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International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR) ISSN 2249-6947 Vol. 3, Issue 3, Aug 2013, 67-74 Š TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

GENDER AND EXTERNAL EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED PUBLIC AND PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KAMPALA, UGANDA ANUMAKA, IJEOMA BLESSING & KYOLABA, SARAH DIANAH College of Higher Degrees and Research, Kampala International University, Kampala, Uganda

ABSTRACT The study delved into Gender and External Efficiency and it specifically sought to find out; i. Demographic characteristics of respondents. 2. Level of external efficiency and 3. Significant differences in the level of external Efficiency between male and female students. A descriptive comparative survey design was utilized. 200 3rd year students of education were selected through purposive and simple random sampling. A standardized questionnaire on external efficiency was used. Frequencies, percentage distributions, and a t-test were used to analyze the data collected. Majority of the students' respondents were male, early adulthood age, and Ugandans. Level of external efficiency was high and there was no significant difference in the level of external efficiency between the male and the female students. It was recommended that i. stakeholders of the education sector should enhance the girl child education even to higher levels of education in order to bridge the gender gap that still seems to be big. ii. Employers should embrace gender sensitivity because both males and females can perform well in positions designated to them. iii. Preference should be given to females when advertising for job in order to encourage female education for a favorable competition in the job market.

KEYWORDS: Gender, External Efficiency, HIV/AIDS, Education, Gender Sensitivity, Unemployment INTRODUCTION Graduate unemployment in Uganda is a daunting problem and has been subject of much concern (Ssempebwa, 2008). Over 20,000 students graduate every year and are all these expected to be absorbed into the job market. Unfortunately, just a few of them get employment and 50% of them get disguised employment (Baguma, 2010). Similarly, (Mayaja, 2002) noted that Universities are under attack for the difficult labor market transition of their graduates which has brought their service delivery in question. Not only that but also there is lack of adequate career guidance by the concerned parties at universities and alumni associations are not strong enough in universities where they are which would help locate where the university graduates are employed in the different sectors of the economy. External efficiency of the educational system can be realized through the relevance of education to the socio-economic conditions of the country. The ability of graduates to enter the Labour market following the completion of education is seen as an indicator of educational efficiency.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE External Efficiency Nwako (1981) asserts that education is a productive activity combining various inputs to transform them into outputs (graduates). A study was carried out to see whether the successful graduates were able to secure appropriate jobs when they completed their master’s degree programme. The findings revealed that many graduates were not able to enter the job market because of; lack of interest in the courses selected, inadequate guidance and counseling, poor level of commitment on the part of the lecturers and poor learning environment. In the same development, Adesina (1983) tried to


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Anumaka, Ijeoma Blessing & Kyolaba, Sarah Dianah

trace the role of education to meaningful contribution to national development and growth in Nigeria. He underpinned that wastage is recorded when an investment does not yield the desired gain or product or when investment produces results that is considered to lower than the targeted value.The external efficiency of education is improved when more education outcomes are produced at given education resources or less education resources are used in producing the same amount of education outcomes. In developing nations, during the past years, emphasis in educational development has been placed on three broad outcomes of education: contribution to economic growth and competitiveness, improvement in social equity, and poverty alleviation (World Bank 1995). According to human capital theory, education is a form of human capital that could raise the productive capacity of individuals in economic production (Schultz 1971; Becker, 1975). Empirical studies in agriculture found a positive and significant relationship between productivity and education (Moock and Addou 1994). At the macro level, education was is associated with economic growth. Spending on education can be seen as an investment and not a consumption activity with both costs and benefits, and thus subject to a cost-benefit analysis. A review of rate of returns studies found that, in developing countries, education had a high rate of return and that the return was higher at lower education levels (Psacharopoulos, 1994). However, these studies have been criticized in terms of appropriateness of method and quality of data (Bennell 1998). Some analysts point out that educational expansion in a depressed economy could lead to unemployment of the educated or over education (Dore 1976). Nevertheless, there is increasing consensus across countries that human capital, particularly in terms of problem-solving skills, communication skills in a diverse setting, and the ability to adapt to change, can enhance economic competitiveness in the global economy of the twenty-first century. There is also increasing attention to investment in preschool education and in education for sustainable development. Earlier efforts in promoting education for poverty reduction have been accompanied by high hope and disillusionment. The urgent need for poverty reduction in the developing world is reflected by the World Bank’s redefining itself as a poverty-reduction organization (Wolfensohn & Fischer 2000). There is common understanding now that “quality basic education for all� is an important part of the overall strategy for poverty reduction (Inter-Agency Commission 1990). But education alone is not sufficient; rather a multi-sectoral approach involving related interventions in agriculture, education, health (including addressing the AIDS epidemic), and credit market for small producers, and other social sectors, is needed. Poverty reduction also requires targeted interventions. Women are one of the most important targeted groups because they are often subject to multiple disadvantages in the developing world (Stromquist 1996). Increasing educational access and improving quality for girls could have profound economic, social and political benefits for women and for society (King and Hill 1993). In developing nations, during the past years, emphasis in educational development has been placed on three broad outcomes of education: contribution to economic growth and competitiveness, improvement in social equity, and poverty alleviation (World Bank 1995). Empirical studies in agriculture found a positive and significant relationship between productivity and education (Moock and Addou 1994). At the macro level, education was is associated with economic growth. Spending on education can be seen as an investment and not a consumption activity with both costs and benefits, and thus subject to a cost-benefit analysis. Based upon the work of Schultz (1971), Sakamota and Powers (1995), Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1997), human capital theory rests on the assumption that formal education is highly instrumental and even necessary to improve the production capacity of a population. In short, the human capital theorists argue that an educated population is a productive population. Human capital theory emphasizes how education increases the productivity and efficiency of workers by increasing the level of cognitive stock of economically productive human capability which is a product of


Gender and External Efficiency of Selected Public and Private Universities in Kampala, Uganda

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innate abilities and investment in human beings. The provision of formal education is seen as a productive investment in human capital, which the proponents of the theory have considered as equally or even more equally worthwhile than that of physical capital. According to Fagerlind and Saha, (1997) human capital theory provides a basic justification for large public expenditure on education both in developing and developed nations. Its appeal was based upon the presumed economic return of investment in education both at the macro and micro levels. Efforts to promote investment in human capital were seen to result in rapid economic growth for society. For individuals, such investment is seen to provide returns in the form of individual economic success and achievement. Most economists agree that it is human resources of nation, not its capital nor its material resources that ultimately determine the character and pace of its economic and social development. Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1997) assert that human resources constitute the ultimate basis of wealth of nations. Capital and natural resources are passive factors of production while human beings are the active agencies who accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, build social, economic and political organization, and carry forward national development. This means that the economic prosperity and functioning of a nation depend on its physical and human capital stock. Gender and Education The studies of Abuja and Filmer (1995) showed that the enrolments in developing countries varied according to gender. Male enrolments were usually higher than female enrolments. Further more, Lloyd et al, (1998) in his study carried out in Kenya revealed that school attainment varied by gender and was emphasized by UNESCO (1993) and ArdayfioSchandorf (1995) who asserted that while women are benefiting from the expansion of educational opportunities in the developed countries like USA, Canada, Finland and France, cultural and economic barriers prevent women both in gaining access to formal education and in enjoying the same range of educational opportunities offered to the males, in most developing countries, like Uganda. This was attributed to HIV/AIDS problem; some girls end up missing the opportunity of staying on at school which was the challenge of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, in relation to the education of girls (UNAIDS 2004). The gender gap is an important issue to be addressed by policymakers. Thus the Millennium Development Goals of education being right and not a priority despite someone's gender. It is for this reason that 31.6% going to university are female in Universities. However, the number of females was an issue especially after the introduction of universal education Deininger (2003) in a study carried out in Uganda. Null Hypothesis The null hypothesis tested was that there is no significant difference in the level of potential ability to enter into the job market between the male and female students.

METHODOLOGY This study adopted the descriptive survey design and a descriptive comparative approach was utilized to compare male and female students in terms of External Efficiency of the students. Standardized questionnaire on external efficiency was utilized to collect data. A minimum sample size of 200 students was computed using the Sloven’s formula which was selected using purposive sampling and simple random techniques. Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient tested showed that the research instrument was accepted at an acceptable level of 0.878. Data was analyzed using frequency counts and percentage distributions; the null hypothesis was tested using a t-test.


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FINDINGS Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents Table 1: Percentage Distribution and Ranking of Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents Category

Frequency Students (n=190) Gender Female 60 Male 130 Age 20-39 years (early adulthood) 181 40-59 years (middle adulthood) 9 60 and above (late adulthood) Nationality Ugandans 102 Kenyan 48 Tanzanians 40

Percentage (%)

31.59 68.42 95.26 4.73 53.68 25.26 21.05

Table 1 show that more than half of the student respondents were male (68.42%) as compared to 31.59% of their counterparts. Gender disparity in schools generally is actually an observation. This was observed by Abuja and Filmer (1995) that the enrolments in developing countries varied according to gender. Almost 100% of the students were between the ages of 20-39 years old. This means that they belonged to the group of early adulthood (95.26%) As observed, students enter university by the age of 20 and above and this is the age that employers need and alternatively having less active social lives, younger students plausibly devote more time to studying, performing better at university and spending more time on their homework (Thompson et al. 2004; Dhuey and Lipscomb 2006 and Persico et al., 2004). Majority of the students (53.68% or 102) were Ugandans because they have many more career choices as compared to foreign students (Freeman et al, 2001). Level of External Efficiency Table 2: Mean and Rank of Level of External Efficiency (Potential Ability to Enter the Job Market) Indicator

Mean

Interpretation

Rank

Self Perceived Career Success Skills and knowledge gained are transferable to job market

3.36

Very Satisfactory

1

I go an extra mile to make my course a success

3.24

Satisfactory

2

I will accept any type of job assignments in the areas that are associated with my course

3.23

Satisfactory

3

I am satisfied with the success

3.19

Satisfactory

4

I can easily be retrained to make my self more employable

3.19

Satisfactory

4

I can easily get a job related to my course in any organization

3.18

Satisfactory

6

I can use my professional networks

3.16

Satisfactory

7

I can get a job any where because my skills and experience are reasonably relevant

3.14

Satisfactory

8

my course is in high demand

3.12

Satisfactory

9

my course is inductive of my progress and my responsibility

3.12

Satisfactory

9

I have good knowledge of opportunities

3.10

Satisfactory

11

my level of skills and knowledge will be highly sought after by employers

3.01

Satisfactory

12

If i need to, I have what it takes to get a job even before the end of my course

2.84

Satisfactory

13

existing government policies are in favour of my course

2.73

Satisfactory

14


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Gender and External Efficiency of Selected Public and Private Universities in Kampala, Uganda

Table 2:Contd., Total Mean

3.12

Satisfactory

Professional Commitment I am proud of my course

3.61

Very Satisfactory

1

I am extremely glad i chose this course

3.49

Very Satisfactory

2

I view my course as ranking highest in my choice

3.44

Very Satisfactory

3

Very Satisfactory

4

Very Satisfactory

5

Very Satisfactory

6

Very Satisfactory

7 8

I am satisfied with the progress i have made toward meeting my goals for the development and acquisition of skills and knowledge

3.36

I am highly inspired in job performance

3.28

I am satisfied with the progress i have made toward meeting my overall career goals

3.27

I am satisfied with the progress i have made towards meeting my goals for advancement

3.26

my values are in congruent with my course

3.18

Satisfactory

Total Mean

3.36

Very Satisfactory

Average Mean

3.24

Satisfactory

From table 2, a total mean of 3.24 was obtained; there is a general agreement from the respondents that the level of potential ability to enter into the job market is satisfactory. This could be attributed to high levels of learning environment as shown in table 3A and 3B. In congruence with the finding, (Chapined Eastman, 1996) affirmed that learning environment was an important contributor for students to secure jobs. Significant Difference in the Level of External Efficiency between Female and Male Students Table 3: T-test of Difference in the Level of External Efficiency between Female and Male Students

CAREER SUCCESS COMMITMENT LPA

Gender Male

Mean 3.09

Female

3.15

Male

3.30

Female

3.49

Male Female

3.19 3.32

t-value Sig.

Interpretation

Decision on Ho

-.709

.479

Not significant

Accepted

-2.233

.027

Significant

Rejected

-1.776

.077

Not significant

Accepted

Using the t-test, at 0.05 level of significance, Table 3indicates that the null hypothesis of no significant difference in the level of external efficiency between female and male students was accepted. Although the mean score between female and male students differed, there was a general agreement of level of students to secure job in the job market. This is because of four (4) major factors; (1) high interest in the courses selected; (2) adequate guidance and counseling; (3) high levels commitment on the part of the teachers; and (4) a good learning environment. This was in line with Glick and Sahn (2000), investigated the gender differences in schooling, using enrolment, attainment and dropouts. It was revealed that more years of schooling of both parents increased the possibility of girls reaching a higher level of education or grade attainment.

CONCLUSIONS There was no significant difference in the level of external efficiency between female and male students. This implies that gender does not affect the potential ability of students to enter into the job market however, other factors like parental education; income and structure of the household are all important variables in educational attainment (Glick and Sahn, 2000).


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RECOMMENDATIONS 

Parents and other stakeholders of the education sector should enhance the girl child education even to higher levels of education in order to bridge the gender gap that still seems to be big.

Employers should embrace gender sensitivity because both males and females can compete perform well in positions designated to them.

Preference should be given to females when advertising for job in order to encourage female education even to higher levels of education for a favorable competition in the job market.

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