International Journal of English and Literature (IJEL) ISSN 2249-6912 Vol. 3, Issue 3, Aug 2013, 21-26 ÂŠ TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
LANGUAGE THROUGH E-LEARNING S. KARTHICK, M. MOHANKUMAR, S. RAJAPRABHU & M. NANDHAKUMAR Assistant Professor, Department of English, Muthayammal College of Arts & Science, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India
ABSTRACT English Language through e-learning Teaching has reflected multiple changes in proficiency the language learners need, such as to move forward in their reading proficiency, comprehension are the goals of language study. E-learning Teaching has undergone the tremendous change, especially through the twentieth century. Various adaptations are followed in English Language Teaching has spread all over the world. The methodology of English teaching whether it is greater or lesser remained the same. The development of ELT reveals the optimal methods and techniques of teaching English. The status of English language underwent constant reinvention of paradigm. E-learning has emerged as the global language, because of its flexibility. The study Language and Linguists have improved the quality of language teaching
KEYWORDS: Web-Based, ESL Learners INTRODUCTION English language is an increasing use of personal computing and the Internet makes available a new set of instructional possibilities. E-learning instruction offers various innovative alternatives to conventional modes of language learning. Second language acquisition is a complex process that requires extensive exposure to the target language within a wide variety of authentic auditory, verbal, and written contexts, so new forms can be constructed and incorporated into the learner's linguistic repertoire. As the Internet has become more readily accessible, institutions have extended the use of online language materials and course delivery systems. It is becoming increasingly important to analyze the strengths and limitations of Web-based instruction to determine what principles and practices are most effective with online learners.
STRENGTHS OF E-LEARNING TEACHING E- Learners have culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds generally reveal different learning strategies, attitudes, and motivations. In traditional language classroom settings, online learners are constantly exposed to communicative tasks in which they are expected to demonstrate their language competence in front of others. In such situations, self-consciousness and the fear of making mistakes can cause strong feelings of frustration and anxiety. Webbased language instruction can promote independent learning in a non-threatening environment. Learners can imitate native speaker models of pronunciation while acquiring contextualized listening skills, readily available at any time. Even introverted learners can listen to their voices and use self-correction methods without being witnessed by anybody else. Learners can practice at their own pace and then demonstrate their newly acquired language skills without experiencing intense feelings of anxiety. The adaptation of traditional language instruction to an online environment provides Online learners with abundant opportunities for the acquisition and mastery of challenging English patterns. When compared to receptive skills, productive skills such as speaking and pronunciation have been proven to be a much more difficult process, and learners usually do not have natural exposure to the target language out of the classroom. Computer-mediated instruction can facilitate exposure to the target language by acting as a tool to increase verbal exchange (Green, 2005). In online settings,
S. Karthick, M. Mohankumar, S. Rajaprabhu & M. Nandhakumar
ESL learners can interact with other learners and perform a variety of verbal language functions by asking questions, giving responses, sharing opinions, making suggestions, and correcting themselves and
other. In synchronous
communications, users carry out discussions using the technology at the same time (e.g., instant messaging or chats). When providing online instruction, it is essential to take into consideration the students' individual learning styles. Web-based instruction and other technological resources give language learners the flexibility to select their own learning material adapted to their individual interests and capabilities. The rapid increase of global educational opportunities is constantly breaking geographic boundaries. Electronic modes of instruction that are commonly used to deliver education at a global level generally require the use of the English language. E-learning provides an equal opportunity for learners with different cultural backgrounds and personalities, thereby diminishing apprehension as well as increasing involvement in the use of language. Within this context, the Web can be a significant resource to obtain English language proficiency. The acquisition of a foreign language requires a language-rich environment in which learners are continuously exposed to productive skills. The applications must contain humorous clips, colorful graphics, motion pictures, video, and sound, all integrated into real-life settings. In addition, language learners have limitless access to videotaped instructional sessions, notes, PowerPoint presentations, podcasts, tutorials, practice exercises, and assessments, among other learning materials that generally provide immediate feedback minimizing the possibility of acquiring inaccurate language patterns. Another way to improve Online language skills using the Internet is electronic mail. The use of the Internet serves as a virtual moderator between the learner and the world, shaping and expanding L2 knowledge of English patterns. While writing e-mail, learners can build vocabulary and master grammatical forms required for successful communication. Since the use e-mail to communicate has become so widespread, ESL learners can practice their English writing skills in various contextualized real-life environments. The Web offers language instructors an array of possibilities to create teaching resources. There is a wealth of easily accessible, user-friendly information on the Web for instructors to develop online materials or integrate existing language learning activities into their lessons. Web pages that meet accessibility guidelines for individuals with disabilities should also be considered, so that students with special needs are not ignored.
LIMITATIONS OF E-LEARNING INSTRUCTION Despite its rising popularity, Web-based language instruction has also been subject to extensive criticism. Mason, Mantón, and English (2005) affirm that inequitable access and failure to keep pace with technology represent aspects of concern, since this situation has created a divide among learners. This division predominantly affects economically deprived learners who do not have full access to technology at institutions or at home. For learners with disabilities, it could also be difficult to participate in activities that require the use of technology because some instructional settings do not have the equipment compatible with their learning or physical needs (Jerome & Barbetta, 2005).In terms of the benefits of student interaction using the Internet within culturally diverse environments, Kramsch and Thorne (2002), question the assumption that computer-mediated communication naturally helps learners to understand their cultural conditions of language use and to build a global common ground for intercultural understanding. In their study of French-American telecollaboration, they found that students faced intercultural misunderstandings based on the limited knowledge of the "different social and cultural conventions under which each party is operating" (p. 90) and “very little awareness that such an understanding is even necessary" (p. 98). These emerging patterns could be particularly problematic for L2 students since they may still be trying to incorporate new language patterns and are not able to discern correct usage.It is interesting to note that while some researchers assume that e-mailing has promoted a lack of seriousness regarding writing usage (Burns, 2006).
Language Through E-Learning
E-mail has become an accepted means of communication between university students and their professors. However, many ESL students seem to ignore certain e- mail etiquette rules, probably because of lack of experience or because they have never been exposed to such rules. Aspects such as inappropriate salutations, abbreviations, spelling and grammar errors, impolite tone, proficiency level, length, and e-mail etiquette rules often result in negative assessments of the students' personalities. Mason et al. (2005) claim that the Internet can divert learners from their work, promote superficial and foolish reasoning, substitute social interaction, and lead to short-term memory problems as well as difficulties concentrating. Once submerged in the cyber world, learners tend to procrastinate and waste time while surfing, looking for unrelated information, or playing computer-generated games instead of focusing on their learning tasks. Some critics observe that through the use of the Internet, students have access to undifferentiated information. If learners are not able to distinguish accurate from inaccurate, outdated from updated sources of information, they could apply erroneous data to their learning tasks (Moreno & VaId ez, 2005). Consequently, the lack of personal interface while interacting with technological devices could interfere with creativity, an essential component in L2 learning. Another important aspect to consider regarding online language instruction is the problems that may emerge from Web based testing. Familiarity with computers, typing speed, and accidental double-clicks are just a few of the many factors that can negatively affect students' scores. Download times, complexity of the page, computer speed, server failure, browser incompatibilities, and a series of other situations could affect students while taking timed tests. Some online tests require considerable student expertise because of their sophisticated design.
THEORETICAL FOUNDATION Language is assumed to be individually constructed by incorporating meaningful associations obtained through past experiences into an existing set of linguistic elements; therefore, integrating constructivist perspectives into L2 acquisition can serve as a theoretical foundation for the implementation of effective instructional practices (Liu, Moore, Graham, & Lee, 2002).Piaget (1929) refers to learning as an active process of accommodation and assimilation in which new ideas or concepts are constructed through the exposure to new experiences, based on current and past knowledge. Piagetian principles focus on learnersâ€™ freedom to achieve meaning construction through personal experiences as well as collaborative peer interactions as an individual process. As a result, learners can assert absolute ownership of their knowledge construction capabilities. In language learning, the use of the Internet represents a significant element of technology that supports the constructivist learning theory. In one exercise, multiple choice questions to check comprehension and vocabulary are presented. If answered correctly, a piece of a puzzle shows. Then, the completed puzzle becomes an authentic picture related to a certain culture linked to a relevant site on the Internet, so the learner can go exploring topics related to that culture. In addition, learners have access to thousands of valuable language learning activities, drills, tutorials, and quizzes that facilitate practice in reading, speech, grammar, and writing, the four literacy skills necessary for language acquisition. In terms of cognitive constructivism, Jonassen, Peck, and Wilson (1999) agree with constructivist views that knowledge is constructed by the individual, rather than transmitted to the individual for the construction of meaning. They stress that sense-making develops through inferences that have been built and tested by means of sensory experience, a crucial element in L2 acquisition. In this view of learning, it is assumed that one individual cannot fully understand anything in exactly the same way that another individual understands it. Elaboration theory and cognitive flexibility theory both relate to views of learning within the framework of Webbased instruction and learning. Elaboration theory (Reigeluth) refers to the organization of course materials and serves as a
S. Karthick, M. Mohankumar, S. Rajaprabhu & M. Nandhakumar
prescriptive framework for selecting, sequencing and organizing instruction. According to this theory, Order to attain optimal learning, instruction should be organized in increasing order of complexity .Cognitive flexibility theory addresses learning and instruction in complex and ill-structured knowledge domains. The theory addresses advanced learning, the development of flexible cognitive representations, and the ability to use knowledge adaptively. It was formulated to support interactive technologies that provide a case- based approach to knowledge acquisition, including hypertext and Web-based instruction.
CONCLUSIONS The potential to integrate effective Web based instruction into online courses for their immediate application can add a valuable new dimension to language teaching and learning. Web-based instruction offers a variety of content, approaches, and media that allow flexibility. It also offers a great number of meaningful activities, often available at no cost, designed according to different learning styles and within productive, authentic contexts. The Web is an innovative tool for language teaching that presents both strengths and limitations. Unconstrained access to Web resources breaks the limitations of time and space, presents a flexible platform for learning, and offers engaging structures for active, authentic, student-centered learning. It facilitates a collaborative language learning in which online learners may even become willing collaborators in the construction of knowledge. Of the many available options, instructors should select the appropriate technology that meets practical instructional objectives, definite application of instructional materials, and active learning within pedagogically and scientifically sound contexts.
Arnette, P (2000, September). Mastering reading and writing with technology. Media & Methods, 37(1), 12-14.
Burns, M. (2006). Improving student writing through e-mail mentoring. Learning and Leading with Technology, 33(5), 38-43
Green, T. (2005). Using technology to help English language students develop language skills: A home and school connection. Multicultural Education, 13(2), 56-9.
Jerome, A., & Barbetta, E (2005). The effect of active student responding during computerassisted instruction. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20, 13-23
Jonassen, D. H (1996). Computers in the classroom: Mindtools for critical thinking. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kramsch, C, & Thorne, S. (2002). Foreign language learning as global communicative practice. In D. Block & D. Cameron (Eds.), Globalization and language teaching (pp. 83100). London: Routledge.
Piaget, J. (1929). The child's conception of the world. New York: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich.
Language Through E-Learning
S. Karthick, Recieved B.A (Eng)., from CN College, Erode, Bharathiar University 2006, M.A (Eng)., & M.Phil (Eng)., from Kongu Arts & Science College, Erode, Bharathiar University 2008 & 2010, M.Sc (Psychology)., in Bharathiar University 2011, PGDCE in Bharathiar University 2012, BLISc., in Manonmaniam Sundaranar University 2012 & Pursuing M.A (Eng)., in Manonmaniam Sundaranar University. Currently he is working as an Asst.Professor in the department of English in Muthayammal College of Arts & Science, Namakkal. His area of interests are Poetry, American Literature & ELT.
M.Mohankumar, Recieved B.A (Eng)., from T.G.A College, Rasipuram, Periyar University 2009, M.A (Eng)., from Govt, Arts College, Salem, Periyar University 2011 & M.Phil from Periyar University 2012. Currently he is working as an Asst.Professor in the department of English in Muthayammal College of Arts & Science, Namakkal. His area of interests are African American Literature & ELT.
S.Rajaprabhu, Recieved B.A (Eng)., from T.G.A College, Rasipuram, Periyar University 2009 & M.A (Eng)., from National College, Trichy, Bharathidasan University 2012. Currently he is working as an Asst.Professor in the department of English in Muthayammal College of Arts & Science, Namakkal. His area of interests are Indian Literature & ELT. M.Nandhakumar, Recieved B.A (Eng)., from Jamal Mohammed College, Trichy, Bharathidasan University 2009, M.A (Eng)., from Jamal Mohammed College, Trichy, Bharathidasan University 2012. Currently he is working as an Asst.Professor in the department of English in Muthayammal College of Arts & Science, Namakkal. His area of interests are Translation studies & ELT.
English Language through e-learning Teaching has reflected multiple changes in proficiency the language learners need, such as to move forwa...