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ISU Biennale Sessions 2016


Jacopo de’ Barbari Veduta di Venezia Woodcut c. 1500 132.72 × 277.5 cm (52.3 × 109.3 in)


BIENNALE SESSIONS On the occasion of the 57th International Architecture Exhibition, La Biennale di Venezia hosts Universities, Academies of Fine Arts and Higher Education Institutions to conduct a project and workshop. The following presents Iowa State University, Ames 2016 Biennale Session: Disrupt/Displace


REPORTING FROM THE FRONT Alejandro Aravena, Curatorial Statement 15th International Architecture Exhibition Venice Biennale

There are several battles that need to be won and several frontiers that need to be expanded in order to improve the quality of the built environment and consequently people’s quality of life. More and more people in the planet are in search for a decent place to live and the conditions to achieve it are becoming tougher and tougher by the hour. Any attempt to go beyond business as usual encounters huge resistance in the inertia of reality and any effort to tackle relevant issues has to overcome the increasing complexity of the world.

We will present cases and practices where creativity was used to take the risk to go even for a tiny victory because when the problem is big, just a one-millimeter improvement is relevant; what may be required is to adjust our notion of success, because achievements on the front lines are relative, not absolute.

We are very aware that the battle for a better built environment is a collective effort that will require everybody’s force and knowledge. That is why we would like this Biennale to be But unlike military wars where nobody wins and there is inclusive, listening to stories, thoughts and experiences coming a prevailing sense of defeat, on the front lines of the built from different backgrounds: environment, there is a sense of vitality because architecture is about looking at reality in a proposal key. This is what we The Architects would like people to come and see at the 15th International We would like to invite the practitioners who have the problem Architecture Exhibition: success stories worth to be told and of the blank canvas: architects, urban designers, landscape exemplary cases worth to be shared where architecture did, architects, engineers, builders and dilettantes, whose work is is and will make a difference in winning those battles and winning battles on the frontier, any kind of frontier. expanding those frontiers. The Civil Society REPORTING FROM THE FRONT will be about bringing to a We would also like to present cases where organized broader audience, what is it like to improve the quality of life communities and empowered citizens, sometimes without any while working on the margins, under tough circumstances, formal training in design, have been able to improve their own facing pressing challenges. Or what does it take to be on the built environment. cutting edge trying to conquer new fields. The Leaders We would like to learn from architectures that despite Then we would like to invite key leaders who from their the scarcity of means intensify what is available instead privileged positions, at the top or the bottom of the pyramid, of complaining about what is missing. We would like to may orient the practitioners in the battles worth to get involved understand what design tools are needed to subvert the with. forces that privilege the individual gain over the collective benefit, reducing We to just Me. We would like to know about The National Pavilions cases that resist reductionism and oversimplification and do Finally, we would like each country to share with the rest of the not give up architecture’s mission to penetrate the mystery of world, what are the fights they face at home, so that we can the human condition. We are interested in how architecture be warned about challenges we might be unaware of but also can introduce a broader notion of gain: design as added value share some knowledge because we shouldn’t be alone in the instead of an extra cost or architecture as a shortcut towards effort of improving the places where life occurs. equality. So, the 15th International Art Exhibition will be about focusing We would like this REPORT FROM THE FRONT not to be just and learning from architectures that by balancing intelligence the chronicle of a passive witness but a testimony of people and intuition are able to escape the status quo. We would like that actually walk their talk. We would like to balance hope to present cases that despite the difficulties (or maybe because and rigor. The battle for a better built environment is neither of them), instead of resignation or bitterness, propose and a tantrum nor a romantic crusade. So, this report won’t be a do something. We would like to show that in the permanent mere denounce or complaint nor a harangue or an inspirational debate about the quality of the built environment, there is not locker room speech. only need but also room for action.


DISRUPT/DISPLACE Iowa State University College of Design Biennale Sessions 2016 Disrupt/Displace is a response to Aravena’s curatorial request to ‘Report from the Front’ it is simultaneoulsy a critique, performance, and proposal in four parts: PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa) PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa) PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy) PART 4 Colloquium and Conclusions (Venice, Italy)


PART 4 Colloquium + Conclusions (Venice, Italy)

PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)


DISRUPT/DISPLACE Iowa State University College of Design Biennale Session 2016 Disrupt/Displace is a response to Aravena’s curatorial request to ‘Report from the Front’ it is simultaneoulsy a critique, performance, and proposal in four parts: PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa) PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa) PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy) PART 4 Colloquium and Conclusions (Venice, Italy)


PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)

REPORTING FROM IOWA In response to Aravena’s statement a FRONT was identified in Iowa: the Bakken Oil Pipeline, a field of action to REPORT in Venice. The Bakken Oil Pipeline is a spatial condition with social, cultural, and political ramifications. This REPORT is a record of a two-month dialogue about the complexities of architecture’s relationship to political and social issues. Many of the ‘fields of action’ in the built environment are exceedingly complex, and the Bakken Pipeline reveals these complexities. The conflict surrounding the pipeline is intensely political and recent media coverage has magnified resistance to the project. Any built or designed space may address certain, specific requirements of the pipeline, or conversely, those it affects. However, through iterative models and discussions we can not see a way in which architecture helps ‘solve’ the problem of the Dakota Access Pipeline. Rather than providing a clear answer this process has stirred up additional frustrations, questions and concerns: can architecture be an agent of social change?

Photo: Displaced farmland along the path of the Bakken Pipeline.


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PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)

THE BAKKEN PIPELINE The Bakken Pipeline, constructed by Dakota Access, will transport crude oil from the Bakken shale fields in North Dakota to Illinois. When completed the pipeline will stretch 1,172 miles across the American midwest. Though the pipeline is only 30 inches in diameter, it will leave a scar across the gridded landscape: 150 feet on either side of the pipeline will be cleared of foliage and buildings during construction and 50 feet on either side of the pipeline will be a permanent easement. Though this pipeline joins a network of 72,000 miles of existing crude oil pipeline transit across the United States, the Dakota Access Pipeline is uniquely controversial. It has incited protests from Native Americans, as they challenge the pipeline crossing native burial grounds and the Missouri River in two locations. The general public has also questioned the use of eminent domain for a private company, Dakota Access. These objections have spurred a nationwide conversation about the impacts of energy infrastructure. Map: Bakken Pipeline crossing Iowa. Ames, Iowa located in pink. Photo: Iowa Context: Construction of the pipeline near Ames.


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PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)

Standing water on land cleared to make way for the Bakken Pipeline. Ames, IA


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PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)

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NATIVE AMERICAN RELOCATION 2016

Prior to European colonization, the United States was populated by many Native American tribes, typically located adjacent to river ways or situated within a productive geographic context. As Europeans settled and moved westward tribal lands were taken and occupants displaced. The land area of the lower 48 states is approximately 1.9 billion acres and today, approximately 10 million acres or 0.5% of land remains in control of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Photo: Members of Native American tribes protest the disruption of Native burial grounds caused by the pipeline in Boone, Iowa Maps: Succession of U.S. Maps showing reduction of Native American tribal land areas indicated in green since founding of the United States.


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PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)

PIPELINE SUPPORT

Photo: Construction progress at the pipeline outside of Boone, Iowa Map: Extent of the pipeline, starting in North Dakota and ending in Illinois, traversing across Iowa

Upon completion, the pipeline is estimated to carry 470,000 barrels of oil per day. One barrel or 160 liters could be used to drive a medium-sized car (27 kilometers per liter) for more than 450 kilometers. The United States remains dependent on oil and the Bakken Pipeline will reduce American dependence on foreign oil. Additionally oil transport by pipeline is 70 times safer than oil transport by truck. The pipeline is projected to help boost midwestern and national economies, creating 8,000 to 12,000 temporary construction jobs a year, according to Dakota Access. Dakota Access also claims that the pipeline will generate $27.4 million in property taxes a year and will pay $33.1 million in Iowa state revenue through sales tax according to the Iowa Progress Report in August of 2016.


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PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)

PIPELINE OPPOSITION Opponents of the pipeline declare that the reliance on crude oil delays the nation’s transition to renewable, clean energy. They believe that if the government drops support of pipelines it will encourage the exploration of more sustainable fuels which is crucial to improving our environment. Also the safety aspect of the pipeline is only sustainable in regards to human safety. The pipeline remains a danger to the environment, as pipelines leak at a rapid rate, and crude oil is flammable and harmful to plants, wildlife, and water sources. Specifically, it poses a great threat to Iowa’s primary water source, the Des Moines watershed, if the pipe were to leak. Pipeline leaks are not rare, in 2015, 50,000 gallons (liters) of oil from the Bakken shale spilled into the Yellowstone River in Montana. The process of cleaning the region of oil is ongoing. There have been many complaints of eminent domain being used to procure the land to build the pipeline. Eminent domain was invoked as the right of government to expropriate private property for public use, with payment or compensation to make room for the construction of the pipeline. In this case the private land was taken by the government, not for public use, but to be given to a private, for-profit company- Dakota Access. A number of Native Americans in Iowa and the Dakotas have led opposition against the pipeline, including the Meskwaki and several Sioux tribal nations. In 2016, the Standing Rock Indian Reservation brought a petition to the US Army Corps of Engineers, to stop construction due to the disturbance of native burial grounds; the tribe sued the US Army Corps of Engineers for an injunction. Building that section of the pipeline was temporarily halted. To date, the camp organized by Standing Rock is the largest protest of Native Americans in history. Recently, it has garnered publicity due to increased crowds, police methods, and political context.

Map of United State: Path of the Bakken Pipeline. Map of Iowa: The Bakken Pipeline crosses through 18 counties in Iowa, including Story County in Grey.


Bakken Shale

Des Moines Watershed

Dakota Access Pipeline Path

Native American Reservations

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PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)

A trailer adjacent to I-35 in Iowa protests eminent domain abuse used to make room for the Bakken Pipeline.


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PART 4 Colloquium + Conclusions (Venice, Italy)

PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)


DISRUPT/DISPLACE Iowa State University College of Design Biennale Sessions 2016 Disrupt/Displace is a response to Aravena’s curatorial request to ‘Report from the Front’ it is simultaneoulsy a critique, performance, and proposal in four parts: PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa) PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa) PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy) PART 4 Colloquium and Conclusions (Venice, Italy)


A sattelite image of Ames, Iowa and the surrounding area, where Iowa State University is located, 2016.


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PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

Pre-1803 United States 1803 Louisiana Purchase Post-1803 Westward Expansion

THE IOWA GRID Thomas Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase of 1803 was a catalyst for the extension of colonization beyond the northeastern United States. To encourage settlers to move westward, the Jeffersonian grid was imposed upon the American landscape. This grid manifest American ideals of democracy and property; it segmented the land into portions scaled for individual production and consumption. This Euclidian subdivision of the land was a total geometric system, applied without consideration for culture, environment, or occupation. The relentless appropriation of land made possible by this organizational method led to the diminished state of Native American land today. Photo: A barren strip of land cuts through a corn field near Boone, Iowa to make way for the pipeline.


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PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

HISTORY OF THE GRID The representation of the physical conditions of Iowa and the Bakken Pipeline stem from The Land Ordinance of 1785, which established a system of nested grids that would extend across the land of the United States. The largest units of the nested grids were townships, decreasing in size through sections to quarter sections to checks and finally to individual plots of land. In our project, each section of the Jeffersonian grid was abstracted to the size of a single unit that when aggregated becomes a representation of the gridded landscape. Iowa is a state dominated by the grid due to its rich farmland and Story County, where Iowa State University is located, has several sites where the pipeline is cuts through the rectilinear farms of the landscape. Story County has a clear legacy of the Jeffersonian Grid, with its gridded farmsteads still dominating the rural land today. In the era of air travel and satellite imagery the Jefferson grid is a familiar and easily recognizable image.


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On the left, the legacy of the Jeffersonian Grid is clear from the aerial photo. On the right, the representation of the grid developed through this project.

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Each section of the Jeffersonian Grid is abstracted into a unit that when aggregated becomes a representation of the gridded landscape. ISU Architecture Biennale Sessions 29


PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

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While the grid is primarily a convention seen in plan, in this project it was important to consider the three-dimensionality of the landscape, specifically the twisting growth pattern of corn that dominates the Iowan landscape. The final unit becomes an integration of both the grid in plan and the spiraling nature of the corn in elevation.

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Left Page: The twisting growth pattern of corn that dominates the Iowa landscape is indicative of the spiraling form within each piece. Photo: The aggregation of the unit becomes an integration of both the grid in plan and the twisting nature of the corn in elevation.


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PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

Land is removed to make room for the pipeline.


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As construction begins, land is removed to make room for the pipeline and all of the equipment needed for its construction, totalling 150 feet on either side of the pipeline. Exemplifying the extreme nature of the disruption, pieces are removed in a diagonal ‘cut’ from their location in the grid to mirror the removal of land.

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PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

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Demonstrating the connections between the real world disruptions of the landscape and the abstraction of that condition in our installation became an important consideration of the project and its development. The series of images seen to the right are the result of these examinations. The section through the landscape shows the construction conditions throughout the building of the pipeline, while the parti shows how that condition related to a step in the implementation of the installation.

Additional land is disturbed throughout the development of the pipeline. The continual disruption of the land is mimicked in the completion of the diagonal cut through the constructed grid.

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Upon completion of the disturbance to the constructed grid a void remains. The void is as a gesture of the pipeline’s presence within the disturbed landscape. Even beyond the end of construction a permanent easement of 50 feet is left on either side of the pipeline, unable to be developed or to harbor any significant plant growth.

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PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

The units are aligned with string to complete the aggregation. Ames, IA.


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PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

As the land is disturbed and displaced in the development of the pipeline, a cut is carried through the grid to exemplify the disruption. Ames, IA


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PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

Pipeline

A sattelite image of the Bakken Oil Pipeline cutting diagonally through the land south of Ames, Iowa where Iowa State University is located.


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PART 4 Colloquium + Conclusions (Venice, Italy)

PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)


DISRUPT/DISPLACE Iowa State University College of Design Biennale Sessions 2016 Disrupt/Displace is a response to Aravena’s curatorial request to ‘Report from the Front’ it is simultaneoulsy a critique, performance, and proposal in four parts: PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa) PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa) PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy) PART 4 Colloquium and Conclusions (Venice, Italy)


PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

Carry-on luggage filled with exhibition pieces arrive in Venice, Italy.


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PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

PACKING The physical implementation of the installation took place twice: once in Iowa at Iowa State University and again in Venice at the Biennale. Each time the process of the installation was the same:www arrangement, disruption, and the displacement of the established grid, but the shape of the installation was altered to fit the given parameters of each space. To exhibit the FRONT in Iowa the displaced grid condition is constructed and represented through a transportable, repeatable, cardboard unit. The unit is crafted in three sections with multi-directional scores, which allows the piece to twist into a three-dimensional form as to lay flat for transportation efficiency. Upon completion of the installation in Ames the pieces were disassembled and packed to bring to Venice. To do so the units were packed into carry-on suitcases and carried across the Atlantic. Each of the 28 students who traveled to Venice from Iowa brought 25-50 pieces with them inside one carry-on for a total of approximately 900 units for the installation.

Top: The cardboard units were disassembled and packed in carry-on suitcases in order to transport the installation to Venice. Bottom: The unit is crafted in three sections with multi-directional scores, allowing the piece to twist into the formation as well as lay flat for transportation efficiency.


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Bottom: The first step in re-assembling the installation in Venice was to unpack and construct all of the units.

PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

Right: The pieces were then collected into a pile signifying the American landscape prior to the Jeffersonian Grid.


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PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

PERFORMING DAPL IN VENICE In Venice, the installation was a three-part movement: First, the construction of the grid. Second, the destruction of the grid. Third, the presentation of the Report. Upon arrival in Venice the first step was to remove materials from the carry-ons and construct the grid units into threedimensional forms. As each piece was completed it was collected in a pile signifying the American landscape prior to the implementation of the Jeffersonian Grid.

Photo: The grid was meticulously installed, distributed evenly across the space in Venice.


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PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

DISRUPTION The deconstruction of the landscape took place as two members of the group removed and dismantled the pieces. The land disturbed from the landscape is not removed and as such the pieces are replaced as deconstructed flattened pieces within the confines of the void. To encourage visitors to engage with the space and complete the disturbance within the boundaries of the grid the entire group marched over the void, further flattening the pieces. Interaction with the space was almost immediate, with visitors engaging with the space and experiencing the spatial implications of the pipelines cutting through the landscape.

Photo: Process of disruption of the grid


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PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

The land disturbed from the pipeline in Iowa is not removed and as such was replaced the flattened pieces within the confines of the void.


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PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

Marching over the void, further completing the disturbance, flattening the pieces, and marking the space of its destruction.


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PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

Photo: The audience immediately engaged with the space by walking through the cut in the grid.


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PART 4 Colloquium + Conclusions (Venice, Italy)

PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy)

PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa)

PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa)


DISRUPT/DISPLACE Iowa State University College of Design Biennale Sessions 2016 Disrupt/Displace is a response to Aravena’s curatorial request to ‘Report from the Front’ it is simultaneoulsy a critique, performance, and proposal in four parts: PART 1 Searching for the Front (Ames, Iowa) PART 2 Constructing the Front (Ames, Iowa) PART 3 Reporting the Front (Venice, Italy) PART 4 Colloquium and Conclusions (Venice, Italy)


PART 4 Colloquium + Conclusions (Venice, Italy)

GLOBAL IMPACT The aggregation and disruption of the units reflects the consequences of the Bakken Pipeline, invoking a larger discussion about architecture’s role in displacement, not only of people and space, but also intangible dimensions of the human condition (regarding social, political, economical, and environmental conditions). The disruption of land and the displacement of peoples as a result of energy infrastructure construction is a global issue. While we only examined the direct implications of the Bakken pipeline, it is crucial to understand the spatial effects of these types of displacements, as they will need to be addressed by citizens of the future. The global scale of the problem was not enough to deter us from digging deeply into the personal and human-scale implications of the Bakken pipeline. Two members of our group visited a construction site for the pipeline near us and reported back to the group about the concerns of the people there, which included contamination of water and soil or the disruption of Native American burial grounds. These images serve to remind that this REPORT is not an abstraction but rather a human and social condition with far-reaching consequences beyond the spatial concerns.

Top Right Photo: Protesters against the Bakken Pipeline rally in Boone, Iowa in September 2016.   Bottom Right Photo: People from many backgrounds gathered for a common goal.


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QUESTIONS We as students engaged in a discourse about architecture as a tool to improve people’s quality of life. Life ranges from very basic physical needs to the most intangible dimensions of the human condition, and consequently, improving the quality of the built environment is an endeavor that has to tackle many fronts. In Disrupt/Displace we studied an issue that is unquestionably spatial, political, and social. However, we don’t believe architecture can do anything about the Bakken pipeline or the complexities surrounding it. We are unsatisfied. Reporting is not enough. In the case of the Bakken pipeline, the pursuit of money has left thousands of people without agency in their lives. We found that this parallels the issues we see in the architectural profession. We believe that Aravena’s statement overextends the scope of what architecture can address: segregation, inequalities, peripheries, access to sanitation, natural disasters, housing, shortage, migration, informality, crime, traffic, waste, pollution, and participation of communities.

PART 4 Colloquium + Conclusions (Venice, Italy)

At present, architecture can only react to these issues. This reactionary stance is an embodiment of the current state of practice and the academy. We do not believe that reacting to these issues is enough; to impact change, architects must be proactive, in addressing social issues. Without a change to the profession and the academy we, as students about to enter the field of practice, are unsure: how can architecture effectively engage these issues?

Top Right Photo: Students discuss their responses and reactions to the Disrupt/Displace project. Bottom Right Photo: (L-R) David Goodman, Jim Cramer, and Deborah Hauptmann provide feedback as part of the panel.


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PART 4 Colloquium + Conclusions (Venice, Italy)

Disrupt/Displace. ISU Biennale Sessions.


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#ISUDISRUPTDISPLACE

BIENNALE SESSIONS WORKSHOP

BIENNALE SESSIONS COLLOQUIUM

FACULTY Shelby Doyle, Assistant Professor Leslie Forehand, Lecturer

MODERATOR Deborah Hauptmann Professor and Chair ISU Architecture

STUDENTS Andrew Meyer, Graduate Assistant ISU ARCHITECTURE Rahul Attraya Nicole Becker Sanjukta Chatterji Jessyka Colon David Cordaro Daniel Cowden Ian Dillon Tara Follon Kaihong Gao Connor Gatzke Evan Giles Jinqu Giu Taylor Hess Austin Hurt Erin Hunt Bethanie Jones Paavan Joshi Joshua Kurnia James Lieven Kerrick McCann Hayden Moffitt Rachel Morrow Jacob Murphy Makayla Natrop Alonso Ortega Justin Pagorek Kale Paulsen Alicia Pierce Nicholas Raap Sirina Reed Samuel Rezac-Contreras Madeline Schmidt

Sarah Schneider Rebecca Schodin Aaron Shadlow Alba Stoyanova Andrew Suiter Wanting Sun Cale Unzicker Sonia Trujillo Elizabeth Walling Hanchen Zhang Wentao Zhong ISU INTERIOR DESIGN Xiomar Banks Elizabeth Bixenman Cyrena Golden-Poole Abigail Hinchley Maria Lombardi Austin Olesen Hannah Peterson Collin Powell Tanya Rome Caitlin Swenson Kayley Tuchek ROMA TRE ARCHITECTURE Hady Sanad Marco Smeraglia Edoardo Pasquali Nicolò Santini Francesca Guadagno

WORKSHOP REVIEW Jim Cramer Chairman & Co-Founder, DesignIntelligence, Norcross, GA David Goodman Director of Undergraduate Architecture, IE Madrid, Segovia, ES Reinier de Graaf OMA Partner, Director AMO, Rotterdam, NL Anna Fairbank Fairbank and Lau PL, Melbourne, AU Curt Fentress Fentress Architects, Denver, CO Luis Rico-Gutierrez Dean ISU College of Design, Ames, IA COLLOQUIUM SPEAKERS Reinier de Graaf Anna Fairbank David Goodman


SPONSORS Iowa State University Department of Architecture Daniel J. Huberty Faculty Fellowship ADDITIONAL SUPPORT Iowa State University College of Design STUDENT TRAVEL SUPPORT Karol J Kocimski Scholarship Fund ADDITIONAL STUDENT TRAVEL SUPPORT Steve Rohrbach Rohrbach Associates, Iowa City, IA The Durrant Foundation Fund THANK YOU Thank you to the sponsors for financial support, and many thanks as well to the following who made this project possible: In Rome, Pia Schneider and the administrative staff at the ISU CoD Rome facility; ISU Rome program faculty: Karen Bermann & Simone Capra (Architecture), Jody Patterson & Simone Bove (Interior Design). In Ames, the staff of the College of Design and Department of Architecture, particularly Jen Hogan, Director of International Programs. In Venice: Elisabetta Fiorese, Education and Promotion coordinator, La Biennale di Venezia


Venice, Italy 2016.


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College of Design Department of Architecture

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http://ccl.design.iastate.edu/2016/10/25/biennale-sessions/

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