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International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD) ISSN 2249-6890 Vol. 3, Issue 4, Oct 2013, 63-68 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.


Assistant Professor, Anurag Engineering College, Kodad, Andhra Pradesh, India


Assistant Professor, Sir C R Reddy College of Engineering, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT Most basic and common attractive features of composites that make them useful for industrial applications are low cost, low weight, high specific modulus, renewability and biodegradability. In order to meet the dynamic desires of the design engineers the conventional materials are not alone enough. Huge amount of minerals are released from the industries as a waste materials which cause serious environmental problems. By appropriate usage of these industrial waste physical and mechanical properties of the conventional polymer materials will be enhanced. The objective of present work is to use this industrial waste i.e. Slag as particulate filler material to the epoxy matrix composites by molding technique with different weight fractions ( 0%, 5%,10%, 15%, 20% ) to study the mechanical behavior of reinforced polymer composite material. The mechanical properties of slag reinforced polymer composites of polyethylene and epoxy have been tested by varying weight fractions and subjected to different tests like tensile, bending and impact.

KEYWORDS: Reinforced Polymer Composites, Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, Impact Strength INTRODUCTION Composites consist of one or more discontinuous phases embedded in a continuous phase. The discontinuous phase is usually harder and stronger than the continuous phase and is called the ‘reinforcement‘ or ‘reinforcing material’, whereas the continuous phase is termed as the ‘ matrix’. Particulate Composites consist of a matrix reinforced with a dispersed phase in form of particles. Effect of the dispersed particles on the composite properties depends on the particles dimensions. Large dispersed phase particles have low strengthening effect but they are capable to share load applied to the material, resulting in increase of stiffness and decrease of ductility. Two important mechanical properties of any resin system are its tensile strength and stiffness. It must be understood that the adhesive properties of a resin system is important in achieving the full mechanical properties of a composite. The adhesion of the resin matrix to the fiber reinforcement or to a core material in a sandwich construction is important.

LITERATURE REVIEW Alok Satapathyet al. [1]: proposed that, Red Mud is an industrial waste generated during the production of alumina by Bayer’s process. This low cost filler has been used in some earlier studies with different polymer matrices such as polypropylene and nylon to study the mechanical properties in tension and compression. Pongdhorn et al.[2] proposed that, The mechanical response, water intake, and dielectric properties of jute fiber reinforced polypropylene composite are studied by Uniaxial tensile, three point flexural and V- notched impact tests are conducted for a range of volume fractions.Mareri et al. [3] explained about the Silane coupling agent which is used extensively to improve the reinforcing efficiency of the silica. Many types of silane coupling agents have been developed and their role of reinforcing improvements has been studied in many types of rubbers. Mineral fillers are usually defined as solid additives in a polymeric matrix. Generally inert, they decrease the cost of the product, improve its dimensional stability, and increase its weight and act as a noise reducer is investigated by Chaowasakooet al. [4]. Zhu et al. [5] studied the single particle size


K Anand Babu, S. V. Gopala Krishna, B. V. Subrahmanyam & M. D. Abid Ali

affects the mechanical properties. From this study the structure and shape of silica had the effects on the mechanical properties such as fatigue resistance, tensile and fracture properties. Tavman [6] studied the Metal matrix composites (MMC’s) and polymer matrix composites (PMC’s) are frequently reinforced with strong continuous or short fibers. The statistical strength of fiber reinforced composites MMC’s and PMC’s with different fractions is investigated in this paper. Alvarez [7] elemental and nano-ZrO particulates reinforced magnesium materials were synthesized using an innovative disintegrated melt deposition technique followed by hot extrusion. The results of macrohardness and microhardness measurement conducted on extruded Mg and Mg/ZrO samples revealed an increasing trend in matrix hardness with the increasing volume percentage of nano-ZrO. Ku et al. [8] study the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus of elasticity, and toughness of composite formed by copper powder filler embedded in a high density poly (ethylene) matrix are investigated.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLES The Samples are prepared by reinforcing the pig iron slag to unsaturated polyethylene resin to improve the mechanical properties of resin. The industrial waste is collected from LANCO pig iron industry at Srikalahasti. Various ingredients like unsaturated polyethylene, Epoxy, ketone peroxide, cobalt and slag are added to the solution in order to improve the bonding properties and strength of the pure resin. Slag composition is shown in Table 1 Table 1: Slag Composition SiO2 Al2O3 CaO MgO FeO MnO Fe2O3 SiO2

19.95% 0.57% 32.40% 9.80% 0.32% 0.45% 34.40% 19.95%

METHOD OF PREPARATION FOR POLYETHYLENE The polymer matrix composites are made by simple casting technique. In which the Resin is mixed with Industrial Waste Like slag which is collected from the LANCO Pig Iron industry at Srikalahasthi. The Industrial Waste is mixed at different proportions as 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The catalyst is added at 2% in order to increase the reaction. The hardener is also added in 2% for proper reaction. The remaining is unsaturated polyethylene resin. All these ingredients are thoroughly stir by hand and then poured in the mould cavity. Table 2: Slag Composition with Different Polyethylene Ratios Sample




Pure resin 5% 10% 15% 20%

96% 91% 86% 81% 76%

2% 2% 2% 2% 2%

2% 2% 2% 2% 2%

Flue Dust/ Sludge/Slag 0 5% 10% 15% 20%

METHOD OF PREPARATION FOR EPOXY The mould is prepared on smooth ceramic tile with rubber shoe sole to the required dimension. Initially the ceramic tile is cleaned with shellac (NC thinner) a spirituous product to ensure clean surface on the tile. The resulting


Mechanical Properties of Slag Reinforced Polymer Composites

mould is cured for 24 hours. The composites were produced using Slag and epoxy resin. The slag particulate of 25 Âľm size is thoroughly mixed in proper ratio (0, 5, 10, 15 & 20) by weight with epoxy resins to get a mixture. Table 3: Slag Composition with Different Ratios of Epoxy Sample




Pure resin (0%) 5% 10% 15% 20%

90% 85.5% 81% 76.5% 72%

9% 8.5% 8% 7.5% 7%

1% 1% 1% 1% 1%

Flue Dust/ Sludge/Slag 0% 5% 10% 15% 20%

When the Slag is being taken 10%, the remaining amount is being mixed up by resins and hardener, in which 9% is being occupied by hardener and remaining 81% by the resin. The same process is being continued for different samples. For the % amount of lime sludge taken for total weight, 10% of remaining weight of the resin is being taken by the hardener.

Figure 1: Final Specimens for Test

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Tensile Test A 2 ton capacity - Electronic tensometer, METM 2000 ER-I model (Plate II-18), supplied by M/S Microtech, Pune, is used to find the tensile strength of composites. Its capacity can be changed by load cells of 20Kg, 200Kg & 2000 Kg. A load cell of 200 Kg. is used for testing composites. Self-aligned quick grip chuck is used to hold composite specimens. A digital micrometer is used to measure the thickness and width of composites. The standard test method for tensile properties of particle- resin composites, ASTM-D638M-89 is used to prepare specimen as per the dimensions. The dog bone test specimen has been used for uniaxial tensile test. Tensile test is conducted to estimate the tensile strength of the material by applying the load gradually till it is failed. By this test one can understand the various material properties like elastic strength, young’s modulus etc. Bending Test The bending test is conducted on the specimen using the same machine Flexural strength, also known as modulus of rupture, bending strength, or fracture strength, a mechanical parameter for brittle material, is defined as a material's ability to resist deformation under load. The transverse bending test is most frequently employed, in which a rod specimen having either a circular or rectangular across section is bent until fracture using a three point flexural test technique.


K Anand Babu, S. V. Gopala Krishna, B. V. Subrahmanyam & M. D. Abid Ali

Standard test method, ASTM D790M-86 for flexural properties of particle- resin composite has been used to test the composite specimens. The standard test method, ASTM D790M-86, for bending properties of plastics and standard method of testing rigid sheet are referred in preparing and testing the specimens. The composite materials used in the current study comprise of industrial waste (sludge) and unsaturated polyethylene resin. The standard specimen size required is adopted for the present study.

Maximum bending strength S =

3PL 2bt 2

Where, P= maximum applied load m=slope of load deflection curve (N/mm) b= width of specimen (mm) L=span length of specimen (mm) t=thickness of specimen (mm) Impact Test Standard test method, ASTM D256-97, for impact properties of particle-resin composites has been used to test the unidirectional composite specimens. The specimens are prepared to dimension of 63.5*12.7*10mm width. A V-notch is provided with a sharp file having an included angle of 45 0 at the centre of the specimen, and at 900 to the sample axis. The depth of the specimen under the notch is 10.16+0.05mm or 10.16-0.05mm.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Load vs. Elongation of Slag for Polyethylene and Epoxy Resin The tensile load versus elongation curve of Slag specimens is shown in figure. For pure particulate specimen as the load increases the elongation also increases gradually. It reached the peak at a load of 1280 N with a elongation of 4.0mm. For 5% particulate weight as the load increased the elongation also increased but the rate of deflection is slightly more than pure specimen. It reached the peak at a load of 999N For 10% particulate weight as the load decreased the elongation also decreased but the rate is greater than 15% particulate specimen, it reached the peak at a load of 1422N with a elongation of 2.4 mm. For 20% particulate weight it reached the peak at a load of 1130 N with a deflection of 2.2 mm.

Mechanical Properties of Slag Reinforced Polymer Composites


Figure 2: Load vs. Elongation Graph between Polyethylene & Epoxy at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of Slag Flexural Strength and Flexural Modulus The flexural strength versus percentage weight of Slag is shown in the figure 3 the flexural strength reached a maximum value at 15%. The flexural strength at 15% weight of lime sludge is 93.39 MPa. The flexural strength at 20% weight of slag is 116.50 Mpa. The flexural strength at 10% weight of slag is 76.86 Mpa.

Figure 3: Flexural Strength and Flexural Modulus at Different Percentage Wt% of Slag The flexural modulus versus percentage weight of Slag is shown in the figure. The flexural modulus is maximum ie 1275 MPa at 20%. Impact Strength The variation of impact strength at different percentages of Slag is given in the figure 4. The impact strength decreased gradually to 10%. The impact strength at 20% weight of Slag is 0.0022Nm/mm2. The impact strength is 0.002Nm/mm2 at 10%.

Figure 4: Impact Strength vs. Percentage Weight of Slag for Epoxy and Polyethylene


K Anand Babu, S. V. Gopala Krishna, B. V. Subrahmanyam & M. D. Abid Ali

CONCLUSIONS Tensile, Flexural and impact tests are conducted on specimen in different compositions of Slag for epoxy and polyethylene. From the tensile and flexural test young’s modulus of the specimen for different compositions are calculated. There is an increase in tensile and flexural properties up to 20% by reinforcing slag. By using the mixture of epoxy and Slag as a reinforcing material the mechanical properties of the specimen increased. The impact strength is reduced by reinforcing the pure resin with ingredients. It is observed that the load carrying of carrying capacity increased to 1280N at 5% slag. And the maximum tensile strength is 37.94MPa at 15% of slag. The Specific tensile strength of pure 0.0421MPa/Kg/m3 is increased withincrease in wt% of slag and silane. The value is maximum 0.028 M Pa/Kg/m3 at 5% slag. Flexural modulus of pure resin 1314MPa is increase with increase in weight% of slag. That is the maximum flexural modulus is more 1275MPa at 20% of slag.


Alok Satapathy, Amar patnaik, “Analysis of dry sliding behavior of red mud filled POLYETHYLENE composites using taguchi method” journal of reinforced plastics and composites, Vol.4, No. 15/2002.


Pongdhorn sae-oui , Chakrit Sirisinha , Uthai Thepsuwan , kannika Hattapanit. “Roles of Silane coupling agents on properties of silica filled polycholoroprene” journal of composite materials, Vol.42, No. 10/2007.


P.Mareri, S.Bastide, N.Binda, &A.Crespy “Mechanical behavior of poly propylene composites cantaining fine mineral filler: effect of filler surface treatment” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 24(5): 1526–1530.


T. Chaowasakoo, N. Sombatsompop, “Mechanical and morphological of fly/epoxy composites using conventional thermal and microwave curing methods”, composites science and technology 67(2007) 2282-2291.


K. Zhu, S. Schmauder, “Prediction of failure properties of short fiber reinforced composites with metals and polymer matrix”.


I.H. Tavman, “Thermal and mechanical properties of copper powder filled poly (ethylene) composites”.


V. Alvarez, A. Vazquez and O. De La Osa, “Cyclic Water Absorption Behavior of Glass-vinylester and glassepoxy composites”, journal of composite materials, Vol.41, No. 10/2007.


H. Ku, W. Jacobson, M. Trada, F. Cardona, D. Rogers “Tensile tests of formaldehyde SLG reinforced composites: Pilot study”, journal of composite materials, vol.42, No.26/2008.

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