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International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research (IJASR) ISSN 2250-0057 Vol. 3, Issue 2, Jun 2013, 59-66 Š TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

CYANOBACTERIA IN BIOLOGICAL SOIL CRUST OF THANJAVUR AND THIRUVARUR DISTRICTS IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA SAMINATHAN SAKTHIDEVI, SUBRAMANIYAN VIJAYAKUMAR & SAVARIMUTHU JEYACHANDRAN P.G. and Research Department of Botany and Microbiology, A. V. V. M. Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi, Tamilnadu, India

ABSTRACT Cyanobacteria form a large group of structurally complex and ecologically significant gram negative prokaryotes which flourish in rice fields and play very important role in all the type of water bodies and soils whether they being heterocystous or non-heterocystous form. In the present study, the cyanobacterial samples were collected from different paddy fields. Totally 32 species were identified in which 13 species were heterocystous from belonging to genera Anabaena (2), Nostoc (3), Cylindrospermam (1), Rivularia (2), Calolhrix (1), Scytonema (1), Tolypothirix (1), Hapalosiphon (1), Westiellopsis (1) and 21 species were non heterocystous form belonging to genera Chroococcus (1), Gleocapsa (1), Microcystis (3), Spirulina (1), Oscillatoria (6), Phormidium (3), Cynsbya (5). The maximum numbers of cyanobacteria were found to be non-heterocystous forms. Heterocystous forms showed limited distribution and diversity. Physico-chemical characters and soil nutrients were correlated with distribution of cyanobacteria.

KEYWORDS: Cyanobacterial Diversity, Physico-Chemical Characters, Soil Nutrients, Paddy Field INTRODUCTION Rice fields are temporary wetland ecosystems, with variable biodiversity and cyanobacterial are known to be an integral component of waterlogged rice fields. The rice field ecosystems with its optimum levels of light, water, temperature, humidity and nutrient availability provide a favourable environment for the luxuriant growth of cyanobacteria. The utilization of cyanobacteria in the rice fields has a great significance in increasing in the rice field’s fertility. Several reports are found on edaphic algae of rice fields of different states of India (Anand et al., 1995; Singh et al., 1997; Sahu et al., 1997; Devi et al., 1999; and Annie et al., 2011). Consequently, occurrence of biological soil crust has been reported from almost all arid and semi arid ecoregions of worldwide (Budel, 2002). Despite their widespread occurrence, the global picture of distribution of soil crust biota and communities is not available in many regions, especially from Asia and almost nothing from the Indian subcontinent. Recently, it has been stated that biodiversity of biological crust on the top soil surface is the most poorly researched habitats on earth (Moore, 1998; Coploy, 2000). In India, there are few reports of soil cyanobacteria and algae, however are independent of their relationship to biological soil crusts (Awasthi, 1991; Marathe and Kushaldas, 1997; Tirkey and Adhikay, 2005 and Sethi et al., 2012). Though rice is cultivated in Thanjavur and Thiruvarur district of Tamilnadu, no concerned attempt has so far been made to record the occurrence and distribution of cyanobacteria in paddy fields. However, the component of cyanobacteria in the paddy fields of above mentioned district are not known, therefore a systematic study on the distributional pattern of cyanobacteria, physico-chemical parameters and soil nutrients in the paddy fields which are influenced by different environmental conditions.


60

Saminathan Sakthidevi, Subramaniyan Vijayakumar & Savarimuthu Jeyachandran

MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Area Thanjavur (Pattukkottai, Alathur, Poondi) which is located 30, 20, 12 km respectively from Thanjavur towards east (10°47N and 79°10E) and Thiruvarur (Mannargudi and Mahadevapattinam) is located 18 and 20 km respectively from Thiruvarur towards west (10°47N and 78°20 E). The paddy soils samples were collected from Thanjavur and Thiruvarur districts on Tamilnadu during October 2011 to September 2012. Collection and Preservation of Cyanobacterial Samples Algae samples were collected from five different paddy fields of both water and soil crust. Samples were collected by removing the surface debris from randomly selected spots of and scrapping about 20 gm soil from 1 cm soil layer in 1 hectare area samples were collected in 100 ml pet bottles. The collected samples ere preferred in 4 per cent formaldehyde and Lugol’s iodine solution. Serially diluted samples were isolated and inoculated in freshly prepared BGn medium Rippka et al. (1979) and cultured under asceptic laboratory condition. Cyanobacteria were identified by following monographs (Desikachary, 1989; Geitler (1932); Anand (1998), Anagnostidis and Komarek, 1988, 1990 and Komarek, 2005). Analysis of Physicochemical Parameters The soil and water samples were collected from five different paddy field from October 2011 to September 2012 for estimation of physicochemical studies. The physico-chemical analysis of the samples was carried out by (APHA, 2000) and Trively and Goel (1986). The soil analysis by (Bremmer and Mulvancy, 1982). The statistical date were analysed by ANOVA (DMRT).

RESULTS Totally 32 species belonging to 16 genera of cyanobacteria were recorded in five different paddy fields in which 13 genera were heterocystous forms and 20 genera were non heterocystous form (Table 2). Among the cyanobacteria, maximum number of species (29) Poondi followed by Alathur (25), Mannargudi (23), Pattukkottai (22) and Mahadevapattinam (19) were recorded. Of the cyanobacteria 14 species were recorded in all the paddy fields (Table 4). Among which oscillatoria was dominant genus followed by lyngbya and phormedium. The abundance and dominantly cyanobacteria distributed in soil crust also (Table 5) of them greenish mat on soil surface were recorded maximum level. The physico-chemical parameters of water revealed that temperature ranged from 24°C to 33°C in all paddy fields (Table 1). The maximum soil temperature (33°C) was observed during summer and minimum (24°C) was observed in during rainy. The maximum water temperature (31°C) was observed during summer and minimum (22°C) was observed during rainy. (Table 2) pH ranged from 6.8 to 8.4 was observed in all paddy field. In rainy season, the level of pH was slightly alkaline were recorded at Poondi paddy field only (Table 1). The salinity was higher in summer in all paddy fields. The dissolved oxygen ranged from 7.4 to 8.2 was observed. The levels of total dissolved solids from 2.4 to 3.6 mgl-1 were observed (Table 1).

DISCUSSIONS A total number of 32 cyanobacteria belonging to 16 genera were identified from five different paddy fields from Thanjavur and Thiruvaur districts of Tamilnadu. The members were observed over unicellular, colonial, filamentous heterocystous and non-heterocystous forms. Among the species, heterocystous forms showed clear dominance over non-


Cyanobacteria in Biological Soil Crust of Thanjavur and Thiruvarur Districts in Tamil Nadu, India

61

heterocystous forms (Table 3). Similarly the present investigation as confirmed with earlier findings of Tamizhselvi and Sivakumar (2011). The abundance and the distribution of the heterocystous forms might be indicating the lower nitrogen status in the all rice fields. Moreover, they are able to colonize almost all biotopes with their inherent adaptation capacity in response to environmental conditions (Zehr et al., 2000; Saha et al., 2003; Komarek et al., 2003). Singh et al. (1996) reported that Anabaena, Calothrix and Nostoc were encountered with maximum number of species in rice field of Tripura. However in our studies along with heterocystous genus, non heterocystous had maximum number of species. In rice fields of Nagaland, Singh et al. (1997a) recorded maximum number of species Microcytis, Anabaena and Nostoc. While Annie et al. (2011) for followed by observed dominance occurrence of heterocystous, non-heterocystous and unicellular in rice field of GOA. Occurrence of several species of cyanobacteria have been reported in the biological crusts on different substrata comprising of soil surfaces in temperate and tropical region of the globe (Crispim et al. 2003; 2004; Morales et al., 2005; Trikey and Adhikary, 2006; Senthil et al., 2012). In the present investigation, results showed that species composition in the crusts various with the nature of the substratum and the sampling season. The crust or mat on all types of soils during summer and winter seasons harbour only certain species of cyanobacteria. L. majuscula, Oscillatoria limosa, O. animalis, O. keni all of which possess well developed Sheash or slime layers around their cells (Table 5). In the crust on building facades with cemented substratum, however were cyanobacteria species belonging to Anabaena, Nostoc, Haplosiphon calothrix and on tree bark the filamentous non heterocystous Phormedium tenue, O. rubenscene and O. subbrecis was the principal component. In the rainy season Scytonema and Tolypothrix occur in the crusts on rice field soil (Table 5). Similar observation was made in the present study with reference by Sethi et al. (2012). Deluca et al. (1996) and Choudhury and Kennedy (2004) reported that the cyanobacteria grow rapidly in the rice fields that contained ample organic matters in the soil and water as well as conditions such as pH, temperature, organic sources in various rice fields. In the present investigation heterocystous and non heterocystous forms were equally distributed (Table 3). pH is an essential parameter for the determination of water character and to differentiate the medium. The pH is a variable, influencing biochemical relations and possibly affecting species distribution. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from five paddy fields. The pH ranges from 6.8 to 8.4 in all paddy fields, which is higher in summer and lower in rainy seasons. The pH values are evaluated for cyanobacterial abundance and their generic diversity. In summer seasons the pH was high due to the evaporation of surface water from the paddy fields and in rainy season the pH was low due to association with low salinity by the dilution of the fresh water. Thamizhselvi and Sivakumar (2012) reported that pH was low in rainy and high in summer seasons in the paddy fields. In the present study the level of salinity, dissolved oxygen and total dissolved solids were observed during 20112012. The salinity ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 per cent during the study period in all paddy field. In all study area the lower amount of salinity was observed. This may be nature of the salt accumulated in the soil and also flooded conditions (Table 1). This finding was confirmed with earlier findings of Yung et al. (1999). The dissolved solids and total dissolved solids of the present study were increased. This may be due to cultivation of BGA in rice field which produce oxygen in dissolved form. These findings were supported by earlier findings of Kolte and Goyel (1986) and Mathumathi et al. (2011). In the present study micro and macro nutrients were analysed (Table 2). The level of Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were higher in summer and lower in rainy seasons as well as the level of Iron, Manganese, Zinc and Copper


62

Saminathan Sakthidevi, Subramaniyan Vijayakumar & Savarimuthu Jeyachandran

were higher in summer and lower in rainy. This may be due to physicochemical properties of the soil by enriching them available of phosphorus (Kaushik, 1994). Similar observation was made in the present study with reference by Zhang and Wang (2005). The present study concludes that the normal range of various physicochemical parameters favorably increase the cyanobacterial growth which enhance the growth of paddy.

REFERENCES 1.

Anagnostidis, K., and Komerak, J., 1988. Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes. 3. Oscillatoriales. Arch. Hydrobiol. Algolog. Stud., 50-53: 327-472.

2.

Anagnostidis, K., and Komerak, J., 1990. Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes. 5. Stignonemates. Arch. Hydrobiol. Algolog. Stud., 59: 1-73.

3.

Anand, N., 1998. Indian Freshwater Microalgae. Dehru Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Sing, pp.1-94.

4.

APHA-AWWA-WPCA, 1985. Standard Methods for Examinations of water and waste water. 18th ed. Washington DC: American Public Health Association.

5.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. [Page, A.L. (ed.)]. Madison: ASA and SSSA, pp.595-624.

6.

Deluca, T.H., Drindwater, L.E., Wiefling, B.A., and DeNicola, D.M., 1996. Free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria in temperate cropping system: influence of nitrogen source. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 23: 140-144.

7.

Desikachary, T.V.,1 959. Cyanophyta. New Delhi: Indian Council of Agricultural Research, pp.700.

8.

Geitler, L., 1932. Cyanophyceae in Rubenhorset’s Kryptogamen flora. Leipzing, 14: 196.

9.

Kaushik, B.D., 1994. Algalization of rice in salt-affected soils. Ann. Agricul. Res., 14: 105-106.

10. Kolte, S.O., and Goyel, S.K., 1986. Distribution pattern of blue green algae in rice field soils of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State. Phykos, 34: 65-69. 11. Saha, J.K., Nayak, H., and Adhikary, S.P., 1997. Blue-green algae of rice fields of Orissa State Distributional Pattern in different agroclimatic zones. Phykos, 35: 93-110. 12. Singh, N.I., Singh, N.S., Devi, G.A., and Sing, S.M., 1997a. Bluegreen algae from rice growing areas of Arunachal Pradesh. Phykos, 36: 21-26. 13. Trivedy, R.K., and Goel, P.K., 1986. Chemical and Biological methods for water pollution studies. Karad: Environmental Publication. 14. Yung, Y.K., Yaua, K., Wong, C.K., Chan, K.K., Yeung, I., Kueh, C.S.W., and Broom, M.J., 1999. Some observations on the changes of physico-chemical and biological factors in Victoria Harbour and Vicinity, Hong Kong, 1988-1996, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 39: 1-2, 315-325.


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Cyanobacteria in Biological Soil Crust of Thanjavur and Thiruvarur Districts in Tamil Nadu, India

APPENDICES Table 1: Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Different Paddy Fields Thiruvarur Mahadevapattinam

7.4  0.2 30  0.4 7.4  1.1 3.1  0.9

1.82  0.2

7.2  0.1 28  0.3

Winter

7.47  1.2

1.9  0.2

1.54  0.6

30  0.1

7.8  0.2

Rainy

3.2  0.8

8.0  0.6 3.1  0.9

Summer

7.84  0.6

7.2  0.1 1.52  0.6

28  0.3

7.0  0.2 25  0.2 1.3  0.4 7.8  0.2

8.25  0.7 2.6  1.7

Winter

3.5  0.8

8.0  0.3

1.5  0.2

29  0.2

7.4  0.3

Rainy

2.5  1.2

Mannargudi Summer

3.4  1.3

1.3  0.6

28  0.3

7.2  1.3

Winter

7.6  0.8

1.9  0.7

22  0.4

6.8  0.1

Rainy

3.6  0.9

8.2  0.6 2.4  1.2

1.5  0.2

29  0.2

7.6  0.3

Summer

8.0  0.6

1.2  0.4

28  0.1

8.0  0.3

Winter

3.1  0.7

7.8  0.1 22  0.3 1.5  0.8 7.8  0.6 3.2  1.2

8.0  0.2

8.0  0.3 3.3  0.6

2.8  0.6

7.4  0.2 3.5  1.2

1.8  0.7

28  0.2

8.0  0.4 29  0.3

8.2  0.9 2.6  0.1

Rainy

8.2  0.01

Summer

1.7  0.8

8.2  0.02 28  0.2

Dissolved oxygen (mg-1) Total dissolved solids (mgl-1)

1.5  0.5

Winter

4

1.9  0.2

31  0.3

pH Water temperature Salinity (%)

2

Rainy

5

3

Name of the Collection of Place and Samples Thanjavur Alathur Poondi

Pattukkottai Summer

8.4  0.4

Name of the Parameters

1

S. No.

Table 2: Soil Analysis of Different Paddy Fields Name of the Collection of Place and Samples S. No. 1.

Name of the Parameters Surface temperature

2.

Nitrogen

3.

Phosphorus

4.

Potassium

5.

Iron

6.

Manganese

7.

Zinc

8.

Copper

9.

Boron

Pattukkottai Summer Rainy 26  3.2  0.7 0.6 50  56  0.2 0.6 75  81.3  0.6 0.2 44  47.5  0.2 0.4 4.8  5.2  1.7 0.7 2.8  3.2  0.7 0.6 0.2  0.2  0.7 0.3 0.3  0.6  1.2 1.8 -

Winter 27  0.2 54  0.8 78  0.8 45.2  0.3 5.0  0.3 3.0  0.7 0.2  0.6 0.5  1.7 -

Summer 30  0.04 78  0.6 80  0.6 82.5  0.3 5.9  1.7 6.  1.7 0.2  0.3

Thanjavur Alathur Rainy 24  0.07 72  0.4 74  0.8 76  0.2 5.3  1.2 4.7  0.3 0.2  0.2

Thiruvarur Winter 27  0.2 75  0.6 78  1.2 78  0.6 5.5  1.7 5.2  0.7 0.2  1.2

Summer 30  0.1 50  0.6 48.8  1.2 26.5  1.2 14  0.9 1.7  0.6 0.2  1.7

-

-

-

0.6  0.7

-

-

-

-

Poondi Rainy 27  0.3 48  0.7 42  0.6 23  0.7 10  1.2 1.4  0.6 0.2  0.9 0.4  2.5 -

Winter 28  0.4 51  0.9 45  0.8 24  0.6 12  0.6 1.5  0.3 0.2  0.8 0.5  1.2 -

Summer 33  0.4 54  0.8 104.6  1.2 40  0.6 2.8  1.7 1.4  0.6 0.2  1.7 0.2  1.2 -

Mannargudi Rainy 25  0.3 52  0.7 98.3  1.6 36  1.2 2.5  0.6 1.2  0.7 0.2  0.9 0.2  0.7 -

Winter 27  0.2 53  0.9 100.2  1.7 38  0.7 26  1.9 1.1  0.6 0.2  0.6 0.2  0.6 -

Mahadevapattinam Summer Rainy Winter 27  29  32  0.4 0.2 0.3 73  75  77  0.6 0.2 0.8 65.8  60  63  0.7 0.4 0.3 47  49  50  1.2 1.3 0.7 10.8  9.4  9.8  1.2 0.6 1.2 2.0  2.1  2.4  0.6 0.8 1.2 0.2  0.2  0.2  1.7 0.9 1.8 0.8  0.8  0.8  0.7 1.2 0.2 -

Table 3: Isolation of Cyanobacteria from Different Paddy Fields S. No.

Thanjavur Name of the Cyanobacteria

1

Chroococcus micrococcus

2 3 4 5 6

Gleocapsa compactica Kutz Microcystis aeruginosa Kutz M. flos-aquae (Wittr) Kirchnert M. robusta (Clark) Nyaard Spirullina subsellsa Oerst. ex Gomont

7

Oscillatoria animalis Ag.ex.Gomont

Pattukkottai Chroococcaceae + Microcystaceae + + + + + Oscillatoriaceae -

Thiruvarur Mannar- Mahadevakudi pattinam

Alathur

Poondi

+

+

+

+

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + +

+ +

-

+

-

-


64

Saminathan Sakthidevi, Subramaniyan Vijayakumar & Savarimuthu Jeyachandran

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 31 32

Table 3:Contd., + + + + + + + + Nostocacea Anabaena beckii De Toni, G.B. + A. oryzae Nostoc muscorum + N. communae Vaucher ex Bornet Flah N. paludosum Kutzhing ex Born.et flash + Cylindrosperman musicola Kutzhing ex Born. et flash Rivulariaceae Rivularia minulaba Fremy + R. aquatic De Coilde Calothrix contarenii (Zanard) Bornet et Flashacult + Scytonemataceae Scytonema crustaceam Ag.ex Born.et Flah Tolypothirix distorta Kutzhing ex Born et flash + Tolyphothirix distorta Kutz. + Stigonemataceae Westiellopsis prolifca Janet + 22 O. earlei Gardner O. limosa O. okeni Ag.ex. Gomont O. rabescens Dc.ex.Gomont O. subbrevis Schmidles Phormidium tenue (Menegh) Gomont Phormidium unicinatum (Ag) Gomont P. fragile (Meneghini) Gomont Lyngbya connectens Brahlet Biswas L. aestuarii Liebm.ex.Gomont L. martensiana Menegh ex Gomont L. majuscule Harvey ex Gomont L. spiralis Geitler

+ + + + + + + +

+ + + + + + + + + + + +

+ + + + + + + + +

+ + + + + + + + + + + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + + +

+ + + + -

+ + + + -

+ + +

+ +

+ + +

+ +

+ + +

+ + +

+ +

+ +

+ 25

29

+ 23

19

Table 4: Common Cyanobacterial Flora of Different Paddy Fields S. No.

Thanjavur Name of the Cyanobacteria

I. 1.

Chroococcaceae Chroococcus micrococcus

II. 2. 3. III. 4. 5. 6. 7. IV. 8. 9. 10.

Microcystaceae M. robusta Spirullina subsellsa Osillatoriaceae Phormidium unicianatum Lyngbya estuarii L. majuscule L. spiralis Nostocaceae Anabaena beckii Notoac muscorum Nostoc paludosm

11. 12.

Calothrix contarenii Tolypothirix distort

13.

Hapolosiphon clicates

Pattukkottai

Alathur

+ + Table 4: Contd.,

Poondi

Thiruvarur MannarMahadevakudi pattinam

+

+

+

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + + +

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + + Ruvulariaceae + + + + Stigonemtaceae

+ + +

+ + +

+ + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ + + + + + +

Table 5: Nature of the Substratum of the Sampled Sites and the Species Composition from Different Localities of Tamil Nadu S. No. 1.

Nature of Substratum Sampled Site Rice field

Locality in TamilNadu State India Thanjavur (Pattukkottai)

Season of Collection Summer Rainy

2.

Rice field

Thanjavur (Alathur)

Appearance of Crust on the Substratum Brownish mats on soil Greenish mat on moist soil

Winter

Greenish mat on soil

Rainy

Greenish mat on soil

Species Composition in the Crusts Lyngbya aestuarii Phormidium unicinalium Nostic muscorum Microcystis aeriginosa Westiellopsis prolific Chroococcus micrococcus Microcystis robusta Anabaena beckii


65

Cyanobacteria in Biological Soil Crust of Thanjavur and Thiruvarur Districts in Tamil Nadu, India

S. No.

Nature of Substratum Sampled Site

Locality in TamilNadu State India

Season of Collection

3.

Rice field

Thanjavur (Poondi)

Rainy

4.

Rice field

Thanjavur (Poondi)

Summer Winter

5.

Cemented Building fecades

Pattukkottai

Winter and summer Rainy

6.

Cemented pits

Alathur

Winter and Summer Rainy

7.

Moist soil

Thiruvarur (Mannargudi)

Rainy

8.

Rice field (Tree trunk)

Mannargudi

Winter and Summer Rainy

9.

Rice field (Dry soil)

Mahadevapattinam

Summer

10.

Rice field

Mahadevapattinam

Winter

Appearance of Crust on the Substratum List bluesh green mat on soil Blackish - green mat on soil Reddish - brown or dark brownish mat on soil Blackish – Green crust on wall Yellowish brown mat on moist soil Blackish green crust on wall Brownish blue crust on wall Greenish mat, attached on moist soil in the stream Brownish – green crust on tree trunk Blackish green crust on tree trunk Dark green crust on soil Blackish green crust on soil mat

Summer (March – May) Rainy (Aug. – Oct.) – Winter (Nov-Jan.)

Species Composition in the Crusts Rivalaria aqualii Lyngbya spiralis L. martensiana Cylindrospermum musicola Lyngbya majuscule Oscilatoria limosa O. animalis, O. okenii Anabaena oryzae, Phormidium uncinatum Lyngbya martensiana Nostac paludosum Calothrix contarenii Nostac communae Haplosophon clicates Phormidium fragile Lyngybya connectens Phormidium tenue Spirulina subsellsa Phormidium tenue O. rubenscence O. subbresis Scytonema crustaceam Tolypothrix distorta Gleocapsa compactica, O. subbresis L. marensiana Chroococcus micrococcus



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