 0 0 7

columns

W ORDS OF WISDOM

Kirkuk resembles a small Iraq and is not the registered property of any ethnic group.

Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say something.

PM Recep Tayyip Erdoðan

Plato

press roundup PHOTO

AP

f.disli@todayszaman.com

Erdoðan’s reactýon to MGK meetýng leak found excessýve After a National Security Council (MGK) meeting last Friday, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoðan made some harsh remarks about information leaked ahead of the meeting. The information in question was a presentation by the Chief of General Staff Gen. Yaþar Büyükanýt about military vehicles in the hands of the outlawed Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in northern Iraq. Erdoðan accused those who leaked and published this information of "betraying" the state. Later, Gen. Büyükanýt was reported to have asked for an investigation into the case. Erdoðan drew criticism with his statements and his reaction was deemed too exaggerated. Yeni Þafak's Fehmi Koru complains that the debate on betraying the state is too common in Turkey. "It is considered a 'crime' for one to give information about what was spoken in MGK meetings because of the confidentiality of these meetings. The same goes for the newspapers, they cannot publish secret information about these meetings. However, publication cannot be considered as betrayal to the state no matter how crucial the matter is," he says. In reference to the writer Fikret Bila, a columnist with the Milliyet daily claimed to be the source of the leaked information in question, Koru says that the columnist is not at fault since footage of the "leaked" information had already been broadcast by French and Danish television stations. "Why did Erdoðan become so angry? Was he disturbed by the anti-democratic developments of the past?" questions Koru, a reference to the last MGK meeting before the socalled "February 28 process" in 1997 that led to the removal of the Islamist government of the Welfare Party (RP). He says at that time soldiers were telling journalists about MGK meetings ahead of time, but no investigation was ever launched. "As the chief of general staff asked for an investigation into the leak, I wonder if it will turn the spotlight to the past and at least try to shed light on media-military relations in the last decade?" wonders Koru. Milliyet's Hasan Cemal thinks that Erdoðan's reaction is against the freedom of press. "It is unimaginable to accuse a journalist who caught a news item of betraying the state," he says. He thinks that Erdoðan needs a briefing on the meaning of a free press and the meaning of betraying the state in a democracy. Cemal urges that Erdoðan had better ponder why and how such information was leaked before a MGK meeting instead of accusing some journalists of betraying the state. He thinks that accusing a journalist of betraying the state is a much too easy way to attack and discredit journalists, adding that such behavior brings no good in the end. Cemal thinks Erdoðan should abandon such attitudes toward journalists. Radikal's Hasan Celal Güzel finds Erdoðan's reaction to the leak to be basically right, but he agrees that his reaction was a little bit exaggerated. He says that this leak to the press cannot be considered as information that should be kept secret according to the Turkish Penal Code (TCK). He also explains that there was no specific purpose behind the leak of this information as required by the relevant articles of the TCK, so he thinks that Erdoðan's reaction was harsher than it should have been. On the other hand, Güzel finds Büyükanýt's move to launch an investigation into the case as a positive development. "In the past, generals remained silent before such cases, but this time Gen. Büyükanýt's sensitivity is a really good development for Turkish democracy," Güzel remarks.

ESER KARAKAÞ, STAR Turkey will have two important elections in 2007, and these elections will probably be heated. I would like to offer my opinions on secularism, economy and unemployment in particular in this feverish process of elections. Does opposition to secularism bear a result? In the process of the election, the Republican People's Party (CHP) wants to stress secularism and hopes to build its strategy on this concept and on the damage that the Justice and Development Party (AK Party) may do to the secular structure of the Turkish state. The CHP may have adopted this strategy due to its uncertainty about Turkey's near future because the same strategy has been used against opposition parties in every election since 1950 but has borne no results. Is the economy a sufficient boon for the governing party? This is a serious question because the Turkish economy has experienced a positive and accelerating process of growth for the last 21 quarters, or for more than five years. The situation favors the governing AK Party in terms of unemployment as well. Employment outside of agriculture has increased by nearly 700,000 between the last quarters of 2005 and 2006.

Did February 28 have victims? AKÝF EMRE, YENÝ ÞAFAK

’’

Bosnian women protest the decision of the International Court of Justice in The Hague which ruled that the killings of Bosnian Muslims at Srebrenica in 1995 was genocide, but determined that Serbia itself was not guilty of the enormous crime. photos and footage used to promote Turkey, the country's name should be written as "Türkiye" instead of Turkey. The name Turkey becomes a matter of mockery, Aygün complained, as a "turkey" refers to a nonintelligent animal in English and is also used in slang to mean stupid, a fool, he explained. Aygün added there were no countries in the world with names connoting negative things. Aygün asked Tourism Minister Atilla Koç to take steps on this subject.

vatan

Konya Metropolitan Municipality Mayor Tahir Akyürek said they had begun to arrange programs abroad on Rumi after UNESCO designated the year 2007 as the "International Year of Rumi" to mark the 800th birthday of the philosopher and mystical poet Mevlana Jalaladdin, known as Rumi. He said they would stage programs in Pakistan after the completion of presentations in the US. Akyürek added they had actually begun organizing such programs on Rumi before 2007 and had continued into this year. Programs were put on in Chicago, Iowa, Minneapolis and Columbus that attracted a significant amount of interest, he said.

Businessmen from Ýstanbul opened the first Turkish school in Brazil as part of voluntary education work programs they had initiated. The school was opened by Herkül Education, an institution established by Turkish businessmen and educators. Many Turkish and Brazilian bureaucrats attended the opening of the school. A Turkish football player of Brazilian descent, Mehmet Aurelio, and another footballer, Okan Buruk, sent their uniforms to the school bearing their autographs.

Turkish immigrants who went to work in foreign countries years ago are now becoming employers. A total of 370,000 people are working for 66,000 concerns owned by Turkish employers in Germany. It is estimated that the number of companies owned by Turks will increase to 106,000 by 2010, while the number of employed people in these companies is estimated to rise to 650,000. It was reported that the annual turnover of Turkish companies in Germany is 35 billion euros.

milliyet Ankara Chamber of Commerce (ATO) Chairman Sinan Aygün said that in all documents,

bugün

Fýnancýal Týmes

Daýly Telegraph

Why are we so afraid of Turkey? Rome." "What would be better for the long-term health of the planet -- a Turkey increasingly apathetic about Europe, and interested in forging links with Iran? Or one firmly entrenched in the European Union, reaching out to provide a stabilizing influence in what will remain, in our lifetimes, the most dangerous region of the world? I know what I want," Boris, himself of Turkish origin, wrote.

Tomorrow is the 10th anniversary of a postmodern coup that left a deep mark on Turkish politics. Are you aware that only the issue of the "andýç" (memorandum) has remained in the Turkish public memory about who was victimized in the February 28 process? The media, which undertook the most important role in the Feb. 28 process, has avoided talking about the circles or people who were victimized, apart from complaining about a few journalists who were dismissed from their newspapers. It would seem that there are no events to be remembered nor lessons to be learned from the issue of "andýç" apart from a few democratic-liberal writers' discourse of opposing the intervention in principle.

Are women more peaceful? ELÝF ÞAFAK, ZAMAN

star

turkey ýn the foreýgn press

The anxieties of the West about Islam must not jeopardize the reconciliation between East and West, argued Boris Johnson, a Daily Telegraph columnist, in his article. "If we get it right with Turkey, we could rebuild the whole ancient harmonious union around the Mediterranean" and "heal the rupture created by the Muslim invasions," Boris Johnson argued in an extract from his book "The Dream of

Elections, secularism and unemployment

Turkish military chief flexes some political muscle The head of Turkey's armed forces used a visit to the US this month to fire a warning shot across the bows of his political masters at home. Turkey was facing more threats to its national security than at any time in its modern history, General Yaþar Büyükant said, but its "dynamic forces" - its soldiers - would prevent any attempt to "break up the country". Within days, the government in Ankara dropped a tentative plan to open official lines of communication with the civilian Kurdish leadership in northern Iraq - a controversial initiative

but one that many countries are urging. The government's acquiescence on an important foreign policy issue represents a decisive victory for military over political thinking. It also highlighted the continued influence of the military a decade after the generals ousted an Islamist government without firing a shot an event that has become known as the "postmodern coup". The Turkish general staff can still influence and change government policy in a way that would be impossible in other European countries.

Are men and women different in terms of violence and enmity? Are women more humane, more caring, compassionate and motherly, as is claimed? Why is "woman" used as a synonym for "mother"? Can't we think of women apart from their roles as mothers? Men can be considered apart from "fatherhood," but why are women considered only in the framework of "motherhood" and "fertility"? Even in most political or academic analyses, the concept of "nature" is distorted by everyone as they like, by ignoring deliberately almost all of what we think of as nature, as things that are "taught" to us.

Will there be a referendum in Kirkuk? TAHA AKYOL, MÝLLÝYET A census must be held in Kirkuk and a referendum following it, states Article 140 of the Iraqi Constitution. All the American authorities say, "The constitution will be implemented," in other words that a referendum will be held in Kirkuk. Must it be so? According to the information I compiled from various sources, "Don't be surprised if the US postpones the referendum, stating that conditions are not suitable in Kirkuk, towards the end of the year." So why does the US continuously remind Turkey of Article 140 of the Iraqi Constitution? The US establishment of a "new order" in Iraq is based on the Iraqi Constitution. Can it violate it that easily? There have to be obligatory conditions for this. One possibility: the US needs to be successful in the pacifying operation it launched in Baghdad with Bush' "surge" of 20,000 additional troops. It does not want to deal with the problems of Kurds and Kirkuk at this moment so they are promising that the constitution will be implemented.


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NATIONAL

TODAY’S ZAMAN 03

WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 2007

ÝSTANBUL ANKARA ÝZMÝR ANTALYA ADANA ERZURUM EDÝRNE TRABZON KAYSERÝ

10° 11° 14° 18° 17° -6° 11° 10° 10°

KONYA ÇANAKKALE DÝYARBAKIR SAMSUN BURSA GAZÝANTEP ESKÝÞEHÝR MALATYA KOCAELÝ

10° 10° 12° 9° 14° 10° 12° 11° 14°

Parents’ fears force youngsters into early marriage in Yozgat

Lessons to be extracted from Feb. 28 AYDIN HIZLICA

are worried about rumors of impropriety, and that's why they want their daughters to marry at a young age. Fourteen-year-old Ünal Ýbiþ is also against young marriages. Ýbiþ said he is engaged to be married after school ends. "My uncle's son got engaged at a young age. My friends did as well. Early engagement is bad. How can we take care of a family at such a young age?" he asks.

Yozgat Governor Amir Çiçek has launched a project to prevent early marriage and kidnappings. "Since my first day in office I have been tackling issues on education. This project is not only for that district but for many in our province. I am waiting for their reports. The necessary steps will be taken. In addition to early marriage, we have a project to tackle kidnappings as well," he says.

Turkish sign language to be formulated Turkey is taking action to devise a national sign language; signs frequently used by the hearing-impaired in Asian Turkey will be looked into as a part of this project, whose purpose is to minimize communication problems for the hearing-impaired and interpreters caused by the current use of differing sign language expressions. The Disabled Law, passed in 2005, reminded Turkey that it has no national sign language and decided that a "Turkish Sign Language System" will be formed for the education and communication of the hearing-impaired people. The Prime Ministry Administration on Disabled People has begun cooperation with the Turkish Language Institute, Turkish Scientific and Technical Council (TÜBÝTAK) and universities to form a unified national sign language. Preparations have been completed for the research in-

AP

Batman provincial health directorate teams have rolled up their sleeves following a bird flu case that first appeared in the village of Boðazköy near the town of Gercüþ in Turkey's southeastern province of Batman. Bird flu was believed to have spread to several villages and fields shortly thereafter, sparking in an initiative that has provided medical screening to 44,000 people so far. Batman Provincial Health Director Dr. Hasan Demir said a total of 44,263 citizens have undergone medical screening throughout the province, adding that there is on going medical screening. Stating local residents have been informed on the bird flu, Demir said informative notices on the bird flu were posted and brochures were distributed in regions effected by the bird flu. Stating he had briefed 38,213 students and 1,914 teachers on bird flu in the city's center and neighboring settlements, Demir said 213 people have been treated against infections and that these treatments have been supervised by a medical team. Demir said that the samples taken from 29 people who were believed to have contacted bird flu turned out to be negative. Medeni Akbaþ Batman

cerned that there will be rumors about their daughter if they're not married. That's why early marriage for girls is almost unavoidable. If the state wants to tackle this problem, it must open vocational schools. Schools on arts and crafts for young girls will prevent early marriages," Dermirer said. Özlem Adanur, a 13-year-old student at Çadýrardýç elementary school, says parents

PHOTO

44,000 people have undergone medical screening against bird flu

b.kenes@todayszaman.com

PHOTO

AYDIN HIZLICA YOZGAT

Parents in Yozgat's Çadýrardýç district are forcing their children to marry by the age of 12 or 13 in an effort to prevent rumors of impropriety. While most people in the world are delaying marriage, in Çadýrardýç families are rushing children into marriage. Most are married before the age of 18. These 12 and 13-year-old children who are forced into marriage are subject to the pressures of starting a new life at a very young age. While their parents say one reason for early marriage is economic problems, young girls often say they want to go to school, not get married. Located 60 kilometers from Yozgat, families in Çadýrardýç are concerned that rumors will start if girls are seen mingling with boys, and therefore they encourage young marriages. Most of the young girls in the district are forced to leave school. Çadýrardýç's Mayor Ahmet Demirer said that efforts to change the tradition of young marriages have been unsuccessful. "The residents of our district are very poor. Most are unemployed. Many are construction workers. Our land is very limited. That's why parents marry their 13 or 14-year-old children, and most have only finished primary school." Mayor Demirer believes that if more vocational schools are opened, the number of young marriages will decrease. "There are about 460 students in the district right now. Some 17 students won entrance into the Anatolian High Schools, but only three went. The others were either engaged or married. The main reason for this is unemployment and lack of education," Demirer said, adding that most of the teens in the region are unemployed. "Fathers are con-

BÜLENT KENEÞ

volved in the project, expected to last for two years. Accordingly, talks will be held with the hearing-impaired, local governments and relevant institutions in Asian Turkey. A sign language will be formed at the end of the research. This language will be taught to the hearing-impaired, establishing a unified language.

Administration on Disabled People Chairman Abdullah Güven reminds there is no sign language widely accepted in Turkey, adding there are hundreds of different expressions that refer to a single word. Stating different dialects used in Asian Turkey prevented a unification of sign language, Güven said: "We are starting a long research process to form a national sign language and for a word to expressed in the same way throughout Turkey. We will meet authorized institutions, the hearing-impaired and local governments. We will do this in patience showing no haste. Hearing-impaired people were having problems communicating among themselves; the national sign language is aimed to facilitate their communication as well as increase their participation in education and employment." Seher Aktepe Ankara

The 10 years that have passed since February 28, 1997 -- the aftershocks of which we still feel from time to time and from which we are still trying to heal our deep scars -- is long enough to look at what sort of lessons we should derive from this process. In this column, I will note a few personal lessons that I myself have taken. We had already learnt how futile efforts were to redesign society using military force and by shunting the country out of its normal political and sociological stream. But the February 28 process only confirmed this for us. While the process was aimed at strengthening those who were swimming against the current of the society, the citizens sensitive to this "deeper Turkey" buried this process and its insolent actors in the voting boxes and in history on Nov. 3, 2002. So the lesson: Social engineering is a difficult craft and is ultimately futile! The type of politicians that adopt a different stance according to every change of conditions, and who are thus devoid of a principle, spine, as well as modesty and shame, became history with this process. What also became history, along with the eradication of the anomaly caused by this process, is the ilk of unprincipled politician, who thinks that all sorts of toadying, fawning and juggling of public interests are allowable for the sake of populism and who readily submits to 'power' the moment he feels it benefits his ends. A good example of this is the sorrowful case of former prime minister and president Süleyman Demirel, who pretended to be a "hero of democracy" and enchanted the people while blindfolding them for years. One need not be a clairvoyant to see that the love and sympathy which people showered on late former President Turgut Özal during his funeral will not be witnessed at Demirel's funeral, may God give him a long life. And the lesson here is: To be a "man of all eras" in fact means not being a man! The military authority which sought after a prosperous future, and which took as real the virtual "glut" of support offered by the spineless and unprincipled media, focused on benefiting itself by exploiting the conditions of the moment to the limit, finally came to realize that the media they admired was so cut off from the people, that it was the last institution that could represent the people. In this regard, we should always remember how the potent and militant pasha of February 28, Gen. Çevik Bir's desire to become president was a castle made of ice, which shattered to a thousand pieces overnight. So the lesson here is: Even if it is a powerful pasha: if a general hoists sail for the wind of sycophancy and flattery, he will find himself in an utterly hopeless situation! The media which produced the shamelessly false news which was relied on by the officers who briefed the members of the judiciary, high bureaucracy and media on the danger of Islamic extremism, were shaken terribly down to their foundations, due to their facile efforts to anchor themselves to the people in power in that time. This process helped us to see to what extent those who pretend to be apostles of democracy can be spineless and unprincipled in extraordinary times. The same 'pens' are making an ass of themselves today by pretending to be apostles of democracy in their columns into which they have settled themselves. And the lesson here: the dignity and esteem lost in such times can never be regained! Perhaps the only benefit of the February 28 Process is that it helped to eradicate those political approaches which were devoid of foresight, insight and courtesy; qualities that did not exist in the remarks of Necmettin Erbakan, the leader of the banned Welfare Party (RP), which was the partner of the coalition government of the period. It is through the February 28 Process that the conservative section of the society sincerely came to appreciate for the first time what a great blessing democracy is. This process educated the conservative people which had been victimized for years and saved them from the underground galleries of anti-westernization, anti-globalization and anti-democracy, and eventually helped them to develop a more modern political style at peace with the rest of the world. And this in turn has proved capable enough of sweeping this element, which had disciplined itself by self-criticism, to power in this country, which had been devastated by the process. So, what is the lesson? There may be good in what outwardly appears to be evil!


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Page 1

NATIONAL

TODAY’S ZAMAN 05

W E D N E S D AY, F E B R U A R Y 2 8 , 2 0 0 7

ALPER SANCAR ANKARA

The former chief of the Intelligence Department in the Turkish Police Department, Bülent Orakoðlu, has described the West Study Group (BÇG), which directed the February 28 process as having a "gang formation." Arguing that the West Study Group, which kept secret files on a large number of high-ranking officials and authorities, had been replaced with the Union of Mutual Aid for Security and Public Order (EMASYA), Orakoðlu said: "When we asked about the legal grounds for the BÇG in court, they showed us the EMASYA protocol signed after the formation of this group. As long as such formations exist, processes like February 28 cannot be eliminated." Orakoðlu also said the lights in the police department were never off during the days when the rumors of a coup were flying. Since he was tried and imprisoned for wiretapping phone conversations of some high-ranking officials and for leaking important military documents, Orakoðlu spoke to Today’s Zaman daily recently and gave an assessment of the process. According to Orakoðlu, the February 28 process was a psychological operation carried out against the Turkish people. "They carried out a total illusion. Tremendous amount of colored news was fabricated by some people, and the media partnered in spreading this immorality. And when the news was taken as incriminatory information, all hell broke loose."

Orakoðlu defines Feb. 28 process’ BÇG as ‘gang formation’

'If BÇG existed today, I'd still eavesdrop on them' Orakoðlu strongly emphasized that the phones that they wiretapped were not those of the military per se but rather belonged to the illegal structure within the military. "We tracked down that illegal structure as much was possible within our authority. If the BÇG existed today, I'd still eavesdrop on its members. When we received the information that the BÇG had begun keeping secret files on various high-ranking people, I sat down and spoke with my assistants. We knew that this was going to get us into serious trouble. But at the same time, there were documents revealing their crime," he added. Further noting that no military judge accused them of illegal line wiretapping at the time, Orakoðlu said that when the BÇG was unearthed, some groups wanted to force the police department's back up against the wall. The activities of the BÇG were assessed as "overstepping of authorities" by the then chief of general staff and his commanding officers, recalled Orakoðlu, adding: "We asked the court which tried me about the legal basis for the BÇG, and for keeping illegal secret files on people. They told us that it was 'an EMASYA-based structure formed to expose the extremist Islamic formations within the chain of command.' However, the EMASYA protocol was signed in July, 1997 -- two months after we had revealed the activities of the BÇG! Some 11 out of the 22 articles contained in EMASYA are against the law." Orakoðlu also said the EMASYA protocol signed in 1997 handed over the authority of governors to military officers, and noted, "As long as EMASYA exists, the February 28 will not end. The underlying force behind the secret files kept on

What is the ‘mole scandal'? The mole scandal came to light on July 2, 1997 when a police officer named Kadir Sarmusak, while serving in the Naval Forces Command as a corporal, laid his hands on a document which revealed that the BÇG was keeping secret files on a large number of people and took it to Bülent Orakoðlu. He leaked the document while repairing the wiretapping device of the command's intelligence department. The document was first handed over to the then Interior Minister Meral Akþener, from her to the then Deputy Prime Minister Tansu Çiller and to the then Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan. Eventually it reached the then President Süleyman Demirel, who returned the document to the Naval Forces Command. It was claimed that the document had been leaked by Kadir Sarmusak, and the legal process got started.

I N F O

18:16

ALÝ ÜNAL

27.02.2007

PHOTO

T05-28-02-07.qxd

PKK leg of February 28 Orakoðlu also thinks that the PKK dimension of the February 28 has so far been overlooked, and puts forward an interesting claim: "The coup leg of the February 28 has been deciphered. There are PKK ties to the other leg. I will decipher the PKK links in the coming days. I'm writing a book for that." people after Feb. 28, 1997 is EMASYA. The function of the BÇG was slightly altered and it was first turned into 'The Follow-up Council of the Prime Minister's Office.' Those activities are now carried out by EMASYA." According to Orakoðlu three events prevented the military from seizing power: the existence of divergent views in the Turkish Armed Forces, the disclosure of the BÇG by the police department, and the resignation of the government. Touching on then President Demirel's role, Orakoðlu said, "Demirel could easily have stopped the process after the danger of a coup disappeared from sight, and after the BÇG document was given. He did not do that. He abused the developments to be able to structure politics in the way he wanted. He could very well have begun a legal action on the basis of the incriminatory document.

He could have launched an investigation. That way, the February 28 Process would have ended. However, he returned the document to its source. The rest is known to all of us. I will never stop following him, even in the Hereafter. Demirel must be tried."

'I refused to see Çevik Bir' The former head of intelligence is of the opinion that the person who was the most conspicuous during the process was Gen. Çevik Bir, whereas the people operating "behind the curtain" are still to be discovered. He also put forward that Çevik Bir wanted to speak to him through a journalist. "I refused to see him. He most probably thought that the statements we would be likely to make, in the event he declared himself to be a presidential candidate, would put him up the creek without a paddle," Orakoðlu said.

What happened to Bülent Orakoðlu? When it was discovered that he had deciphered the secret messages of the BÇG and tapped the phones of the General Staff as the head of the Intelligence Department of the Police Department, he was dismissed from his post and sent to the United States "to increase his knowledge and acquire good manners." He was tried by a military court which charged him with being a spy. He was held in the Mamak military jail in Ankara for 56 days, and was then acquitted.

YÖK presents its ‘strategy report’ AYÞE KARABAT ANKARA

Turkey's state agency regulating university education and examination has presented a report filled with strategic recommendations to the president. The Turkish Higher Education Board (YÖK) "strategy report" which suggests changes to higher education was presented to President Ahmet Necdet Sezer on Tuesday, and came at a time of increased tension between Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoðan and YÖK. The government had previously recommended opening 15 new universities, but YÖK had opposed the idea, arguing even the existing ones did not have sufficient financial resources. Erdoðan had then accused YÖK of blocking scientific development. YÖK had initially released a report in July of last year to hear other universities' say on its content, but the number of universities which put in recommendations was limited to 17, while only 163 individuals from academic circles had offered their opinion.

The final version of the 251-page report presented to President Sezer on Wednesday suggests that Turkey's higher education system, which is a matter of constant public discussion, had become very complicated now that it has to support 68 public and 25 foundation universities with limited financial resources. The report underlined the need to up the number of the academic personnel as well as improving their standard of living. While the report proposed limited decentralization of the system, it argued that even the presidents of the foundation universities should be appointed by them, asserting that this was a constitutional requirement. YÖK's report argued the national university entrance examination restricted students causing them to ultimately become people who have difficulty in problem solving and expressing themselves and noted that the students too often become alienated from society. Although YÖK suggested the entrance exam should be diversified by introducing several levels, it maintained that the exist-

ing system should be kept until a new system is developed. According to the report, in order to keep the "meaning" of higher education, they must produce public services, but the finance and the income of such institutions must be transparent. The report also deals with the Imam Hatip Schools in its appendix. It suggests these schools have become alternatives of secular ones although their purpose is to train imams. So the report suggests the number of these schools be limited and their aim should only be to train imams and only in metropolitan cities. Apart from the religious curriculum, the students of these schools should become, according to the report, "professionals who have the ability to perceive and understand modern society." The report also contains defensive statements concerning the prohibition of headscarves at the universities, pointing out that this ban was imposed by the courts and YOK is just acting in compliance with them, although it has held responsible by the public.

IHD draws gloomy picture contýnued from page 1 He described slain journalist Hrant Dink, who was also charged under the article that denigrates any insult to the concept of "Turkishness," as "maybe the first victim of the absence of freedom of expression" in this country. Nevertheless, the IHD president drew attention to human rights violations concerning other topics that have remained as grave as the those in the past, if not worse. "The mood in the country and abroad was so that as if all other kinds of human rights violations were over. Following the opening of entry negotiations, both Turkey and the EU have perceived the rest of the process as 'technical,'" he said. "Partial fulfillment of the

Copenhagen criteria was considered as sufficient." According to the figures released by the IHD, unsolved murders increased to 20 last year while there was only one case in 2005. There were also a considerable practice of torture and ill-treatment with 708 reported cases in 2006. In 2005, the reported cases of torture and ill-treatment were 825. Alataþ continued criticizing the EU in the light of these figures, saying that EU particularly ignored existence of torture in Turkey as "it would be hard for EU politicians and policy makers to explain to their public why the bloc accepts opening entry negotiations with a country where torture still exists." "Turkey and the EU have had a silent agreement for extending Turkey's EU member-

ship process as long as possible. The lack of a solution in human rights issues serves as the goal of this silent agreement," Alataþ also said. He then directed criticism at the government: "We can't see a full determination against implementation of torture when we consider that the government long ago announced a policy of zero tolerance against torture into consideration. We don't know the reason why this decrease in figures concerning torture is so small. Maybe it was because there was a decrease in cases or a decrease in number of people subject to torture. But if it is none of them, then we have to question the government's sincerity or whether it really holds the power to have its policies implemented by related units of the state."


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18:17

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06 TODAY’S ZAMAN

W E D N E S D AY, F E B R U A R Y 2 8 , 2 0 0 7

NATIONAL

The prýce of turkey’s ‘post-modern’ coup Economic growth during the period of instability was 8.3 percent in 1997 and 3.9 in 1998, the year in which effect of Feb. 28 were felt most strongly. In 1999 there was no economic growth, and the economy shrank by 6.1 percent. The economy grew by 6 percent in 2000 but then experienced a historical shrinkage of 9.5 percent in 2001. In short, between 1996 and 2000, the economy did not develop PHOTO

AA

KADÝR DÝKBAÞ ÝSTANBUL

Ten years have passed, but the period that began on February 28, 1997 has left unforgettable traces in our society and has made a deep mark on our economy. Political issues were much debated, but what about the economy? Who paid for the economic loss? Who won, who lost? Unfortunately, these questions have not received the necessary attention. Actually, some structural problems after the 1994 crisis could have been resolved, but they weren't. Political instability, weak governments and the February 28 process changed priorities overnight. The economy did not come on to the agenda until the big 2001 crisis. The ANAP-DYP coalition government formed after the Dec. 24, 1995 election did not survive for very long. The coalition separated after the ANAP members of Parliament supported a motion by the Welfare Party (RP) for an investigation against DYP leader Tansu Çiller. After the RP failed to pass the vote of confidence in the Turkish Parliament, the Constitutional Court deemed the case "invalid," and the coalition submitted its resignation. Then on June 28, 1996 the RP-DYP coalition, headed by Ncmettin Erbakan, was set up. Erbakan headed the coalition for exactly one year and two days. The economy of the first half of 1996 was a victim of political instability. During that first half, the economy was never on the agenda. By the time the government situated itself, summer had passed and the last quarter of the year was occupied with the Susurluk scandal.

Imports free of payment debate

A soldier stands guard near the tanks and armored vehicles that drove through the main street of Sincan, a district near the capital Ankara on Feb. 4, 1997.

F I G U R E S

During this short interval, the most important economic project launched by the state was the search for resources. The sate announced several resource packages and aimed for an additional income of $30 billion. While some items were successfully completed others were not and some were stuck in the presidential palace or constitutional court. Measures taken against imports exempt from payment and workers' remittances both secured significant amounts of income. While the entry of workers remittances was at its highest then, imports free of export caused great commotion. The automotive sector reacted. News that managers would shut down factories infuriated the workers. In the end, the measures were implemented but no factory closed down and the automotive sector did not collapse. 1996 was a very tough year for Turkey. On Jan. 1 Turkey joined the customs union with the EU. Every sector was subject to the negativities of this transition. Imports boomed while exports remained still. As for the EU, it did not fulfill its financial responsibilities. This was also the period when international credit rating companies dropped Turkey's credit rate. Japan's JCR, which was not as impetuous during the 1994 crisis, dropped Turkey's grade in April because of political instability. In subsequent months, Turkey received lower grades from American S&P and British IBCA. The markets were not very concerned about the grades. Even the Turkish Treasury managed to delay payments up to 13 months and drop interest rates. It incorporated loans based on inflation into its program. The next year, 1997, was tougher for the RR-DYP coalition. Debates about the regime, national security agencies and the coup overshadowed the other issues like inflation, interest, public deficits, privatization, the foreign trade deficit, the customs union and much more. Frequently changing agendas, various statements from the government, the opposition or a military official and some exaggerated and false newspaper headlines pushed nerves and changed the investment climate in the country. The Istanbul Stock Exchange dropped with the decisions of the National Security Council (MGK) on February 28 and the following developments. Interests increased as the ISE failed to recuperate that year. Ten days after the MGK announced the new rules, Duff and Phelp dropped Turkey's credit note from BB too BB- and three days later Moody's dropped Turkey grade from BA3 to BA1. Turkey's damaged image also affected the private sector. It limited investment and loaning opportunities and decreased its competitive power in foreign markets. Meanwhile, the tension between the media and government continued to grow. Debates reached a new dimension when the names of statesmen that received incentives were published. In April, Deputy Prime Minister Tansu Çiller told a crowd of party members at Sultanahmet Square about incentives received by Medya Holding, Doðan Holding and Koç Holding, three holdings that had started a campaign against her. Shortly after, the Treasury made public the archives showing the incentives the same three holding had received from the state between 1983 and 1997. It was the first time ever a Turkish government had announced the names and types of incentives received. Foundations like TOBB, Turk-IS, DISK, TISK and TESK all put up a front against the government. On May 25, 1997 these five foundations prepared a declaration that explained their distress over the government's implementation and began a protest. With the increase in tension and pressure, the government was forced to resign. On June 30, the ANAP-DSPDTP coalition, also known as Anasol-D, headed by Yýlmaz became the leading power. This 55th government began a unique staff purge policy. Like in other foundations, economic organizations and foundations were restructured from head to toe. Civil organizations even began indexing the bureaucrats, companies and businessmen. The most interesting example of this was experienced on July 17, 1997 when Turk-Is Chairman Bayram Meral sent an urgent letter to the branches of the YolIs union which read: "It is certain that new changes will occur with the new government. To protect the position of some of our very close managers we ask for your branch to submit a letter of opinion about the managers in your field." A period of keeping logs had begun in politics and in bureaucracy. People were being labeled with crimes left and

Turkish economy shrank during Feb. 28 process The tension and instability at the time placed the Turkish Treasury in a very tough spot especially in foreign debt and costs increased. Real interest increased. The internal debt budget of 1996 and 1997 was 21 percent more than the gross national product, 21.7 in 1998, 29.2 in 1999 and 69.2 in 2001. It was no different in foreign debt. The debt was 43.1 percent more than the gross national product in 1996, 43.6 percent more in 1997, 47 percent in 1998, 55.3 percent in 1999 and 79.1 in 2001.

Interest increased, debt burden increased The interest rate as well as delayed payment is an important factor of the budget. In this regard, the amount of interest paid from the budget after 1994 reached high levels in 1995 and 1996. The budget paid for 38 percent of interest in 1996, 29 percent in 1997, 40 percent in 1998 and 72 percent in 1999. The effect of chronic inflation continued. Consumer price inflation was 79.78 percent in 1996, 99.09 in 1997, 69.7 in 1998, 68.8 in 1999, 39 percent in 2000, and 68.53 percent in

right. There were lists of extremists companies. Names were added to these lists because of ideological passions or because of rivalry. People ranging from restaurant owners to business conglomerates were put on such lists. The economy continued to live through this current of political instability and antidemocratic rule. After these lists were published in 1997, developments reached a different level in April 1998. Operations against some companies and businessmen were launched. On April 20, 1998, several partners of Dost Sigorta were taken into custody after Ankara State Security Court (DGM) prosecutor Nuh Mete Yüksel informed police that they were engaging in terror-like operations. The insurance agency's documents were seized and a freeze was placed on their accounts. The DGM's covert operation was said to be a part of an investigation against companies engaging in activities that violated laicism. Meanwhile, the government had increased the price of fuel by 5 percent and the price of Tekel products by 20 percent on its first day. On the second day Çaykur's price increased by 40 percent. Two days later, the price of fuel had increased by 32 percent. On

2001. The reason for the decline in inflation was the drop in gas prices as well as the limitation in the economy. Privatization in 1996 reached $300 million and $463.4 million in 1997. Public enterprises like Turk Telekom, Petkim, Tüpraþ, Petrol Ofisi, Erdemir and Turkish Airlines that could not be privatized were handed over to small and middle size enterprises. Economic growth during the unstable period was 8.3 percent in 1997 and 3.9 in 1998, the year where the effects of February 28 were felt more strongly. In 1999 there was no economic growth and the economy shrank by 6.1 percent. The economy grew by 6 percent in 2000 but then experienced a historical shrinkage of 9.5 percent in 2001. In short, between 1996 and 2000, the economy did not develop. Economic life not only stopped but shrank as well. In 1996 there was $26.3 billion in export and $48.6 billion in import, in 1997 export was $27 billion and import was worth $48.6 billion. In 1998, both import and export figures dropped. There was no significant growth in foreign trade.

its 100 day, the 55th government announced a three-year midterm plan to the public. The plan foresaw an increase in social life that matched the standards of rapidly growing countries by immediately establishing a stable structure in the economy and securing a lasting growth rate. The plan targeted to drop inflation to 50 percent in 1998, 20 percent in 1999, and 3 percent in 2001 and to increase the growth rate by 3 percent in 1998, and by 4.4 percent in 1999 and 2000. None of these targets were met. The then Prime Minister Mesut Yýlmaz, who assumed responsibility to implement the plan, said "I will do this job even if it costs me my political career." With this arrangement, the IHL's middle sections, which citizens opened with their open money, were closed. The graduate's quotient policy dropped OSS floor points making it difficult to win any other subject except theology. Citizens were forced to pay for the expenses that were made during this time because budgetary resources could not finance such expenses at that time. To finance the eight year basic education law, extra taxes and payments were added onto many purchases, from SSK insurance premiums to stock market

transactions, airplane tickets and even cell phone purchases. After the 1999 earthquake, some purchases included earthquake taxes. Problems that began in 1997 continued throughout 1998. On the first day of the new year, the constitutional court shut down the RP, ending the political career of leader Erbakan and his associates. The CHP-supported ANAP-DSP-DTP coalition came back and forth a few times in 1998. Problems that erupted between the coalition and the CHP prompted rumors that the government would collapse. Eyüp Aþýk resigned as state minister and member of parliament after a telephone conversation between Aþýk and Alaatin Çakýcý was revealed. Debates over a connection between government, mafia and businessmen erupted. Korkmaz Yiðit, a construction worker who became a bank owner and then a media manager, made allegations against Prime Minister Yýlmaz, term State Minister Güneþ Taner and some bureaucrats regarding the sale of Türkbank. Immediately after the opposition made a motion of censure. The censure motion was approved and the Yýlmaz government collapsed. Then began the six-month minority government headed by Ecevit. During this period and after the 1999 elections, no healthy economic steps were taking during the DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition. On the contrary, the implemented policy dragged Turkey into the Feb. 21 crisis. The main cause of the Feb 21, 2001 crisis, which was the worst in the history of the Turkish Republic, was the high public deficit and the internal and foreign debt. The increase of this burden from the 1990s had intensified the problems in the banking system. During that period, it was known that the Turkish treasury had taken control of 12 banks under Article 64. Although banks were supported by the state, they could not be intervened in. After a while of course there was a fallout. One bank in 1998, six in 1999, three in 2000 and eight banks in 2001 were transferred to the Tasarruf Mevduat Sigorta Fund and Turkey was forced to pay a high cost. Then the millions of dollars of debts of public banks also came to the surface with the 2001 crisis. The DSP-MHP-ANAP government turned to the United States and invited Kemal Derviþ to resolve the 2001 crisis. One of Derviþ's first assessments was, "Thank God that despite everything Turkey is in a much better place than Afghanistan and Burundi." He might have been referring to our money, but it was certainly a good assessment of the point Turkey had reached. As the late Sabancý had said, political, regime and coup debates cast a shadow over the economy. Those that enjoyed this "twister economy" and the "actors" worked overtime during that period. As a result, there was a shock before Nov. 2000 and then the collapse on Feb. 21, 2001. The cost was very high for the country. We became poorer and smaller. Our image in international arenas was damaged and some wounds have yet to heal. Everyone has a lot to learn from the 1990s, especially from the February 28 period and the 1996-2000 period.


T07-28-02-07.qxd

27.02.2007

18:40

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t08-28-02-07.qxd

27.02.2007

18:36

Page 1

08 TODAY’S ZAMAN

W E D N E S D AY, F E B R U A R Y 2 8 , 2 0 0 7

Databank XU100

43736,8

41774,0

-4,70

XU30

55126,9

52484,9

-5,03

IMKB Financial

66579,2

63239,9

-5,28

IMKB Industrial

35603,0

34129,0

-4,32

IMKB Services

23320,1

22922,8

-1,73

Top 10 advanced stocks Previous

Last

%Change

1. Varlýk Yatýrým

9,35

10,35

10,7

2. Ýhlas Holding

Shares

0,51

0,54

5,88

3. Ege Profil

6,05

6,4

5,79

4. Okan Tekstil

0,19

0,2

5,26

5. Tümteks Tekstil

0,29

0,3

3,45

6. Ersu Meyve G.

1,11

1,14

2,7

7. Göltaþ Çimento

71,5

73

2,1

8. Bisaþ Tekstil

1,6

1,62

1,25

9. Alternatif B.

2,58

2,6

0,78

10. Türk Traktör

16

16,1

0,63

Previous

Last

%Change

1,23

1,08

-12,2

2. Kardemir (D)

0,8

0,72

-10

3. Aviva Sigorta

22,2

20

-9,91

Top 10 declined stocks Shares 1. Global Yat.Hol.

4. Güneþ Sigorta

2,76

2,52

-8,7

5. Þekerbank

7,05

6,45

-8,51

6. Milpa 7. A.Yunus Çeþme

2,4

2,2

-8,33

6,15

5,65

-8,13

3

2,76

-8

7

6,45

-7,86

0,77

0,71

-7,79

8. Link Bilgisayar 9. Yapý Kredi Sig. 10. Avrasya Y.O.

Most Traded Shares

Quantity

Shares

Volume(YTL)

1. Kardemir (D)

80.844.780

Ýþ Bankasý (C)

2. Doðan Holding

49.648.897

Garanti Bankasý

127.506.742

3. Yapý ve Kredi Bank.

36.878.678

Doðan Holding

115.223.054

4. Net Holding

31.318.800

Yapý ve Kredi Bank.

110.586.657

5. Garanti Bankasý

23.835.807

Kardemir (D)

59.285.634

6. Ýhlas Holding

23.662.814

Vakýfbank

54.371.754

7. Ýþ Bankasý (C)

50.744.141

147.313.744

21.588.074

Akbank

8. Advansa Sasa

17.616.787

Sabancý Holding

50.086.099

9. Vakýfbank

15.409.742

Petrol Ofisi

41.639.117

8.742.612

Koç Holding

39.150.664

10. Goldaþ Kuyumculuk

EXCHANGE RATES Central Bank* Exchange rates

USD/TRY

Exchange rates of bank notes

Bid

Ask

Bid

Ask

1,3922

1,3989

1,3912

1,401

Currency

AUD/TRY

1,1018

1,109

1,0967

1,1157

DKK/TRY

0,24681

0,24803

0,24664

0,2486

EUR/TRY

1,8397

1,8486

1,8384

1,8514

GBP/TRY

2,7338

2,7481

2,7319

2,7522

CHF/TRY

1,1352

1,1425

1,1335

1,1442

SEK/TRY

0,19763

0,19969

0,19749

0,20015

CAD/TRY

1,1999

1,2053

1,1955

1,2099

KWD/TRY

4,7742

4,8371

4,7026

4,9097

NOK/TRY

0,22802

0,22956

0,22786

0,23009

SAR/TRY

0,37233

0,373

0,36954

0,3758

1,1635

1,1712

1,1592

1,1757

100JPY/TRY

Cross Rates USD/AUD

1,2614

USD/CAD

1,1606

USD/DKK

5,64

USD/NOK

6,0938

USD/CHF

1,2244

USD/SAR

3,7504

USD/SEK

7,0054

EUR/USD

1,3215

USD/JPY

119,44

GBP/USD

1,9645

(*) Indicative Exchange Rates Announced at 15:30 on 02/27/2007 by the Central Bank of Turkey

Free Market Bid

Ask

Currency

Bid

USD

1,378

1,386

SEK

0,193

0,21

Euro

1,811

1,82

NOK

0,222

0,23

CHF

1,112

1,13

AUD

1,075

GBP

2,67

2,71

CAD

1,172

1,22

100 JPY

1,14

1,18

SAR

0,364

0,378

0,241

0,26

Currency

DKK

Ask

1,12

27 February 2007 Tuesday

GOLD Bid Cumhuriyet

200

Resat

214,5

Ask 206 222,5

CRUDE OIL Bid (Brent)

60,57

Ask 60,59

Bid Gold Bar 24 carat (gr) 30,2 1 Ounce

677,6

Ask 30,4 678,1

Ýstanbul Chamber of Real Estate Agents Chairman Sabri Ateþ says VAT rates must fall.

The Finance Ministry is deepening its inspections into the construction sector. Following investigations into the accounts and balance sheets of contracting companies, the ministry is now after the "cunning" contractors who try to trick officials by paying only 1 percent value-added tax (VAT) instead of 18 percent. The Accounts Experts Board (HUK) has been given strict orders to put the sector under detailed scrutiny. When a contractor sells a house with a net closed area exceeding 150 square meters, he or she has to pay a VAT that is equal to 18 percent of the value of the house. If the net

area is below 150 square meters, the tax rate automatically falls to 1 percent. In figures, if the value of a big house, with say 151 square meters, is YTL 100,000, then the amount of tax to be paid becomes YTL18,000. However, if the net area is just 149 square meters, then the contractor pays only YTL1,000. To avoid paying the high tax instead of a negligible amount, some devious contractors are showing a 200-meter-square house as two separate flats, each with 100 square meters. Officials from the Finance Ministry asked the Ministry of Public Works to provide the real sizes of some houses, including those built within fashionable housing projects. Meanwhile, officials from HUK point to

the extraordinary profits in the real estate sector following the surging demand of the last two years. "These profits are sometimes coming from unlawful acts such as avoiding from VAT," say the officials. Chairman of Ýstanbul Chamber of Real Estate Agents, Sabri Ateþ, notes that contractors are exploiting such methods because of the high tax rates and claims that preventing these illegal applications is only possible by determining reasonable and moderate tax rates. Income Inspectors Association (GKD) President Burhan Düz says the program was still not defined clearly, yet the inspectors will work hard to reveal any tax evasion in the sector.

‘European workers should not ask for massýve wage hýkes Workers seeking pay increases as a reward for Europe's accelerating economy should not ask for too much, the leader of talks between euro finance ministers said Monday, calling for them to keep demands in line with productivity gains if they are to help generate more of the jobs Europe needs. Luxembourg Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker, who chairs monthly talks between the 13 nations that share the euro currency, called for common sense, saying the jobless rate -- which hit a record low of 7.5 percent in December -- was still too high in the euro zone. He spoke on the same day Germany's largest industrial labor union IG Metall announced it would formally seek wage increases of 6.5 percent for its members as EU forecasts say the euro area will grow faster by expected this year at 2.4 percent. Higher wages could pump more money into the economy and, in a worst-case scenario, could raise inflation and tip the ideal balance of good growth and low inflation that Europe currently enjoys. "When wage bargaining takes place ... account will need to be taken for the need to create jobs," Juncker told reporters, stressing that trade unions had a free hand in pay talks and he was not trying to interfere. "If wages continue to develop in line with productivity, wage increases will not give rise to any inflationary problems nor will there be any loss in competitiveness," he said. He said pay increases across the euro area in recent years had been "highly moderate", singling out Germany where unions agreed to curb wage hikes in order to secure jobs. Now the economy, Europe's largest, is bouncing back, sharing out the bounty of stronger growth will be the major thrust of negotiated pay increases between unions, employers and the government. But both he and EU Economic and Monetary Affairs Commissioner Joaquin Almunia said they wanted policy makers to talk more about how profits could be shared out among workers. In some European countries, workers are also shareholders and benefit when the com-

AP

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ERCAN BAYSAL ANKARA

PHOTO

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MEHMET ÞAHÝN

27 February 2007 Tuesday

Finance Ministry is going after dishonest contractors PHOTO

ÝSTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE

BUSINESS

pany does well. Almunia said his officials would report to ministers later this year on how rewarding workers for profits a company makes impacts the economy. Juncker said there was more to sharing out the fruits of growth than granting higher pay. "We believe that this is a major issue that needs to be discussed Europe wide: participation of wage earners in company profits," he said. Ministers from all EU countries meet Tuesday to make decisions on European Commission reports that evaluate how each nation is managing its budget. Poland will come in for criticism as ministers are asked to back a Commission warning that

Warsaw's spending is "a cause for concern" and orders the Polish government to revise current budget plans to bring its deficit under an EU ceiling of 3 percent of gross domestic product this year. The Polish deficit is expected to hit 4.6 percent in 2007. The Commission said Polish efforts so far don't seem adequate and planned action appears insufficient, claiming the deficit could worsen despite strong growth because the government is not doing enough to reform spending. Ministers are likely to give Poland six months -- until Aug. 27 -to take action to curb the deficit. Thssey are also due to warn Italy that it must stick to its

budget plans for the year as debt soars, criticizing Rome for not giving details on how it would manage debt after 2007. Any harsh words come at a critical time for Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi's government, which is operating in a caretaker role after hitting the rocks last week. Prodi offered his resignation -- which was rejected by the Italian president this weekend -- after the center-left coalition was defeated last week in a foreign policy vote that leaves him with only a razor-thin majority in the Senate. The Italian budget deficit rose to 5.7 percent last year but is targeted to sink to 2.8 percent in 2007 as growth picks up. Brussels AP

RETAIL

US AIRWAYS

AVIATION

Wal Mart keeps growing in China

CEO serves 24-hour jail sentence for drunk driving

EADS board backs Airbus turnaround plan

Wal-Mart is buying a 35 percent stake in a company that operates Trust-Mart, a major Chinese discount chain, as international competitors jostle for position in China's rapidly growing retail market. Wal-Mart may eventually take managerial control of Taiwan-based Bounteous Co., which operates 101 Trust-Mart stores in 34 major cities in China, the U.S. retail giant said in a statement Tuesday. Financial details of the deal were not disclosed. Newspapers last year speculated a takeover of Trust-Mart would cost Wal-Mart about $1 billion. The acquisition, if expanded as planned, would vault Wal-Mart past its rival, Carrefour SA of France, in the number of hypermarkets -- giant stores selling discounted food and household goods -- in China. Foreign retailers are rushing to tap China's fast-growing economy, large population and expanding middle class. "Through this investment in Trust-Mart we have the opportunity to expand our presence in China, one of the world's fastest growing retail markets," Wal-Mart's vice chairman, Michael Duke, said in the statement. "This is an important step in bringing additional scale to our China retail business and enabling us to do what we do best-- serving our customers with improved service, high quality and innovative products, and lower prices," he said. Shanghai AP

The chief executive of US Airways has completed a 24hour jail sentence for a drunken driving arrest that occurred shortly after his airline's $9.8 billion bid for Delta Air Lines was rejected, the Maricopa County sheriff said Monday. Doug Parker left the Estrella Jail, which holds female inmates, in Phoenix at about 6:30 a.m. Sunday. Sheriff Joe Arpaio said that because of his high-profile status, Parker was put in a separate cell for his safety. Other than that, he was not treated any differently, Arpaio said. Parker ate from the prison menu. His meals consisted of a bologna sandwich, a hot dog without a bun and cold vegetables. Water was the only drink served. "It doesn't matter what your position is. If you drink and drive, you're going to be arrested and go to jail," Arpaio said. Parker pleaded guilty Feb. 20 in Scottsdale City Court to one DUI (driving under influence of alcohol) charge. Prosecutors asked that a second DUI charge and a speeding charge be dismissed. Parker was pulled over the night of Jan. 31 after leaving a party at the FBR Open golf tournament in Scottsdale. That morning, US Airways Group Inc. dropped its hostile bid for Delta after courting the Atlanta-based carrier for three months. Phoenix AP

The board of Airbus parent EADS approved a restructuring plan for the troubled European aircraft maker Monday, breaking a weeklong deadlock over the distribution of job cuts and work on future jet programs between France and Germany. European Aeronautic Defence and Space Co. said in a statement its directors had unanimously approved the plan, dubbed "Power8," but gave no information on the expected cuts or production shake-up. Details of the turnaround strategy will be announced Wednesday after staff representatives have been informed, the company said. The Franco-German defense company said the restructuring will equip civil airliner division Airbus to "face the challenge of the US dollar weakness" as well as the rocketing costs of delays to its flagship doubledecker A380 plane. Airbus has been badly hit by the lower dollar -- the currency in which its planes are priced -- and is expected to shift more of its supplier costs and contract work to dollar-linked economies as part of the restructuring effort. It also has to fund development of the A350, its $15.3 billion answer to the runaway success of US rival Boeing Co.'s 787 in the lucrative market for long-range, mid-sized planes. Paris AP


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27.02.2007

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TRAVEL

TODAY’S ZAMAN 09

WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 2007

Exploring Mardin: monasteries, cisterns and ancient settlements wrapped into one

Touring the city

PHOTO

ALÝ ÜNAL

Mardin is in the true sense of the expression a museum city. Some say jokingly -- others seriously -- that they should put a front and back door on this city and make the entire thing a museum. But in truth, the city does differ from all others in terms of its history, architectural style, culture make-up and social fabric. Sitting perched above an old castle, Mardin is divided into two sections: old and new. When the entire city at the end of the 1960s was declared a SIT region (protected due to its historical value), new construction was banned in the city. Since that time, public works organizations have moved outside the city while new housing and workplaces have been built up on the flat plain outside the city’s entrance.

PHOTO

name of the regionally known zafaran flower. The monastery is believed to be sacred due to a foundational stone planted in the name of St. Peter, a saint to whom Jesus said, “You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church.” This stone is believed to be the center of this church. Despite the fact that the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate moved to Syria in 1937, the Deyrulzafarn Monastery is still considered to be an important religious visitation point for Syriac Orthodox everywhere.

The Dara Cisterns

TUBA ÖZDEN

KÜRÞAT BAYHAN

Sometimes called the “Dara Castle,” the Dara water cisterns lie on the Nusaybin road from Mardin heading toward the Turkish-Syrian border. At the 30-kilometer mark heading from Mardin to Nusaybin, you can catch a taxi from the little village of Oguz if you want to see the Dara cisterns. Dara was formerly an important transit trading center of Mesapotamia and takes its name from the famous Persian King Darius. When it was still thriving, Dara changed hands many times between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Persians. After the 15th century, it switched permanently into Turkish hands. The enormous water cisterns here were originally built to meet the great water needs of Dara’s castle. There are many ruins underneath the castle area.

PHOTO

PHOTO

People need to go to Mardin -- a city where religions, languages and creeds blend together -- to appreciate how human effort gives shape to the stones that play a role in our lives. If you want to look into the depths of history and see traces of the hanging gardens of Babylon, the Persian Dara water cisterns, the madrasahs of the Artuk empire, the famous mosque of the Selcuks or the Syriac Orthodox churches, a trip to Mardin is a must. Love and tolerance are bound together in Mardin, where the nights shine like the pearls on a gorgeous necklace. It’s history embraces literally thousands of years of civilization. You can reach Mardin by plane any day of the week; there are two flights weekly from Istanbul, or you can hop on a plane from Ankara to Diyarbakir, and reach the city after a 90-minute drive. Conversely, you could fly from Istanbul to Urfa and then reach Mardin by driving another 180 kilometers. There are also daily buses leaving from Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana and other points across the country, all arriving by highway to Mardin. The road to Mardin is flanked on one side by mountains, the other planted fields. When you have traveled 70 kilometers down this road and are close to Mardin, you will see the Sultan Seymus Tomb, also know by its old name, the Seyhan Tomb. You can stop here for a quick break and to drink some tea. Resuming your drive, you will know you are close to Mardin when you start to see houses built above a castle. Whether you approach this city from Diyarbakir or from Urfa, the stone houses of Mardin greet you as you enter the city. Even if you know nothing about Mardin and have never seen this museum-like old city, the first appearance of the city will pull you in. But do not limit your experience to just this appearance from the outside of the city. Go into Mardin and tour its rising and falling narrow streets. Mardin formally came into being in the early 12th century. It rose to prominence during the Artuk dynasty, but its star began to truly shine during the Artuk’s successor, the Akkoyunlu dynasty, when the particular style of architecture associated with the city began to be known. Typical Mardin homes are decorated with special regional stones. The name “Mardin” has had many incarnations: in Persian “Marde,” the Byzantines knew it as “Mardia,” the Arabs called it “Mardin,” and the Syrians called it “Marde,” “Merdo” and “Merdi,” all of which mean “castle” in Syriac.

MEHMET ÇELÝK

ÞEYHMUZ EDÝS MARDÝN

This plain area starkly contrasts the old city of Mardin, which has only one wide road that doesn’t allow two-way traffic. A road has been built leading to the old city from the new city, but our suggestion is to walk the narrow streets of Mardin, streets so steep and winding that the trash has to be collected by donkeys saddled for that purpose. As you walk these streets, enjoy the stone-decorated homes for which this city is so famous. One small hint before you begin your walking tour: Take a good long look at the whole city from the outside before you enter its narrow streets and begin to walk around. When you finally do enter, it feels like traveling back to the 16th century. The experience is particularly surreal in the shopping streets of Tellallar, Kazancilar, Marangozlar, Hasan Ayyar, Sokulbakar and Babissor.

A journey to the past Don’t leave without trying the nargile and myrrh pipes at the bazaar When you approach the Tellarlar bazaar, you will begin to smell the sweet aroma of the nargile water pipe. You might be greeted by what looks like a youth straight out of Ottoman times, dressed in regional shalwar and headwear, ready to offer you a specially prepared nargile pipe with its apple or peach aromas infusing the smoke that emerges, blending with the stars in the sky. Also in the air is the whiff of myrrh, cooked over coals in special small copper pots, mixing with the smells of strong Turkish coffee -- all of these aromas covering the old city of Mardin. Head toward the Attalar bazaar,

stopping on your way at one of the “leblebi” or dried chickpea sellers, tasting the wares. Mardin leblebis are famous -- you will forever after associate the taste of this treat with Mardin, and if you want to bring a great gift back from Mardin for friends or family, a package of Mardin leblebis is perfect.

How to tour Mardin In addition to Mardin’s city center, the surrounding areas are an ideal place for a cultural tour. First, you can take a look at the important points in Mardin’s center, its houses, madrassahs, churches, and the Deyrulzaferen Monastery. Then you can tour the wider region that includes Dara, Midyat and Nusaybin. Two days are necessary to do Mardin and the surrounding area justice. When you consider that these two days could include trips to Deyrulzafaren Monastery, the former center of Syriac Orthodox Christians, and the incomparable Hasankeyf, one of the most important archeological sites in the world, you realize that Mardin is one of the fullest two days you could have anywhere. There are many must-see spots in Mardin’s old city. Among the first is the Ulu Mosque, built in the 12th century under the Turkish Artuk dynasty. The height and decoration of this mosque’s minarets make this mosque worth seeing. Next is the Zinciriye Madrassah: This Islamic school was built in 1385 and is made up of a mosque, a tomb and numerous additional buildings. The stonework on the door to the south of the madrassah is the crowning treasure of

this site. The Latifiye and Sehidiye mosques are other architectural landmarks. These were built in 1371 during the Artuk period, though the minarets were finished later. Then, see the Deyrulzafaren Sheik Zirrar Mosque. This mosque is also known as the Emineddin Mosque and was started in the 13th century by the Artuk Sultan Emineddin, originally built without a minaret. After that, go the Kasimiye Madrassah: This school was started under the Artuk dynasty and finished under the reign of the Akkoyun Sultan Kasim. The Sitte Radviye madrassah lies behind the Artuk-period caravansaray in all its glory, from the time that the footprint of the Prophet Mohammed was discovered. Finally, the Mar Mihail Church is recommended. Lying to the south of Mardin, this church was built by the Kefertut governor. In it lie the graves of St. Joseph, Michael and Sirasa.

Deyrulzafaran Monastery This monastery used to be to Syriac Orthodox Christians what the Vatican is to Catholics. Seeing this monastery is a must; it also includes a temple once used by sun worshippers. The Deyruzafaran Monastery is five kilometers from Mardin, and it can be reached by taxi from the old city center. You can even arrange for the taxi to wait for you here while you explore the monastery and then take you back to Mardin afterwards. The monastery was until 1937 the center of the Syriac Orthodox Christian world. It was built in 493 by Suryani architects and brothers Teheodori and Tehodari and carries the

Midyat Midyat is about one-and-a-half hours away by car from Mardin, and you can easily fill a day touring both in Mardin and nearby Hasankeyf. Midyat, which boasts stone masonry and decorated homes similar to Mardin’s, also has Syriac Orthodox churches and an atmosphere straight out of the Middle Ages. A special kind of stone masonry called telkari is famous in Midyat. There are a few telkari experts still working in the old Midyat bazaars.

Deyr-Ul Monastery/St. Gabriel Monastery The Deyr-Ul Monastery, also known as the St. Gabriel Monastery, is near Midyat and had its foundations built in the year 379. Inside this monastery are many quiet chapels as well as residencial areas for the priests and a beautiful old cemetery. The St. Gabriel Monastery is also used by the Syriac church as a center for its archbishopry. You won’t notice the passage of time while in Mardin. And you certainly won’t want to leave this place, whose natural beauty and historical depth will pull you in deeply the moment you arrive.

Mardin cuisine Don’t think of leaving Mardin without stopping in to taste some of its regional specialities. What to eat in Mardin? How about starting with kaburga (lamb ribs), iskembe dolmasi (tripe dolma), icli kofte (a meatball surrounded by deep-fried bulgur wheat) or some of its famous meaty-bread? These foods are a good representation not only of the city’s 800-year Turkish history but of the general Mesopotamian plain cuisine. No matter which kitchen in Mardin you enter, the regional aromas at the doorway to the room will entice you.

Where to stay in Mardin For hotels, I advise either the Artuk-period caravansaray or rooms at Erdoba. Either of these will allow you to enjoy the pearl necklace-like beauty of the city at night and the historical depth during the day. Make sure to make reservations.


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COLUMNS

TODAY’S ZAMAN 15

W E D N E S D AY, F E B R U A R Y 2 8 , 2 0 0 7

We need to understand The US supports sanctions against Iran, and it even envisages a military operation. Iran claims that it is an intervention into its internal affairs. The US says it’s ready for a unilateral military operation if the international community doesn’t react. Iran affirms that it can resist the US even if there is no international support. At this point, we need to understand the US, which asserts that Iranian support for the groups in Iraq is the main reason for the insecurity there. Secondly, if every country were to develop nuclear capabilities, the world wouldn’t be safer. That’s why Iran must be punished to set an example. But we should also understand Iran; it wants to know why Iranian efforts at uranium enrichment are a problem while many other countries’ similar efforts are not. Iran also tries to say that it is understandable to stop the US from staying in Iraq since US forces are now on the Iranian border.

YAVUZ BAYDAR

BERÝL DEDEOÐLU b.dedeoglu@todayszaman.com

Iran tries to expose the fact that the US interventions against Iraq and Afghanistan are not legal in the eyes of international law, while Iran is criticized for not respecting international law and institutions. In fact, the US has already lost its chance to use international law to justify the war in Iraq, even if it can use it in Afghanistan. That’s why Iran appears to have strong arguments when it points out what has happened between Iraq and the US. Before the intervention in Iraq, the US tried to justify the war. The main argument was the Iraqi regime’s efforts of developing weapons

of mass destruction. As proof, some pictures taken from space showing trucks and buildings presented as factories were distributed to the press. The second argument was the alleged cooperation between Saddam and al-Qaeda. This argument was presented to use the legitimacy of the September 11 attacks and the war in Afghanistan. These two arguments were assembled to create a third and stronger argument: Iraq would transfer weapons of mass destruction to terrorist groups. But after the war, all these remained unproven. What is happening with Iran gives a feeling of deja vu. The US argues that Iran is about to produce weapons of mass destruction and is openly supporting Shia radical groups in Iraq. Some pictures taken from space are distributed to the press. With the help of the Mahdi Army, the connection between the weapons of mass destruction and terrorists has been established. Radical Shia groups are not attacking US territory directly, but they are the enemies because these Iranian-support-

No Comment

EMRE ÖZDEMÝR

AMANDA AKÇAKOCA a.akcakoca@todayszaman.com

y.baydar@todayszaman.com

When wýll the Cyprus frustratýon end?

ICJ, Srebrenýca genocýde and some reflectýons on 1915 Monday’s verdict by the UN’s highest legal body, the International Court of Justice (ICJ), that the butchery of some 8,000 Muslims in Srebrenica, despite the fact that it might be perceived as schizophrenic in substance, is very interesting from various points of view. First of all, as The Guardian pointed out yesterday, “The judgment should rank as an important landmark in international law.” Indeed. This was the first time an existing state has been accused of responsibility -- as a state -- for genocide as defined by 1948 convention. The ICJ judgment tells us various things along a wide spectrum: a) the mass murder of some 8,000 Bosnian Muslim males in Srebrenica in July 1995 was an “act of genocide,” b) the massive ethnic cleansing by Bosnian Serbs, mainly in 1992, when tens of thousands were killed and up to two million uprooted, was not, c) Serbia (and Montenegro) cannot be called guilty of genocide because they did not aim to destroy “in whole or in part” the Bosnian Muslim population despite financing and supplying arms to the local perpetrators, d) Belgrade did nothing to prevent the act of genocide in Srebrenica, e) Ratko Mladic, the local Serb commander must be arrested. It is obvious such a multifaceted verdict does not make every part involved fully happy. Serbs, despite the fact that they were found “not liable” to pay billions of euros in reparations to Bosnia-Herzegovina, are still bitter that they are victims of a “one-sided” decision that ignored their own losses during the Bosnian war. Bosnians also have their own legitimate reasons for being outraged. After all, the declaration as genocide of the tragic events of July 1995 is nothing new: the UN War Tribunal had already done that. For them, it meant a lot that a nation (or a state) should be pinpointed as guilty and pay reparations. This will not happen. Bosnians will have to live with that now. It is truly sad. From the ICJ’s historical judgment we can draw two conclusions: we can probably never reach a fair verdict on crimes of humanity, particularly acts of genocide, and it is almost impossible to prove any state’s responsibility for such a crime (after all, if you are unable to provide evidence strong enough for “guilt” in such a “recent” case, then what can you do about earlier cases?). As the Guardian pointed out in yesterday: “An important precedent has been established: where a state is in a position to exercise a positive influence or de facto authority to stop genocide taking place, it is under a positive obligation to do so. The same principle could be applied to Sudan’s responsibility for ethnic cleansing in Darfur… If yesterday’s ruling, however imperfect, clarifies the definition of genocide and the responsibility of states to prevent it, it will have performed a valuable service in bolstering international law.” I cannot agree more with the final sentence. There is so much “unfinished businesses” in the past century that haunts us: American mass slaughter of Filipinos at the turn of the last century, the butchery of the Herero people by Germans in what is now Namibia in 1904-7, what Armenia calls the “genocide” of the Ottoman Armenians in 1915-18, the mass murder of some 40,000 Algerian civilians by French forces in Setif, Rwanda... The verdict shows yet again how broad the 1948 definition of genocide is, though it also shows the burden (or shall others say “wisdom?”) of restraint in condemning nations in full. This might be particularly enlightening for today’s Turkey to clarify a new strategy to shake off the ghosts of the past, so widely used and abused. In the wake of the opening of the Pandora’s Box regarding what the foreign minister of Turkey calls “the tragedy of 1915,” the opinion, defended by some lawyers and diplomats here, that Turkey should go to ICJ against Armenia (or vice versa) will gain strength. The Bosnian case against Serbia proved that you need extraordinarily strong evidence against a state in the context of genocide. Let alone the fact that we all know how tough it has been for historians worldwide to agree whether the 1915-18 events constitute a genocide. 1915 will be a much, much tougher case to handle for the ICJ -although it will probably never accept a pre-1948 event to scrutiny. If not the ICJ, Turkey may even proceed further to the Permanent Court of Arbitration in the Hague. Two more points: given the tense state of affairs in Turkey, I do hope that the US Congress takes the message from the ICJ decision and postpones its genocide recognition bill to the future. I also hope that Turkey and Armenia draw their conclusions on the spirit of the ICJ verdict and act together to get rid themselves of the poison of the past by joint efforts, by negotiations.

ed groups kill American soldiers in Iraq. In brief, the resemblance is clear. The US alleges that it has the right of self-defense as its soldiers are under attack. Besides, the US has appointed itself the mission to save the world from the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Another deja vu is watching war simulations showing sites to be bombarded and weapons that will be used on television, as before the war in Iraq and even before the gulf war. This “show” can have many purposes. Maybe the US is trying to coerce Iran and other forces in the region by using this, when in fact it doesn’t have the intention of fighting a war. Or maybe the die has been cast and there is no turning back. In any case, we can say that the US is not very creative about tactics. We should understand that the US is really stuck; we should understand Iran which is also stuck. What is not possible to understand is why other actors are still waiting while these two call for help.

Has the Bosnýa verdýct ‘closed a chapter’ ýn hýstory? SELÇUK GÜLTAÞLI s.gultasli@todayszaman.com

A court decision can hardly close a chapter in history, despite the EU declaration that the Hague verdict has done so in Bosnia. Neither the victims nor the aggressors have been impressed by the long-awaited decision that basically clears the Serbs of genocide but calls the Srebrenica massacre “genocide.” Even more confusing, the court said Serbia “could and should have” prevented genocide. It is a stark irony that the country where the verdict was decided, the Netherlands, was responsible for the protection of Bosnians in Srebrenica, which was declared a safe haven by the UN. Not only did the Netherlands fail to protect those Bosnian men and boys on that faithful night in July 1995, the Dutch government rewarded the soldiers that handed Bosnians to Serbian “commanders” without firing a shot with medals of honor just a few months ago. Genocide took place in the midst of Europe under the watchful eyes of European soldiers and politicians in 1995, yet it is not easy to judge who did what and who carries the responsibility. The moral of the story is history is always difficult to judge! Just take a look at the German EU presidency proposals to reckon with the past. Germans, under the immense urge to cleanse themselves from all remnants of the Holocaust, want to criminalize the deniers of “genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity” with 1 to 3 years

in prison in all 27 European member countries. While Britain, Italy and Denmark say it is against freedom of expression; the Baltic countries and Poland want the period of communism to be inserted to the draft law, which will squarely put the blame on the Russians. Not surprisingly, Russia is leading Europe to believe they will protest. Germans also want a common history book, even if their first experiment with France hit some hitches. The 50th Anniversary Declaration of the European Union, which will be announced at the end of March to mark the achievements of the club, is also facing challenges as some member countries ask for the dark pages to be referred to as well. Who will decide on such dark pages and who will bear the responsibility is already a heated debate. Europeans should draw some conclusions from the Bosnian verdict and the ongoing debates over the term president Germany’s proposals when brazenly judging what happened in 1915. While judging what happened some 10 years ago in Bosnia in an international court is a challenge, parliaments should stay away from giving their ideas on what happened almost 100 years ago. Look at the number of people killed in Bosnia. It was 250,000 until very recently, it now stands at 100,000. Then how can you be so sure it was 1.5 million in 1915? I do not want to negate the life of one human being, killing one human being is like killing all the universe as the Holy Quran says. What I am humbly suggesting, is the West should be more sensitive and responsible when throwing around decisions on historical events. Yes, what happened in 1915 was a huge tragedy, but let go and help Turks and Armenians to discuss it before condemning the “terrible Turk.”

A Turkish Cypriot friend of mine recently compared the predicament of the Turkish Cypriots to a sandwich. The Greek Cypriots and Turkey were the slices of bread and the Turkish Cypriots the cheese in the middle being squeezed. My friend felt that her future was destined to continue to be determined by Turkey and the Greek Cypriots, as it had been since her birth more than three decades ago. Turkish Cypriots remain bitterly disappointed over the failure of the Annan plan, which allowed the Greek Cypriots to enter the EU even though they rejected the plan. Turkish Cypriots, who supported the plan, have been left in a sort of limbo. Their basic human rights are still, for the most part, ignored; they remain financially dependent on Turkey; the Greek Cypriots continue to obstruct progress on EU initiatives and a long-term solution to the decades-old problem remains a distant dream. This situation is both frustrating and depressing. Later this week Turkish Cypriot leader Mehmet Ali Talat is due to visit Brussels to discuss the stalled Direct Trade Regulation with commission officials -- something he has done many times over the past two-and-a-half years. In 1993 Turkish Cyprus exports to the EU totaled almost 30 million euros. However, the impact of July 5, 1994, European Court of Justice judgment on north Cyprus’ trade with the EU was considerable. Since this date EU member states have not been permitted to import fruit and vegetables from Turkish Cyprus without a certificate issued by the Greek Cypriot authorities. this makes the EU’s Direct Trade Regulation a ray of light at the end of a long tunnel. For Talat it has not been an easy ride, and I imagine that he must have one of the most frustrating and unenviable jobs in politics. On Jan. 22, the Council of the EU decided to take steps toward economic development of the Turkish Cypriot community “without delay.” However, since then there does not seem to have been very much action, although the German EU Presidency continues to repeat that it is determined to produce results by the end of its term in office. Given the failure of the Finnish presidency to deliver after many months of effort and shuttle diplomacy there is a significant amount of skepticism on this. However, it also depends much on what the Germans are planning to put on the table as the wording of the regulation is rather ambiguous. The Greek Cypriots have been predictably stubborn in their approach and continue to block anything that they would regard as recognition of northern Cyprus. A statement made earlier this week by Foreign Minister Yiorgos Lillikas clearly emphasizes this reiterating the Cyprus government’s readiness “to work either for the regulation or for any other ideas or proposals on the condition that such proposals will aim at the economic integration and reunification of Cyprus. We shall oppose any ideas or proposals which aim at developing separate interests or at consolidating the current unacceptable situation and, consequently, strengthen secessionist tendencies. The Cyprus government will defend the republic’s rights with all the legal means available within the European Union.” Greek and Turkish Cypriots have fundamentally different ideas over how the Direct Trade Regulation should operate. The Greek Cypriots believe the Green Line Regulation could be modified to enable the Turkish Cypriots to carry out all their trade from the ports of Limassol and Larnaca in the south. However, the Turkish Cypriots claim that this would give them no control over their goods once the Green Line was crossed as all the paperwork necessary for exporting would have be carried out in the south, which would, in effect, not represent direct trade. Turkish Cypriots insist that direct trade must be carried out through ports in the north. This is what the EU has to deal with and since the regulation can, due to its current legal base, only be passed unanimously, the Greek Cypriots have the trump card. Given the amount of time that has elapsed since the EU’s original pledges were made, it is not surprising that the Turkish Cypriots have become disillusioned with the EU. I really hope that the German presidency is able to deliver. If the EU fails it will again erode its credibility further both in Cyprus and beyond. The Turkish Cypriots have displayed amazing levels of patience over the past three years. The EU must show that it can keep its side of the bargain and deliver on its promises.


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16 TODAY’S ZAMAN

W E D N E S DAY, F E B R UA RY 2 8 , 2 0 0 7

CONTINUATION

Erdoðan blasts CHP for ‘politics of crisis'

SELAHATTÝN SEVÝ

May Srebrenýca rulýng benefýt Turkey on Armenýan ýssue The decision also came at a time when the Turkish Foreign Ministry is considering taking the case to the Court of International Justice, and put an end to Armenian allegations. Analysts underline that the law of the ICJ, founded in 1945, might not prosecute crimes committed before 1948, when the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly. Most say that although an acquittal decision might be positive, ideally, the decision of an international judicial body should not recognize the deportation as genocide. In a way, it remains unclear whether the court ruling on Srebrenica is encouraging or discouraging for Turkey to take the case to the Hague. For Professor Hüseyin Pazarcý from Ankara University's Political Science Department, the author of international law textbooks that prepare Turkey's future diplomats, it is hard to say whether the decision was good or bad for Serbia. However, he believes that any application to the ICJ regarding the Armenian genocide claims would fall out of the scope of the 1948 UN convention on genocide, the document which was the basis for the Srebrenica ruling. "Normally, at least initially, on the principle of the non-retroactive application of laws, Turkey's case is outside the scope of the 1948 convention," Pazarcý explained, since the incidents resulting in genocide claims happened in 1915. Some experts, including political analyst Professor Hüseyin Baðcý from Middle East Technical University (ODTÜ) Department of International Relations, said that the court ruling that what happened in Srebrenica was genocide without holding Serbia directly responsible could signal that in the event Turkey's case were taken to the ICJ, the outcome could be similar in terms of not attaching any retroactive political or financial responsibility to Turkey. Retired Ambassador Ömer Engin Lütem, who currently heads the Crimes against Humanity Department of the Eurasian Research Center

PHOTO

contýnued from page 1

(ASAM), is also of the same opinion. In an interview with the ANKA news agency, Lütem said the Armenians pursued putting the blame on Turkey, insisting that Turkey was the successor of the Ottoman government. "However, this ruling accuses the individuals involved, rather than the state. This might mean that it has the potential to serve our interest," Lütem said, adding that the case was likely to set up an example ruling for future similar cases. All experts emphasize that there is always the possibility of the ICJ refusing to hear the Armenian genocide, since incidents before 1948 fall outside its scope. "Normally, it shouldn't be taking up such a suit," Lütem said. However, Lütem expressed that a decision to acquit Turkey of a genocide, but recognizing

the forced deportation of Armenians at the hands of Ottomans in 1915 could create a backlash. "The legal statements should express that forced deportation was essentially not genocide," he explained. In order to explain his interpretation that the ruling does and can not have any significance on Turkey's Armenian question, Sabah columnist Erdal Þafak points out to two crucial points in how the ICJ works. He notes, in contentious cases, the ICJ produces a binding ruling between states that agree to submit to the ruling of the court. In other words, Turkey would need consent of the other party, Armenia, to apply. If the court, based on the 1948 convention, rules that the application is valid, then the party where the genocide claims originate has to document con-

crete proof of systemic, organized and planned action to eradicate an ethnic group, which is where Bosnia was weak in the current case, Þafak notes. In a case between Turkey and Armenia, it would be the job of Armenia to prove that the deportations were genocide, which would not be easy. In addition, for an international court ruling to set a precedent, at least two or three similar rulings should come out. At the end of day, it is almost impossible to express that the ruling has any significance for Turkey's case at all. The ruling is certainly a disappointment to the Bosnian people -- and to the Serbs to a certain extent -and confusing for Turkey as its relevance to Turkey's concerns about the future of the Armenian question remains open to debate.

Turkey still dominates list of complaints received at European court contýnued from page 1 According to the Foreign Ministry, the compensation paid in connection with 567 European Court of Human Rights judgments as of September 2005 amounted to 33 million. The Foreign Ministry data also shows that Turkey would pay an additional YTL 14 million as compensation in 2006.

Here is the breakdown of the judgments issued

The European court learned from Turkey

Prohibition of torture..............................................9

by European Court of Human Rights on Turkey: Right to life -- deprivation of life.............................50

Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoðan assailed the opposition Republican People's Party (CHP) for what he called the "politics of crisis" he says they are embracing in the run-up to the election period in Turkey. Speaking at a parliamentary meeting of his ruling AK Party, Erdoðan criticized the CHP's self-serving resistance to change, saying: "To our youth, my advice to you is ask your fathers. Just try and understand what these status quo policies have done to our country." He accused the CHP of duplicity. "You cannot embrace the status quo in your mentality and then go ahead and become pro-change in practice," he said, further lambasting the opposition for blocking Turkey's progress and welfare: "Turkey has suffered so much from status quo protectors. And if you don't gather the power of the people behind you, you cannot experience change." Claiming the CHP was "far removed from the people," the prime minister said, "Turkey has entered onto a road of no return with the AKP," adding, "To resist change is to resist the future." Erdoðan called change "the key which will open all doors," saying, "those who cannot embrace democracy are also unable to embrace the people and the will of the people." He attacked what he called the fear tactics of the CHP, saying their aim was to scare the people. "They will once again turn to provocation tactics to do this. How can you serve the people by working as though you were running a crisis center?" he exclaimed. The prime minister had a dire assessment and prediction for the CHP, the country's oldest political party: "They are not engaging in politics, just in fear-mongering. This is all they know. They are unable to grow-up, or to reinvent themselves. The nation long ago surpassed you. Our Turkey is not a kingdom of fear, but a country of hope. If the AK Party is going to be penalized, the people will deal out the punishment. But if the people of this nation do not share your sentiments, they will walk toward the future with the AK Party." Prime Minister Erdoðan celebrated his 54th birthday yesterday and received a telephone call of birthday congratulations from Azeri leader Ilham Aliyev. AK Party head Faruk Celik said the AK Party's birthday present to Erdoðan would be "Loyalty to the very end!" Former national team basketball star Halil Ibrahim Kuzucu also stopped off yesterday at the AK Party parliamentary meeting to extend birthday wishes to Erdoðan. Ankara Today’s Zaman

Cheney takes refuge in bomb shelter after blast

Lack of effective investigation...............................89

contýnued from page 1

Yusuf Alataþ, who heads the Human Rights Association, said Turkey was a unique case for the European court "Turkey has among the three highest number of applications filed against them at the European Court of Human Rights. We are yet to be the first. Nevertheless, the applications from Turkey differ in content from applications from other countries. Though in high numbers, the applications from other countries relate mostly to property rights or length of proceedings. On the other hand, the applications against Turkey pertain mostly to cases of murder by unknown assailants, evacuation of villages, torture and suicide. Virtually no application is made from Europe in connection with such cases. If Turkey were not a member, the European court would never have to deal with such applications. In this respect, the court learned a lot from Turkey," he said. "For the European Court of Human Rights, Turkey is a unique category. Some groups in Turkey claim that the European Court of Human Rights issue political judgments in connection with Turkey. But for me, the court has always protected Turkey in its decision, only delivering judgments against it when it is impossible to keep it by the book. And when it ruled against Turkey, it did not follow European standards. If it did, the compensation paid by Turkey might amount to billions of euros. We cannot say that Turkey's performance with respect to human rights is improving."

Inhuman or degrading treatment...........................91 Lack of effective investigation.................................8 Prohibition of slavery / forced labor.........................0 Right to liberty and security.................................181 Right to a fair trial..............................................354 Length of proceedings.......................................127 No punishment without law....................................4 Right to respect for private and family life..............28 Freedom of thought, conscience and religion..........1 Freedom of expression.......................................123 Freedom of assembly and association..................18 Right to marry........................................................0 Right to an effective remedy...............................143 Prohibition of discrimination...................................2 Protection of property.........................................353 Right to education.................................................2 Right to free elections............................................1 Right not to be tried or punished twice....................0 Other articles of the Convention............................26 Number of judgments......................................1310

"At 10 a.m. I heard a loud boom," Cheney said. Base authorities sounded a red alert and secret service officials told Cheney there had been a suspected suicide attack. "They moved me for a relatively brief period of time to one of the bomb shelters nearby," he said. "As the situation settled down and they got a better sense in terms of what was going on, then I went back to my room until it was time to leave." NATO's death toll in the attack was four, officials said. A Reuters photographer at the scene saw an additional 10 bodies, putting the total at 14. A U.S. government contractor, whose nationality was unknown, was among those killed and 27 people were wounded, NATO said. "We wanted to target ... Cheney," Taliban spokesman Mullah Hayat Khan told Reuters by phone from an undisclosed location. Soon after the blast, Cheney - who officials say was never in danger from the blast at the sprawling base -- went ahead with talks with Afghan President Hamid Karzai in the capital. Asked if he had ever considered changing his plans to go to Kabul, Cheney said that was "never an option."

Snowed in

Turkey and Azerbaijan set up high-level military dialogue commission Turkey and Azerbaijan have established a high-level commission to boost military dialogue and cooperation, the Anatolia news agency reported yesterday. The establishment of the commission came during a visit by Deputy Chief of General Staff Gen. Ergin Saygun to the Azerbaijani capital of

Baku. Saygun and Azerbaijan's Defense Minister Sefer Abiyev signed relevant protocols for the creation of the commission, which aims at better coordination in military cooperation and assistance between the two countries. A number of projects are under way between Turkey and

Azerbaijan in the field of military cooperation and the newly established commission will be in charge of coordinating these diverse projects and efforts, Anatolia said. The commission will be co-chaired by Gen. Saygun and Azerbaijan's Defense Minister Abiyev. Ýstanbul Today’s Zaman

The meeting had been scheduled for Monday, but was delayed when Cheney was snowed in at Bagram soon after arriving from Islamabad on a visit shrouded in secrecy because of security. "They clearly try to find ways to question the authority of the central government," Cheney told reporters traveling with him out of Afghanistan on a military plane to Oman. Striking at Bagram with a suicide bomber I suppose is one way to do that. Cheney was due to depart Muscat later on Tuesday for Washington. His Afghan visit came as Washington said al-Qaeda and its Taliban allies were regrouping on Pakistan and Afghan soil. The United States has 27,000 soldiers in Afghanistan, where it says defeating the Taliban is vital for its own security. Muscat-Kabul Reuters


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Solution to Crossword 23,214 P A T R I OT I SM A V E S I U N R T I O CAN I SMA J OR C L OU T E T C N C L N C A S T L E H OWA R D H S L C B L S E XCA L I BUR BOOT H R A A E O L B I MARA T T I P P EDOF F I P I E S S T T HEGO I NGRA T E C R N O A O E T RU I N M I GNONE T T E A N R C E A C B AGS ME T HUS E L AH Check todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s answers by ringing #$%#&'("$)+--.#$/.2#' 09015 622193. Calls cost 60p per minute.

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SPORTS

Ex-Tour de France winner Ullrich calls it quits Former Tour de France champion Jan Ullrich announced his retirement from competitive cycling on Monday, eight months after his career was put on hold by a doping investigation. Ullrich said he would work as an adviser to the small Austrian Volksbank team. Berlin, Reuters

WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 2007

Chelsea and Arsenal were waiting on Tuesday to hear from the Football Association after the shameful brawl that blighted the League Cup final. Arsenal became the first team in the history of English soccer to have two players sent off in a major final, with red cards for captain Kolo Toure and substitute Emmanuel Adebayor while Chelsea's John Obi Mikel was also sent off in Sunday's stoppage time fracas. The FA said late on Monday it had received claims for wrongful dismissal from Arsenal and Chelsea with regards to Adebayor and Mikel. A hearing as scheduled take place later on Tuesday. Only three players had ever been sent off in 46 finals since the competition began in 1960-61 and that number was doubled in two minutes of madness which overshadowed the first all-London final. Since Arsene Wenger became manager in September 1996, Arsenal have had 68 players sent off, five this season. London Reuters

Easy wýn for Hantuchova ýn Qatar, Schýavone through Hantuchova seems to be in a hurry as she demolishes Castano with a flurry of shots. Schiavone takes a while to find her rhythm but once she settled down to a pattern, returning well from the baseline, she proved too good and Pironkova had to play second fiddle AP

FA to act against Chelsea and Arsenal

PHOTO

SOCCER

Francesca Schiavone of Italy returns a ball to Bulgarian Tsvetana Pironkova during the $1.3 million Qatar Open.

SOCCER

Barca rests Eto'o for Cup quarterfinal return Cameroon striker Samuel Eto'o will be rested for Barcelona's King's Cup quarterfinal, second leg against Real Zaragoza today. "We have spoken with the medical staff and the player and we all agree it is best that he isn't included in the squad. It's a shame but that's the way it is," Barcelona coach Frank Rijkaard told a news conference on Tuesday. Barca trail the tie 1-0 from the home leg. Eto'o scored on Sunday in his first start with the side after four months out with a knee injury, in the 3-0 win over Athletic Bilbao. All three goals came in the first half and he was substituted in the 66thminute, after having clearly lifted the side. Club doctors carried out tests on Eto'o's knee on Tuesday and said his recovery continued to be "positive" but warned against forcing the pace. The Primera Liga leaders visit second-placed Sevilla on Saturday, travel to face Liverpool in a Champions League clash on Tuesday, and then host archrivals Real Madrid the following weekend. Madrid Reuters

ATHLETICS

RALLYING

Pirelli to be sole supplier to world championship Pirelli will be sole tire supplier to the world rally championship for three years from 2008, the International Automobile Federation said on Tuesday. The world governing body said in a statement that the Italian manufacturer had won a tender for 2008, 2009 and 2010. "It will now enter into a formal contract to supply tires in all events of the championship to all competitors with a four-wheel drive rally car," it added. Pirelli have a long history in rallying but the works teams in this year's championship are all using BFGoodrich tires. The latter brand is owned by French tire giant Michelin, whose withdrawal from Formula One at the end of last year left Japanese rival Bridgestone as sole supplier. London Reuters

Sixth seed Daniela Hantuchova of Slovakia and eighth seed Francesca Schiavone of Italy marched into the second round of the $1.3 million Qatar Open. World number 19 Hantuchova breezed past Columbia's Catalina Castano 6-1, 6-0 in 53 minutes while Schiavone, ranked 25, downed Bulgarian Tsvetana Pironkova 6-2, 6-4 in one hour 26 minutes. Indian pin-up girl Sania Mirza and Italy's Mara Santangelo were the other first round winners. Mirza overcame early hiccups to defeat Italy's Romina Oprandi 6-4, 6-3 while Santangelo edged past German wild card Sandra Kloesel 63, 7-6. Hantuchova seemed to be in a hurry as she demolished Castano with a flurry of shots. Elsewhere, Roger Federer was presented with a crystal trophy to mark his record 161st consecutive

week as world number one before beating Denmark's Kristian Pless 7-6, 3-6, 6-3 to reach the second round of the Dubai Open. The former three-times champion, seeking to regain the title he conceded last year to Spanish number two seed Rafael Nadal, often struggles a little when he begins his Dubai campaign. Federer had trouble getting on top of an opponent who served well and made few unforced errors. The Swiss failed to take advantage of a break point in each of the Dane's first two service games, but he dropped only five points on his own serve as he took the first set in a tiebreak, which he took 7-2. There was only one break in the second set and one in the third, both coming at 2-1. Federer made a forehand error to drop his serve in the second, and Pless did the same in the third. Fourth-seeded

Spaniard Tommy Robredo found that adapting from an indoor tournament in Rotterdam to playing outdoors in Dubai was beyond him as he fell 7-6, 6-4 to wily French veteran Fabrice Santoro. Sixth-seeded Czech Tomas Berdych dropped the opening set to 370th-ranked Kuwaiti wild card Mohammed Al Ghareeb but recovered to win 3-6, 6-3, 6-2, and Slovak Dominik Hrbaty took 56 minutes to overwhelm Omar Bahrouzyan of UAE 6-1, 6-2. Meanwhile, former world number one Gustavo Kuerten earned his first hard court victory for 18 months when he booked a place in the round-robin section of the Las Vegas Open. The 30-year-old Brazilian, who played just one match last year following hip surgery, made light of gusting winds to beat South African Wesley Moodie 6-4, 7-5 and seal his

Hiddink avoids jail, fined for tax fraud AP

Kenyan immigration authorities have seized Kenyan-born athlete Leonard Mucheru's Bahraini passport, hampering his preparations for April's London marathon, he said on Monday. "Training for the marathon needs concentration and money, which I can't do now because I don't know how it will end," Mucheru said. Kenyan officials said Mucheru's passport would be retained until he returned his Kenyan passport. "We want our passport back before we give him his passport," said Elisha Nyakinya, Kenya's deputy director of immigration. Kenyan laws do not allow dual citizenship. Mucheru made news last month when he ran a marathon in Israel, kicking off a furore as the Jewish state has no diplomatic relations with Bahrain. “Bahraini officials took away my Kenyan passport, now the Kenyan authorities are detaining my Bahrain passport. I can't even access my bank account and, more importantly, I can't concentrate on training for the Marathon,” he said. Nairobi Reuters

PHOTO

Mucheru's passport saga affects marathon

Guus Hiddink

A Dutch court handed former PSV Eindhoven coach Guus Hiddink a sixmonth suspended sentence and fined him 45,000 euros ($59,270) on Tuesday after finding him guilty of tax fraud. Hiddink, now in charge of the Russian national team, was accused of evading almost 1.4 million euros in Dutch taxes by falsely claiming to be a resident of Belgium in 2002 and 2003. The court cleared him of tax evasion during 2002, saying the Dutchman may well have intended to go and live in Belgium, but found him guilty for the period of 2003, when he had actually lived with his partner in Amsterdam, and imposed the maximum fine. "The court reached the conclusion that Hiddink deliberately submitted an incomplete and incorrect tax declaration over 2003," it said

in a statement. Earlier this month prosecutors demanded a 10-month prison sentence for Hiddink, who was not in court to hear the verdict, dismissing his claims that he had been living in Belgium, where the tax rate is much lower, as a joke . "Hiddink is glad that the punishment is lower. But nevertheless his image has been damaged," his lawyer told Dutch news agency ANP. In explaining its sentence and why it had not sent him to prison the court said: "The court considered that there already has been a lot of negative publicity around Hiddink." From 2000 to 2002 the 60-year-old Dutchman was in charge of the South Korean national side, guiding the World Cup co-hosts to fourth place at the 2002 finals. He then returned to the Netherlands and accepted a coaching job with PSV Eindhoven. Den Bosch Reuters

second win in three tour matches this year. Kuerten, three-time French Open champion, dropped out of the world's top 1,000 before bouncing back to 804th after winning a match at the Brazil Open this month. Ex-Australian Open champ Thomas Johansson, who has slipped to 92nd in the world rankings, and Spaniard Feliciano Lopez also made it through to the round-robin stage. In the three round-robin matches played on Monday, there were wins for Spaniard Fernando Verdasco, American Paul Goldstein and Argentine Juan Martin del Potro. Verdasco battled back to beat Frenchman Paul-Henri Mathieu 3-6, 6-3, 7-5, and Goldstein demolished another French player, Julien Benneteau, 6-1, 6-0. The 18-year-old del Potro sent a warning to top seed James Blake by crushing Russian Evgeny Korolev 6-3, 6-2. Doha Reuters

Mavericks rout Hawks to extend record home streak The Dallas Mavericks extended their franchiserecord home winning streak to 20 games with a 110-87 thrashing of the Atlanta Hawks on Monday, easing to a victory that was also their 12th straight overall. Dirk Nowitzki led the way with 27 points and eight rebounds for the Mavericks to help Dallas improve to 27-3 at home with their 47th victory in 52 games after starting the season 0-4. Elsewhere in New York, Stephon Marbury scored 25 points as the New York Knicks beat the Miami Heat 99-93. Shaquille O'Neal became the 14th player to reach 25,000 points in his career with a 20-point game, but Knicks coach Isiah Thomas was pleased with his team's effort against the defending NBA champions. The San Antonio Spurs extended their season-high winning streak to six games with a 107-91 win over the Toronto Raptors. Carmelo Anthony had 33 points as the Denver Nuggets snapped a four-game losing streak with a 111107 win over the Memphis Grizzlies. Samuel Dalembert had 20 points and 17 rebounds as the Philadelphia 76ers got past the Sacramento Kings 89-82. Dallas Reuters


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TODAY’S ZAMAN 19

W E D N E S D AY, F E B R U A R Y 2 8 , 2 0 0 7

PHOTO

REUTERS

SPORTS

ACROSS THE POND

Can Miami pull it off again? FEYZULLAH EÐRÝBOYUN NEW YORK

SOCCER

Galatasaray extends contract with Gerets The Galatasaray club has agreed to extend the contract of Belgian coach Eric Gerets for one more year, Vice Chairman Adnan Sezgin announced on Tuesday. Galatasaray's reluctance to sign a new contract with Gerets after the team won the championship last season was interpreted as the club's unwillingness to continue with the Belgian coach next season. The Galatasaray Lions reportedly wanted to resolve this issue to help motivate the team in the ongoing the championship race. Gerets had previously declared his desire to stay at Galatasaray, which is currently trailing archrival Fenerbahçe by six points in the 18-team Turkcell Super League standings. Ýstanbul Today's Zaman

SOCCER

Brazil ref suspended for wrong decision

A Romanian coach has been banned for a year by his national federation for physically abusing a 15-year-old female gymnast, an official told Reuters on Tuesday. The (Romanian Gymnastics Federation) FRG board banned coach Mihael Anton for 12 months after he was found to have verbally and physically attacked promising gymnast Emanuela Rusu, FRG president Adrian Stoica said. Stoica said footage captured on a mobile phone had proved that Anton swore at Rusu before striking her face several times during a training session in the western city of Timisoara. He added that Rusu's parents had lodged an official complaint with the FRG against Anton, who denied any wrongdoing during their investigations. "Anton will not take part in any official coaching activities for one year... his ban starts today," Stoica said. Bucharest Reuters

ICE HOCKEY

Revamped Thrashers rally to edge Bruins Marian Hossa scored the only goal of the third period to help a revamped Atlanta Thrashers rally for a 3-2 road victory over the Boston Bruins on Monday. Bolstered by the acquisition of veteran forward Keith Tkachuk and defenseman Alexi Zhitnik in separate deals made on the weekend, the Thrashers won for just the second time in eight games as both players made their debuts. Atlanta has slipped to sixth in the Eastern Conference standings as a result of its recent slide, but the team dealt two young players and three draft picks away in the two trades to strengthen the roster for a playoff run. Boston remain tied for 11th place in the tightly bunched Eastern Conference standings after they squandered leads twice in the game. Shean Donovan opened the scoring for the Bruins just 1:29 into the opening period, but Scott Mellanby tied the game on a powerplay 13 minutes later, with Zhitnik picking up an assist on the goal. Brad Boyes restored the Bruins's lead with his goal at 18:22 of the first period, but Atlanta's Eric Belanger tied the score, again with a powerplay goal early in the second period. Boston out-shot Atlanta 24-20, with Kari Lehtonen recovering from a shaky first period to stop 22 shots. Boston Reuters

Wanted: A good local goalkeeper! Goalkeeper Volkan continues conceding comic goals at Fenerbahçe, but the saddest thing is that there seems to be no alternative to this mediocre goalkeeper HASAN CÜCÜK ÝSTANBUL

When the Turkish national soccer team's first-choice goalkeeper Rüþtü Recber was injured during a friendly match with Italy last November, Volkan Demirel was brought in by coach Fatih Terim to replace Rüþtü. The young goalkeeper made such an incredible mistake in this match that several people started to think Turkish soccer would have serious goalkeeping problems without Rüþtü. Volkan continues to concede similar comic goals at Fenerbahçe as well, but the saddest thing is that there seems to be no alternative to Volkan. Terim has been asked on many occasions about this disturbing issue in Turkish soccer. Nevertheless, he said: "We have very good goalkeepers: Volkan, Serkan, Hakan, Tolga, Orkun… serious mistakes continue to be made. But the fact of the matter is that in near future we could face the danger of playing without a goalkeeper if we reject every keeper who makes a mistake."

What is the situation in Europe? The number of English goalkeepers in the English Premier League is only seven. England, the cradle of soccer, misses goalkeepers such as Gordon Banks, Ray Clemence and Peter Shilton. The high number of foreign goalkeepers is noteworthy in England, whereas local goalkeepers are dominant in the German, French, Italian and Spanish leagues. Since the Premier League is turning into a show-business with its increasing quality forces the clubs to search for foreign players and goal-

keepers. The recent shortage of talented goalkeepers is associated with star players making more appearances in the media than on the pitch. The goalkeeping job has becomes less popular and less lucrative. For this reason no good goalkeeper succeeded Shilton. David Seaman, who came after Shilton, had a modest place in the world rankings and Robinson, the current goalkeeper, is worse than he was two years ago, which means England is in dire need of a good goalkeeper. Four of the seven English goalkeepers are playing in the teams that are in the bottom of the league, whereas foreign goalkeepers such as Edwin van ver Saar, Petr Cech, Thomas Sörensen and Jens Lehmann are playing for the top clubs. Germany is one country that has had no goalkeeping problems. The Germans -- who had no problems with Ilgner and Köpke after Schumacher --also have a world-renowned keeper Oliver Khan. Coach Juergen Klinnsman preferred Lehmann in the 2006 World Cup finals and this almost split the Germans into two. "Who will man the posts?" became a very serious issue before the World Cup. The KhanLehmann rivalry characterized the World Cup, but the result was that Lehmann currently no has no rival after Stuttgart goalkeeper Hildebrand -- who made a good start two years ago -- sank into oblivion last year.

Italy has no problems Buffon, who remained in Juventus even though his team was relegated to Serie B, is still con-

sidered the world's best, and is at the same time the unchanging member of the Italian national team. Italy has no nightmares thanks to Buffon's youth. Buffon's deputy Livorno's Amelia is far inferior to Buffon at the moment. Italy raised a star goalkeeper like Zoff and is excelling with Buffon. It was the last World Cup champion and one of the two goals it conceded was a penalty, the other was its own goal: proof of Buffon's high quality. Local goalkeepers are in the majority in the Italian league, but it's interesting that Brazil's Dida plays at AC Milan. As for Spain, Real Madrid's Casillas is the Spanish national team's indispensable keeper thanks to his high performance and agility. Similarly, the performance of Reina, who took over at Liverpool from Dudek, also satisfies the Spanish. The silly errors Barcelona's Valdez makes means Casillas will continue to man the Spanish posts for many years. Spanish goalkeepers play in the teams in the domestic league. Though the French disagree, France has no world-class goalkeeper. Barthez was the goalkeeper of French national team in 2006 World Cup and attracted attention with the comic goals he conceded at Manchester United, meaning the French need a good goalkeeper. When coach Domenech selected Barthez in the World Cup, Lyon's goalkeeper stormed out of the French preWorld Cup training camp. Michael Landreau moved to Paris Saint Germain this season and is rumored as the next goalkeeper of the national team after Coupet, who will be 35 in a few years.

Black Sea Storm faces toughie at Gaziantep today ALÝ ÜNAL

GYMNASTICS

Coach banned for abusing gymnast

Fenerbahce goalkeeper Volkan Demirel (above) continues conceding goals like water, yet he is still the Turkish national team's first-choice keeper.

OKAN UDO BASSEY ÝSTANBUL

PHOTO

A Brazilian referee has been suspended for sending off the wrong player during a match at the weekend. Rodrigo Martins Cintra has been banned indefinitely following his performance during the Corinthians-Rio Branco match in the Paulista championship, the head of the Paulista Football Federation's referees committee said. "The mistake happened," Marcos Marinho told reporters. "He thought it was one player but it was a different one. He needs some time to get over it." The incident happened during the first half when a Corinthians player was tripped by Rio Branco's Josias. However, Cintra showed a yellow card to Felipe who had already been booked and was therefore sent off. "He's not on form at the moment so we're going to work to make sure he's better when he comes back," Marinho said. Cintra also dismissed two Corinthians players in the 1-1 draw. Rio de Janeiro Reuters

When Miami Heat won the NBA championship last year, everyone talked about how they had coped with the early season adversity and how they converted that to their advantage in the finals. They had started the season with new players such as Antoine Walker, Jason Williams, Gary Payton and James Posey, all veterans with their distinctive styles to be meshed into a team. They had a number of early season injuries, too, leaving them at a sub .500 mark at some point in the first month of the season and at 10-10 after a loss in December 2005. Having gone through all this made them stronger and more resilient, which they benefited from during the finals. After badly losing 2 games in Dallas and being down 13 in the last quarter of the third game in Miami, they heroically came back to win four games in a row to get their rings. It was an inspirational story; Dwayne Wade was the Lord of the Rings. Now that we're just past the halfway point in the new season, it looks like they have to do it all over again. Their star center Shaq O'Neal was absent during the first two months of the season with a knee injury; their legendary coach Pat Riley took a medical leave of absence six weeks ago to come back just recently; and now, their superstar Dwayne Wade has dislocated his shoulder that will probably result in a season-ending surgery. If the Heat manages to get to the playoffs after all of this, it will be another success story to talk about. If not, they will be the first defending champions missing the playoffs since the 1999 Bulls, who understandably failed after Jordan's departure. If that happens to the Heat, there is not much shame in it. I think that what Jordan was to the Bulls, Wade is to the Heat, if not more. He already carried that team on his back during the first half of the season and kept them in contention without much help from the veterans named above. He worked hard, shrugged off seemingly minor injuries and performed at a high level night in and night out. Now that he is gone for the rest of the season, I see it likely that the Heat will surrender its current eighth spot in the playoff race to one of the healthier teams, probably Nets or Magic. Recognizing the fact that Heat cannot advance much in the playoffs without Wade, they have a decision to make: Should the recently ailed Shaq step it up to lead the team as far as it can go? Or should they take it easy, let Shaq and Riley get into better shape and come back altogether next season? While this second choice would not be voiced publicly, these are the critical decisions the management will make and we will see the consequences of. Webber, my man… I have always been a fan of Chris Webber basketball, from his explosive and athletic days with the Washington Bullets on. I admired his passing skills, outside jumpers and fun personality. After spending an unhappy first half of the season in Philadelphia, C-Webb recently moved to the Detroit Pistons and is already making a big impact there. He proved the naysayers wrong with his leadership and solid play. He starts at the center position and his passing energizes the Pistons' offense. He also scores plenty when necessary. This was a perfect match; he renewed himself and also rejuvenated a stagnant Pistons team, making them once again the beast of the East. Another nice piece of work from Joe Dumars, I'd say.

Trabzonspor coach Ziya Doðan

In-form Trabzonspor Black Sea Storm, sweeping aside opponents with arrogance recently, faces a toughie away this evening when it takes on Gaziantepspor in a quarterfinal, second-leg match at Antep's Kamil Ocak Stadium. Trabzon won 1-0 in the first leg at home a fortnight ago, attacking midfielder Gökdeniz Karadeniz scoring the only goal of the game. The match was played on an icy field that looked more like an ice hockey rink than a soccer pitch. Whether or not the pathetic state of the pitch was to Trabzon's advantage no one knows; what we know is that the Kamil Ocak Stadium pitch this evening will not be frozen nor will it be covered by snow because it rarely snows at Antep. Judging from current form, Trabzonspor looks like the favorite this evening. Having won three matches in a row, Ziya Dogan's lads are

keen on maintaining their winning streak. Both Trabzonspor and Gaziantep had contrasting fortunes in league matches played over the weekend. While the Storm came from two goals down at home to beat the Besiktas Black Eagles 3-2, Antep squandered a 1-0 lead to lose 2-1 against Ankaragücü at the capital. This evening's match will be played on a knockout basis, meaning there must be a winner. Trabzon will advance if it draws or loses 2-1, 3-2, 4-3 etc. Antep has got to win at least 2-0, 3-1, 4-2, etc., to make the quarterfinals. This means there is plenty of pressure on both teams, which have no chance whatsoever of finishing first or second in the league and automatically qualifying for Europe. So the shortcut to playing in Europe next season is to clinch the Cup. Note: The Cup holder represents Turkey in the UEFA Cup. We mentioned above that current form favors Trabzon; however, form alone does not decide crucial matches like this one. Gaziantep will be play-

ing on familiar turf, which is an advantage. Furthermore, the Antep lads will be backed by a thunderous home crowd; that's another advantage. Trabzon will be missing the services of injured Guinean striker Ibrahima Yattara. However there was good news from the club's health director, Köksal Güney, who announced on Monday that Huseyin, who suffered a slight sprained ankle in the Beþiktaþ match on Sunday is now fit as a fiddle and will be available for this evening's match. Antep coach Erdoðan Arýca is sure to make some changes to the team, which faltered in Ankara over the weekend. That's all we know -anything else would be mere speculation. Kickoff is at 5 p.m. and the referee will be Ýsmet Arzuman.

Live on LÝG TV 17.00: Gaziantepspor vs. Trabzonspor


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27.02.2007

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