International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR) ISSN 2249-6947 Vol. 3, Issue 2, Jun 2013, 75-84 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CASE STUDY IN SOCIAL INQUIRY IN EVALUATING PIANO AS COMPULSORY COURSE (Reliability Study of the Case Study in Social Inqury in Evaluating Piano as a Compulsory Course to Music Teacher Candidate in Music Education Department UPI) DIAH LATIFAH Music Education Department, Arts and Languages Education Faculty, University of Education (UPI), Bandung, Indonesia
ABSTRACT The study was an evaluative research. It discussed the reliability of Case study in Social Inquiry in evaluating the shortcomings of piano as a compulsory course to produce general music teacher at school. It was taken place at Indonesia University of Education and Pasundan High School Bandung. The range of the research was in 2007 until 2011. The result implied that Case study in Social Inquiry has the reliability in evaluating piano as a compulsory course, having process characterized content in the esthetic of piano music, and comprising the standardized pedagogical material to produce music teacher. The evaluation result enlightened the main shortcomings existing in the syllabus that did not contain educational core subject and the component of general music instruction, which is applied through piano. The instruction process is conducted in accordance with the syllabus content; yet, it has not provided the students with the component of general music instruction. The result of the instruction stated that the teacher candidates were not prepared to teach using piano. This research recommends the syllabus’ changes to keep pace with the given instruction.
KEYWORDS: Infeasibility of the Curriculum-Evaluation, Case Study in Social Inquiry-Recommendation INTRODUCTION Case study in social inquiry is one of the evaluation models existed in the field of education and curriculum that has phenomenology character in nature. It has the specialty in social interaction that the participants perform in the evaluation process. This evaluation model was coined by Robert E. Stake and it has special features, which others evaluation models are rare to have. This phenomenological evaluation model interprets evaluation work as it is. It is based on factual facts and it shows students real quality in terms of his or her weaknesses or strengths. The rationale of this phenomenological evaluation model is case study and it is centered on one local and happening phenomena that is analyzed fitting with the occurrences of the original issues in the real environment. As stated by Huserl in his philosophical motto “return itself to everything” (Zu den Sachen Selbst) (Misiak, et. Al. 2009: 16), this research was conducted derived from real events and/or the study of the curriculum evaluation. Scientific truth from this discipline is based on real experience, impartiality. Every event was anchored in real empirical facts. It was described in detail according to what happened, without fabrication and returned to all events in the conducted curriculum evaluation. The study of the phenomenology in curriculum evaluation was stated by Landman as follows: Phenomenology is significant elements from the research of the curriculum, especially curriculum design and evaluation. The essence of phenomenology is the probability of the existence, and phenomenology is reflections of awards to fundamental structure of experience. (Landman, 2006. Translation (2006) of: Landman, W. A.: Fenomenologiese metode. Pedagogiekjoernaal (1983) Vol. 4, No. 2, 44-64.)
In its evaluating performance of the piano as compulsory course, this evaluation model has been confirmed to have the reliability because, the compulsory course as a content filled with the aesthetic aspect, is also filled with the deepening of affective aspect in music education, which is interpreted through piano. The music teacher candidates and piano lecturer, who is in charge on giving the music teacher candidates knowledge in piano as well as dimensional instructional of musical pedagogy content, are people who possess musical sensitivity. Every individual has different level of musical sensitivity; but, the participants have knowledgeable skills musical aesthetic field. Every lecturer has different taste of music, and the lecturers are expert in terms of rhythm, tonal, melody, and harmony. They understand and interpret the structure musical work through piano. Nevertheless, they have different fashion in expressing their music through piano. The differences occur even when they play role as music players, as lecturers who teach piano instruction, and as music lecturers in general. Similar to the lecturers, the students, who are music teacher candidates who learn piano as compulsory course, they have difference sensitivity in music; yet, as well as their lecturers, they are knowledgeable in music. On the other side, the participants have similar standard, the curricula implementation to produce first-class music teachers. To evaluate the course, a flexible evaluation model was needed because it must have not only the strength to evaluate standardized curriculum implementation, but also strength to evaluate process-based curriculum implementation. The reliability of this evaluation model of case study in investigating social inquiry is because of its naturalistic nature in enfolding and interpreting humanism elements, which are present in music instruction of the teacher candidates and music education. Stake (2008:5) stated”He was saying that our methods of studying human affairs need to capitalize upon the natural powers of people to experience and understand”. It means that when we study human being we need to highlight the human beings’ natural power to experience and understand. Case study in social inquiry emphasizes special interpretation on the limitation to what the researcher focuses on. It would be difficult to evaluate this course if the evaluation standard was rigid, Stake (2008:5) affirmed: “It is widely believed that case studies are useful in study of human affairs because they are down to earth and attention-holding but that they are not a suitable basis for generalization”, it means that generally case study is really fruitful to examine humanities research because it was simple and attentive to details, yet it does not have generalization ability. On the other hand, this evaluation model has simple, natural, and humanity quality. Therefore, the evaluation result can be categorized as having the humanity nature and it is needed in humanity science, then this model possesses naturalistic generalization character. As stated above, the piano as compulsory course has been evaluated as having process quality, containing aesthetic value, which was expressed in pedagogical mode by human who expressed musical taste in the learning process, stagnation would likely to happen in the evaluation process if the instruction was evaluated in a strict standardization. In addition, the evaluation model also must hold the ability to assess the standardized curriculum implementation enclosing humanity aspect. Stake (2008: 6) restated that “Naturalistic generalizations develop within a person as a product of experience”, implying that naturalistic generalization expands students’ ability through their experiences. In this study, generalization could be clarified as instruction implementation that was managed by the piano as compulsory course lecturer, who experienced the teaching and learning process, and the students, teacher candidates, who had pedagogical experience in learning piano as compulsory course. Scriven describe evaluation in teacher world as “What teachers have done, inside and outside the classroom, has to be the center of evaluation.” (Scriven, 1973; Borich, 1977 in Stake 1998: 7). Moreover, Stake (1998) augmented that:
The Implementation of Case Study in Social Inquiry in Evaluating Piano as Compulsory Course
“The scoring system has been developed for art, and needed to be part of the vast system of teacher evaluation, at least in the half of the beginning school term. In regular class, the students cannot be treated as the sample of students population, even for one class; yet, as a mean of vital communication from the students who respond. One can learn so much from what we call the reaction from those who deviate as a successful form from sense.” Thus in terms of sense, it strengthened the deep impression to the teachers’ competency. The statement was supported with ”teachers’ contributions in complete instruction, not only in the classroom, need to be evaluated” (Stake, 1998). The indicator of teachers’ successful in the instruction cannot work well if the teachers do not contribute in the improving of their surrounding, especially at school. Stake (1998) reaffirmed that ”evaluation makes every educators give contribution in the preservation and improvement from all instruction program in the department... As individual and as well as team, they need to notice that their instruction practice are evaluated.” (Stake, 1998) The overall evaluation process were conducted through pedagogical communication and interaction method. The purpose of it was to draw various information regarding the shortcomings and the virtues of the evaluated course in producing the candidates of all-purpose music teacher. Schaffer, as music pedagogical expert, stated firmly regarding ”Who has to work as music teacher.” Schaffer (1975: 242) asserted ”Who will teach music? Professional! There is no other. Music is a complex subject containing broad theory and performance. It should be taught by a professional teacher. It is a must.” Musical education values in the teaching and learning process of Music Education Department curricula is the Education of Music Teacher. A mucis teacher should have the discretion in implementing the curriculum because the music subject contains musical esthetic, loaded with affective aspect. So that, music teachers must implement the curriculum in line with what Brown depicted in Bessom et. al. (1980: 35): “Curriculum is not only used-printed material (syllabus or lesson plan) that teacher used in the classroom, but also an adaptation of valuable learning experience. Teachers should be using guidelines as lesson plan dan must be free in expressing his or her teaching method that can help them to be more successful in the classroom.” Piano as a compulsory course was evaluated in its role to create general music teacher because it was discovered as having the shortage of musical education substance, especially the component of implemented general music instruction via piano. For instance, piano was used as instruction conveyor, media or evaluation tool in general music instruction. On the other hand, Music Education Department of UPI has a mission to create competent music teachers, especially in music teaching and learning. As a result of it, piano as a compulsory course was evaluated using case study in social inquiry to figure out the relevance of the evaluated course in fulfilling its purpose in creating competent general music teacher. The inability of the course to create music teachers can be caused by several aspects, for example lecturers, who had insufficient competence, taught the students to be music teacher, inadequate facilities and infrastructures, inept curriculum, or unsupportive pedagogical environment. It was noticed that the lecturers has more than enough competency in his or her field, adequate facilities and infrastructures, sufficient pianos, and satisfactory learning material and sources. The documents, syllabus and curriculum, needed to be examined whether the content gave the students enough proficiency to be music teachers. It determines the necessity of examining the suitability between curriculum document (syllabus) and he learning process to create music teacher candidate.
THE CASE STUDY IN SOCIAL INQUIRY EVALUATION MODEL AS AN EVALUATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN EVALUATING PIANO AS A COMPULSORY COURSE Stake explained that when facing curriculum evaluation with mentioned character above, naturalistic evaluation program was needed. Stake exclaimed: “In general, questions regarding every study have existed. The questions usually arise in the report of the naturalistic program; various issues and negotiation with audience legitimation. It means that evaluation responsively occurs. (Stake in McGraw et al., 1977: 60)” Case Study in Social Inquiry has responsive characters, naturalistic in nature. It interprets social performance in evaluative performance process or the implementation in the evaluated instruction. Evaluation process would not take place without efficient communication flow. This case study in social inquiry provides limitation that the examined study and the communication or social interaction was only conducted merely in Music Education Department at UPI. The limitations on social studies are questions that have subsisted in the design of evaluation format on Stake’s case study in social inquiry. “The virtue of case study lies on the refining theory and the complexity of the investigated issues, which can be researched in the future as the evidence of the limitation of generalization principle.” (Stake in Norman, Denzin et al., 2009: 313. Translator: Dariyatno et al.) The report of naturalistic program is obtained from the interaction and communication process that develop into the basis of gaining research data. In the implementation of curricula subject was evaluated in the implemented curriculum, was analyzed contextually in the real instruction environment. The Robert E. Stake’s original diagram in the case study in social inquiry evaluation model is as follow:
Case Study in Social Inquiry Design Figure 1: (Interview with Robert E. Stake Available at: firstname.lastname@example.org) the Original Figure of Case Study in Social Inquiry Evaluation Model Case study in social inquiry evaluation model, as stated above, has the reliability to evaluate every ongoing curriculum process or an instruction and pedagogy model in terms of process. In model evaluation chart, the inner circle
The Implementation of Case Study in Social Inquiry in Evaluating Piano as Compulsory Course
has several incisions, uttered with activities, marked as activity one, activity two and activity three. These activities in the chart evaluation model are still not closed and the incisions of curriculum evaluation activity could be reduced or even added, depends on the evaluationâ€™s requirements. Next, in the circle, there are incisions containing current small cases, documents and carried out interviews to evaluate those incisions. It seems that this part is cases or issues aspect in the implemented curriculum, also the interrelated activities and documents that construct cases and issues. Furthermore, interviews, documents review, analysis of curricula implementation, and limited case study are the techniques used to solve case study in social inquiry problems. There are detected curves outside the circle that can cause influences in the implementation of the ongoing curriculum, for instance, pedagogical context, cultural context, political context, and historical context. The relevant study can be applied in an ongoing curriculum evaluation process. These incisions, the content and sunstance, can be changed. It can be applied in a more suitable curriculum of examined piano as compulsory course evaluation environment. Curves outside the circles are suggested to be reexamined to reassure that they are apt with the curriculum instruments of piano as a compulsory courseâ€™s condition and activity. The adjustment process can be done through exploration, categorization and reduction techniques to the outer curves. Its meaningfulness and its interrelation between the implementation of the subject and the execution of the curriculum need to be tested. From the chart, this evaluation model, even if it is named as an evaluation model of case study, to evaluate curriculum research, but it is still too broad to evaluate a subject like piano as compulsory course. An evaluation model needs to be more specific or restricted. An evaluation analysis has to aim to the core of investigated problem or issues, piano as compulsory course. The courses were analyzed in its relevance to create a music teacher, whether it is apt with the current curriculum or not. This chart indeed has the reliability in analyzing curriculum evaluation but the chart needs some adjustments, thus it is fit to the investigated curriculum, to evaluate the strength and the shortcomings of piano as compulsory course. The case study in social inquiry were revised, so it would be a proper evaluation for a specific course. The modification of Case Study in Social Inquiry are depicted below:
Figure 2: Modification Model of Case Study in Social Inquiry (Revised by Diah Latifah) The explanation of the modified evaluation model chart to evaluate piano as compulsory course with the intention to create a music teacher is as follow:
The music instruction through piano process are represented in the evaluation core to depict the development students’ musical taste involving in the learning process, which is implemented by lecturer and students. The core of the chart would be investigated and evaluated. The lecturer’s performance in the piano instruction was evaluated, whether it gave the suitability between the students’ sufficient piano competence and the quality stated in the curriculum or not. It contained accomplishment indicators focusing on musical esthetic aspects in Western culture. Conversely, the students were bestowed with standardized musical component instruction to fulfill pedagogy and instruction mission in the Music Education Department in order to create educated and competent music teachers. Syllabus as one of the curriculum document basis was evaluated. It was assessed whether it was capable of giving the students adequate proficiency in the evaluated course to fulfill music teachers’ competence. The research used observation sheet, interview guidelines, follow-up questions, applied if the interview and observation was not fulfilled the goal of evaluation, document review on the syllabus compared to the executed instruction as the instrument. The teaching recording was also used to confirm the result of the observation on implemented instruction. Issues and problems happened in the instruction of the piano as compulsory course were evaluated with steps below: Evaluation steps carried out as follow:
Observing and recording participants’ performance using Video Recording Camera (documentation) directly when the piano instruction was carried out. The instruction was observed and noted. Information whether the instruction successfully gave the students adequate teaching-learning competence through piano was drawn and interpreted from the lecturer and students’ interactions.
Interview was conducted using both structured guidelines interview and unstructured interview. It was conducted to gain information or data regarding the students’ musical competence that were given music comprehension using piano. Interview was also administered to the lecturers to gain insights whether the instruction was important or not. Recalling that Music Education Department prepare the graduate students as music arranger, composer, moreover as a competent music teacher.
The review of curriculum document was conducted to examine the syllabus’ content. It was administered to figure out whether the piano instruction had given sufficient musical competence to the students or not.
Follow-up questions was performed if the results of interview or observation had not fulfilled the requirements to extract enough information in articulating fruitful data in order to decide whether the instruction had meet the requirements for students to be a competent music teacher or not. The evaluation results were in the form of information. Then, it was turned to data to interpret the shortcomings
and the strength of the evaluated subject to produce pianists, arranger or composer and, especially, music teacher who gain knowledge through piano as compulsory course.
FINDING AND DISCUSSIONS The performance of curriculum evaluation using Case Study in Social Inquiry in assessing piano as compulsory course in Music Education Department to create music teacher at school has found several findings. The findings were related to the shortcomings and the strength of the subject to create music teacher. The findings stated that the syllabus of piano as compulsory course maximized the principles in piano learning,
The Implementation of Case Study in Social Inquiry in Evaluating Piano as Compulsory Course
which containing musical esthetic brought via piano lesson in Western musical context. It was related to the elimination of several subjects due to conversion credit hours that the students need to finish the overall study. In early 2005, the content of credit hours per semester that the students needed to take ranged from 156 to 160 credit hours. The reduction of the credit hours affected the subject in the study, the reduction of the credit hours was aimed to give the students with didactic content implemented through mucial action or musical experience. The result of suitability analysis between the instruction objectives on syllabus and the curriculum of Music Education Department shown that there was a disparity in the execution. The disparity was interpreted with the inexistence of the subject containing aspects that intensified didactic component in music instruction implemented through piano. As known and realized by lecturers of the subject, the main vision and mission of Music Education Department is to create music teachers both formal and nonformal work. With the inexistence of pedagogical music subject in the piano as compulsory course, syllabus was interpreted to have defect when it was matched to the objectives of the curriculum in Music Education Department. Syllabus should be revised and it should contain pedagogical subject, which was implemented through piano lesson. From the investigation of the piano as compulsory course syllabus, the content was not appropriate or did not have suitability significance if it was aimed to create professional music teacher. They must have determined standards. The content of piano as compulsory course’s syllabus did not give educator’s professional competence to the students. The syllabus content also did not have intensification and support to prepare the students with personality competence and social competence in teaching aspect using the piano. The current piano as compulsory course syllabus was composed after the changing curriculum regulation was legalized. It was altered from concurrent to concecutif curriculum causing the reduction of the piano as compulsory course. Several lecturers of piano as compulsory course are aware of the importence of providing the students with pedagogical music content but due to the limitation of the course, the lecturers involcing in the team teaching reluctantly released “piano for novice learners” content. The piano as compulsory course should be added in terms of content that offer students music learning at school, which is implemented using piano or keyboard, not being reduced. The rationale of the reduction from the government itself was shallow because they assumed that the pedagogical content should be provided after the students finish musical esthetic content. Fact shows that the significant interrelation between the availability musical esthetic and pedagogical content must be given at once. The conveying of pedagogical piano content that is used as the introduction of music subject at school will be precisely conducted if it was administered by piano lecturers, who teach music theory and music teaching and learning content to in-depth students’ proficiency. The revision of the syllabus must be considered. The piano as compulsory course instruction was suitable with the objective in the syllabus. The lecturers implemented the syllabus content well and it means that the course had not provided pedagogical material to prepare students teaching music at school using piano. The outcome of piano as compulsory course was apt with the depiction of what the syllabus content and conducted instruction. The students who had enrolled in this course acquired adequate competence to play piano Western music masterpiece from various style and era, such as baroque, classic, romantic, modern and contemporer. Some of them has the ability to assemble or compose various music patterns in line with their own grade or level. But when they were requested to utilize piano to present the music instruction at school, the feel uneasy and difficult to do so. For example, they were asked by their pre-service lecturers at school to make use of piano as the western music instruction’s presentation tool, it was still difficult to do.
With the given information, syllabus and the learning process of the course should be revised to accomplish the objectives of the Music Education Department UPI, which is to create competent music educators and teachers. Significant findings confirmed that Case Study in Social Inquiry was one of the evaluation models, which hold dimensional process, phenomenological perspective, naturalistic in nature, evaluated events based on what actually happened, and the avoidance to make false or artificial information from the evaluated course. The process of the evaluation modelâ€™s performance expressed real events and incidents, stated truthfully, so all events and performance of each participant became clear. The refinement and improvement instruction process and the correction of the curriculum documents, if needed, was completed as it should. So that, the aimed purpose needed to be achieved by the education institution. Case Study in Social Inquiry evaluation model was applied in flexible and reliable sense. It could be employed evermore because all needed information regarding a good standardized and procedural curriculum. It could be used in dealing with learning and education content with process dimentional, and standard character at once, various information could be significantly gained in line with the objective of the evaluation. The evaluative analysis of the inquiry case study usually is employed in social curriculum program evaluation, or wider subject. It is not limited in a detailed core analysis. The study of music education department was limited on the evaluation of the piano as compulsory course, which was conducted on the research analysis, was significantly successful.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusions The curriculum evaluation model of the Case Study in Social Inquiry presumably has the reliability to evaluate a curriculum program because its naturalistic, grounded, and real informative nature. So that, the refining or the revision process of the curriculum can work effectively to achieve the institutionâ€™s aimed goal. This evaluation model can be employed continuously because it holds flexible quality but aims directly to the core of the ongoing problems and issues in evaluating the implemented course to create competent music teachers. The sincerity of the gained information are more meaningful and precise in revising and improving evaluated course. The evaluated syllabus of piano as compulsory course has several vital shortcomings. The syllabus does not provide the students with desired competence and it is not in line with the objective of the Music Education Department. The syllabus of piano as compulsory course only provide Western music culture to the students. The consequence of the it is that the students only provided with esthetic music competence. In general, the students who dedicated to the course were only able to represent piano workart well in line with Western music tradition. They also could perform musical etude, finger flexibility training and scale training, trinada, arpegio, arpegio dominant septim, chromatic scale, complete kadens and several variation scale in numerous tone aligned to the syllabus. Ironically, when the students had graduated and had to teach music at school, those who had passed the piano as compulsory course rarely used keyboard to help them in the teaching and learning process. They have not used to the instrument when they must use it at school. The students generally do not use keyboard because they have not learned how to utilize it in the teaching and learning process. In fact, keyboard, i.e. piano, has the advantage to be applied as the instructionâ€™s presentation tool at school. Keyboard is really virtuous in its usage as music instruction media and evaluation. Keyboard or piano are efficiently practiced as a tool to teach musical sensitivity, for instance to develop students sensitivity in listening to notes in
The Implementation of Case Study in Social Inquiry in Evaluating Piano as Compulsory Course
dodekatonical scale, build up tonal sense, cultivate harmony sense, introduce pattern and structure in song using Western tonal system rhytmic familiarization, and righteous instrument to recognize students’ basic mucical competence. When piano is brought into the classroom, unlike guitar or strings instruments, it does not need to be tuned. It has wide ranged scale to identify the students’ tone when they sing. Besides, to use piano as a teaching media or teaching aid, it does not need complex ability like a pianist. Recommendation To anticipate the unprepared students using keyboard or piano as instructions conveyor, media or evaluation instruments, the syllabus needs to be revised. While giving esthetic aspect to the piano as compulsory course’s syllabus, it is required some additional musical component in carrying out piano as the main instrument. The syllabus should not only provide scale tonality major and minor material, four ages masterpiece or style, long and short trinada and also complete scale, but also has to offer knowledge regarding the skill to play keyboard or piano as teaching media at school. Piano instruction subject has demonstrated its strength and provided the students with excessive competence in presenting piano, in addition to well esthetic, should be preserved. It needs the reorganization of the content in the syllabus wisely, thus all set pedagogy objectives, as professional musician and professional music teachers, are accomplished. The teaching and learning process that is implemented should devoted to the depicted guidelines in the syllabus. Therefore, the goal of the Music Education Department UPI can be accomplished. Agreement all lecturers teaching this course to create professional pianists and educators should be reinforced in order to create professional music teacher should be strengthened to complete the institution’s vision and mission, which is to generate professional, fully competent, teachers and educators who have virtue in implementing their competence at work as music expert. The evaluation model of Case Study In Social Inquiry will be implementative if it is adjusted and revised in order to evaluate main problems and issues that will be investigated.
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Department’s Curriculum Evaluation to Provide the Music Instruction at a Senior High School (The Application of Stake’s Case Study in Social Inquiry Focusing on Piano as Compulsory Course)
The study was an evaluative research. It discussed the reliability of Case study in Social Inquiry in evaluating the shortcomings of piano a...