Issuu on Google+

uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 1 Friday Sermon (28 Mar 2014): Delivered by Hadhrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad (aba) Head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community

 rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif\ rSefuefrItwGuf tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHawmfrS jyoawmfrlonfh oufaovu©Pmrsm;ESifh axmufcHtm;ay;rIrsm;/

(toif\ *kPfodu©mudk xdyg;zdkY BuH&G,foltm; igt&Sifonf ol\ *kPfoa&udk ysufpD;atmifjyKawmfrlrnf)

 uREfkyf\ *srmtwftwGuf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ ay;oem;rIü rnfodkYaom avsmhenf;csufrQr&Sdacs/ rnfolrQ tjcm;olwpfa,mufa&SUwGif rnfonfh tcgrQ t&SufwuGJjzpf&vdrfhrnfr[kwf/ þtoif;awmfodkY 0ifa&mufvmMu onfh vlyk*¾dKvfrsm;pGm&Sd\/ ¤if;wdkYteuf edrdwfvu©PmwpfckwavudkrQ rjrifcJh&yg[k ajymrnfhol rnfolrQr&Sdacs/

 &rfZmefvwpfckwnf;wGif aeESifh vMuwfjcif;udk uREkfyf\ tcsdefumvESifh tHudkufjyKvkyf&ef uREkfyfxHwGif pGrf;tm;&Sdrnfavm/ wrefawmfjrwf()u ,if;edrdwfvu©Pmudk r[f'DtppftrSef\vu©Pmtjzpf owfrSwfawmfrl cJhNyD; tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfu xdkedrdwfvu©Pmudk uREkfyf\acwfumvwGif tcsdefudkufjynhfpHkapcJh\/ tu,fí uREkfyfonf t&SifjrwfxHawmfrS vma&mufolr[kwfygvQif? todkYenf; tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfudk,fawmfwdkifu urÇmavmuudk vrf;vGJvrf;rSm;atmif jyKvkyfaejcif; jzpfygoavm/

 a&m*gb,rsm;udk aysmufuif;csrf;omapcJhonfh edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;/  &efjyKqefYusifolwkYu d dk ysufpD;oGm;apcJhonfh edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;/  tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHawmfrS tdyfruftoday;csufjzifh rqD[focifxHwGif bdkiftwfopömcH,lcJhMuolrsm;/

 tmz&durS topf0ifa&mufvmolrsm;\ tdyfruftawGYtBuHKrsm;/  owif;u@/ (www.ahmadipostmyanmar.org)


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 2

w&Sm[G'f? wtm0dkZfESifh pl&m[f zmwD[mwdkYudk zwf&GwfNyD;aemuf ... ,aeYvnf;yJ rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif&JU edrdwfvu©PmawGeJYqufEG,f NyD; ocifBuD;&JU rdefYMum;csufawG? ocifBuD; &Sif;vif;rdefYMum;awmfrcl w Jh Jh jzpf&yfawGudk wifjyrSmjzpfygw,f/ [mZ&wf rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]t&Sifjrwfonf uREkfyftm;axmufcHvsuf ajrmufjrm;pGmaom edrdwf vu©Pmrsm;udk jyoawmfrlcJhNyD; ,aeY 1906 ckESpf Zlvdkifv 16 &uftxd uREkfyfonf ,if;edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;udk wpfckcsif;a&wGufrnfqdkygu twdtvif; usdefwG,fajymEdkifonfum; ,if;wdkYonf ta&twGuf 3 odef;xufyif ydkao;\/ tu,fí wpfpHkwpfa,mufonf uREfky\ f usdefqdkrIudk t,HktMunfr&SdygvQif uREkfyfonf olYtm; oufaojyEdkiyf g\/ tcsdKUedrdwv f u©Pmrsm;wGif tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfu ae&mwpfckcsif;pDü t&Sifjrwf\uwdawmf&SdonfESifhtnD uREkfyftm; &efolw\ dkY tEÅ&m,frS umuG,fawmfrlc\ Jh / tcsdKUedrdwfvu©Pmrsm;onfum; ae&mwdkif;wGif t&Sifjrwf\ uwdawmfESifhtnD uREkfy\ f vdktyfcsufrsm;udk t&Sifjrwfonf jznfhqnf;ay;awmfrlc\ Jh / xkdYjyif tcsKd Uaom edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;wGifvnf; t&Sifjrwfu (toif\ *kPfodu©mudk xdyg;zdkY BuH&G,foltm; igonf ol\ *kPfoa&udk ysufpD;atmifjyKawmfrlrnf) qdkonfh uwdawmftwdkif; jznhfqnf;awmfrlc\ Jh / xdkYtjyif tcsdKUedrdwf vu©Pmrsm;ü uREkfyftm; trIqGJqdkolrsm;tay: t&Sifjrwfonf rdr\ d BudKwifAsm'dwfay;csuftwdkif; uREkfyftm; atmifjrifrIay;awmfrlc\ Jh /} (cvDzmocifrdefYMum;onfrSm) tcsdKUae&mawGrSm ,aeYvnf;yJ uRefawmfwdkY [m qdkwJh BudKwifAsm'dwf jynhfpHkjcif;qdkif&m jrifuGif;awGudk jrifawGYae&ygw,f/ tmz&duESifh tjcm;ae&mpHkrS tpD&ifcH pmawG a&mufvmygw,f/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf[m qefYusifolawGudk tb,fuo Jh Ydk *kPfoa&usqif;oGm;apcJhovJqdkwmawGY&ygw,f/ wpfcsdKUu


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 3

,ck qdkif;iHhcGifh&aewmaMumifh zrf;qD;ta&;,ljcif; rcH&ao;aomfvnf; tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf&JU rdefYMum;csufjzpfwJh (igt&Sifjrwfonf olwdkYtm; qdkif;iHhcGifhay;xm;awmfr\ l / {uefrkcs igt&Sifjrwf\ BuHpnfrIonf tvGefcdkifrmvSayonf/ 7;184) qdkwmudk tNrJwrf; owd&oifhygw,f/ tu,fí olwkdY[m aemufrqkwfMubl;qdk&if t&Sifjrwf&JU zrf;qD;ta&;,ljcif;udk cH&ygvdrfhr,f/ rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]tcsdKUaom edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;udk uREkfy\ f &yfwnfrIoufwrf;tcsdef umvtm;jzifh odEdki\ f / taMumif;rl urÇmavmu zefqif;csdefrSpí þodkYaom tcsdefumv&SnfMumrIudk rnfonfh vdrfvnfoludkrQ r&cJhzl;acs/ tcsdKUedrdwfvu©Pmrsm;uvnf; þacwfumv\ tajctaersm;udk Munfhjcif;jzifh awGY&vdrfhrnf/ ,if;rSm acwfumvukd,füu ]atrmrf} acgif;aqmifwpfOD;OD; ay:xGef;vm&rnfudk apmifharQmfvsuf&\ Sd / tcsdKU edrdwv f u©Pmrsm;rSm rdwfaqGrsm;twGuf uREkfyjf yKvkyfaom 'dktm qkawmif;rsm;jzifjh ynhf0cJ\ h / tcsdKUedrdwfvu©Pmrsm;rSmum; tvGefqdk;oGrf; aom &efolrsm;tay: uREkfy\ f ]b'f'dktm} usdefpmoufa&mufrIjzpf\/ xdkYjyif tcsdKUaom edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;onfum; uREkfy\ f 'dktm qkawmif;rItm;jzifh tvGet f EÅ&m,fBuD;aom a&m*grsm;onf aysmufuif; csrf;omrI&cJ\ h / xkdYjyif olwdkY aysmufuif; csrf;omrIr&cifrSmyif uREkfyftm; BudKwifí owif;ay;jcif;cH&\/ wpfzef edrdwfvu©PmwpfcsdKUrSmuREkfyftm; axmufcH&ef tvGeftqifhjrifhrm;aom xif&Sm;ausmfMum;aom olawmfpifrsm;xH tdyfruf&\/ olwkdYonf wrefawmfjrwf()tm; tdyfrufwGijf rifMu&\/ Oyrm- qifh'fjynfe,frS aemufvdkuw f pfodef;ausmfrQ&Sdaom ]qlzD} (olawmfpif)p*sm'ge&SD;ef qm[dbftmvrfESifh csmcsfemrS cGm*sm *dkvmrf z&D;'f qm[dbw f jkdY zpfonf/ wpfcsdKUedrdwfvu©Pmrsm;rSm- axmifaygif;rsm;pGm


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 4

aom vlyk*¾dKvfrsm;udk tdyfrufü uREkfyfonf rSefuefoljzpfaMumif;? tv’m[f t&SifjrwfxHawmfrjS zpfaMumif; ajymMum;jcif;udck H&\/ tcsdKUuvnf; tdyfrufü wrefawmfjrwf()udk jrifawGY&NyD; udk,fawmfu- ]urÇmavmu ed*Hk;csKyfzdkYeD;NyD/ olonf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ aemufqk;H cvDzmESifh rqD[f armftl;'fjzpf\}[lí rdefYMum;onfhtwGuf bdkiftwfopömcH,lcJhMu\/ edrdwfvu©PmtcsdKUonfum;tBuD;tuJrsm;u uREkfyrf arG;zGm;rD? rBuD;jyif;rDuyif uREkfy\ f trnfudk trSwf&í uREkfyfonf rqD[farmftl;'f jzpfvdrfhrnfqdkonfudk owif;ay;cJhMu\/ yrmtm;jzif-h aeYtfrwGv’m[f 0vDESifh vl'D,memrS rD,mef *lvmAf&Sm;[fwdkYjzpfonf/} ([uDuwGvf0[D? ½l[meDcZmtif twG-J 22? pm 70-71) ,ck qufvufNyD; ocifBuD; rdefYMum;awmfrlwJh tjzpftysufwpfckudk wifjyyghr,f/ 'Dtjzpftysurf Smyg0ifolu t[fr'DjzpfwJh qD&m*Rvf [wfuq f m[dbf EdkYtfrmeD&JU aemifawmfjzpfNyD; olu ]yD&f}wpfOD; jzpfygw,f/ olu t[fr'DjzpfoGm;wJh rdrad emifawmfudk ]igu aoolawGeJY awGq Y HkcGifh &atmifjyKvkyfEdkifw,f? 'DvdkrsdK; rD&fZmqmbfu vkyfEdkif&JUvm;}vdkY pma&; vdkufygw,f/ 'geJYywfoufvkdY rqD[farmftl;'f() ocif rdefYMum;awmfrlwmu]aoolrsm;ESifhawGYqHkjcif;qdkonfrSm trSefwGif vH;k 0 tcsnf;ESD;vkyf&yfom jzpfay\/ tMuifolonf &Sifvsuf&Sdawmfrlaom bk&m;ocifESifh pum; ajymNyD; t&SifjrwfxHawmfrS opfvGifvef;qef;aom Asm'dwfpum;rsm;udk &&SdaeNyD; ,if;twGuf axmifaomif;ru odef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom oufao rsm;vnf;&Sdonfqdkygu olYtwGuf aoolrsm;ESifh pum;ajym&ef? aoolrsm; ud&k SmazG&ef tb,ftaMumif;&Sad voenf;/ xdkYtjyif tb,faool wpfa,mufjzifh pum;ajymonfqdkjcif;twGuf oufaoua&m rnfodkYygo enf;/(bk&m;ocifESifhpum;ajymjcif;twGurf lum;)uREkfyfxHwGif odef;aygif; rsm;pGmaom oufaorsm;&S\ d / ,ck a&muf&Sdvmaeonfh ydkYpfu'f wpfckcsif;?


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 5

vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufcsif;? ydkufqHwpfjym;csif;pDu tv’m[ft&Sijf rwf\ tvGefBuD;us,faom oufaovu©Pmrsm;jzpfMu\/ taMumif;rl &SnfMum aomumvwpfcktvsifuwnf;u tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfu rdefYMum;xm;Ny;D jzpf\/ uREkfyftm; rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ oduRrf;jcif; r&Sdcsdefuwnf;u þBudKwifAsm'dwfudk xkwfjyefcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ ,ck þAsm'dwfonf tb,fuJhodkY jyif;xefaom t&Sdeft[kejf zifh jynhfpHkcyJh goenf;/ todkYenf;? þonfESifhtvm;wl OyrmrsdK; &Sdyg\avm/ odkYjzpfay&m uREfkyfonf &Sifvsu&f Sdaom bk&m;ocifudkpGefYvTwfvsuf aoolrsm;udk tb,f taMumif;aMumifh &SmazG&rnfenf;/} (rvfzlZmwf? twGJ 4? pm 248) xdkYaemufwpfzef ocifBuD; rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]MunhfMuukef/ uREkfyftrSefqdkrnf/ toifwdkYonf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ rku©ygXfawmfrsm;udk rxDav;pm; rjyKMuvifh/ xdkYjyif ,if;wkdYtm; omref tao;tzGJrsm;[k txifrao;Muukefvifh/ xdkokdYjyKvkyfygu þonfrSm uHacjcif;\ vu©Pmjzpf\/ t&Sifjrwfonf þtjyKtrludk rESpfoufacs/ ,ck raeYwpfaeYuyif tjzpftysufwpfcjk zpfyGm;cJ\ h / yef'pfvu©&rfonf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ tvGefBuD;us,faom edrdwfvu©PmESit fh nD towfcHcJh&\/ uka#aygif;rsm;pGmaom vlwdkYonf þBudKwifAsm'dwf twGuf oufao&SMd u\/ vu©&rf udk,fwdkifu xdkAsm'dwfpum;udk us,fjyefYatmifjzefYcsdc\ Jh / a&mufonfhae&mwdkif;wGiaf jymjycJ\ h / tpövmrf omoemawmf\ rSefuefrItwGuf þedrdwfvu©Pmudk oludk,fwdkifu awmif;qdkcjJh cif;jzpf\/ xdkYjyif ppfrSefaomomoemESifh omoem twkta,mifwdkYudk cJGjcm;&mwGif ,if;edrdwfvu©Pmudk rSwfausmuftjzpf vufcHc\ Jh / aemufqHk; tpövmrfomoem\ rSefuefrI? uREkfy\ f rSefuefrIwdkY twGuf oludk,fwdkifyif aoG;jzifhoufaocH&oljzpfoGm;cJ\ h / þedrdwf


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 6

vu©Pmudk jiif;y,fjcif;? ,if;udk ta&;rpdkufjcif;wdkYrSm tb,frQ rw&m;rI? vGefusL;rIjzpfygoenf;/ xdkYjyif þuJhodkY yGifhvif;xif&Sm;aom edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;udk jiif;y,fjcif;rSm toifwu kdY dk,fwdkifu vu©&rf ae&modkYa&mufoGm;jcif;omjzpfNyD; tjcm;bmjzpf&rnfenf;/ uREfkyrf Sm tvGe0f rf;enf;jcif;jzpf&\/ tMuifodkYaom tajctaeü xdkt&Sifjrwfonf þodkY aus;Zl;jyKawmfrlc\ Jh / vlrsdK;tkyfpkwdkif;twGuf t&Sifjrwfonf edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;udk jyoawmfrlc\ Jh / bkef;awmfESifh tvSw&m; *kPfawmf pojzifh trsdK;pHkaom oufaovu©Pmrsm;udk jyoawmfrlc\ Jh / þuJhodkY aomt&mudk ty,fcHwpfcktvm;pGefYypfjcif;rSm tvGefqdk;0g;aom uHacrI omjzpfNyD; t&Sifjrwf\ trsufawmfpl;&Sjcif;twGuf ypfrSwfjzpfoGm;Edki\ f / tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ oufaovu©Pmrsm;udk ta&;rpdkufolwt dkY m; t&Sifjrwfuvnf; ta&;pdkufawmfrrlaMumif; rSwfxm;&ayrnf/ tv’m[f t&SifjrwfxHrS edrdwfvu©Pmwpfck ay:vGifvmNyDqdkonfESifh todÓPf &Sdolwpfa,mufonf ,if;tm; odjrifem;vnfay\/ ,if;rS tusdK;&,l ay\/ odkY&mwGif jrifEdkifpGrf;r&Sdolrsm;ESihf t&Sifjrwf\trsufawmfudk rsufarSmufjyKvsuf ,if;tm; aoaocsmcsm pOf;pm;oHk;oyfrIrjyKolwdkYonf uHacjcif;jzpfMu&\/ taMumif;rl olwkdYtvdk&Sdonfum; avmuonf avmuDyHkpHr&SdawmhbJ ,HkMunfrItwGif;ü&Sdaom ]tDrmef}\ tajctae onf ruRif;usefawmhatmif vdkvm;ayonf/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfonf þodkY rnfonfhtcgwGifrQ rjyKvkyfacs/ tu,fí þodkYom&SdcJhygrl &[l'Drsm;tzdkY [mZ&wfrqD[fudk jiif;y,fp&m bmtaMumif;&Sdygoenf;/ rlpm()udk tb,faMumifh jiif;y,fMu&ygoenf;/ xkdYjyif tBuD;us,fqHk; jzpfonfh wrefawmfjrwf()tzdkY 'ku©tcuftcJrsm;udk tb,faMumifh þrQ ajrmufjrm;pGm cg;pnf;cHcJh&oenf;/ tuG,frSt&mudk ,HkMunfouf0if jcif;udk ausysufoGm;apEdkifonfh oufaovu©Pmudjk yo&efrSm t&Sifjrwf xHwGif xHk;pHr&Sdacs/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ Oya'ed,mrudk odrxm;aom todw&m;enf;onfh aus;awmom;wpfa,mufu ]tuG,frSt&mudk


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 7

,HkMunfjcif;} uefYowfcsufabmifrS vGwfoGm;aom udpö&yfwpfckudk oufaovu©Pm[kqdkaumif;qdkvdrfhrnf/ okdY&mwGif tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf onf þodkY rnfonfhtcgwGifrQ jyKvkyfonfr[kwfacs/ uREfky\ f *srmtwftwGuf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ ay;oem;rIü avsmhenf; csurf &Sdacs/ rnfolrQ tjcm;olwpfa,mufa&SUwGif rnfonfhtcgrQ t&SufwuGjJ zpf&vdrfhrnfr[kw/f þtoif;awmftwGif;odkY 0ifa&mufvm Muonfh vlyk*¾dKvfrsm;pGm&S\ d / ,if;wdkYteuf wpfOD;wpfa,mufjzpfap rdrdwdkYonf edrdwfvu©PmwpfckwavudkrQ rjrifcJh&yg[kajymrnfhol rnfolrQr&Sdacs/ (qdkvdkwmu- xdkpOfu vlawG[m edrdwfvu©PmawGudk jrifawGYMu&vsuf ocifBuD;xHrSm bdkiftwf,lcJhMuygw,f/ ,ckvnf; 'DvdkygyJ/ topf0if a&mufvmolawG[m edrdwfvu©PmawGujdk rif&vsuf 0ifa&mufvmaeMu ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh t[fr'D,wftwGif;rSm arG;zGm;vmMuolawGuvnf; rdrdwdkY bdk;bGm;rsm;&JUordkif;jzpf&yfawGudk zwf½Iavhvmoifhygw,f/ xdkenf;wl rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif&JU usrf;pmtkyfawGudkvnf; zwf½I avhvmMu&rSm jzpfygw,f/ 'Dvkdenf;jzifh tv’m[ft&SifjrwfESifh qufEG,frI wnfaqmufzdkY&m tm½HkjyKoifhygw,f/) ocifBuD; qufvufrdefYMum;onfrSm]b&m[Daet[fr'D,musrf;udk zwf½IMunhfMuukef/ pOf;pm;oHk;oyfMuukef/ þacwfumv\ tvHk;pHkaom owif;ay;csurf sm;onf ,if;üyg&SdNyD; jzpf\/ rdwfaqGrsm;ESifhywfoufívnf;aumif;? &efolrsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;í vnf;aumif;yg&S\ d / todkYenf;? vGefcJhaom tESpf 30 tvsi?f xdkYjyif toif;awmfwpfc\ k t&dyfta,mifrQyif r&S?d xdkrQru rdru d dk,fwdkifyif xdktcsed fumvodakY &mufonftxd touf&Sifrnfvm;? r&Sifrnfvm; qdkonfudk rodcsdefuyif þuJhodkY BuD;us,faom Asm'dwfowif;pum;udk ay;vsuf? wpfzef ,if;onf jynhfpHkvmrnf[k tcdkiftrmqdk&efrSm vlom;ü


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 8

pGrf;tm;&Sdygrnfavm/ wpfck? ESpfckrQr[kwfacs/ b&m[Daet[fr'D,m usrf;onf t[fr'Dw\ dkY aetdrfwdkif;wGif&\ Sd / c&pf,mefrsm;? tm&d,mrsm; ESifh tpdk;&xHwGifvnf;&S\ d / tu,fí tv’m[ft&Sifjrwftm;aMumuf&GHUNyD; trSefw&m;udk &SmazGonfqdkygu uREkfyfajymrnf/ b&m[Daet[fr'D,m usrf;üyg&Sdaom edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;udkt&if;wnfvsufyif qHk;jzwfcsufcsMu ukef/ MunhfMuukef/ uREkfyftm; rnfolrQrod? xdkYjyif uREkfyfxHodkY rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufrQyif vma&mufjcif;r&Sd? uREfkyf\ aemufvdkuf[lí wpfa,mufrQ r&SdcJhpOfuwnf;u ,ck&Sdaeaom *srmtwftkyfpktaMumif; udk BudKwifí owif;ay;cJ\ h / þodkYaom BudKwifAsm'dwfrSm tawG;tjrif oufouf? tay:,Houfouf jzpfonfqdkygvQif ,aeY þrQ BuD;rm;aom *srmtwftkyfpkwpfck tb,faMumif&h Sdae&ygoenf;/ xkdYjyif um'D,mef aus;&Gmjyifyu wpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ uREkfyu f dkrod/ wpfzef uREkfyfESifh pyfvsOf;í ]b&m[Daet[fr'D,m}wGif BudKwifAsm'dwfay;xm;onfrSm(toifhtm; ulnD&ef? vlwdkYtMum;wGif ausmfaZmrIay;&ef tcsdefusa&mufayNyD/) todkYygenf;? ,aeY olYtm; tdE´d,EdkifiHwpfckwnf;omru tm&Af? qD;&D;,m;? tD*spw f dkYudk jzwfausmf vsuf Oa&myESifh tar&duwdkYuyg oduRrf;cJhNyDjzpf\/} (,aeY tmz&dutxd ausmfaZmoGm;cJhNyDjzpfygw,f/ NyD;cJhwJh 21? 22? 23 &uf rwfvrSm um'D,mefrS oHk;&ufwm tpDtpOf xkwfvTifhcJhygw,f/ xdktpDtpOfu tm&AfavmuwpfckvHk;udk vIyfcgoGm;apcJhygw,f/) ]tu,fí þonfrSm tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ rku©ygXfawmfrsm;r[kwfbJ t&Sifjrwf\tvdkawmfESifhqefYusifaom vdrfvnfolwpfa,muf\ BuHpnf vkyfaqmifrIjzpfygrl t&Sifjrwfonf olYtm; tb,faMumifh ulnD&yg oenf;/ t&Sifjrwfonf olYtwGuf tb,faMumifh taMumif;cHrsm;udk zefwD;ay;&ygoenf;/ todkYenf;? þonfwdkYtm;vHk;udk uREkfyfoabmjzifh jyKvkyfcJhjcif;jzpfygoavm/ tu,fíom tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfu vdrfvnfol


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 9

wpfOD;udk þuJhodkY ulnDaxmufcHrIjyKaom tavhtx&SdonfqdkygvQif ajzmifhrwfreS fuefolw\ dkY rSefuefrIudk rnfow dkY dkif;wm&ygawmhrnfenf;/ toifwkdY udk,fwdkifyif tajzay;Muukef/ &rfZefvwpfckwnf;wGif aeESifh vMuwfjcif;udk uREkfy\ f tcsdefumvESifh tHudkufjyKvkyf&ef uREkfyfxHwGif pGr;f tm;&Sdrnfavm/ wrefawmfjrwf()u ,if;edrdwfvu©Pmudk r[f't D ppftrSe\ f vu©Pmtjzpf owfrSwfawmfrl cJhNyD; tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfu xdkedrdwfvu©Pmudk uREkfy\ f acwfumvwGif tcsdefudkufjynhfpHkapcJ\ h / tu,fí uREkfyfonf t&SifjrwfxHawmfrS vma&mufolr[kwfygvQi?f todkYenf; tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfudk,fawmfwdkifu urÇmavmuudk vrf;vGJvrf;rSm;atmif jyKvkyfaejcif; jzpfygoavm/ xdkYaMumifh uREfkyftm;qefYusifjcif;\ tusdK;qufonf tb,fodkYwdkif a&muf&SdaMumif;udk aoaocsmcsmpOf;pm;vsuf tajzay;oifhonf/ þonfrSm wrefawmfjrwf()tm; jiif;y,fqefYusifjcif;? xkdYaemufwpfzef tv’m[ft&Sifjrwftm; jiif;y,fqefYusifjcif; rkcsjzpf&ayonf/ xdkenf; wlpGmyif ajrmufjrm;pGmaom edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;&SdNyD; ,if;wdkY\ ta&twGufrSm wpfck? ESpfckrQr[kwf axmifaygif;? odef;aygif;rsm;pGm jzpfayonf/ toifwkdYonf tb,foadkY om edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;udk jiif;y,f Muygrnfenf;/ ]b&m[Daet[fr'D,m}usrf;rSmyif þodkYvnf;a&;om;xm;\/ (toifhxH vltajrmuftjrm; vma&mufMuvdrfh rnf)/ ,ck toifwYu dk dk,fwdkifyif vma&mufMuvsuf jynhfpHkapcJhonfh þedrw d fvu©Pmudkvnf; jiif;y,fMuOD;avmh/ ,ck toifwdkY ukd,fwdkifu jynhfpHkapcJhonfh þedrdwfvu©Pmukd azsmufzsufEdkifpGrf;&Sdonfqdkygu azsmufzsufMuOD;avmh/ uREkfyf wpfzefxyfíajymrnf/ em;axmifMuukef/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ oufaovu©Pmrsm;udk jiif;y,fqefYusifjcif;rSm aumif;aomudpö r[kwf


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 10

acs/ þodkYjyKjcif;aMumifh t&Sifjrwf\ trsufawmfudk Ed;I qGouJhodkY jzpfrnf/ uREfkyfESvHk;om;ü&Sdonfudk uREkfyfajymqdkcJhayNyD/ ,ck vufcHjcif;? vufrcH jcif;rSm toifwo dkY abmomjzpf\/ uREfkyfonf rSefuefoljzpfaMumif;? t&Sif jrwfxHawmfrS vma&mufoljzpfaMumif;udk tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf aumif;pGm odawmfrlyg\/} (rvfzlZmwf? twGJ 3? pm 650-652) txufrSm ocifBuD;u ]þAsm'dwfpum;twGuf toifwkdYudk,fwdkifyif þae&modkY vma&mufvsuf jynhfpHkapcJhNyD r[kwyf gvm;}qdkwJh rdefYMum;csuf u ]aemifrGwfpvif}(tpövmrftwGif;odkYtopf0ifa&mufvmol)wpfOD;[m tpövmrfudk vufcHNyD;jzpfayrJhvnf; ocifBuD;udk edrdwfvu©PmjyozdkY awmif;qdkcJhygw,f/ 'DvdkaMumifh ocifBuD;u olYudk ,ckuJhodkY &Sif;vif; rdefYMum;awmfrlcJh&jcif;jzpfygw,f/ toifu, dk fwdkif vma&mufjcif;jzifh jynhfpHkNyDjzpfwJh edrdwfvu©Pmudjk rifNyD;ygvsuf aemufxyf bmedrdwfvu© Pm vkdtyfao;vJ/ toifvma&mufjcif;udku oufaovu©Pmwpfck jzpfaew,fvdkY rdefYMum;cJhygw,f/ ,aeYrSmawmh tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf&JU zZvfaus;Zl;awmfeJY EdkifiHwdkif;rSm 'Dedrdwfvu©Pmu ay:xGe;f vsuf&Sdygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf a&m*gb,rsm;udk aysmufuif;csrf;omrI&apcJhwJh edrdwfvu© PmawGjzpfygw,f/ rqD[farmftl;'f() ocif rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]rmvDukwåvmrS *kPfoa&&Sdyk*¾dKvf e0gbf rdk[r®'ftvDcef qm[db\ f om; tAf'l&[Drfcefonf tvGefjyif;xefonfh tzsm;a0'em pJGuyfjcif;cH&\/ a&m*gaysmufuif;ítoufcsrf;om&zdkY rnfonhv f rf;rSrjrifawmhbJ vlao wpfa,mufuJhodkY jzpfoGm;cJhayonf/ xdktcsdefrSmyif uREkfyfonf olYtwGuf 'dktmqkawmif;ay;cJ\ h / ol\aojcif;onf ]wuú'D&rf kb&f&rf} a&SmifvTJí r&awmhonfh pD&ifcsut f aetxm;rsdK;wGi&f SdaMumif; odcJh&onf/ xdktcg wGif uREkfyfonf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfa&SUawmfwGif avQmufxm;cJ\ h / ]td-k tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf? uReaf wmfrsdK;onf olYtwGuf ]&Szmtwf} (Mum;0if


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 11

avQmufxm;toem;cHjcif;)jyKyg\/}

xdktcg

t&SifjrwfxHawmfrS

rdefYMum;onfrSm(xdkt&Sifjrwf\ cGifhjyKcsuf r&SdbJ xdkt&Si\ f a&SUawmfwGif Mum;0iftoem;cHyefMum;ay;rnfhol tb,f ol&Sdoenf;/ 2;256) xdktcgwGif uREkfyrf Sm cyfrqdwfaecJ\ h / xdkonfhaemuf csufcsif;yif þodkY Asm'dwfusa&mufvm\/ (toifhtm; Mum;0iftoem;cHcGifh jyKawmfr\ l )/ xdkonhftcgwGifrS uREkfyfonf tvGef idkauR;jrnfwrf;vsuf? pdwftm;xufoefpGmjzifh 'kdtmqkawmif;cJ\ h / t&Sifjrwfu uREkfy\ f 'dktmqkawmif;udk vufcHawmfrlc\ Jh / a0'em&Sifonf wpfenf;tm;jzifh *lxJrS jyefxGufvmouJhodkY jzpfc\ Jh / olYxHwGif jyefvnf usef;rmvmonfh t&dyfta,mifrsm;ay:vGifvm\/ &ufaygif; tawmfMum onfhtcgrS olonf e*dku&SdcJhaom cE¨mukd,ftcsdK;tpm;odkY jyefa&muf vmNyD; aumif;rGefpGm usef;rmvmcJ\ h /} ([uDuwGvf0[D? ½l[meDcZmtif? twGJ 22? pm 88-89) xdkYaemuf rqD[farmftl;'f() ocifrdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]uREfky\ f om; b&SD;&ft[fr'fonf rsufpda0'em pGJuyfc\ Jh / xdka0'emudk rnfonfhaq;urQ aysmufuif;atmifrjyKEdkifcJhacs/ rsufpdtjrifaysmufqHk; oGm;&awmhrnfudkyif pdk;&drfc&Jh \/ a0'emonf aemufqHk;tqifhodkY a&mufonft h cg uREfkyfonf 'dktmqkawmif;cJ\ h / xdktcg Asm'dwf&&So d nf um;(uREkfyf&JUom; b&SD;&f jrifpjyKvmNy)D / xdkonfhaeY rSmyif odYw k nf;r[kwf aemufwpf&ufwGif ol\ rsufpda0'em aysmufuif; oGm;cJ\ h / þtjzpftysufudk tenf;qHk; vl 100 cefYu odMuayvdrfhrnf/} ([uDuwGvf0[D? ½l[meDcZmtif? twGJ 22? pm 89) xdkYaemuf &efjyKqefYusifolwdkY ysufpD;oGm;cJjh cif;eJYpyfvsOf;wJh edrdwfvu©Pm awG jzpfygw,f/ rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm-


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 12

]71 ckajrmuf edrdwfvu©Pmonfum;- qD&f&Gvfcvmzm[fusrf;\ pmrsufESm 62 wGif uREkfyfazmfjyxm;\/ ,if;rSm qefYusifolwdkYtay: yvdyfa&m*gpGJuyf&ef uREkfyf qkawmif;cJ\ h / qdkvdkonfrSm w&m;vrf;rSef &&Sd&ef uHMur®müa&;rSwfjcif;rcHxm;&aom qefYusifolwdkYtwGuf jzpf\/ þodkY qkawmif;NyD; ESpftenf;i,ftMum þEdkifiHwGif yvdyfa&m*g 0ifa&mufysHUESv HY mcJ\ h / tjyif;txef qefYusifoltcsdKUonf þavmuudk pGefYcGmoGm;cJhMu&\/ xdkqkawmif;rSm þodkYjzpf\/

(tdk- uRefawmfrsdK;\ tv’m[f? aumif;jrwfaom vrf;ESifh aumif;aom trIudpöwdkYudk &efvdkNyD; ykefuefjcm;em; jyóemzefwD;oltm; zrf;qD;awmf rlyg? xkdYjyif xdkolYtay: yvdyfa&m*g\jypf'Pfukd usa&mufapvsuf zsufqD;ypfawmfrlyg/ xkdYjyif uRefawmfrsdK;\ aqmufwnf&mr& cHpm;ae&rIudk z,f&Sm;ay;awmfrl yg/ uRefawmfrsdK;tm; ylaqG;aomursm;rS vGwfajrmufapawmfrlyg/ td-k uRefawmfrsdK;\t&Sif? uRefawmfrsdK;\ &efolwdkYtm; tydkif;ydkif;jzpfapawmf rlyg/ ajrBuD;ü epfapawmfrlyg/) wpfzef ]tJh*smaZt[fr'D}usrf;ü BudKwifAsm'dwfay;csuf&\ Sd / igwd\ kY trsupf l;&Svmonfhtcg xdkt&Sifjrwfonf twdkif;xuftvGef jyKaomolrsm;ESifh raumif;rIudk yGifhvif;xif&Sm;pGm usL;vGefolwdkYtay: trsufawmf usa&mufap\/ xdktcsdefumvonf a&mufvmavNyD/ qdk;oGrf;rdkufrJolwpfa,mufrusef zsufqD;jcif;cH&rnf/


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 13

rdrdw\ dkY tjypfrsm;aMumifh ysufpD;aeNyD;jzpfolwdkYomvQif zsufqD;jcif; cHMu&tHh/ tu,fí olwkdY\ apmfum;ajymqdkrIrsm;twGuf olw\ dkY *kPfoa&udk rzsufqD;ygvQif igonf edrfhusolwdkYwGif tedrfhusq;Hk jzpf&ayawmhrnf/ t&Sifjrwfonf qHk;jzwfcJhNyD;jzpf\/ usdefqJajymqdkrItwGuf usdefqJjcif;om jzpf&ayrnf/ odkYjzpf&m xkdonfh yvdyfa&m*gonfyif olwdkYtm; zrf;qD; vdrfhrnf/ jyóemzefwD;qdk;oGrf;olwkdYonf twdkif;xufvGefusL;oGm;onfhtcg uREkfyf rSmum; ,ckrl ysufpD;aprnfh yvdyfa&m*gomvQif olwdkYtwGuf vma&muf oifhNyD[k arQmfvifhc\ Jh / xdkonfhaemufwGif zm&pDbmompum;jzifh þodkY Asm'dwf&&Sdc\ Jh / (t&Sifjrwfonf rsm;pGmaom &efolw\ dkY tdrfrsm;udk qdwfokOf;oGm;apcJ\ h /) þBudKwifAsm'dwfudk tvf[urfESifh tvfb'&f owif;pmwdkYwGif ½dkufESdyf jzefYcsdcJ\ h / xdkYjyif &efolw\ dkY tvGefjyif;xefaom qefYusif'ku©ay;rI aemufwGijf yKvkyfcJhaom txufazmfjyyg qkawmif;rsm;onf tv’m[ft&Sif jrwfxHawmfwGif vufcHjcif;cH&vsuf t&SifjrwfxHawmfrS BudKwifAsm'dwfrsm; ESifhtnD yvdyfa&m*gjypf'Pfonf olwYt dk ay: rD;rdk;uJhodkY &Gmusc\ Jh / uREkfyftm; jiif;y,fqefYusifNyD; trnfysufjzifh ac:a0:cJhMuonfh ajrmufjrm;pGmaom &efolwdkYonf ysufpD;oGm;cJhMuuke\ f / odkY&mwGif þae&mwGif uREkfyfonf Oyrmtaejzifh tvGefjyif;xefpGm qefYusifonfh &efolwpfcsdKU\taMumif;udk azmfjyvdkufayrnf/


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 14

OD;pGmyxr tr&pfqmNrdKUrS armfv0D &plvfbmbm taMumif;udk ajymjy&ayrnf/ olonf uREkfyftm; jiif;y,fuefYuGufonfhtaejzifh pmtkyfwpftkyfa&;om;cJ\ h / tvGefMurf;wrf;aom pum;vHk;rsm;udk oHk;pGJc\ Jh / &uftenf;i,frQom&Sdaom avmuDb0udk cspfcifwG,fwmrIjzifh vdrfnmajymqdkc\ Jh / aemufqHk; olonf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ uwdawmfESifh tnD yvdyfa&m*gjzifh aoqHk;oGm;cJ\ h / xdkonfhaemuf bwmvmNrdKUrS vufaxmuf tifpyufwm rdk[r®'fbcf&Sf trnf&Sd vlwpfa,mufonf &efvdkrIESifh zdESdyfvdkrIbufwGif tcdkiftrm jyKc\ Jh / olonfvnf; yvdyfa&m*gjzifh ysufpD;oGm;cJh&\/ xdkonfhaemufwGif *srl;e,frS usD&m*f'D;eftrnf&Sd vlwpfa,muf xGufvm \/ olu ]&plvf}(wrefawmf)jzpfaMumif; aMunmcJ\ h / xdkYjyif olu uREfkyf tm; ]'*smvf}[korkwfc\ Jh / olu ajymonfrSm- wrefawmf tDqmu olYtm; tdyfrufwGif ]tqGm}(vufudkifwkwf)wpfckay;aMumif;? tDqmu ay;aom wkwfaumufjzifh þ]'*smvf}udk owfjzwftqHk;pD&ifrSmjzpfaMumif; ajymqdkc\ Jh / þodkYjzifh uREkfyfu olYtwGuf txl;jyKvsuf BudKwifAsm'dwf jyKcsufudk oltoufxif&Sm;&SdcsdefrSmyif ('gzDtGvfbvm)usrf;ü a&;om;vsuf jzefYcsdc\ Jh / þodkYjzifh olonf {NyDv 4 &uf? 1906 ckESpfwGif om;ESpfa,mufESifhwuG yvdyfa&m*gjzifh aoausysufpD;cJh&\/ uREkfyftm;owfjzwf&eftwGuf tDqmuay;aom olYvufxJrS ]tqGm}(wkwfaumuf) b,fa&mufoGm;ygoenf;/ xdkYjyif olxkwfjyefcJhaom (igonf apvTwfjcif;cH&olwkdY teufrSjzpfonf)qdkonfh Asm'dwfua&m b,fa&mufoGm;ygoenf;/ 0rf;enf;zG,af umif;avpG/ rsm;pGmaom vlwdkYonf pdwf0dnmOfpifMu,f oefY&Sif;rIr&ao;bJ pdwftvdkuspum;rsm;udk tdvf[mrfAsm'dwf[k owfrSwfvdkufMuayonf/ xdkonfhtwGufaMumifhyif tqHk;ü olonf *kPfoa&ysufpD;jcif;? qHk;½HI;jcif;wdkYjzifh aoyGJ0ifcJh&\/ olYtjyif aemufxyf


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 15

vlrsm;vnf;&Sdao;\/ ¤if;wdkYonf 'ku©ay;jcif;ESifh xdyg;apmfum;jcif;wdkYü twdkif;xuftvGefjyKcMJh uNyD; tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf\ trsufa'goudk raMumuf&GHUcJhMuacs/ ¤if;wd\ kY tvkyrf Sm aeYntcsdef&Sdoa&GU ajymifavSmif ysuf&,fjyKjcif;ESifh qJa&;wdkif;xGmjcif;wdkYomjzpf\/ aemufqHk;wGif yvdyfa&m*g\ om;aumifrsm;jzpfcMJh u&\/ yrmtm;jzifh rGef&SD rm[fblbftmvrfqm[dbf t[fr'Du vm[dk&frS a&;om;vdku\ f / ]uRefawmf\OD;av;jzpfol El;&ft[fr'fu wpf&ufwiG f uRefawmfhtm; ]rD&fZmqm[dbfu rqD[fjzpfw,fvkdY a<u;aMumfxm;csufeJY ywfoufvdkY bmaMumifh edrdwfvu©Pmwpfckawmif rjyo&wmygvJ}[k ajymonf/ xdktcgwGif uRefawmfu ocifBuD;\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;teuf vu©Pmwpfcku yvdyfa&m*gjzpfaMumif;? ,if;onf BudKwifAsm'dwaf y;NyD; aemufwGif ay:xGufvmcJhNyD; urÇmavmuudk 0g;NrdKypfrSmjzpfaMumif; ajymjycJhonf/ xdktcgwGif olu ]yvdyfa&m*g[m igwdkYudk uyfEdkifrSm r[kwfbl;? 'Dyvdyfa&m*g[m rD&fZmqm[dbfudk zsufqD;ypfzdkYyJ a&mufvm jcif;jzpfw,f? 'Da&m*g[m ightay: vHk;0 oufa&mufrI&SdrSm r[kwfbl;? rD&fZmqm[dbfudkyJ oufa&mufvdrfhr,f}vdkYajymcJhonf/ þrQajymqdkrIjzifh pum;tqHk;owfoGm;onf/ xdkonfah emuf uRefawmf vm[dk&Nf rdKUodkY a&mufvmNyD; wpfywfMumü uRefawmhfOD;av; El;&ft[fr'f yvdyfa&m*geJY aoqHk;oGm;cJhNyDqdkonfh owif;udMk um;&\/ xdkaus;&GmrS vlrsm;pGmwdkY (uRefawmfESiu fh RefawmfhOD;av;) pum;tjyeftvSefajymqdkrItaMumif;udk odxm;Muonf/ þtjzpftysufrSm zkHk;uG,fxm;ír&aom jzpf&yfwpfck jzpfayonf/} xdkYaemuf ocifBuD; rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]vm[dk&Nf rdKUrS rD,mefarhtf&m*sf'D;efu a&;vdkufonf/ armfv0D ZdkifEGvf tmaA'D;efonf ]armfv0DzmZdvf}ESi]fh rGef&SDzmZdvf}wef;rsm;udk atmifjrifNyD;ol wpfa,mufjzpfNyD; armfv0D*dkvmrf&plv\ f aqG;rsdK;om;csif;xJujzpfonf/ omoemhynmoif,lrNI y;D ajrmufxm;oljzpfNyD; ]tef*sLref [rm,aw


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 16

tpövmrf}u cefYtyfxm;onfh pmjyq&mwpfOD;vnf;jzpfonf/ olu ocifBuD;\rSefuefrIESipfh yfvsOf;í armfv0Drdk[r®'ftvD qD,mvfudkwED Sifh ]u&SfrD;&f}aps;ü rdkbma[vmjyKcJhonf/ xdkYaemuf &uftenf;i,f tMumrSmyif yvdyfa&m*gjzifh aoqHk;oGm;cJ\ h / olwpfa,mufwnf;wif r[kwf? ol\ ZeD;vnf; yvdyfa&m*gjzifh aoqHk;oGm;cJ\ h / ol\ orufjzpf olvnf; yvdyfa&m*gjzifh aoqHk;cJ&h \/ þodkYjzifh rdkbma[vm jyKNyD;aemuf wGif olt Y drfrS vl 17 a,mufonf yvdyfa&m*gjzifh aoqHk;oGm;cJah yonf/} ocifBuD; rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]þonfrSm tvGefxl;qef;aom udpöjzpf\/ rnfolrqdk þ vQdKU0Sufcsufudk em;vnfEdkifrnfavm/ olw\ dkY tawG;ü vdrfnmol? r[kwfrrSef a<u;aMumfol? '*smvfu uREkfyjf zpf\/ odkY&mwGif rdkbma[vmjyKcsdefwGif aoqHk;oGm;&olrsm;u olwkdYjzpfae\/ todkYenf;? (etlZkAdv’m[f) tv’m[f t&Sifjrwfuyg tjrifrSm;txifrSm; jzpfaeNyDavm/ xdo k lwt dkY ay: tv’m[f t&Sijf rwf\ trsuaf wmfonf tb,faMumifh usa&muf&avoenf;/ ,if;(trsufawmf)onf olwkdYtm; aoausysufpD;jcif;ESifh *kPfoa& ,kwfavsmhjcif;udk jzpfapcJ\ h /} ocifBuD; rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]rD,mef arhtf&m*sf'D;efu a&;om;onfrSm- ]u&D;rfbcf&Sf trnf&Sd vm[dk&rf S aqmufvkyfa&;orm;wpfOD;onf ocifBuD;tm; ½dkif;jypGm apmfum;ajymqdk avh&\ Sd / rjywfwrf; ajymqdkvsuf&\ Sd / uRefawmfu olYtm; Budrfzefrsm;pGm em;csajymqdkygaomfvnf; olonf aemufrqkwfacs/ aemufqHk; touf i,fi,f&G,f&G,fjzifh aoqHk;oGm;cJh&\/} xdkYaemuf ocifBuD; rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]qD,mvfukwfNrdKUom; pdkif,'f [mrd'f&Sm;[f qm[dbfu a&;om;onfrSm ]qD,mvfukwfNrdKUom; [mzDZf plvfwmefonf ocifBuD;tm; tvGef qefYusifojl zpf\/ xdkolrSm qD,mvfukwfNrdKUrS ocifBuD;\ tpD;teif;


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 17

jzwfoef;oGm;onhftcsdefwGif ocifBuD;tay:odkY ajrBuD;rsm; oGefcs&ef MuHpnfcJholjzpf\/ aemufqHk; olonf tvGefjyif;xefaom yvdyfa&m*gjzifh ,ckESpf 1906 ckESpfrSmyif aoqHk;oGm;cJh&\/ ol\ tdrfom; 9 a,muf? 10 a,muf cefYonfvnf; yvdyfa&m*gjzifh aoqHk;cJhMu&\/ xdkenf;wlpGmyif qD,mvfukwfNrdKUü tm;vHk;odxm;Muonfh udpöwpfck &Sdao;\/ [uDrf rdk[r®'f &SzDufqdkolonf bdkiftwf,lNyD;aemuf rl&fw'f jzpfoGm;cJ\ h / olonf ]uk&ftmefpmoifausmif;}wpfckudk wnfaxmifc\ Jh / olonf ocifBuD;tm; tjyif;txef qefYusifcJholjzpfonf/ þuHqdk;olonfvnf; ol\ pdwftvdkqE´wdkYaMumifh bdkiftwf uwdopöm ay:wGif r&yfwnfEdkifcJhacs/ qD,mvfukwfNrdKU ]vdk[m&ef}&yfuGufrS tjyif;txefqefYusifolwdkYrSm qefYusifrIjyK&eftwGuf olESifh yl;aygif;oGm; cJhMu\/ aemufqHk;wGif olonfvnf; yvdyfa&m*g\ om;aumif jzpfoGm;cJ\ h / ol\ ZeD;? rdcif? tpfudk tm;vHk; wpfa,mufNyD; wpfa,muf yvdyfa&m*gjzifh aoqHk;oGm;cJh\/ vlwdkY axmufyhHMunhf½Ivsuf&Sdaom ol\ pmoifausmif;onfvnf; ysufpD;oGm;cJh&\/} wpfzef ocifBuD; rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]þuJhodkYyif qD,mvfukwfNrdKUom; rD&fZm q&f'g&f ab;*fuvnf; npfnrf;aom ajymqdkrIrsm;ESifh *kPfarmufrIwdkYwGif ausmfvGefoGm;cJ\ h / tcsdef&Sdoa&GU ajymifavSmifysuf&,frIrsm; jyKvsuf&Sd\/ pum;&yfwdkif;udk ESmacgif;½IHUí armufrmrIwdkYjzifh ajymqdkavh&\ Sd / olonfvnf; tvGef jyif;xefaom yvdyfa&m*gjzifh wkyfaESmifjcif;cH&vsuf ysufpD;oGm;cJh&\/ wpf&ufwGif olonf t[fr'DwpfOD;udk armufrmpGmjzifh ajymqdkco Jh nfrSm]rif;wdkYu bmaMumifh yvdyfa&m*g? yvdyfa&m*gqdkNyD; Ncdrf;ajcmufaeMuovJ? igwkdYudk,fwdkif yvdyfa&m*gjzpfawmhrSyJ igwkdY vufcHr,f}/ xdkokdYajymqdkNyD; aemufESpf&ufrSmyif olonf yvdyfa&m*gjzifh aoqHk;oGm;cJh&\/} [mZ&wf rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm-


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 18

](uREkfyfvma&muf&jcif;rSm)wrefawmfjrwf()\ wdrfjrKyfaysmufuG,foGm; cJhaom BuD;jrwfonfh *kPfodu©mawmfudk wpfzefwnfwHhap&efjzpf\/ xdkYjyif usrf;jrwfuk&ftmef\ rSefuefrIudk urÇmavmutm; jyo&efjzpf\/ ,ck þvkyfief;tm;vHk;onf jzpfay:vmvsuf&\ Sd / odkY&mwGif rsufpdrsm;ü tzH;k tum&Sdow l dkYrSmum; rjrifEdkifMuacs/ pifppfrSmrlum; þtoif;awmf onf ,ck aerif;tvm; txift&Sm; xGef;vif;cJhNyDjzpf\/ xkdYtjyif toif;awmf\ rSefuefrIqdkif&m oufaovu©Pmrsm;ESifh edrdwfvu©Pm rsm;twGuf ajrmufjrm;pGmaom vlwdkYoufao&SdNyD; tu,fí ¤if;wkdYtm; vHk;udk wpfae&mwGif pk½Hk;vdkufrnfqdkygu ta&twGufonf tb,frQ rsm;jym;vku d foenf;[lrl urÇmajrwGif rnfonf&h Sifbk&ifxHwGifrS þrQ avmuf rsm;jym;aom ppfwyf&Sdrnfr[kwfacs/} ([uDuwGvf0[D? ½l[meDcZmtif twGJ 22? pm 235-238) xdkYjyif ocifBuD; rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]t&Sifjrwfonf uREkfyftm; jyKjyifwnfhrwfrIrsm;jyKvkyf&eftwGuf apvTwf awmfrlvdku\ f / xdkYjyif uREkfy\ f vufjzifh edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;udk jyoawmfrl cJ\ h / tMuifolw\ dkY oabmobm0onf &efvdkrkef;xm;rIrS pifMu,fNyD; ESvHk;om;ü t&Sifjrwftm; aMumuf&GHUpdwf&Sdrnf? xdkYjyif oifhjrwfavsmfuef aom OD;aESmuftodÓPfjzifh vkyfaqmifolwdkYtzdkY olwkdYonf þedrdwf vu©Pmrsm;udk taMumif;jyKvsuf tpövmrf\rSefuefrIudk aumif;pGm odjrifoGm;Mu&vdrfhrnf/ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;rSm wpfck ESpfckrQr[kwf? axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;&S\ d / ,if;wdkYteuf tcsdKUudk uREkfyfonf ][uDuwGvf0[D}usrf;ü a&;om;cJhNyD;jzpf\/ [pf*s&D ouú&mZf\ 13 &mpk ukefvGefvmonfhtcg t&Sifjrwfonf 14 &mpk\ tprSmyif uREkfyftm; apvTwfawmfrlvdku\ f / xkdYjyif tm'rfrSpí aemufqHk;txd yGifhay:cJhorQ wrefawmftm;vHk;\trnfudk uREfkyftm; wyfac:cJh\/ uREfky\ f aemufqHk;trnftjzpf tDqmarmftl;'f (uwdawmfvmtDqm)? t[fr'f? rdk[r®'f rmtf[l;'f trnfrsm;jzpf\/


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 19

xdktrnfESpfckvHk;jzifh uREfkyftm; tBudrfBudraf c:qdkcJh\/ xdkonfh trnf ESpfckudkyif tjcm;pum;vHk;rsm;jzifh rqD[f? r[f'D [lí azmfjycJhjcif;jzpfonf/ xkdYjyif olYtm; ay;oem;jcif;cH&aom wefcdk;jym#d[mrsm;teuf tcsdKUrSm BudKwifAsm'dwfrsm;jzpf\/ ,if;wdkYonf tvGefBuD;us,faom tuG,frS udpörsm;jzifh jynhfvsuf&\ Sd / xdkonfhtaMumif;t&mrsm;udk ajymqdk&efrSm tv’m[ft&SifjrwfrSwpfyg; tjcm;rnfolYxHwGifrQ tcGifhr&Sdacs/ xdkYtjyif tcsdKUaom 'dktmqkawmif;rsm;onfvnf; t&SifjrwfxHwGif vufcHjcif;cH& vsuf olwkdYtm; today;cJ\ h / xkdYjyif tcsdKUaom ]b'f'dktm}(usdefpm) rsm;jzifh tcsdKUaom tjyif;txef qefYusifolrsm;onf zsufqD;jcif;cHcJh&\/ tcsdKUaom ]'dktm}qkawmif;rsm;rSm &Szmtwftqifh&SdNyD; ,if;wkdYonf 'dktmtqifhxuf ydkr\ dk / tcsdKUrSm rdkbma[vmrsm;jzpfNyD; ,if;tm;jzifh t&Sifjrwfonf &efolwdkYtm; ysufpD;apjcif;? *kPfoa&,kwfavsmhapjcif;wdkY jzpfapcJ\ h / tcsdKUrSmum; acwfumv\ olawmfpifyk*¾dKvfrsm;\ oufaocHcsufrsm;jzpf\/ xdkolwdkYonf tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHawmfrS owif;&vsuf uREkfy\ f rSefuefrItwGuf oufaocHcJhMu\/ xdkYjyif tcsdKUrSmum; tpövmrfholawmfpifolawmfjrwfrsm;\ oufaocHcsufrsm; jzpf\/ olwkdYonf uREkfyf rvma&mufrDuyif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhMuNyDjzpf\/ ra0;awmhonft h csdefwGif yGifhay:vmawmhrnfh rqD[farmftl;'frSm uREkfyfomvQifjzpfaMumif; olwdkYonf uREkfy\ f trnf? uREkfyf aexdkif&m aus;&Gm\trnfwdkYudk azmfjyvsuf oufaocHcJhMu\/ tcsdKUuvnf; uREkfyfvma&mufrnht f aMumif;udk uREkfyfrarG;zGm;rDuyif BudKwifowif;ay; cJhMu\/ tcsdKUuvnf; uREkfyfvma&mufrnfhtaMumif;udk uREfkyftouf 10 ESpf? 12 ESpfcefYt&G,fuyif owif;ay;cJhMu\/ xkdYjyif olwdkYonf rdrdw\ dkY aemufvdkufrsm;udk ]toifwo kdY nf olYtm; jrifawGYcGifh&onftxd touf &SnfrSmjzpfaMumif;}ajymMum;cJhMu\/ xdkYjyif wrefawmfjrwf() rdefYMum; awmfrlonfh rqD[farmftl;'f\ acwfumvqdkif&m edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;? yrmtm;jzifh ol\ acwfumvwGif &rfZefvtwGif; aeESifhvMuwfjcif;?


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 20

wdkif;jynftwGif;ü yvdyfa&m*gysHUESHYjcif; tp&Sdonfh oufaocHcsufrsm;onf uREkfyftwGuf ay:xGufvmcJ\ h / xdkYjyif ,ckwdkifatmif uREfkyfonf 14 &mpk\ av;yHkwpfyrHk Q touf&Sifaexdkifc\ Jh / þrQ rsm;jym;aom oufaoom"ursm;&SdaeNyD; tu,fí ,if;onftm;vHk;wdu kY dk csa&;rnf qdkygu pmtkyfaygif;rsm;pGm a&;íukefrnfyif r[kwfacs/} (us&Sfrmat rmtf&Dzwf? ½l[meDcZmtif twGJ 23? pm 328-329) ocifBuD;&JU txufyg a&;om;csufawGxrJ Sm qefYusifolawG&JU ed*Hk;csKyfrIeJY pyfvsOf;vdkY azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ olwdkY[m ocifBuD;&JU oufaovu©Pm jynhfpHkjcif;twGuf taMumif;cHawGjzpfvsuf qdk;0g;pGm ed*Hk;csKyfoGm;cJhMu ygw,f/ 'DavmurS xGufcGmoGm;cJhMuygw,f/ tjcm;aom ocifBuD;&JU 'dktmqkawmif;rsm;? edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;taMumif;vnf; azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ ,ck qufvufNyD; t[fr'D,wfudk vufcHvmolrsm;taMumif;udk wifjy yghr,f/ rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif&JU acwfumvrSm tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf [m vlawGukd tb,fuJhov dkY rf;nTefawmfrlovJqdkwmudk awGY&ygvdrfhr,f/ [mZ&wf ½dIufcf rdk[r®'ftzfZvfqm[dbf ajymjyonfrSm- uRefawmf touf 12 ESpft&G,fu uRefawmfh OD;av; [uD;rf ½dIufcf tDbm'Gv’m[f qm[dbfeJY OD;av;&JUom; ½dIufcfu&rftDvm[Dqm[dbfwdkY[m rqD[farmftl;'f()ocifxHrSm bdkiftwfopömcH,lxm;Muygw,f/ odkYaomf uRefawmfuawmh rqD[farmftl;'f()ocifudk rjrifzl;ovdk ocifBuD;&JU "mwfyHkudkvnf; rjrifzl;ygbl;/ wpf&ufrSm tdyfrufjrifrufcyJh gw,f/ uRefawmfch E¨mudk,frSm toufr&SdawmhbJ OD;aESmuf&JUtodw&m;eJY rsufpd&JU jrifEdkifpGrf;awGawmh usefaeygao;w,f/ uRefawmfha&SUrSm yk*¾dKvw f pfOD; xdkifaeygw,f/ olY&JU aemufrSmu ajcaxmufwpfpHkudk jrifawGY&ygw,f/ uRefawmfhpdwfxJrSm xnfhoGif;jcif;cH&wmu uRefawmhfa&SUwnfhwnfhrSm xdkifaeNyD; uRefawmfhudk Munhfaewmu rD&fZmqm[dbfjzpfNyD; aemufrSm jrifae&wJh ajcaxmufu wrefawmfjrwf()&JU ajcawmfjzpfaMumif;


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 21

od&ygw,f/ uRefawmf rsufpdyGifhoGm;cJhygw,f/ reufvif;awmh uRefawmf [m armfv0D tAf'Gv’m[fcefqm[dbf&JUom;? vm[dk&D*srmtwfxo J dkY 0ifa&mufoGm;wJh rl&fwZmcefudk 'Dtdyfruf&JUzGifhqdkcsufudk ar;jref;cJhyg w,f/ olu ajymjyygw,f/ cifAsm;[m rD&fZmqm[dbf&JU tusdK;aus;Zl; aMumifh wrefawmfjrwf rdk[r®'f()udk aemufvdkufemcHjcif;jyKcGifh&vdrfhr,f/ xkdtwdkif;yJjzpfcJhygw,f/ uRefawmf[m tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfudk oufaoxm; usdefqdkvsuf ajymyghr,f/ 1905 ckESpf uRefawmf bdkiftwf,lwJhtcsdefrSm tdyfrufxJu uRefawmfhbufudk MunhfaewJh yk*¾dKvf[m ocifBuD;ygyJ/ 'Dvkdenf;jzifh t&Sifjrwf[m rdrdEpS fvdkoludk ajzmifhrwfrSefuefwJh vrf;udk jyoawmfrlygw,f/} tJ'Daemuf [mZ&wf aeZmrGwf'D;efqm[dbf ajymMum;onfrSm]xdkpOfu uRefawmf bdkiftwfr,l&ao;ygbl;/ tq&fermZfudk rdkbm&uf AvDrSm0wfjyKNyD; avSum;rS qif;vmcJhvsuf atmufbuf qif0ifaqmifrSm &Sdaewkef;yJ tvGefcrf;em;wJh tjzLa&mif0wfpHkudk 0wfqifxm;wJh vli,fESpfOD;udkawGY&ygw,f/ olwkdYu uRefawmfhudk ]aus;Zl;jyKNyD; rD&fZmqm[dbf&SdwJhae&mudak jymjyyg? uRefawmfwdkY[m tvGefa0;vHwJh ae&muae c&D;ESifNyD; vma&mufMuolawGjzpfw,f}vdkY ajymygw,f/ 'geJY uRefawmfu aumif;NyD? uRefawmfvdkufydkYygr,fvdkY ajymvdkufygw,f/ olwdkYu ]r[kwfbl;? cifAsm;u uRefawmfwdkYaemufu vdkufcJhyg? tu,fí ocifBuD;[m tay:aqmifrSm&Sdw,fqdk&if uRefawmfwdkY ocifBuD;udk rSwfrdygw,f}vdkY ajymygw,f/ 'DvdkeJY uRefawmf[m olwdkYaemufu vdkufoGm;cJhygw,f/ olwdkY[m avSum;twdkif; a&SUuae wufoGm;Muyg w,f/ a&SUrSm "r®pum;0dkif;wpfckjyKvkyfxm;ygw,f/ ocifBuD;[m acgif;aygif;y0gpudk jznfcsvsuf vGwfvyfpGmyJ xdkifaeygw,f/ ocifBuD;&JU teD;tem;rSm vlawGpk½Hk;xdkifaeMuygw,f/ 'DvdkoGm;&if;u olwdkYxJrS wpfOD;u ocifBuD;udk awGYwmeJYyJ ]vlBuD;rif;emrnfu *dkvmrft[fr'f [kwfygw,faemf}vdkY ar;ygw,f/ ocifBuD;u ][kwfygw,f}vkdY ajzygw,f/


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 22

tJ'Daemuf olu ocifBuD;tm; ]vlBuD;rif;u rqD[farmftl;'fjzpfaMumif; a<u;aMumfxm;wm [kwfygovm;}vdkY xyfar;ygw,f/ ocifBuD;u ][kwfygw,f}vdkY ajzw,f/ tJ'Daemuf olu ]yxrOD;qHk; ocifBuD;udk wrefawmfjrwf()bufrS ]pvmrf}arwåmudyk dkYovdkuyf gw,f/ tJ'Daemuf uRefawmfhbufu pvmrfuydk dkYotyfygw,f}vdkYajymygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf olqufajymwmu]wpf&uftdyfrufrSm uRefawmfjrifcJh&ygw,f/ wrefawmfjrwf()&JUvufawmfu ocifBuD;&JUnmbufycHk;ay:rSm&SdaeNyD; udk,fawmfjrwfu ]ol[m rqD[fjzpfw,f? olYxHrSm bdkiftwf,lyg? igudk,fawmfjrwf&JU pvmrfudk ydkYovdkufyg}qdkNyD; rdefYMum;ygw,f/} [mZ&wf [uD;rf twGm rdk[r®'fqm[dbf ajymjyonfrSm]bdkiftwf,lNyD;aemuf &uftenf;i,fMum um'D,mefrSm aexdkifcJhygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf ocifBuD;xHrSm cGifhawmif;NyD; vm[dk&Nf rdKUodkY jyefcJhygw,f/ qlzDt[fr'f'D;efqm[dbfu t[fr'DawGeJY uRefawmfhudk awGYqHkay;cJhyg w,f/ &uftwefMumNyD;aemufrS yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;u tvGecf spfcifpGmjzifh ]wrefawmfjrwf rdk[r®'focif[m um'D,mefodkY aemufwpfBudrf <ujref;vm cJhNyD}vdakY jymygw,f/ 'Dpum;udMk um;awmh uRefawmftvGefyJ tHhMooGm;cJhyg w,f/ NyD;awmh uRefawmf 'dktm jyKvkyfcJhygw,f/ ]td-k tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf? 'D*srmtwfu wrefawmfjrwfrdk[r®'f() 'kwd,wpfBudrf <ujref;vmw,f qdkNyD; ,HkMunfaeMuwmygvm;? rD&fZmqm[dbfu rdk[r®'f() b,fvdkvkyf jzpfEdkifyghrvJ}qdkNyD; jrnf;wrf;vsuf 'dktmjyKvkyfcJhygw,f/ uRefawmf tdyfrufrSm jrifch&J ygw,f/ [mZ&wf rqD[farmftl;'f()ocifu rwfwyf &yfvsuf&SdNyD; aumif;uifrS z&pf&Sfwmwpfyg; qif;oufvmvsuf ocifBuD; bufodkY vufn§dK;nTefNyD; ]olb,folvJ}vdkY uRefawmfhuadk r;ygw,f/ uReaf wmfu ]'g[m rD&fZmqm[dbfyg}vdakY jzcJhygw,f/ NyD;aemuf uRefawmf jrifcJhwmu wrefawmfjrwf()&JU tvif;a&mifawG[m aumif;uifrS qif;oufvmNyD; xdktvif;a&mifawG[m rqD[farmftl;'focifBuD;&JU OD;aESmuftwGif;odkY 0ifa&mufoGm;cJhygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf cE¨mukd,fwpfckvHk;


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 23

odkY ysHUESHYoGm;ygw,f/ ocifBuD;&JU rsufESmawmf[m xdktvif;a&miftm;jzifh tvGefvif;vufawmufyoGm;cJhygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf xdkaumif;uifwrefu ]tck 'gu b,folvJ}vdkY ar;jyefygw,f/ 'geJY uRefawmfu ]rlvuawmh rD&fZmqm[dbfyJ? tckawmh wu,fyJ rdk[r®'f()jzpfoGm;ygNyD}vdkY ajymvdkuf ygw,f/} 'gawG[m ocifBuD;vufxufu tdyfrufjrifrufNyD; bdkiftwf,lcJhMuol awG&JU tjzpftysufawG jzpfygw,f/ 'gayrJh [mZ&wf rqD[farmftl;'f() ocif rdefYMum;awmfrlwmu- ]tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHawmfrS þodkY vrf;nTef jcif;ESifh edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;jyojcif; tpOftquf[m þtoif;awmf NyD;jynhfpHkaomtqifhordkY a&mufavorQ qufvufwnf&SdaeOD;rSmjzpfw,f/} 'gaMumifh ocifBuD;&JU 'D BudKwifAsm'dwfuvnf; uaeY acwfumvrSm tb,fuJhodkY NyD;jynhfpHkaeaMumif;? tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfu 'Dedrdwfvu©Pmudk tb,fuJhodkY jyovsuf&SdawmfrlaMumif; rdkifaygif;axmifcsDa0;wJh ae&mrSm aexkdifolawGyifvQif 'DtwGuf oufao&Sdygw,f/ 'geJYywfoufvdkYvnf; tcsdKUaom jzpf&yfrsm;udk wifjyyghr,f/ rmvDEdkifiH&JU ]bmvm}trnf&w Sd Jha'orSm ]w*smeD,m}*dkPf;&JU atrmrf wpfOD;&Sdygw,f/ olY&JUzcifudktaMumif;jyKvsuf xdka'o&JU aus;&Gm 93 ck[m rGwfpvifawGjzpfcJhygw,f/ zcifuG,fvGefwJhaemuf ol[m t½dkuft&mqufcHol jzpfvmcJhygw,f/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf&JU zZvfaus;Zl; awmfeJY rsm;rMumrDuyJ ol[m t[fr'D,wfudk vufcHcGifh&&SdcJhygw,f/ tm'rfqm[dbfa&;om;vdkufonfrSm- ol[m tdyfrufrSm jrifcJh&ygw,f/ rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif[m olY&JU aetdrf? olYtcef;xJodkY <ujref;vmcJh w,f/ ol[m ocifBuD;eJYtwl tcef;xJrSm &SdaecJhw,f/ tjyifrSmuvnf; rsm;pGmaom tdkvrmawGu rqD[farmftl;'f()ocifudk apmifhpm;vsuf&Sd Muygw,f/ olu jyefajymjywmu- ]uRefawmf[m rqD[farmftl;'f() ocifxHrSm avQmufxm;cJhw,f/ tjyifrSm tdkvrmawGu ocifBuD;udk


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 24

apmifhaeMuw,f/ ocifBuD;[m tjyifodkY <uvmcJhNyD; t[fr'Dr[kwfwJh tdkvrmawG&JU OD;acgif;ay:u OD;xkyfawGudk cRwfvdkufNyD; uReaf wmfh acgif;ay:u OD;xkyfudkom usef&SdapcJhygw,f/} aus;&Gmawmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSm olY&JU aemufvdkufawG&Sdygw,f/ aus;&GmawGudk vSnfhvnfNyD; wAfvD*fjyKvkyfrIaMumifh ,ckxd aus;&Gmaygif; 40 ausmf[m t[fr'D,wfudk vufcHvdkufygNyD/ xdkYaemuf bdkuDemzmqdkrS *s,m&m bkcg&Dqm[dbfu uRefawmfwdkY&JU t[fr'D,ma&'D,dktoHvTifhXmeodkY zkef;jzifhqufoG,fvmygw,f/ ]uRefawmfhbufu cifAsm;wdkY&JU omoemjyKtpDtpOfudk em;axmifcJhNyD;ygNyD/ <ujref;vmwJh atrmrfr[f'D[m 'Dyk*¾dKvf [kwf&JUvm;? r[kwfbl;vm; qdkwmudo k d&atmif tDpfwdcg&mjyKygqdkNyD; rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif udk,fwdkiu f tqHk;tjzwf,el nf;wpfckudk rdefYMum;xm;ygw,f/ 'DvdkeJY xdkaeYupNyD; uRefawmf[m tDpfwdcg&m jyKvkyfcJhygw,f/ ,ckvdk tDpfwdcg&m jyKvkyfae&if;u wpfywftMumrSmyJ tdyfrufrSm jrifcJh&ygw,f/ trdk;wpfckatmufrSm vif;0if;awmufyaewJh yk*dK¾ vfESpfOD;udkawGYcJh&ygw,f/ tdyfrufxJrSmyJ uRefawmfh&JU rdwfaqGu ajymygw,f/ nmbufu yk*¾dKvfu atrmrfr[f'DyJ? aemufwpfOD;udkawmh olrodygbl;/ tJ'DaemufrSm uRefawmf&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; odcJh&ygw,f/ yGifhay:vmwJh atrmrfr[f'D[m rSefuefoljzpfw,f/ tu,fí (etlZkbdv’m[f) ol[m vdrfnmoljzpfr,f qdk&if uRefawmfh&JU tDpfwdcg&m 0wfjyKNyD; tajzawmif;wJh tcsderf Sm b,fvdkvkyf ay:vmEdkifyghrvJ/ 'DvdkeJY uRefawmf[m bdkiftwf,lcJhygw,f/} wpfzef tD*spfrS trsdK;orD;wpfOD;u uRefawmfhxH pma&;vdkufygw,f/ ]tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfu t&SifhzZvfaus;Zl;awmfoufoufjzifh tcsdKUaom aumif;rIrsm;udk csD;jr§ifhxm;ygw,f/ 'DvdkeJY uRefr[m tdyfrufrSm rD&fZm *dkvmrft[fr'fum'D,meD()eJY (yOörcvDzm)ocifBuD;udk jrifcJh&ygw,f/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfudk usdefqdkoufaoxm;NyD; ajymyghr,f/ xkdtcsdefu uRefr&JUtodxJrmS 'DaeY urÇmavmurSm cvDzmwpfyg;yg; &Sdaew,fqdkwm


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 25

udkawmif odrxm;ygbl;/ uRefr[m tDpfwdcg&m ermZfudkom 0wfjyKaecJhNyD; t&Sifjrwfu uRefrudk yk*¾dKvfESpfOD;udk jyocJhygw,f/ 'gayrJh ½dIifwmefu uRefrudk vSnhfjzm;cJhygao;w,f/ odkYaomf ,ckawmh t&Sifjrwfu uRefrudk trSefw&m;udk vufcHEdkifpGrf;ay;cJhwJhtwGuf t&Sifjrwfudk txl;yif aus;Zl;wifygw,f/ uRefr[m ½dIifwmef&JU vSnhfjzm;cH&rIuae vGwfajrmuf vmcJhNyD/ cdkifcHhNrJjrHpGm&yfwnfEdkifzdkYeJY t&SifjrwfxHawmfrS cGifhvTwfoem;jcif; cH&zdkY twGuf 'dktmjyKvkyfay;zdkY yefMum;tyfygw,f/} tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfonf olrtm; cdkifcHhNrJjrHpGm &yfwnfEdkifpGrf;ay;oem; awmfrlygap/ 'ghtjyif armf½dkudkrS trsdK;orD;wpfOD;u a&;om;vdkufygw,f/ ]vDumrtvf t&Af tpDtpOfrSwpfqifh *srmtwfeJY rdwfqufcJhygw,f/ pwkw¬ cvDzwGvrf qD[focifBuD;&JU rdefYMum;csufawG[m tvGef oufaocdkifvHkNyD; pdwfauseyfp&mjzpfygw,f/ 'Dvdk&SdayrJhvnf; ocifBuD;u tpDtpOfwdkif;rSm tDpfwdcg&m0wfjyKzdkY? [mZ&wfrqD[farmftl;'f()ocif rSefuefrIeJY pyfvsOf;vkdY tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHrSm 'dktmjyKvkyfzdkY&m tNrJ EdI;aqmfaecJhyg w,f/ 'gaMumifh uRefr[m tDpw f dcg&m pwif0wfjyKcJhygw,f/ tdyfrufrSm jrifcJh&wmu ]tvGefus,fjyefYwJh ajruGufvyfwpfckrSm &Snfvsm; BuD;rm;wJh &GufzsifwJwpfck xdk;xm;ygw,f/ wJxJrSm yk*dK¾ vfwpfOD;[m tvGef 0rf;enf;pGm aomujzifx h dkifaeygw,f/ xdkpOfrSmyJ yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;u olYteD;odkY csOf;uyfvsuf bmaMumifhrsm; 'Davmufawmif 0rf;enf;ae&wmygvJvdkY ar;jref;ygw,f/ olu tajzay;ygw,f/ ]uREkfyf[m rqD[farmftl;'f jzpfw,f? uREkfyf[m vlawGudk ajzmifhrSefwJhvrf;bufuzdk dwfac:w,f? 'gayrJh vlawG[m uREkfyfudk vufrcHMubl;/} 'DtcgrSm ar;jref;olu olYudk ajymyg w,f/ ]igu toifhudk axmufcHw,f? ig[m tv’m[f&JUwrefawmf rdk[r®'f()jzpfw,f}vdkY ajymygw,f/ 'Dtdyfrufudk jrifrufNyD;aemufrSm uRefru ,ck jzpfp&m&SdwmawG jzpfygapawmh? ,ck uRefr b,ft&mudkrS


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 26

ta&;rpdkufawmhbl;/ 'DvdkeJY uRefr tjrefqHk; bdkiftwf,lcJhygw,f/ wpfNydKifwnf;rSmyJ ]y&f'g}NcHKvTm;jcif;vnf; jyKcJhygw,f/} olr[m 'DEdkifiH(vef'ef)udkvnf; a&mufvmcJhygw,f/ *svfqm&JU jrifuGif;awGudk Munhf½IcJhw,f/ *svfqmusif;yjyKvkyf&m &GufzsifwJBuD;udk vnf; jrifawGYcJh&ygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm olru tdyfrufxJrSm jrifcJh&wJh rqD[farmftl;'f()ocifBuD;wpfOD;wnf; xdkifaeNyD; wrefawmfjrwf()u ocifBuD;tm; axmufcHaMumif; ajymMum;cJhwJh ae&myJvdkY ajymygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf rmvDEdkifiHrS rdktmvifrf tAf'Gv’m[fqm[dbf a&;om;onfrSmausmif;q&mwpfOD;[m t[fr'D,wfudk jyif;xefpGm qefYusifolwpfOD; jzpfygw,f/ ol[m t[fr'D,m a&'D,dktoHvTifhXmeudk zkef;qufoG,fwJh tcgwdkif;rSm *srmtwfudk qJqdkavh&Sdygw,f/ 'DvdkjyKvkyf&if;u tcsdefumv awmfawmfMumoGm;cJhygw,f/ wpf&ufrSm ol[m t[fr'D,m toHvTifhXme ]&Af0g FM}odkY zkef;quf&if; idkaecJhygw,f/ olu ajymjyonfrSm- ol[m wpfn tdyfrufrSm rqD[farmftl;'f()ocifudk OD;pGmjrifawGYcJh&NyD; ocifBuD;ESifhtwl&SdwJh tvif;a&mifudk ol[m ,cif b,fwkef;urS rjrifcJh&zl;ygbl;/ 'DvkdaMumifh ol[m *srmtwftay: ½dk;om;pGm zGifh[vsuf awmif;yefpum;qdkcJhygw,f/ NyD;awmh t[fr'DawGu olYudk cGifhrvTwfbl; qdk&if tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfuyg olYudk cGifhrvTwfrSmudk pdk;&drfcJhygw,f/ 'Dtcg rdktmvifrfqm[dbfu olYukd ,ck trSefw&m;u xif&Sm;cJhNyDjzpfwmaMumifh bdkiftwf,lvdkufygqdkNyD; t[fr'D,wfbufodkY zdwfac:cJhygw,f/ 'DvdkeJY ol[m t[fr'D,wfuv dk ufcHcJhNyD; t[fr'D,wf? ppfrSefonfh tpövmrf twGif;odkY 0ifa&mufvmcJhygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf rmvDEdkifiH udkvDudk½dkc½dkifrS rdktmvifrf ,lpGzfqm[dbfu a&;om;ygw,f/ uRefawmfwdkY udkvDudk½dkc½dkif&JU aus;&GmwpfckrSm yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;&Sdygw,f/ ol[m arG;uwnf;u rGwfpvifwpfOD;jzpfygw,f/ 'gayrJh ol[m rGwfpviftoif;tzGJYawG&JU vIyf&Sm;rIawGudkMunhfNyD; b,ftoif;tzGu JY tv’m[ft&SifjrwfbufuvJqdkwmudrk odEdkifbJ


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 27

jzpfaeygw,f/ tcsdefumvawmfawmfMum trSefw&m;udk &SmazGcJhygw,f/ 'gayrJh b,fae&mrSmrS trSefw&m;udk rawGYcJh&ygbl;/ wpf&ufrSm olu t[fr'D,m ]&Af0g}a&'D,dktpDtpOfudk csdefvdkufwJhtcg rdktmvifrf qm[dbfu ]b,folrqdk ppfrSefwJh omoemhvrf;pOfudk odvdkw,fqdk&if tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHrSm 'kdtmjyKvkyfyg? t&Sifjrwfudk,fawmfwdkifu vrf;nTefawmfrlygvdrfhr,f}qdkNyD; rdefYcGef;rSmajymMum;cJhwmudk Mum;vdkuf&yg w,f/ 'Denf;vrf;udk olu tvGefyEJ SpfoufcJhygw,f/ olu xdkpum; twdkif; vdkufemusifhoHk;zdkYtwGuf w&m;pcef;0ifzdkY &nf&G,fcJhygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf olu tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHu vrf;nTefrIudk r&rcsif; b,foleJYrS pum;rajymawmhb;l ? t&SifjrwfxHrSm 'kdtmjyKvsufom aeawmhr,fvdkY &nf&G,fcJhygw,f/ 'DvdkeJY w&m;pcef;0ifvdkY &uftenf;i,f rSmyJ t&Sifjrwfu olYudk jyocJhygw,f/ atrmrfr[f'D()[m olY&JU tdrfay:odkY qif;oufvmNyD; olY&JU om;jzpfol OD;acgif;udk cspfcif,k,pGmjzifh yGwfoyfay;cJhw,f/ 'Dtdyfrufudk jrifrufNyD;aemufrSmyJ olY&JU rsufvHk;yGihfoGm;ygw,f/ tJ'DaemufrSm ol[m pGJpGJjrJjrJ,HkMunfoGm;cJhwmu urÇmavmuwpfckvHk;rSm t[fr'DawGomvQif trSefw&m;ay:rSm &SdMu w,f/ bmaMumifhvJqdk&if olwdkYomvQif atrmrfr[f'DyGifhay:NyD qdkwJhowif;udk ay;aeMuolal wGjzpfw,f/ 'Dtdyfrufudk jrifrufNyD;aemuf csufcsif;yJ ol[m rmvDEdkifiH&JU *svfqmtcrf;tem;odkY wufa&mufcJhyg w,f/ xdktcrf;tem;rSm atrmrfr[f'o D cifBuD;&JU "mwfyHkudkMunhfNy;D ]'g[m uRefawmfhtdrfudk <ua&mufvmcJhwJh atrmrfr[f'D()yJ}qdkNyD; ajymygw,f/ 'DvdkeJY ol[m bdkiftwf,lcJhygw,f/ rmvDEdkifiHrS rdk&AÁD bDvmvfqm[dbfa&;om;onfrSm- t[fr'D,m toHvTifhXme ]qDumqdk}odkY uRefawmfwdkY&JU t[fr'DnDaemifwpfOD; a&mufvmvsuf ajymjyygw,f/ olY&JU tdrfeD;csif;wpfOD;u olYxHudka&muf vmNyD; idkauR;vsuf awmif;yefcJhygw,f/ olu taMumif;udkar;awmh tdrfeD;csif;u ]uRefawmf[m t[fr'D,wfudk tvGef rkef;wD;cJhygw,f/


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 28

t[fr'DawG&JU a&'D,dktpDtpOfudk em;axmifwJhtcgwdkif;rSm qJa&;wdkif; xGmrIuvGJvdkY uRefawmfyh g;pyfu bmrS xGufrvmygbl;/ raeYu cifAsm;wdkY&JU omoemjyK[m wdkuf½dkut f pDtpOfwpfck wifqufaecJhygw,f/ 'DtpDtpOf udk em;axmif&if; pdwfxJrSm a&&GwfqJqdkaevsufu tdyfaysmo f Gm;ygw,f/ nbuftdyfrufrSm wrefawmfjrwf()<ujref;vmNyD; uRefawmfhudk jyif;xefpGmrmefrJcJhygw,f/ tdyfrufxJrSmyJ uRefawmf[m wrefawmfjrwf ()udk ]td-k wrefawmfjrwf? uRefawmfrsdK;udk cGifhvTwfyg}qdkNyD; awmif;yefcJhyg w,f/ 'gaMumifh aemufaemifudk uRefawmf b,fawmhrS t[fr'DawGudk raumif;rajymawmhygbl;/ ,aeYupNyD; uRefawmfvnf;yJ t[fr'DjzpfNy}D vdakY jymoGm;ygw,f/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf&JU zZvfaus;Zl;awmfeJY ol[m ,ck pdwftm;xufoefwJh omoemjyKwpfa,muf jzpfaeygNyD/ rmvDrS rdktmvifrf tAf'Gv’m[fqm[dbfa&;om;onfrSm- ausmif;om; wpfOD;[m tifwmeufrSwpfqifh t[fr'D,wftaMumif;udk avhvmcJhyg w,f/ 'Dvdkavhvm&if;u ol[m tifwmeufrSwpfqifh jyifopf *srmtwfeJY qufoG,fcJhygw,f/ jyifopfEdkifi*H srmtwfu olYudk rmvDEdkifiH&JU a'o qdkif&m*srmtwf rpf&Siv f dyfpmudk ay;vdkufygw,f/ 'DvdkeJY xdkausmif;om; [m rdktmvifrfqm[dbfeJY qufoG,fcJhygw,f/ ar;cGef;wpfcsdKUar;jref; ygw,f/ ar;cGef;awG&JUtajzudk&wJhtcg xkdausmif;om;[m *srmtwfeJY ywfoufvdkY em;vnfoGm;cJhayrJh bdkiftwf r,lao;ygbl;/ wpf&ufrSm ausmif;om;[m rdktmvifrfqm[dbfxHodkY a&mufvmNyD; bdkiftwf,lvdk aMumif; ajymygw,f/ bmaMumifhvJqdk&if ol[m nwkef;u tdyfrufrSm rqD[farmftl;'f()ocifujdk rifrufcJhNyD; ocifBuD;u olYtdrfodkY <ujref;vm cJah Mumif;? ocifBuD;&JU rsufESmawmfrSm tvif;a&mifjynhfvTrf;vsuf&SdaeNyD; 'Dvdktvif;a&mifudk ol[m b,fwkef;urS rjrifzl;bl;vdkY qdkygw,f/ 'DvdkeJY olu ],ck uRefawmf bdkiftwf,lcsifygw,f}vdkY ajymygw,f/ ol[m bdkiftwf,lvdkwJhtjyif *srmtwfeJYyl;aygif;vsuf omoemjyKvkyfief; vkyaf qmifzkYv d nf; pdwftm;xufoefvsuf&Sdygw,f/


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 29

wpfzef rmvDEdkifiH udkvDudk½dkc½dkifrS rdkbmvd*(f omoemjyK) zmawh[f qm[dbu f a&;om;vdkufygw,f/ uRefawmfwcdkY ½dkife,f udkvDudk½dkrS qtD;'f trnf&SdwJh yk*¾dKvfwpfa,muf[m uRefawmfwdkY&UJ a&'D,dktoHvTifhXme ]tvfEl;&f}okdY a&mufvmygw,f/ olu ajymjyygw,f/ ]uRefawmfh&JU bdk;ab;pOfqufu ½kyfwkudk;uG,folawGjzpfygw,f/ olwdkYu uRefawmfu h dk vnf; ½kyfwkudk;uG,af pcsiyf gw,f/ 'gayrJh i,fpOfuwnf;u uRefawmf[m ½kyfwkawG udk;uG,f&rSmudk rESpfoufcJhygbl;/ 'DvdkeJY uRefawmf tenf;i,f t&G,fa&mufwJhtcg ½kyfwkudk;uG,frIudk twdtvif; jiif;y,fcJhygw,f/ 'DvdkaMumifh uRefawmfh&JUrdbawGeJY usefwJh aqGrsdK;om; csif;tm;vHk;u pdwfqdk;cJhMuygw,f/ uRefawmf[m 'Dvq dk efYusifrIudk enf;enf;rS ta&;rpdkucf yJh gbl;/ uRefawmf tpövmrfudk vufcHcJhygw,f/ tpövmrfudk vufcHNyD;aemufrSm uRefawmf[m atrmrfr[f'D() <ujref;vmrSmudk apmifharQmfaevsuf&Sdygw,f/ 'Dvdk apmihfarQmfae&if; tcsdefumv&SnfMum vmNyD;aemuf wpf&uf tdyfrufrSm jrifrufcJhygw,f/ tjzLa&miftqif;&SdwJh yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;[m rmvD&JUta&SUbufrSm qif;oufvmygw,f/ 'Dyk*¾dKvfudk Munhf½IzdkYtwGuf ajrmufjrm;pGmaom vlawG pk½Hk;oGm;Muygw,f/ xdkyk*¾dKvf&JU tvGev f if;0if;awmufywJh rsufESmawmfudkjrifawGY&vsuf 'gu b,folyg vJqdkNyD; rdrdudk,frdrd jyefar;rdcJhygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm xdkyk*¾dKvf&JUaemufem;rSm &yfaewJh yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;u ]'g[m atrmrfr[f'D()yJ? ol[m yGifhay:cJhNyD; jzpfw,f} vdkYajymygw,f/ 'gudkjrifNyD;wJhaemufrSmyJ tdyfrufrSEdk;oGm;cJyh g w,f/ tJ'DaemufrSm uRefawmf[m atrmrfr[f'D() yGiafh y:cJhNyDqdkwmudk ,HkMunfoGm;ygw,f/ 'gayrJh rGwfpviftoif;tzGJYawGudk avhvmMunhf awmh olwdkYxJrSm atrmrfr[f'D()yGifhay:NyDqdkwmudk owif;ay;ol wpfOD;rS r&Sdygbl;/ wdkufqdkifpGmyJ wpf&ufrSm uRefawmf[m t[fr'D,m a&'D,t dk pDtpOf ]tvfEl;&f}udv k SnfhMunfhvdkufwJhtcg xdktpDtpOfrSm atrmrfr[f'DyGifhay:NyDqdkwt Jh aMumif;udk owif;ay;vsuf&Sdygw,f/ uRefawmf[m 'Dowif;udk em;axmif&if;uyJ 'DvlawG[m vHk;0 trSefw&m;


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 30

ay:rSm&Sdw,fqdkwm ,HkMunfoGm;cJhygw,f/} 'Dvdk tdyfruf jrifrufNyD;aemuf umvtwefMumrSm ol[m t[fr'D,mrpf&Sifov dkY ma&mufvsuf rdom;pk ESifhwuG bdkiftwfopömcH,lcJhygw,f/ olYudk rqD[farmftl;'f() ocif&JU "mwfyHkujdk yowJhtcg olu "mwfyHkudk jrif&w,fqdk&ifyJ 'g[m tdyfrufxJrSm jrifawGYcJh&wJh atrmrfr[f'o D cifBuD;yJvdkY ajymygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf ol[m z&efYcfaiG 10000 udkvnf; usef'gtjzpf xnfh0ifoGm; cJhygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfu rdrdtm; trSefw&m;udk odjrif atmif jyKvkyfay;cJhwt Jh wGuf t&Sifjrwfudk txl;yifaus;Zl;wifaMumif; ajymMum;oGm;cJhygw,f/ 'Djzpf&yftm;vHk;[m rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif&JU rSefuefrIeJYpyfvsOf;vdkY tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHawmfrS tm;ay;axmufcHrIawG? oufaovu©Pm awGjzpfygw,f/ tu,fí 'gawGukd oufaovu©PmawG? t&SifjrwfxH awmfrS axmufcHtm;ay;rIawGtjzpf vufrcHbl;qdk&if vlawG&JU ESvHk;om; xJrSm vIyfcgoGm;apcJw h Jh 'Dt&mawGu bmawGygvJ/ tjcm;rGwfpvifawG uvnf; 'DtaMumif;udk em;vnfcJhr,fqdk&if aumif;ygvdrfhr,f/ 'DtrSefw&m;ukd odjrifcGifh&zdkY 'dktmjyKvkyfMur,f? tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf xHawmfrS vrf;nTefrIudk awmif;cHMur,f? qefYusifrIjyKMur,fhtpm; ajzmifhrSefwJhvrf;udk &SmazGrIrSm ydkrdktm;xkwfBudK;yrf;aeolawGjzpfr,fqdk&if aumif;ygvdrfhr,f/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfonf olwdkYukv d nf; vrf;nTef awmfrlygap/ olwdkYtm;vHk;udk ,ckvjdk yKvkyfEdkif&ef t&Sifjrwf pGrf;tm;ay; awmfrlygap/ [mZ&wf rqD[farmftl;'f()ocif rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm]uREkfyfonf t&SifjrwfxHawmfrSjzpfaMumif;udk oufaoxl&eftwGuf t&Sifjrwfonf ajrmufjrm;pGmaomedrdwfvu©Pmrsm;udk jyocJhNyD; ,if;wdkY onf tb,frQ rsm;jym;vdkufoenf;[lrl ,if;edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;tm; wrefawmfwpfaxmifrQudk cGJa0ay;vdkufrnfqdkyguvnf; xdkedrdwfvu©Pm rsm;jzifh olw\ dkY wrefawmfjzpfjcif;udk oufaojyKEdki\ f / odkY&mwGif þonf


uwdawmfvmrqD[f? r[f'Docif\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm; 31

rSm aemufqHk;acwfumvjzpfNyD; ½dIifwmefbufrS ol\ om;ajr;&SdorQwYjdk zifh aemufqHk;wdkufcdkufrIjzpf\/ xkdYaMumifh ½dIifwmefudk acsrIef;&eftwGuf axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;udk wpfae&mwnf;wGif pkpnf;cJ&h jcif;jzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif vlwdkYteufrS rdpämpdwf&o Sd lwdkYonf vufrcHMuacs/ vdrfvnfvSnhfjzm;vsuf rw&m;ojzifh a0zefapm'u jyKcsufrsm;udk wifjyMu\/ þenf;jzifh tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHawmfrS wnfaxmifjcif;cH&aom toif;awmfudk ysufokOf;oGm;apvdkMu\/ t&Sifjrwftvdkawmf&Sdonfum; rdrd wnfaxmifvdkufaom toif;awmfukd NyD;jynhfpHkaomtqifhodkYa&mufonfhwdkif rdr\ d vufawmfjzifh tiftm;jznfh wif;ay;vd\ k /} aemufqk;H rSm uRefawmfhbufu rGwfpvifawGESifh rGwfpvifEdkifiHawGtwGuf 'dktmjyKvkyfMuzdkY&m yefMum;vdkygw,f/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfonf xkdEdkifiHrsm; wGif wnfNidrfat;csrf;rI&Sdatmif jyKay;oem;awmfrlygap/ NyD;awmh olwdkY[m wnfNidrfat;csrf;rIudk wu,fyJ wnfwHhapvdkMuw,fqdk&if tJ'DtwGuf tajzwpfckwnf;yJ&Sdygw,f/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfxu H atrmrf r[f'Dtjzpf cefYtyfapvTwjf cif;cH&ol? urÇmavmurSm Nidrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmufzdkYtwGuf apvTwfjcif;cH&oludk vufcHvdkufMu&ygr,f/ wrefawmfjrwf()&JU BudKwifAsm'dwftwdkif; yGifhay:vmwJh rqD[f rdk[r®'Dudk aemufvdkufemcHMu&ygr,f/ 'gomvQif olwdkYwawG vGwfajrmufrI&zdkYtwGuf wpfckwnf;aom ajz&Sif;&menf;vrf; jzpfygw,f/ 'grSyJ ,ckjzpfay:aewJh jyóemESifh 'ku©tcuftcJawGuae vGwfajrmuf Edkiyf gvdrhfr,f/ tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf olwkdYtm;vHk;udk þodkYjyKvkyfEdki&f ef pGrf;tm;ay;awmfrlygap/ -tmrD;efààà


owif;u@ 32

tar&duefor®wtdkbm;rm;ESifh ykyf&[ef;rif;wd\ kY ,aeYawGYqHkrIwGif rnfodkYaom&v'frsdK;udk aqmifMuOf;vmrnf[k arQmfvifh&oenf;

 or®wtdkbm;rm;onf olYemrnf\tv,fpmvHk;jzpfaom [lpdkifqdkonfh pum;vHk;ESifh ol\tpövmrfhaemufcHudk ykyf&[ef;rif;\ a&SUarSmufwGif yGifhyGifhvif;vif; [kwfrSefaMumif;todtrSwfjyK0efcHvdrfhrnf[k arQmfvifh rdNyD; rsm;rMumrDurSxkwfa0cJhaom ya&mfzufqm Bart D. Ehrman okawoejyKa&;om;aom pmtkyfjzpfonfh ]*gvdvJjynfrS *sL;vlrsdK; *kPfoa&&Sdw&m;a[mq&m a,½Ic&pfawmfonf rnfodkYrsm; bk&m; ocif jzpfvm&ygoenf;} trnf&pmtkyfudk vufaqmiftjzpf tdkbm;rm;tm; ay;tyfoGm;rnfjzpfonf/  þpmtkyftm;jzifh ESpfoef;rQaom c&pf,mefbmom0ifrsm;? wpfoef;cGJ rQaomrGwfpvifrsm;ESifh q,fhig;odef;rQaom *sL;rsm;tm; tcsdef? ae&m? ½kyf0w¬Krsm;\tvGefwGi&f Sdaom? wefcdk;MoZmt&mwGif txG#ftxdwf jzpfaom? vlom;wdkYtm; rdbxufyifydkí *½k"r®xm;aom uREkfyfwdkY bk&m;ocifxHawmfyg;odkY ydkíeD;uyfvmatmif ac:aqmifvmEdkifp&m &Sdonf/


owif;u@ 33

 or®wtdkbm;rm;onf AmwDuefwGif Mumoyaw;aeYü ykyfz&efppfESifh yxrqHk;tBudrfawGq Y HkrnfjzpfNyD; tajctaeESpfzufpvHk;rS tjrifhqHk; arQmfvifhcGi&fh Sdaeonf/  or®wtdkbm;rm;ESifh ykyfz&efppfwdkYESpfOD;rSm vlrIa&;qdkif&m w&m;rQw a&;tajccHpnf;½kd;ay:wGif &yfwnfum awGUqHkoGm;Murnfjzpfaomf vnf; ¤if;wdkYESpfOD;\þawGUqHkrIaMumifh uufovpfcsmcsfausmif;awmf ESifh or®wtdkbm;rm;wdt kY Mum; y#dyu©jzpfrIudk owday;aqmfMoae ovdk jzpfvmEdkifp&m&Sdonf/  AmwDuefoGm; þc&D;pOfonf tdkbm;rm;or®woufwrf;wGif 'kwd,tBudrfc&D;pOfjzpfaomfvnf; ykyf&[ef;rif;ESifhawGUqHk&mwGifrl ol\yxrqHk;tBudrfjzpfNyD; ol\pdwfwGif trSwfw&jzpfum pGJxif usef&pfcJhrnfhc&D;pOfvnf;jzpfonf/  uufovpfcsmcsfausmif;awmf\tBuD;tuJESifh tar&duefor®wwdkY awGUqHkaqG;aEG;Murnfhtcrf;tem;onf rnfodkYrQ ysufjy,fvGJacsmf oGm;Edkifrnfr[kwfaMumif; tjrifhqHkpHxm;umarQmfvifhxm;Muonf/  2009 ckESpfu AmwDuefodkYoGm;a&mufcJhaom tdkbm;rm;\ yxrqHk; c&D;pOfwGif Apostolic Palace wpfavQmuf olvSrf;avQmuf0ifoGm; onfhtcg twGif;eH&Hrsm;? rsufESmusurf sm;wGif tvGeftHhzG,faumif; aom tajymifajrmufqHk;vuf&mrsm;jzifh qif,ifxm;onfrsm;udk awGUcJh&NyD; olYtm; qGpfZvefxkwf ta&mifawmufawmuf ajymifajymif 0wf½kHBuD;rsm;jzifh tapmifhtMuyfrsm;u NcH&HvsufydkYaqmifjyocJhMujcif; jzpfonf/  tar&duefor®wtdkbm;rm;ESifh ZeD; rDac;vftdkbm;rm;wdkYESpfOD;onf ykyfAefeD'pf(q,fhajcmuf)ESifh AmwDuefNrdKUwGif Zlvdkif 10 &uf 2009 ckESpfu awGUqHkcJhMuonf/


owif;u@ 34

 tdkbm;rm;\ or®woufwrf;wpfavQmufwGif ykyf&[ef;rif;ESifh tDwvDEdkifiH L’Aquila &Sd G8 summit wGif yxrqHk;tBudrf awGUqHkcJhjcif;jzpfonf/  ]qGpf tapmifhtMuyf? tNcHt&Hrsm;ESifh t"duusaomyk*¾dKvfrsm;Nc&H v H suf rnfolvma&mufaMumif; cifAsm;wdkY twdtusudk ajymEdkifrSmyg}[k uufovpfcsmcsfausmif;awmf oif;tkyfq&mawmf Gerald P. Fogarty u Virginia wuúodkvfrS AmwDuefoHwrefa&;&modkY ajymMum;cJhonf/ (www.themuslimtimes.org)


owif;u@ 35

ygupöwefqdkif&m

Secularism

 rsm;pGmaomvlrsm;onf Secularism qdkonfrSm rnfonfudk qdkvdkaMumif; todr&Sdaom a&m*gcHpm;ae&onf/  tjcm;rsm;pGmaom tawG;ac:qdkif&mynm&yfrsm;uJhodkYyif Secularism onfvnf; bmoma&;u@xJwGifyg0ifywfoufaom vlrIa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? ,Ofaus;rI? vlrIqdkif&mvIy&f Sm;rIrsm; udpöt00ESifh u@ toD;oD;udk qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf/  u@toD;oD;yg0ifaom Secularism \ tajccHA[dkcsufonf csmcsfausmif;awmf0g'qdkif&m*dkPf;cGJjcif;rsm;ESifh bmoma&;? EdkifiHa&; u@toD;oD; yg0ifvsu&f Sdonf/  rGwfpviftrsm;pkaexdkifaom ygupöwefvEdk dkifiHrsdK;wGif Secularism udk trsm;pku ½Iwfcsvsu&f SdNyD; (bmoma&;tod<u,folrsm;omru tcsdKUtcgrsm;wGif jynfe,fvdkufyg) a'oem? t,l0g'wnfaqmuf xm;csufrsm;t& bmomomoemESifhqefYusifonf? xm0&bk&m; wnf&Sdjcif;udk jiif;aeonf[k orkwfum ( Secularism udk½Iwfcsonf)  Secularism qdkif&m u@toD;oD;rSm Karl Marx, Fredrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin ESifh Mao Tse Tung wd\ kY ta&;tom;rsm;\ avmif;&dyfrdxm;jcif;jzpfNyD; (17&mpkESifh 18&mpkMum;umvwGif) Oa&my


owif;u@ 36

rSpwifí ay:aygufvmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ odkYaomf þ Secularism t,ltqudk axmufcHolrsm;tMum;wGifawmh rnfodkYrQ tuGJtvGJ r&SdMu/  odkYaomf þ Secularism t,ltqonf todynmESifh,SOfaom t,ltqwpfckjzpfvmcJhaomfvnf; tcsdKUaom y½kdwufpwifhrsm;onf uufovpfrsm;tm; &efjyKqefYusifcJhMu\/ 1789 ckESpf jyifopfta&; awmfyHkwGif acwfopfOa&my Secularism t,l0g'BuD;onf tEÅ&m,f rsm;aom t,l0g'tjzpf pwifaygufuGJcJhonf/ þodkYjzpf&jcif;\ ordkif;w&m;cHrSm csmcsfausmif;awmfESifh c&pf,mefbkef;awmfBuD; avmurSjzpfNyD; xdkacwf&Sd {u&mZf&mZmrsm;ESifh z'&,ftmPmydkifrsm; u vlomrefwdkYESifhqefYusifum zdEySd fusifhoHk;cJhrIrsm;aMumifhjzpfonf/  rnfodkYqdkap 19 &mpkwi G f wpfzefay:xGef;cJhaom Oa&my Secularism t,l0g'onf olYenf;ESifholY[ef rQwnDñw G fvsu&f SdNyD; 'Drdkua&pD\ tpdwftydkif;wpfcktjzpf vGefpGmta&;BuD;NyD; xdk Secularism 0g'onf csmcsfausmif;awmfy&0kPftwGif;rSma&m vlwpfOD;csif;pD\ twGif; e,fy,frSmyg bmoma&;qdkif&mvHkNcHKpdwfcsrIudk zefwD;ay;Edkifrnf jzpfonf/ (www.themuslimtimes.org)


Friday Sermon Burmese Translation