Throughout my years as a designer I have developed a passion for integrated Architecture. Architecture must be able to respond to its site, its environment, the customer, and the occupants. When a project is fully integrated it is able to perform as an asset to the world around it. These connections drive my designs as an architect and let my projects relate back to the surrounding context in both time and place. These connections can be made simply and elegantly, always accounting for the history of the time in which they are made while simultaneously looking ahead, integrating themselves in the best possible manner.
New Atomic Ranch House LEAP Collaborative Wildlife Observatory Salt Works Thesis Project
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Movement Magazine Spreads TAAST Poster Design
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Architecture is the embodiment of the void. Architects design raw space into physical encounters, emotions, and perceptions. It has the ability to change lives and produce a higher quality of life for the people interacting with it and inhabiting it. Architecture leads and directs people to new ideas and places that were previously inconceivable before the encounter. It is the potential in Architecture that speaks to all designers. Through patience, determination, and sheer will power a form emerges, ready to create a ripple around the world.
New Atomic Ranch House The New Atomic Ranch House project is a single family home made to blur the line between inside and outside while keeping with the traditional southern home typology. Ranch house designs were originally created to be permanent. It was assumed they would be passed down from generation to generation. Because of this concept the designs tended towards sprawl, incorporating inside with outside to allow for a greater sense of space. Components that create the larger, spacious environment of the Ranch house are long, low roof lines, hip joint roofing, L-shaped (or U-shaped) open floor plans, sliding glass doors, large overhanging eaves, and wrap-around porches.
Professor H. Gรถritz Knoxville, Tennessee Spring 2011
The New Atomic Ranch House is located at an auxiliary University of Tennessee farming land. The site consists of heavy grasses on rolling hills indicative of Tennessee.
The concept of this project is to connect people to nature and the place they are in. To accomplish this the terrain of the site is incorporated into the approach and circulation around the residence. Natural vegetation and foliage around the site is incorporated into surrounding gardens. To begin the project we were given three words: Place, Matter, and Space. These elements of design lead me to integrate my project into the site and the surrounding environment through the spatial design of the residence as well as the construction material.
(Left to right) Place, Matter, Space Place: Placement of the building is integral to design. It can also make the building iconic, epic, and daring. Matter: Architectural elements are not the only elements that create an experience. Elements such as standing water, precipitation, wind, and light can influence a mood of a building or space. Space: Space can be created with several elements. These elements do not have to be architectural, such as walls and roofs. They can be achieved through landscape and vegetation, and can succeed in giving a viewer a new way to experience a view or place.
Study of path typologies to determine the one most suited to the project's concept and site location. Top left to right: Dirt Path, Gravel Path, Stone Path. Bottom left to right: Cobble Path, Brick Path, Asphalt Path.
Each home is provided with a privacy colonnade of trees adjacent to the driveway. The front of the house has a paved area for visitor parking while the owner of the home has individualized parking for the homeowner. This also allows for two different experiences of the home. The left zone of the home is considered public. Large windows and sliding glass doors allow for maximum sunlight and the ability to open up the whole side of the house to the outdoors. A wrap around balcony allows people to experience the entire site. The right zone of the home is considered private. These rooms are the bedrooms, bathrooms, and some storage areas.
(Left) Plan showing porous interior and surrounding private garden (Right) Plan showing residentâ€™s integrated parking and individual approach to the home
(Left) Longitudinal section through family spaces opening to the outside (Right) Cross section illustrating porosity and exterior circulation zones
Model photos displaying views of site and project porosity from the wrap-around porch (left) and the main living room area (right)
Elevation displaying site integration and entry procession
LEAP Collaborative The concept of this project is to provide porosity throughout the building to the green space on the North side of the site as well as providing a green zone for building and city inhabitants to occupy and engage. The building project focuses on a great deal of porosity to the landscape, driving the building to a thin form. Every worker, while still at his workstation, can experience the changing of the seasons, trees changing color or dropping their leaves, and the weather throughout the day. He will experience the rain and wind of winter and the warmth of the sun in summer through his visual connection to the green space next to his work station. Being on the perimeter of the building also allows for the workstations to receive natural daylight throughout the majority of the day. The South faรงade is treated with light shelves that provide degrees of protection from glare on the workstations.
Professor J. Akerman Knoxville, Tennessee Fall 2011
The LEAP Collaborative design is located on a site that is covered in concrete. As a project designed to be LEED certified, this concrete was removed and replaced with pervious concretes and pavers.
The building lies along the street edge, creating more opportunities of connection to pedestrians. The garden is protected from the public street edge by the building. A paved path between the first floor retail creates a gateway to the garden.
Concept Diagrams left to right, top to bottom: Parti-Porosity, Natural Light, Additive/Subtractive, Geometry, Unit to Whole, Massing, Circulation, Repetitive to Unique
As a mixed-use office building the first floor consists of retail and restaurants. The second floor provides a boundary between these public spaces on the ground floor and the more private business spaces on the following five floors. It also acts as a getaway space for office workers who desire to leave the conditioned environment in hospitable weather. The following office levels are punctured to provide gracious views out of the building into the garden to the North of the site as well as views to the Church Street events.
WORKSTATION PRIVATE OFFICE
WORKSTATION PRIVATE OFFICE
WORKSTATION PRIVATE OFFICE
WORKSTATION PRIVATE OFFICE
WORKSTATION PRIVATE OFFICE
WORKSTATION PRIVATE OFFICE
EMPLOYEE BREAK AREA EXECUTIVE OFFICE
4 1. TERRA COTTA PANEL 2. RIGID INSULATION 3. STEEL STUD WALL 4. DRYWALL 1. TERRA COTTA PANEL 2. RIGID INSULATION 1. COTTAWALL PANEL 3. TERRA STEEL STUD 2. INSULATION 4. RIGID DRYWALL 3. STEEL STUD WALL 4. DRYWALL
Wildlife Observatory The goal of Wild Life Observatory Entry Project is to create an interpretive entry building for the Seven Islands Wildlife Refuge. The building incorporates integrated and regenerative site systems. Some of the site systems that have been focused on in this project are rain harvesting, solar energy, and passive ventilation. Another focus of the project is the views and vistas to the west of the site. Here the intent has been to provide a framed view out into the landscape that immerses the visitor and prepares them to enter the site. This project also acts as a â€œgatewayâ€? to the wild life refuge and therefore provides the necessary program for workers within the building and visitors to the site. Professor S. Wall Knoxville, Tennessee Spring 2012
The Wild Life Observatory is located at the entrance to the Seven Islands Wildlife Refuge. It was integral to the project to connect with the natural environment around the site and include as much of the natural vegetation as possible.
The project began with a site visit to document the site. I spent several hours traveling around the wild life refuge noting everything I heard and saw around me.
23 Mudd slides gently away from beneath my feet
Foot prints leave indentions in the soft riverside soil
Waterside grasses gently sway with the slowing of the river as it approaches the bank
Hibernating waterside grasses
Fish broke the water surface
Extremely muddy ground
Sparce green waterside grasses
Small tree on island
Water begins to flow smoothly after passing the riverâ€™s island
One swift bird call then the silence continues Water begins to flow smoothly after passing the riverâ€™s island
One swift bird call then the silence continues Hibernating waterside grasses
Foot prints leave indentions in the soft riverside soil
Tranquility Water breaks around island Sounds of rushing water Water breaks around island Sounds of rushFish broke the water surface ing water Large island providing a growing area for several large trees Large island providing a growing area for several large trees
Extremely muddy ground Overcast sky Several clouds Tranquility
Overcast sky Several clouds
Sparce green waterside grasses No sound Land on the other side of the Land on the river other side of the river Small tree on island
January weatherJanuary weather: Frigidly cold Frigidly cold Occasional wind
The gateway project was envisioned as a series of vistas to and from the refuge landscape facilitated by the layout and integration of the building.
Pre-design studies were also conducted on the different zones of the Wild Life Refuge to determine the different zones that the indigenous flora and fauna inhabited.
UPLAND APPALACHIAN OAK FOREST/ MESOPHYTIC FOREST
WETLAND PLANTS: Duckweed, Lemnoideae Cattail, Typha Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis Barnyard Grass, Echinochloa Rice Cutgrass, Leersia oryzoides Needle Spikegrass, Creeping Water Primrose, Ludwigia peploides Smartweed
UPLAND PRAIRIE PLANTS: Staghorn Sumac, Rhus typhina Indian Grass, Sorghastrum nutans Eastern Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana Hawthorne, Crataegus aestivalis Prairie Rose, Rosa virginiana Mimosa, Albizia julibrissin
Eastern Red Cedar
CANOPY LAYER PLANTS: Hackberry, Celtis laevigata Pignut Hickory, Carya glabra Sugar Maple, Acer saccharum Yellow Buckeye, Aesculus flava Virginia Pine, Pinus virginiana Post Oak, Quercus stellata Honey Locust, Gleditsia triacanthos Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua
UNDERSTORY / SHRUB LAYER PLANTS: Bladderpod, Lesquerella Cucumber Magnolia, Magnolia acuminata Hophornbeam, Ostrya virginiana American Hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana Pawpaw, Asimina triloba Redbud, Cercis canadensis Red Mulberry, Morus rubra Spicebush, Lindera melissifolia
HERBACEOUS LAYER PLANTS:
Virginia Pine Hawthorn Staghorn Sumac Redbud Sweetgum Post Oak
25 Pignut Hickory
Black Cohosh, Actaea racemosa Bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis Jack-in-the-pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum Mayapple, Podophyllum peltatum Resurrection Fern, Pleopeltis polypodioides Solomon’s Plume, Maianthemum racemosum Solomon’s Seal, Polygonatum multiflorum Trillium, Trillium grandiflorum Alumroot, Heuchera Blunt-lobed Woodsia, Woodsia obtusa Virginia Saxifrage, Saxifraga virginiensis Wild Strawberry, Fragaria vesca Ebony Spleenwort, Asplenium platyneuron Fire Pink, Silene virginica
ND PRAIRIE/ PLAINS
LOWLAND PRAIRIE/ PLAINS PLANTS:
Aster, Aster Big Blue Stem, Andropogon gerardii Eastern Gamagrass, Tripsacum dactyloides Indian Grass, Sorghastrum nutans Japanese Stiltgrass, Microstegium vimineum Common Fescue, Festuca Cherokee Sedge, Carex cherokeensis Fringed Loosestrife, Lysimachia ciliata Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum Lambs Ear, Staghorn Sumac, Rhus typhina Milk Thistle, Silybum Adans
Box Elder, Acer negundo Tulip Poplar, Liriodendron tulipifera American Sycamore, Platanus occidentalis Blackberry, Rubus Japanese Honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica Virginia Creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia Bald Cypress, Taxodium distichum
Milk Thistle Hairy Beardtounge
The bottom floor consists of an amphitheater providing for an outdoor classroom setting for school tours of the site. The top floor is reserved for office workers who manage the refuge tours and general upkeep. The refuge laboratories are also housed here.
Series of views from Gateway Project approach (left to right).
A visitor will arrive by car or bus, park, exit the parking lot and travel over a bridge on axis with the vistas of the site. Continuing forward the visitor passes under the building and into the Wild Life Refuge. Tour groups may then continue up the stairs on the opposite side of the building which lead to the second story observatory deck to see specimens of indigenous birds popular in the area.
Salt Works This group project by myself and two other students is a wall construction made to show the effects of nature on man made objects. The installation is designed to be placed outside so the effects of wind, rain, and sun can be seen throughout the evolution of the wall. A framework of rebar and concrete create the skeleton of the wall and salt blocks make up the evolving flesh of the piece. Each of these blocks were carved on the CNC mill with designs of varying complexity to better understand the way the rainwater if effecting the structure. Water is collected in the steel V on top of the wall and funnels the rain water down onto the wall and is then runs off the angled steel element covering the concrete filled CMU blocks. Professor Greg Spaw Knoxville, Tennessee Fall 2010
The Salt Works installation was fabricated mainly of life stock salt bricks. The installation was originally intended to be located outside but was actually installed inside the Art and Architecture Building at the University of Tennessee.
Top images: Concept montage displaying the installation of the salt wall within the environment (left). Initial concept sketches displaying the process of erosion caused by rainwater (right).
Bottom images: Sketches studying the skeletal construction of the rebar and steel fabricated components in relation to the rainwater runoff.
Steel Rain Collector catches falling rainwater and delivers it to the salt surface; four slits in the fold allow the release of the water.
Horizontal Rebar is placed between every fourth layer of salt, and is tied to vertical rebar to provide unified support to the entire installation.
Salt Bricks have each been indiviually milled to have unique appearances; they will evolve significantly in response to environmental factors, particularly the erosive nature of rain.
Vertical Rebar provides reinforcement for the salt bricks; spaced every three inches, these interlock all of the bricks, the concrete, and the steel elements.
Steel Cover will catch the falling water and divert it from the surface; the physical changes of this piece will make the salt waterâ€™s effects will be easily observable.
Concrete Base ensures that the 2000lbs of salt will not tip from wind force.
Salt Donated by North American Salt Comp.
The salt blocks were cut on the CNC milling machine by creating CNC files in Rhinoceros and plotting cutting paths for three different textures: shallow, medium, and deep ridges. Variations in the milling of the salt helps to display the effects of the water through the erosion of the salt from the wall.
Salt Works was set up in the Art and Architecture Building at the University of Tennessee. The erosion process was fulfilled through the installation of a water pump and tubing that ran water to the steel funnel and over the etched salt wall, eventually washing the salt away and leaving the layers of rebar skeleton.
Thesis Project: Reforming the Bond Architecture is designed in response to a variety of ideas, issues, history, and perceptions. The role of the Architect is to create spaces and solutions within this net of broad ideas. The goal of this thesis is to connect people back to their community and environment, dealing with the issue of separation between people and their context. The design will revolve around sustainable solutions to water consumption and local agriculture as well as how people experience the space around them, regardless of if it is built or organic. The scale of the project will delve into the intimate perceptions by people in their surroundings and discuss how individuals interact within a community. The project is located in Jamestown, Colorado, a rural frontier mountain town of 300 inhabitants. These people deal daily with issues of water shortage in relation to potable water as well as irrigation. Settled in 1864, the town maintains their culture and historical heritage through the preservation of the frontier architecture.
Professor Tricia Stuth Jamestown, Colorado Spring 2013
This thesis is located within a rural mountain town called Jamestown, Colorado. The people who live in this town are hardy, self-reliant individuals.
Jamestown, Colorado Historic Jamestown, located deep in the mountains, is one of the oldest mining camps in Colorado. At its peak about 400 miners lived here. Gold and copper ore were mined and one claim produced more than $5 million. However, the boom lasted only a few years before the town was deserted for a decade. Remnants of the mining townâ€™s hotels, dance halls and parlor houses are still present, but the townâ€™s most visible historical elements are a series of restored cabins that now function as year-round residences.
Jamestown, Colorado Boulder, Colorado
United States Post Office
Jamestown Community Church (left) Jamestown Town Hall (middle)
Jamestown Mercantile (right)
Present-day Jamestown is a quiet mountain community. The surrounding canyon walls and thick forests limit its growth. Local residents consist of a mix of independent thinkers and artists. There is a steady flow of tourism from neighboring towns that are drawn to Jamestownâ€™s attractions: trail heads lining nearby Lefthand and James canyons, and the steep, paved roads popular with road bikers. Nearby, Brainard Lake has hiking trails winding through the mountains as well as fishing and picnicking areas. Construction consists of local materials such as wood and stone. Life for the Jamestown inhabitants continues in a frontier style and most of townspeople maintain their own individual gardens and plots that they plant, tend, and harvest. Jamestown has recently begun to see an influx of families and individuals (3rd and 4th generations of the original Jamestown inhabitants) wishing to live and experience the place that their great-great-grandmothers and fathers grew up in. The population has swelled from a population of about 205 people (according to the 2000 census) to 300 living within the town.
Jamestown Fire Department
Jamestown has a small water treatment plant that helps to control the turbidity of the town’s water supply, which provides them an independent water treatment facility from the city of Boulder. Occasionally there is a need to institute a “boil order”. This is a strategy the town people implement when it is necessary to boil their drinking water. Accompanying the boil order is likely a wapples, Potatoes tering plan (ex: odd street numbers can water on Asparagus, Potatoes, Rhubarb odd numbered days, and even numbers water on Cherries, Lettuce, Rhubarb, Strawberries even numbered days).1 Apricots, Beets, Cabbage, Celery, Cherries, Cucumbers, The treatment plant Lettuce, is capable of Strawberries producGreen Beans, Rhubarb, ing good quality domestic-use water, even from Cantaloupe, Chile Peppers, Corn, Eggplant, Honeydew Melon, Peaches, Plums, Summer Squash, Tomatoes, runoff water. It is not capable of producing large Watermelons Beets, Celery, water Corn Cucumbers, Eggplants, Grapes, Green quantities of irrigation water at drinking Beans, In Peppers, Raspberries, Tomatoes standards, especially during runoff. the past, Apples, Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Cantaloupe, the town’s irrigation water usage represented Carrots, Grapes, Lettuce, Potatoes, Pumpkins 2/3rds of the water produced (25,000 gallons/day Apples, Carrots, Onions, Potatoes, Winter Squash domestic vs. 50,000 gallons/day irrigation). Growing Season is Dormant < Opt for items from storage: Apples, Pears, Root Vegetables
Left to right: Colorado’s growing season diagram, Raft-system hydroponics photo courtesy of J. Wynia, Raft-system hydroponics photo courtesy of Geoff Wilson, Aquaponics Network Australia 1"Jamestown Water Operations." Jamestown. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2013. 2Appleton, Charlotte. “Use Aquaponics To Save Water When Growing Food.” Aquaponics Global. N.p., July-Aug. 2012. Web. 06 Jan. 2013.
This thesis will be utilizing water-saving techniques such as hydroponics and aquaponics for the community garden. Hydroponics can save the town up to 90% of their irrigation water usage, reducing the typical irrigation from 50,000 gallons/day to 5,000 gallons/day. 2 For hydroponic systems the water is in tanks or tubs and hydroponic tanks (made out of solid walls lined with pond liner or plastic tubs) will not leak. Water is saved because the used water does not sink straight into the ground and flow away on the first use. It is used repeatedly for growing food. 2
Raft System Hydroponic Air Pump
Pumps Oxygen to the Air Stone.
5 Gallon Bucket (minimum)
Retains the water filled with nutrents that feeds the plants.
Plant Pot Creates a stable place for the plant to grow.
Oxygenate the water by creating bubbles from the pump to keep the plants’ roots alive.
Styrofoam Floats in the bucket to keep the plants above the water while allowing the roots to absorb the nutrients from the water below. Systems should be 12” deep minimum to provide enough water to allow the plants to grow. Plants must be placed at least 5” apart measured center to center. In about 2 cubic feet up to 8 plants may be grown.
This system is easy to construct and maintain while the materials required are inexpensive and easily available. Raft System Hydroponics are perfect for growing short stature plants such as lettuces, salade crops, and herbs.
Because of the seasonal changes is the program detailed within this project must remain flexible. Depending on the time of year some designed spaces change program and function. These spaces consists of a year-round hostel, a community eating area, outdoor kitchen, greenhouse, hydroponic community garden, a storage/canning facility/road side cafĂŠ, and sleeping porches. Image: Full final thesis presentation Top left to right: Concept Board, Village Perspective, Site Plan, Second Floor Plan, Breakfast Perspective, Bunk Space Perspective, Green Bar Perspective, (below) Town Square Harvest Festival Perspective, Town Square Cinema Perspective. Bottom left to right: Elevation, Transverse Hostel Section, Longitudinal Hostel Section, Sleeping Porch Section.
Left: Site Plan of Hostel and Town Square displaying integration into community. Right: Second floor plan and diagrams displaying versatility in structured spaces and elements.
The Hostel is located between Jamestown’s Mercantile Store and the Town Hall. This area serves as the town’s community center. By placing the Hostel here the individuals traveling through will be able to experience as much of the town’s community and atmosphere as possible within their stay. 50
Top left to right: Breakfast Perspective displaying porosity into garden cafe, Green Bar Perspective illustrating transparency throughout garden, hostel, and mercantile store, Bunk Space Perspective displaying versatility of enclosure systems. Bottom left: Main Street Elevation Bottom Right: Main Street Section through Hostel and Mercantile Store.
Top left: Town Square Harvest Festival Perspective showing various potential activities. Top right: Town Square Cinema Perspective displaying alternative use of community spaces. Bottom left: Longitudinal Section through hostel bunk space as well as Town Square community elements such as roadside cafe/storage, community kitchen and community restrooms. Bottom right: Longitudinal Section through Town Square sleeping porch and gathering space.
Graphic Design allows Architects and designers to portray a concept though two-dimensional space. It is a transportable space within which people can display ideas through new mediums such as font, layout, color, texture, and photography. The written word can become a powerful tool to display and discuss ideas and concepts. Every language naturally displays metaphorical and melodic concepts that become lost or muted through other mediums. These same thoughts can become a part of the visual representation given to Architects through graphic design.
Movement Movement is a two part exercise in creating movement with bars of black and grey while exploring compositional balance and eye movement. The first step of the project was completed using only the black and grey bars seen on the left side of the image. After this was completed the design was mirrored and recreated using text. This second step explored text as having specific shapes and weights that can be used to graphically indicate information with the explicit use of dialect.
Professor Diane Fox Spring 2012
Magazine Spreads This project was an exercise in layout. The building chosen is the Guggenheim Museum in New York by Frank Lloyd Wright. The first spread was formed from the idea that there are two main building shapes included in the Guggenheim Museum. The orthogonal building next to the spiraling gallery is displayed in this spread through the use of right angles. The second spread is a page layout indicative of the spiral of the gallery section of the project. Likewise, the text shape begins to imitate the floor plan in the relationship of large text circle to the small pull-out quote.
Professor Diane Fox Spring 2012
rank Lloyd Wright’s most iconic building was also one of his last. The reinforced-concrete spiral known as the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum opened in New York City 50 years ago, on October 21, 1959; six months before, Wright died at the age of 92. He had devoted 16 years to the project, facing down opposition from a budget-conscious client, building-code sticklers and, most significantly, artists who doubted that paintings could be displayed properly on a slanting spiral ramp. “No, it is not to subjugate the paintings to the building that I conceived this plan,” Wright wrote to Harry Guggenheim, a Thoroughbred horse breeder and founder of Newsday who, as the benefactor’s nephew, took over the project after Solomon’s death. “On the contrary, it was to make the building and the painting a beautiful symphony such as never existed in the world of Art before.” The grandiloquent tone and unwavering self-assurance are as much Wright trademarks as the building’s unbroken and open space. Time has indeed shown the Guggenheim’s tilted walls and continuous ramp to be an awkward place to hang paintings, yet the years have also confirmed that in designing a building that bestowed brand-name recognition on a museum, Wright was prophetic. Four decades later, Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Bilbao—the curvaceous, titanium-clad affiliated museum in northern Spain—would launch a wave of cutting-edge architectural schemes for art institutions across the globe. But Wright was there first. A retrospective exhibition at the original Guggenheim (until August 23) reveals how often Wright pioneered trends that other architects would later embrace. Passive solar heating, open-plan offices, multi-storied hotel atriums—all are now common, but at the time Wright designed them they were revolutionary. When Solomon Guggenheim, the heir to a mining fortune, and his art adviser, Hilla Rebay, decided to construct a museum for abstract painting (which they called “non-objective art”), Wright was a natural choice as architect. In Rebay’s words, the two were seeking “a temple of spirit, a monument” and Wright, through his long career, was a builder of temples and monuments. These included actual places of worship, such as Unity Temple (1905-8) for a Unitarian congregation in Oak Park, Illinois, one of the
the triumph of frank lloyd wright
early masterpieces that proclaimed Wright’s genius, and Beth Sholom Synagogue (1953-59) in Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, which, like the Guggenheim, he supervised at the end of his life. But in everything he undertook, the goal of enhancing and elevating the human experience was always on Wright’s mind. In his religious buildings, he used many of the same devices—bold geometric forms, uninterrupted public spaces and oblique-angled seating—as in his secular ones. The large communal room with overhead lighting that is the centerpiece of Unity Temple was an idea he had introduced in the Larkin Company Administration Building (1902-6), a mail-order house in Buffalo, New York. And before it reappeared in Beth Sholom, what he called “reflex-angle seating”—in which the audience fanned out at 30-degree angles around a projecting stage—was an organizing principle in his theater plans, starting in the early 1930s. To Wright’s way of thinking, any building, if properly designed, could be a temple. In his unshakable optimism, messianic zeal and pragmatic resilience, Wright was quintessentially American. A central theme that pervades his architecture is a recurrent question in American culture: How do you balance the need for individual privacy with the attraction of community activity? Everyone craves periods of solitude, but in Wright’s view, a human being develops
Previous Page Left: Frank Lloyd Wright at his drafting table. Previous Page Right: Exterior view of the Guggenheim Museum. Top Left: Exterior view of the Guggenheim Museum. Middle Left: Interior view from circular gallery Bottom Left: Interior view of display gallery from top floor Top Right: Exterior view of the Guggenheim Museum. Bottom RIght: Interior view of the circular gallery.
fully only as a social creature. In that context, angled seating allowed audience members to concentrate on the stage and simultaneously function as part of the larger group. Similarly, a Wright house contained, along with private bedrooms and baths, an emphasis on unbroken communal spaces, a living room that flowed into a kitchen, for example, unknown in domestic residences when he began his practice in the Victorian era. As early as 1903, given the opportunity to lay out a neighborhood (in Oak Park, which was never built), Wright proposed a “quadruple block plan” that placed an identical brick house on each corner of a block; he shielded the inhabitants from the public street with a low wall and oriented them inward toward connected gardens that encouraged exchanges with their neighbors. Good architecture, Wright wrote in a 1908 essay, should promote the democratic ideal of “the highest possible expression of the individual as a unit not inconsistent with a harmonious whole.” That vision animates the Guggenheim Museum. In the course of descending the building’s spiral ramp, a visitor can focus on works of art without losing awareness of other museumgoers above and below. To that bifocal consciousness, the Guggenheim adds a novel element: a sense of passing time. “The strange thing about the ramp—I always feel I am in a space-time continuum, because I see where I’ve been and where I’m going,” says Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, director of the Frank Lloyd Wright Archives in Scottsdale, Arizona. As Wright approached the end of his life, that perception of continuity—recalling where he had been while advancing into the future—must have appealed to him. And, looking back, he would have seen telling examples in his personal history of the tension between the individual and the community, between private desires and social expectations. Wright’s father, William, was a restless, chronically dissatisfied Protestant minister and organist who moved the family, which included Wright’s two younger sisters, from town to town until he obtained a divorce in 1885. Wright, who was 17 at the time, never saw his father again. His mother’s family, the combative Lloyd Joneses, were Welsh immigrants who became prominent citizens of an agricultural valley near the village of Hillside, Wisconsin. Wright himself might have written the family motto: “Truth Against the World.” Encouraged by his maternal relatives, Wright showed an early aptitude for architecture; he made his initial forays into building design by working on a chapel, a school and two houses in Hillside, before apprenticing in Chicago with the celebrated architect Louis H. Sullivan. Sullivan’s specialty was office buildings, including classic skyscrapers, such as the Carson Pirie Scott & Company building, which were transforming the Chicago skyline. But Wright devoted himself primarily to private residences, developing what he called “Prairie Style” houses, mostly in Oak Park, the Chicago suburb in which he established his own home. Low-slung, earth-hugging buildings with strong horizontal lines and open circulation through the public rooms, they were stripped clean of unnecessary decoration and used machine-made components. The Prairie Style revolutionized home design by responding to the domestic needs and tastes of modern families. Wright had firsthand knowledge of their requirements: in 1889, at 21, he had married Catherine Lee Tobin, 18, the daughter of a Chicago businessman, and, in short order, fathered six children. Like his father, Wright exhibited a deep ambivalence toward family life. Dissatisfaction with domesticity led him to a similarly discontented Oak Park neighbor: Mamah Cheney, a client’s wife, whose career as head librarian in Michigan had been thwarted by marriage. In June 1909, Mamah Cheney left her husband and joined Wright in Germany, where he was preparing a book on his work. Wright attempted a reconciliation with Catherine in 1910, but then resolved to live with Cheney, whose own work provided intellectual support for this convention-defying step. The couple later retreated to the Wisconsin valley of the Lloyd Joneses to start anew.
“Good architecture should promote the democratic ideal of the highestpossible expression of the individual as a unit not inconsistent with a harmonious whole.”
TAAST Design At the University of Tennessee the College of Art and Architecture has TAAST (The All college Annual Spring Thing). Every Spring students come together in the spirit of collaboration and participate in design charrettes, group games, fund raisers, and interview preparations. This project includes the TAAST poster, banner, and T-shirt. The concept of this design is the idea that designers create objects with their minds, but also through the use of specific tools. These tools differ depending on the specific section of the college: Architecture, Landscape Design, Interior Design, and Art.
Professor Diane Fox Spring 2012
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Once a study of another place has been made, a designer is changed forever. There will never be a time when the new mind-set will revert to the old. Architects and designers are forever looking ahead at what will possibly occur while simultaneously keeping a thorough record of what has already come to pass. Every design is recognized either for a success or a failure. Nothing goes unnoticed. There is always a possibility to learn something new from past designers. Going abroad allows for a centralized learning experience. Every step taken brings new designs, new images, and new ideas.
France After visiting France I was inspired by a completely new cultural understanding of Architecture. The history of the country is evident in the timeless architectural designs and intricate crafting of every component. Not only did I learn about architectural design abroad but I also learned a variety of life lessons. Before departing I completed over four years of advanced study in the French language and was therefore able to adapt to the culture quickly and help my fellow students. Studying in France also helped to further my ability to travel unknown areas successfully. After several failed trips on the Metro I realized the significant differences in the processes in traveling through mass transport as opposed to traveling individually in personal vehicles.
Above: Eiffle Tower study of shadows and structure Below left to right: Paris, France, The Arc of Triumph, View from a Terrace Garden, View through Tree Colonnade
Italy Studying in Italy also altered my view of foreign countries, but quite differently than my experience in France. While the architectural design in Italy continued to be dignified and precise, I had not spent years studying Italian prior to my trip, making my transition into Italian culture take a bit longer than expected. Yet even though my cultural transition was slow, my amazement in the Italian countryside was instantaneous. I saw and studied a variety of costal cities and towns, several of which were built into the towering mountains surrounding the area or ranging along the perimeter.
Above: Study of shadows on building façade Below left to right: Photo of Italian countryside (taken by plane), Cinque Terre on northern Italy’s Ligurian coast, Riomaggiore Architecture (Cinque Terre), Brunelleshi’s Dome