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CROSSBOWS

By:Aaron Hampton


Fun Facts -The crossbow was made in the Middle Ages in about(1066-1458).

-Leonardo Da Vinci designed a version of the crossbow in 1500s(to the right). -A disease called Black Death which killed a lot of people in the Middle Ages.

Background On Crossbows The Crossbow really was a good weapon because,it took no skill at all to shoot and had no honor.The English Middle Ages seen buildings such as the Tower of London that helped the Normans to retain their hold on England.The Crusades and Knights in the Middle Ages,including the finding of the Knights Templar.Kings also Queens in the Middle Ages with Richard the lion heart & great plant genet which was Kings from Henry the second (1154-1189) and then to Edward

the third.The one or more hundred year war England vs. France.The battle of Hastings vs. Norman conquest willow effectively took all of the lands of Saxon English.

WWW.middle-ages.org.uk/


HELICOPTER By Amanda Bartlett Made by Igor Sikorsky

Facts about the Helicopter • During the first half century of flight is when the helicopters were developed. • The helicopter is a rotorcraft type of vehicle that lifts and thrusts • The first operational helicopter was made in 1936

HOW IT CAME TO BE An Italian inventor Leonardo Da Vinci made drawings of a flying machine.Some experts inspired the modern day helicopter.The first piloted helicopter was invented by Paul Cornu in 1907, but sadly his design did not work.Igor designed the helicopter with one main rotor and one small rotor in the tail part of the helicopter.


HELICOPTER TIMELINE • In 1480 Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw".

• In July of 1754, Mikhail Lomonosov demonstrated a small tandem rotor to the Russian Academy of Sciences

• In 1783 Christian de Launoy and his Mechanic Bienvenu made a model with a pair of counter-rotating rotors using turkey feathers as rotor blades. • In 1784 he demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences • In 1861 the word helicopter was coined by Gustave de pontoon d'Amecourt , French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. • In 1885 Thomas Edison was given $1000 by James Gordon Bennett to conduct experiments towards developing towards flight. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicopter http://inventors.about.com/od/hstartinventions/a/ helicopter.htm


ROLLER SKATES Roller skates come in 3 basic varieties.Inline skates,quad skates,and quintessence skates.Inline skates design was invented by Jean Joseph Merlin in the 18th century.His invention did not become popular.There was this man named James Plimpton from Massachusetts that invented the rocking skates in 1863.This was an improvement on roller skates.It allowed people to turn easily around corners.Now roller skates are America's number 1 thing.

Amber Ledford http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roller_skating


BENJAMIN FRANKLIN In Boston Massachusetts 1746, Ben Franklin saw other people's electrical experiments, so in 1749 he invented the lightning rod because he loved to study lightning. It could also be called a lightning attractor. A lightning rod USA metal object. To make the lightning rod he used a kite,a key, and a rope.Ben Franklin knew the lightning was a property of electricity.The rod was 8 to 10 feet long with a sharpen point on it. Ariana reams http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/lightningrod.htm


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COINS The Turkish The Turkish


Velcro By Autumn Miller All about Velcro the invention of Velcro

Velcro was invented in 1948 by a man named George de Mestral. Here is how it was invented.One day he was taking his dog for a walk.When they got home they were covered in cockle burrs.George ran home to his microscope to see why the cockle burrs got stuck to his pants.George got his microscope and inspected one of the burrs that were stuck to his pants. He saw all the small hooks on the burr seed.He put his head up and said "I will design a unique two sided fastener,one side with stiff hook like the burr and the other side with soft loops"like the fabric of his pants.One of the reasons I think we use velcro for shoes is because some boys and girls don't know how to tie their shoes.And thank God of Velcro because kids can just wrap the Velcro around there shoes.Thats why people use velcro.


HELICOPTER Breonna Twitty A helicopter is a rotor craft which means it's a machine heavier than air.The rotors supply the lift and thrust.Because of the rotor,it allows the helicopter to take off,land,stay still,fly forwards,and backwards.The rotor also allows the helicopter to be used in blocked off places and crowded areas.A vertical takeoff and landing does not allow the helicopter to have the capability of staying still for a long periods of time,but a helicopter can accomplish it.

A helicopter is a rotor craft which means it's a machine heavier than air.The rotors supply the lift and thrust.Because of the rotor,it allows the helicopter to take off,land,stay still,fly forwards,and backwards.The rotor also allows the helicopter to be used in blocked off places and crowded areas.A vertical takeoff and landing does not allow the helicopter to have the capability of staying still for a long periods of time,but a helicopter can accomplish it.


CHOCOLATE

Brianna Gregory

The Mayans first discovered the coco bean Chocolate is a common ingredient in sweets Chocolate can give acne. There many kinds of chocolate Mayans began using coco beans. Did you know that coco beans can be grounded in to chocolate. There are many Kinds of chocolate like dark,white,German,milk,semi sweet. Chocolate. Is a common ingredient in sweets chocolate Can give you acne.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chocolate


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CHOCOLATE

Caitlin.

The Mayans first discovered the cocoa bean The cocoa bean was first discovered by the Mayans and Aztecs. Cocoa beans can be grounded into chocolate .Chocolate is a common ingredient in sweets it is very popular in the US .There are 7 types of chocolate or more .The kinds of chocolate are Baking,Dark,SemiSweet ,German,Dutch,White,and Decorators.One last fact chocolate can give you acne. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chocolate


VELCRO

Chelsea Carpenter

George de Mestral

In 1948, a man named George de Mestral and his dog went for a nature hike. When they returned home, both George and his dog were covered with burrs. When George discovered this, he ran to his microscope to see why the burrs stuck to his pants. George then started thinking" I will design a unique two sided fastener, one side with stiff hooks like the burrs, and the other side with soft loops like my pants. I will call my invention 'Velcro' a combination of the words velour and crochet. It will rival the zipper in its ability to fasten". George's idea was laughed at and resisted, but he still wanted to invent it. With a textile plant in France, he perfected his hook and loop design. In 1955, George de Mestral got his invention patented. http://inventors.about.com/od/astartinventions/a/FamousInvention.htm


De'AndreGabriel

CANDY BARS Joseph Fry

In 1847 a man named Joseph Fry discovered ways to mix melted cacao butter and sugar so that he can make a paste that could be pressed into mold. What resulted from this was such a big hit.Soon people had to eat all kind of chocolate bars.They even made drinks out of chocolate We can thank Joseph Fry for all our chocolate bars.He died in 1879

http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/candybar.htm


CROSSBOWS By: Denzel Littlejohn

The History Of Crossbows Leonardo Da Vinci designed a version of the crossbow in 1500.He wasn't the actual inventor of the crossbow.There is no specific inventor of the crossbow.The Chinese were the first to use the crossbow.The crossbow was used as a dangerous weapon .Greeks and Romans were known to use this weapon.In 1066 the medieval crossbow was introduced to England by William The Conqueror.There was a knight that was the most powerful knight that used a crossbow.The crossbow could be used to injure or kill in plate armor by an untrained soldier.The crossbow required no skill.Richard lionheart's army used both crossbows and longbows.Richard Lionheart was shot by a crossbow on the 26th of March,1199.Crossbowmen were banished from England. WWW.middle-ages.uk/crossbow.htm


Submarines There are a lot of submarines on earth . There have been lots of people killed by them. Submarines are very large and they have guns on them. They are under water most of the time but sometimes they are on top.There are human powered submarines. Some that have wings can fly.

Derek


SPINNING JENNY • Destiny •The idea was developed by Hargreaves as a metal frame with eight wooden spindles at one end. A set of eight rovings was attached to a beam on that frame. The rovings when extended passed through two horizontal bars of wood that could be attached together.

These bars could be drawn along the top of the frame by the spinner's left hand thus extending the thread. The spinner used his right hand to rapidly turn a wheel which all the spindles to revolve, and the thread to be spun.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Spinning_jenny The spinning Jenny was really old but it looked very clean.


TANK

Edgar

Lancelot de mole World War 1 was when the history of the tank began. The army began to use tanks although they were not very dependable. Tanks were designed differently World War 2. They were used a lot in the Cold War. Now it's the main thing we use today. Tank fire power is normally provided by a large caliber main gun.


MICROSCOPE Francisco Aleman

Because of foreign production , quality microscopes have become affordable for all. Zachariah's Jessen the inventor of the microscope , would marvel at the quality of even the most basic microscope found in schools today .Today there are no microscope manufacturers in the us and most of the microscopes come from Germany , Japan ,and China .toy plastic microscopes should be avoided as they not achieve the level of quality of the basic instrument with metal frames and glass lenses. These lenses were not used much until the end of the 13 th century when spectacle makers were producing lenses to be work to make more glasses. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microscope


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VIDEO GAMES

Jacob Norris

Inventor Norman Bushnell

Video games were invented in 1972. They were made in the USA . The history of the video games span almost five decades. Since 2005, 4 new game systems were made,Play station portable ,Xbox 360 play station3,Nintendo revelation. In 2002 sega became a third party developer for Nintendo,Sony,Microsoft. In 2002 play station 2 was released. Nintendo released super game boy. The Nintendo Revelation is the Nintendo wii. The first console came out in 1972. Console and portable software Sales were 6.2 billion up 8 percent from 2003.

http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/ videogame.htm


SLINGSHOT by,Javion Price A slingshot has a couple of other names.The shangai or the catapult.Most people shoot a slingshot with their useful hand.Home made slingshots were the most popular Kids toy in the 20th century.They were also used for small game hunting.They are still used and made by adults and children.They have a range up to 25

meters.They are simple made with rubber bands and a simple forked stick.Armando Cortez is the first person to invent the slingshot


DIESEL ENGINE Rudolf Diesel

About

Jayda

The inventor of the Diesel engine is Rudolf Diesel . The diesel engine was invented in 1893 . Although the diesel engine was mostly known for the name diesel engine but it is also known for the name compression -ignition too . A diesel engine runs on diesel gasoline . August 10,1897, Diesel built the first working prototype in Augsburg . In 1899 diesel licensed his engine to builders Krupp and Sulzer who quickly became major manufacturers . The prime model was a 10 foot (3.0) iron cylinder with a flywheel at it's base, ran own its own power.

Rudolf Diesel Rudolf Diesel was born in Paris in 1858 and lived with German expatriates . His true love was an engine design . He designed many heat engines . In1893 he showed a slow combustion engine . It first compressed air and gradually compressed fuel . The 3 things that diesel inventions have in common is natural processes , heat transfer , and laws.


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Jordan Littlejohn

SUBMARINES Submarines are long and very large in size. They are under water. John Holland invented the submarine. submarines dive Under the water to hide from people on land. They do not only go under water sometimes they floor like real boats on top of the water. One was used in the Civil War and got lost in a storm in the coast off Cape Hatteras on April 1,1863.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Submarine •


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Josh J.

VIDEO GAMES Nolan Bushnell

Video games were invented in 1972. They were made in the U.S.A. . The history of the video games spans almost five decades. Since 2005 4 new new game systems were made,Play Station Portable, Xbox 360, Play Station 3, Nintendo revolution. In 2002 Sega became a third party developer for Nintendo, Sony, Microsoft. In 2000 Play Station 2 was released. In 1994 Nintendo released Super Game Boy. The Nintendo Revolution is the wii. 1972 was the year that the first console came out. Console and portable software sales were $6.2 billion, up 8 percent from 2003.


TEDDY BEAR

Jyrah

Richard Steiff

A teddy bear is a stuffed animal. It is stuffed with white cotton and can be of any color with different decorations on it . Richard Steiff invented the teddy bear .The name teddy bear comes from the United States president Theodore Rossevelt whose nickname was Teddy. A teddy bear is a perfect gift for kids. They must have a special kind of eye so they won't pose a choking hazard for little children. Teddy bears can be made out of lots of things.They can be bought in placesSuch as the the flea market,thrift store,or a garage sale.


DIESEL ENGINE Kamya Rudolf diesel created the first Diesel engine to go in a truck in 1900. He was born in Paris 1858. His mother and father sold him to German expatriates. He was also known for the invention of the heat engine in 1913. For his whole life he only loved designing engines and making them. On September 29, 1970 he passed away. www.en.wikipeda.org/ wiki/deisal


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LENSES AND GLASSES Kendall

In the 1st century ad during the 100 is when glasses were invented. The Romans tested the glasses to see if the invention worked.The Romans experimented with different shapes of glass to how clear it was. There was one sample that was thick in the middle, but thin on the edges. They found out if you hold then lenses over an object , the object would look bigger. It was also discovered that if you focused on the rays of the sun with one of the special lenses, you would start a fire. The early glasses were called magnifiers or some would call it burning glasses. The word lens came from the Latin word called lentil.


Khia Camp

Roller Skates Roller skates come in three basic varieties:inline skates,quad skates,and quintessence skates.inline skates design was Invented by jean Joseph Merlin in 18th century his invention Did not become popular.there was this man name James Plimpton from Massachusetts that invented the rocking skates in 1863.this was an improvement on roller skates.It allowed people to turn easily around corners.

http://www.ideafinder.com/history/category/toys.htm


Slingshot Charles Goodyear invented the first slingshot Russia in the late 1800's it was made from a Y-shaped stick and rubber from the inside of a tireRussia. The slingshot is mostly used by kids or teenagers not really used by adults. You will most likely never see one in war. There are many different kind of slingshot there are ones that can hold a bow some strap on your arm I gust name some good kinds if you want to make one look at the pic beside the words. It can also can be used to hunt small animals here are some of there names squirrel rabbits birds.

Quick facts

Slingshots

• First slingshot was made in 1800 • Was made out of a y shape stick and a tube from a rubber tire • With the right one you can kill small animals

Landyn Millwood


COTTON GIN - ELI WHITNEY By Laniah Snow

The Cotton Gin was a machine that separates the seeds from the cotton. Before they made it people picked Cotton and took out seeds by hand. The Cotton Gin has been used for 500 years. In 1794, Mr. Eli Whitney used a combination of wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through while it continuously removed the loose cotton lint to prevent jams. www.wikipedia.org


LIGHTNING ROD Lisandra Hernandez

Benjamin Franklin

Quick facts The lightning rod was invented in 1749. Benjamin Franklin made electricity with the lightning rod. Had to use supplies to make the lightning rod.

Information The Lightning Rod was invented in 1947.The inventor was Benjamin Franklin.Ben used a kite,a key,and a rope to make electricity.Benjamin Franklin loved to study lightning.Benjamin Franklin was thinking about protecting people and other structure from lightning.He knew that lightning was a property of electricity.Franklin began to make the lightning rod that had sharp points.this happened in Boston Massachusetts.

www.idea.com/history/lightningrod.htm


Nick Gossett

SPINNING JENNY James Hargreaves

The spinning jenny was created by James Hargreaves. Mr. Hargreaves made spinning jenny in 1764. He didn't name Spinning Jenny after his daughters or wife. It was made for spinning,drawing,and twisting cotton. On one of the Spinning Jenny's there was engraving that said by T.E Nicholson (1835). There are 20,000 Spinning Jenny's in Britain. The Spinning Jenny was a industrialization era machine that drastically increased the production of yarn. He made it because the current textile factories could not keep up with demand of foreign markets.


GARDEN PROJECT LIGHTNING ROD

Nicole Hudson

Benjamin Franklin created electricity.Electricity is made in power stations.It dates back to 600 BC.We use electricity every day for power.Benjamin Franklin found out about electricity and researched about it in 1752.There are two types of electricity static electricity and current electricity.You can make static electricity by rubbing two objects together and creating friction.Current electricity is the flow of electric charge.


Teddy Bear A teddy bear is a bear that you play with.A teddy bear can be white,brown,black,and it comes in different size.You can buy one anywhere! Sometime teddy bears festivals have now become popular around the world. Sometimes children like to read books about teddy bears. Some people can make teddy bears. Some teddy bear artists specialize in crochet bear made out of thread. Teddy bears come various styles and people have collected them for a hobby. In the person who invented them was Theodore Roosevelt. Niesha


TANK

Rodney

Eldin de mole

Tanks were used in world war l and ll. A loader, gunner, driver, and a commander. Eldin de mole was the inventor of the tank.


BUBBLE GUM

Tina

Walter Diemer

Bubble Gum!This chewy object was first invented by a man named Walter Diemer.Bubble gum wasn't always called Bubble gum,it actually was called Blibber Blubber.It also only came in the color pink.And for some people it can be a stress reliever.But did you know that Bubble gum and chewing gum are not the same thing?Chewing gum is natural gum called chicle harvested from the sap of a tropical tree called a sopapilla tree.This type is chewy.Bubble gum ,on the other hand,is made from a mixture of starches and polymers especially made to blow big bubbles .


BUBBLE GUM Walter Diemer Yanira Navarro

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/bubble-gum-facts.html

Bubble gum! This yummy candy chewy object is being chewed all over the world! This object helps you to concentrate and relives stress. Some people get confused with bubble gum and chewing gum.the difference between both of them is their gum base. Chewing gum has a natural base called a chicle harvested from a sap tropical tree called a sopapilla tree.Bubble gum has a mixture of starches and polymers especially to blow big bubbles.Did you know that kids spent half a billion dollars on bubble gum! Wow that's a lot! In a book of world records the largest bubble gum ever blown was 23 inches in diameter. Bubble gum is awesome!

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COINS The Turkish

Zykeria

A coin is something that you can spend.It is metal and is made from a metallic material.There is a coin that has an American Eagle on it.The coins are metal and were issued by the priests.They can become dollars if you have enough and can be a good gift for a person.Coins weigh about 14.1 grams.you can make things out of coins.you can also play with coins like doing magic tricks.Coins can be the colors silver,gold,and brown.some coins are rusty and some coins are very shiny and clean.The clean ones look like they have just been made.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coin

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