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International Journal of Human Resource Management and Research (IJHRMR) ISSN 2249-6874 Vol. 3 Issue 3, Aug 2013, 27-38 Š TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB BURNOUT OF COACHES – A REVIEW OF THE INTERNATIONAL LITERATURE BELIAS DIMITRIOS1, KOUSTELIOS ATHANASIOS2, ZOUTNATZI ELENI3, KOUTIVA MARIA4, SDOLIAS LABROS5 & BARBI IOANNA6 1,2,3,4

University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece

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Technological Educational Institute of Larisa, Larisa, Greece 6

International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece

ABSTRACT This paper aims at examining the issues of job satisfaction and job burnout in coaches of various sports. Through the review of the literature review, it is indicated that job satisfaction is related among others to salary, organisational commitment, organisational support, life satisfaction, and work-life conflict. Job burnout is strongly related on the one hand to chronic stress and on the other on the persistent imbalance between demands and coping resources. Overall the review of the international bibliography indicates the need of coaches to support and educational programs for coping with stress, and acquiring skills related to communication, conflict resolution, negotiation. In addition, managers of the teams and the sports organisations and association should take into account motivation methods, and techniques of enhancing the organisational support and organisational commitment of coaches.

KEYWORDS: Job Satisfaction, Job Burnout, Coaching, Stress, Motivation, Leadership, Support, Communication INTRODUCTION The role of the coach is extremely important. Therefore, the sports psychology has become a very interesting field of research in the recent years (Moradi et al., 2012). Another reason for which issues of psychology for coaches are being studied largely in the academic literature is because coaching is a very demanding and stressful profession (Koustelios, 2010). This is because the coaches are expected and assumed to undertake multiple roles, such as be responsible for public relations, support the players, and finding sponsorships (Koustelios, 2010). Coaching demands the acquisition of sufficient sport knowledge, whereas it can be considered as an educational activity, helping the athletes to be developed as a whole and not only to be taught with the required techniques and tactics (Drakou et al., 2006). The increased anxiety (stress) in the workplace, the subsequent burnout as well as job satisfaction are areas studied extensively in organizational research since they are related to the performance of workers and hence constitute an interesting area of human resource management. More specifically, the stress (Malinauskas et al., 2010; Koustelios, 2010), and the lack of job satisfaction (Koustelios and Kousteliou, 2001) are followed by job burnout. This paper deals with both the job burnout and the job satisfaction of coaches. More precisely, this paper will explore through secondary research, namely the review of the international bibliography, the job burnout of coaches of various sports, as well as those factors that contribute to their professional satisfaction. Although the issue of burnout and satisfaction in sport has been studied by other researchers, this article aims to gather all those studies that have been conducted in this academic area. In this way the instruments for measuring burnout will be identified, while the factors that contribute to job satisfaction of coaches will be highlighted.


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JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction is defined as the positive and negative attitudes that the individual has for his/her work (Koustelios and Kousteliou, 2001, p. 31). Locke (1976, as cited in Zournatzi et al., 2006, p. 19) has identified job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's work or work experience. The fact is that there is not a single and unique definition for job satisfaction, since it is a multidimensional concept, as indicated by Zournatzi et al. (2006). Job satisfaction is related to the productivity and efficiency of worker absenteeism and staff mobility, and depends on factors such as the content of the work, and the context in which work is carried out (Koustelios and Kousteliou, 2001). Additional factors associated with job satisfaction are the reduction of errors in the workplace, and the intention of employees to leave their jobs (Zournatzi et al., 2006). One important factor that contributes positively to job satisfaction is the salary. More precisely, according to the economic theory that utility from work, measured as job satisfaction, depends positively on income and negatively on hours of work, and that it depends also on a set of other job-specific and worker-specific characteristics” (Vila and García‐Mora, 2005, p. 411). However, Georgiadi (2008) noted in her research on 146 coaches wrestling and taekwondo that coaches were not only satisfied with the agent salary. This indicates that there are factors that are also important in job satisfaction. For example, it has been found that more educated people show higher levels of job satisfaction in comparison to low educated people, given the fact that better educated people form more accurate expectations and pursue their aspirations more efficiently that poorly educated people (Vila and García‐Mora, 2005). Moradi et al. (2012) report that self-awareness, empathy, emotional intelligence and social skills are important parameters that are positively associated with job satisfaction. The expectations that a coach has from his/her profession, and the behavior of the director-president of a sport group / club also affect the level of labor of satisfaction, whereas job satisfaction is negatively related to turnover and positively with increased performance of employees (Dixon and Warner, 2010). Another important factor that influences the job satisfaction of the individuals is the balance between the family and the work life. In fact there is empirical evidence that this work-family conflict can lead towards reduced job satisfaction and increased psychological strain (Dixon and Sagas, 2007; Kalliath and Kalliath, 2013). Team working is also seems to be related to job satisfaction. For instance, Williams (1998) argues that working in teams offers employees increased levels of job satisfaction, through increased decision-making powers, as well as meaningful and varied multi-skilled job. Apart from this, it is supported that team working increases employee productivity and employee commitment. Two key features of the workplace that affect negatively the job satisfaction of individuals are both role ambiguity and role conflict on the other hand. The role ambiguity is associated with the uncertainty experienced when the employee does not know the requirements of his/her work, how to achieve them and how he/she expects others to behave in the same work. The role conflict exists when different people or different groups of persons with whom the employee interacts (e.g., family, colleagues, friends, parents) have conflicting expectations for behavior (Amarantidou and Koustelios, 2009). The study of Ayub and Rafif (2011) concluded that there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and motivation. Various factors, both tangible and intangible, affect the satisfaction that individuals derive from their work. For example, Schultz and Schultz (1998, as cited in Ayub and Rafif, 2011) advocate that job satisfaction include the positive and negative feelings of employees about their jobs, where motivation plays a crucial role. Finally, it should be mentioned that, according to the international literature, the factors that contribute to the job satisfaction, is their involvement and participation in the decision – making process of the organization (Shuck et al., 2011;


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Greasley et al., 2005; Joensson, 2008), the ability to perform one‟s tasks effectively and in accordance to ones perceptions of self – efficacy (Greasley et al., 2005), the workplace climate (Shuck et al., 2011), the economic incentives (Stringer et al., 2011), achievement, interpersonal relationships, and general working conditions (Halepota and Shah, 2011). Positive job satisfaction is related to higher job performance and increased productivity (Saari and Judge, 2004). In addition, higher levels of job satisfaction are associated with the overall life satisfaction (Saari and Judge, 2004; Drakou et al., 2006). On the other hand, job dissatisfaction is related to absenteeism, decreased productivity and performance, lateness and decision to retire (Saari and Judge, 2004).

JOB BURNOUT Burnout in the workplace is defined as loss of interest for people with whom one works, including physical exhaustion, where the employee has no longer any positive feelings of sympathy or respect for his/her clients or patients (Maslach, 1976, as cited in Amarantidou and Koustelios, 2009). According to another definition, burnout is regarded as “a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment” (Olusoga et al., 2010, p. 275). The exposure of an individual to chronic stress leads to job burnout (Malinauskas et al., 2010; Koustelios, 2010; Olusoga et al., 2010). More specifically, it is argued that the burnout syndrome is associated with a regime of emotional, psychological and physical exhaustion, which is created under the influence of long-term stress (Malinauskas et al., 2010), as well as the persistent imbalance between demands and coping resources (Olusoga et al., 2010). Furthermore, gender was found to be related to the stress levels and job burnout of employees, as men traditionally face greater job insecurity and are more exposed to work stress than women, especially traditional women, namely those who do not consider that there is equality between men and women (Gaunt and Benjamin, 2007). According to Imtiaz and Ahmad (2010) stress affects negatively the performance of employees. The two authors point out that one major factor that is related to the work stress and the employee performance is job satisfaction. Emberland and Rundmo (2010) agree with this opinion that job satisfaction is associated with the job insecurity that the employees feel. Imtiaz and Ahmad (2010) and Turkyilmaz et al. (2011) state that job satisfaction derives from many factors of working environment, such as the monetary rewards, the relation between employees and their coworkers and supervisors, the organizational structure and the job attributes. In addition, Quesnel-Vallée et al. (2010) suggest that job insecurity due to temporary employment leads to high levels of depression and job dissatisfaction. The same assumption is being noticed by Boya et al. (2008) and D‟ Souza et al. (2003), who state that job insecurity can lead to increased levels of depression and anxiety, which is a factor that may result in job burnout. Emberland and Rundmo (2010) underline the fact that job insecurity is related to psychological problems. In addition to that, based on the stress theory, job insecurity is a stressor factor, given the fact that the possible loss of a job position creates anxiety to the employees (Sora et al., 2010). Additional factors that contribute to job burnout is the role ambiguity and role conflict, namely the personality traits of the worker, such as high levels of sentimentality, underdevelopment of professional achievement, unreasonable expectations and unrealistic goals (Amarantidou and Koustelios, 2009). The symptoms of job burnout can be categorized into five groups (Malinauskas et al., 2010): a) emotional (depression, hostility), b) cognitive-perceptual (feeling of helplessness, cynicism, impaired attention and concentration), c) physically (exhaustion), d) behavioral (decreased performance, increased absenteeism) and e) motivational (lack of excitement, disappointment). Amarantidou and Koustelios (2009) point out that burnout leads to reduced performance, low self-concept, low expectations of the role of the individual from his work, as well as intention to abandon the job position.


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RESEARCHES DEALING WITH THE JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB BURNOUT OF THE COACHES The survey of Ilhan (2012) was conducted in 87 coaches in children with mental retardation to examine the levels of job satisfaction of coaches using the Minnesota Satisfaction Inventory. The main finding of the study was that the coaches had high levels of job satisfaction, while it was found that job satisfaction was not associated with gender, age, marital status, publications, the original occupation, financial status and professional experience. Nathial (2012) examined the job satisfaction of 200 coaches working in the public and private sector. In a sample of 100 coaches from each sector, the research revealed that coaches in the private sector were more satisfied than those in public. The study also demonstrated a statistically significant difference between satisfied men in high level coaches in both public and private sector, but not between satisfied coaches at a low level. Dixon and Warner (2010) in their research found that the desired characteristics of the work of the coach (the player-coach relationships, recognition and social status) were related to job satisfaction. Instead, the policy followed in the sports, the salary, the supervision, the balance between work and family life, as well as the way of recruitment were associated with dissatisfaction from work. Finally, the factors related to performance (relations with colleagues, flexibility and control, and configuration program), found to be associated with both satisfaction and dissatisfaction from the job. Job satisfaction of coaches is also influenced by life satisfaction. The study of Drakou et al. (2006) in 402 coaches of 11 sports (six individual and five team sports) with the use of Scale of Life Satisfaction (SOLS) Questionnaire revealed that life satisfaction affect the job satisfaction of coaches and thus it plays a crucial role in the coaching process. It is supported that “from a managerial point of view, life satisfaction, which is positively related to job satisfaction, may influence someone‟s feelings about his/her coaching career, and thus, it may influence important concepts such as productivity, absence, turnover, and so on” (Drakou et al., 2006, p. 240). Both job satisfaction and family satisfaction, which is defined as “the degree to which one is satisfied or happy with family aspects of his or her life”, contribute to life satisfaction” (Dixon and Sagas, 2007, p. 240). The importance of life satisfaction as an indicator of job satisfaction is also justified by the fact that coaches interact with athletes, administrators, parents and media and thus the environment in which coaches work affect their judgment and cognitive evaluation about their overall life satisfaction and hence the coaching process. With regard to both life satisfaction as indicated by Drakou et al. (2006) and work-family conflict as mentioned by Kalliath and Kalliath (2013), an interesting study was conducted by Dixon and Sagas (2007). Examining a sample of 253 collegiate head coaches with families through a mailed questionnaire (Satisfaction with Life Scale, 8-item global Perceived Organizational Support scale and 5-item Work-Family Conflict Scale), the authors found that job satisfaction was partially mediated the effect of both organisational support and work-family conflict to life satisfaction. The results of the study provided evidence that perceived organizational support affects both directly and indirectly, namely through work-family balance, the job satisfaction of coaches. As a result, job satisfaction of coaches was influenced directly by the organisational support and indirectly by the work-family balance. The research of Moradi et al. (2012) to 56 football coaches of players under 20 years revealed a statistically significant correlation between the emotional intelligence subscale of self-awareness, the empathy subscale and the social skills subscale with the job satisfaction. However, there was no significant correlation between the subscales of selfmotivation and self-control with job satisfaction. Malinauskas et al. (2010) conducted research on 203 university coaches in Lithuania with the help of Coach


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Burnout Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale. The results of their research showed that there was no statistically significant relationship between burnout and the years of service (over 10), but it was found that the high levels of work stress are related to job burnout. An interesting observation arises from the study of Maslach et al. (2001, as cited in Koustelios, 2010), whereby the only demographic characteristic that seems almost always to be associated with job burnout is age. For example, Pastore and Judd (1993, as cited in Koustelios, 2010) found high levels of job burnout in coaches aged 32-43 years, which decreases as the age of the coaches increased. However, it has been found in various researches that there are also other demographic characteristics, which affect not only the appearance but also the level of job burnout of coaches. More specifically, it has been found that women coaches indicate significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion and lower levels of personal achievement in comparison to men coaches (Caccese and Mayrberg, 1984, Pastore and Judd, 1993, as cited in Koustelios, 2010), while Kelley et al. (1999, as cited in Koustelios, 2010) have shown that women tend to consider coaching issues more stressful than men. Dale and Weinberg (1989, as cited in Koustelios, 2010) indicate also that male coaches report higher levels of job burnout than women. Koustelios et al. (1997, as cited in Koustelios, 2010) in their research on 103 football coaches showed that unmarried coaches exhibit higher levels of job burnout than married, but that married coaches without children show higher levels of job burnout than coaches who are married with children. The research of Al Behery (2011) in 80 coaches of fencing in Egypt showed that the stress and the subsequent job burnout were due to reasons related to the players or the teams, the character of the coach and finally the media. Moreover, the researcher found that experienced coaches had lower stress levels, and coaches with more years of experience had lower levels of job burnout. The study of Raedeke et al. (2002) with a sample of 469 U.S. swimming age-group coaches revealed that commitment was related to coaches satisfaction, given the fact that job satisfaction was regarded as a determinant of commitment. More precisely, the study found that coaches were committed to their profession due to various social constraints, even though the reported decreased job satisfaction. Through transcribed interviews with 12 world class coaches, the study of Olusoga et al. (2010) examined the impact of stress, as an important factor resulting to job burnout, and the strategies that the coaches have developed to cope with the stressor factors. The importance of this study is that it revealed the effect of stress on athletes and the behaviour towards them. To be more precise, stress on behalf of the coaches can result in angry / annoyed athletes, less confidence on behalf of the athletes, and decreased athlete performance. With regard to the behaviour towards the athletes, stress can result in reduced communication, meaning that some or all of the instructions to the athletes can be lost, in anger directed towards athletes, less flexible and effective relationships with the athletes, less available time with the athletes and less time for feedback. However, not all studies lead to the same result. More specifically, Koustelios (2010) examined the level of job burnout of 132 football coaches in Greece using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The survey results showed that football coaches in Greece have low levels of job burnout in relation to emotional exhaustion but high personal achievement. The survey did not found any statistically significant association between job burnout and the age of coaches. The following table summarises the researches that have been conducted with regard to the job satisfaction and job burnout of coaches, the instrument used in the research, the sample of the research and the outcome.


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Table 1: Researches Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Job Burnout of Coaches Paper

Sample of the Research

Instrument

Result

- The coaches had high levels of job satisfaction Ilhan (2012)

87 coaches in children with mental retardation

Minnesota Satisfaction Inventory

Nathial (2012)

200 coaches working in the public and private sector (100 coaches from each sector)

One way analysis of variance for the data collected through a questionnaire consisting of 35 items on the various aspects of job satisfaction of coaches

The coaches in the private sector were more satisfied than those in public

Dixon and Warner (2010)

Fifteen head coaches

Semistructured interviews

Both the desired characteristics of the work of the coach and the factors related to performance were related to job satisfaction

Drakou et al. (2006)

402 coaches of 11 sports (six individual and five team sports)

Scale of Life Satisfaction (SOLS) Questionnaire

Life satisfaction affect the job satisfaction of coaches

Moradi et al. (2012)

56 football coaches of players under 20 years

Malinauskas et al. (2010)

203 university coaches

Al Behery (2011)

80 coaches of fencing

Arabic version of Psychological Stresses Inventory for Sports Coaches

Koustelios (2010)

132 football coaches

Maslach Burnout Inventory

Raedeke et al. (2002)

469 U.S. swimming age-group coaches

Questionnaire

253 collegiate head coaches

Mailed questionnaire (Satisfaction with Life Scale, 8-item global Perceived Organizational Support scale and 5-item Work-Family Conflict Scale),

Dixon and Sagas (2007)

- Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire - JDI

- Coach Burnout Questionnaire - Perceived Stress Scale

- Job satisfaction was not associated with gender, age, marital status, publications, the original occupation, financial status and professional experience

Statistically significant correlation between the emotional intelligence subscale of self-awareness, the empathy subscale and the social skills subscale with the job satisfaction - There was no statistically significant relationship between burnout and the years of service - High levels of work stress are related to job burnout - The stress and the subsequent job burnout were due to reasons related to the players or the teams, the character of the coach and finally the media - Experienced coaches had lower stress levels and hence lower levels of job burnout Football coaches in Greece have low levels of job burnout in relation to emotional exhaustion but high personal achievement High levels of job satisfaction were related to coach commitment Job satisfaction of coaches was influenced directly by the organisational support and indirectly by the work-family balance

DISCUSSIONS Conclusions The literature review conducted showed that job dissatisfaction, and increased levels of stress can lead to burnout.


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Job satisfaction of coaches appears to be associated with both the personal characteristics of coaches and other factors associated with the nature of their work and the context in which they conducted their work. Additionally, the above review has shown that coaches are characterized by high levels of job burnout, differentiated by sex, age, and work experience.Given the fact that this research indicated the factors associated with job satisfaction and the job burnout of coaches, the results could be useful in designing a model which has an impact on these variables and hence their coaching performance, including the fostering of the athletes‟ individual growth and performance and the athletes‟ satisfaction. The factors are illustrated in the following tables. Table 2: Factors Associated with Coaches Job Satisfaction Factors Contributing to Job Satisfaction of Coaches Salary / economic incentives self-awareness Empathy Emotional intelligence Social skills Expectations Work-life conflict / balance Role ambiguity Role conflict Involvement and participation in the decision – making process of the organization Ability to perform one‟s tasks effectively and in accordance to ones perceptions of self – efficacy Workplace climate Organizational structure Achievements Interpersonal relationships Team working

Impact of Job Satisfaction of Coaches Coaching performance Employee absenteeism Staff mobility Organisational commitment Reduction of errors in the workplace Intention to leave the job Turnover Athlete satisfaction Athlete performance

Table 3: Factors Associated with Coaches Job Burnout Factors Contributing to Job Burnout of Coaches Chronic stress Gender (males and „traditional‟ women) Decreased levels of job satisfaction Job insecurity Role ambiguity Role conflict

Impact of Job Burnout of Coaches Emotional exhaustion (mental fatigue and inability of concentration) Lack of the relation between the employee and the receivers of his/her services Feeling of reduced personal achievement (low selfesteem and low levels of job satisfaction) Depression / hostility Feeling of helplessness, cynicism, impaired attention and concentration Decreased performance Increased absenteeism Lack of excitement / disappointment Intention to leave the job Low expectations of the role of the coaches

Support and Cooperation Overall the results of this study indicate the need for a support program for coaches, covering various issues, from psychological support till seminars and education for acquiring leadership and communication skills. The need for support


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is also justified by the outcomes of the study of Olusoga et al. (2010), who found that coaches use support (work-related support, advice from others and social support) in order to cope with the stressor factors of their profession. Apart from this, the outcomes of the study of Olusoga et al. (2010) provide a justification for the need of education in the following themes: a) continued professional development, such as self-improvement, b) experience as an athlete, based more on the role of coach as a leader, and c) experience as a coach. The outcomes of this research suggest that there is a need for close cooperation between coaches and psychology practitioners, so as coaches to be able to cope with the demands of their occupation, through the development of the appropriate skills and strategies. What is more, given the fact that organisation commitment and work-family conflict influence the job satisfaction of coaches as indicated by various researchers (Dixon and Sagas, 2007; Rocha and Chelladurai, 2011; Kalliath and Kalliath, 2013), as well as taking into account the fact that organisational support has an impact on the commitment of coaches and hence their coaching performance (Rocha and Chelladurai, 2011), it can be argued that there is a need for a relevant model for coaches. This model on the one hand would support the coaches regarding their effort to achieve the balance between their working and family life and on the other hand it would support management practices and methods for the provision of organisational support to coaches. This model would contribute to the increase of the organisational commitment of coaches, the enhancing of their life satisfaction and finally their overall job satisfaction and hence coaching performance. Leadership Skills In addition, Williams (1998) supported that job satisfaction is related to team working, where leadership plays a crucial role. Since leadership can be defined as “the effective exercise of influence” (Caine, 1976, as cited in Canton, 2003, p. 27) and assuming that employees feel better with a manager who bases his/her actions on specific principles and standards (Canton, 2003, p. 27), it is very important for coaches to exhibit strong leadership skills, so as to further enhance the team working and to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and performance of the team. One more reason for which leadership skills on behalf of the coaches is important is the argument of Vallée and Bloom (2005) that leadership effectiveness can be measured through the athletes‟ both satisfaction and performance via the Chelladurai‟s Multidimensional Model of Leadership. For this reason, seminars and training are important factors in coaches‟ education for the acquisition of leadership skills for the effective management of teams. Communication, Negotiation and Conflict Resolution Skills Apart from the leadership skills, communication, conflict resolution and negotiation skills are also of great importance for the coaches to enhance the performance of an athlete or a team. This assumptions is not only justified by Gould et al. (2007), but is also derives from the importance of communication and the benefits of negotiation and conflict resolution skills. Organizational communication is an active process included in the administrative process, which is crucial for the managers of the organisations, within the framework of the efficient implementation of the administrative and organizational functions of the company (Altınöz, 2009). However, the most important advantage of communication, according to which the coaches should have communicative skills, is that communication contributes to resolving disputes and reducing the escalation of conflicts (Adejimola, 2009). The conflicts in an organization / a team may arise due to lack of trust, the existence of a gap in the communication process, the conflicts of interest, the severe competition or any other factors stemming from the individual‟s personality characteristics (Gupta and Sasidhar, 2010), as well as the different cultural characteristics of the persons in this team (Hudson et al., 2005; Lukman et al., 2009; Li, 2012). As a result, the coach should be able to


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understand the sources of potential conflict and solve these conflicts raised within a team, given the negative impact of conflicts. Motivation Since it has been showed that job satisfaction is strongly influenced by motivation, emphasis should be placed on the coach motivation. Theories of motivation are one of the most important aspects of organizational theory with particular importance for the development of interpretative models of employee performance, because they focus on work efficiency and on the factors that they maximize this efficiency. In general, work plays an important role in human life, as it characterizes and classifies someone among the economic and social classes (Kotler and Keller, 2006). Strategies for Coping with Stress Apart from the above, the present study indicated that coaches demonstrate high levels of job burnout, through their chronic exhibition to stress and / or the persistent imbalance between demands and coping resources. Therefore, there should be a support program, for helping coaches to cope with the stress they face. As indicated by Olusoga et al. (2010, p. 274) “the stressors described by coaches can often be experienced in combination rather than as separate demands that occur one at a time” and that stress responses “result from a perceived imbalance between environmental demands and an individual‟s coping resources and, as such, the responses to a combination of stressors, and the coping efforts of coaches, are likely to be complex”. Stress has negative impact on coaching, since it is related with decreased motivation, poor relationships with other members of the team / the organisation and withdrawal. The study of Olusoga et al. (2010) examined the coping strategies of coaches for anticipating the stress they feel. The results of the study show that there are psychological responses, behavioural responses and finally physical responses. As a result, a support towards coaches to cope with the negative effects of stress and hence to prevent the job burnout is extremely important. Suggestions for Further Research However, this research was conducted based on the review of the available literature. Therefore it would be interesting in the future to conduct a primary research with the participation of coaches, to determine the level of their job satisfaction, and professional burnout. The results can be very useful in order to design stress management programs and improve the climate in which work is carried out by the coaches, given the significant negative symptoms of job dissatisfaction, and job burnout to coaches. In addition, one more study that could be conducted is the effect of job satisfaction and job burnout on the performance effectiveness of the athletes and/or teams. This stems from the assumption of Cunningham and Dixon (2003) that, despite the importance of performance appraisal in the organizations, many sport organizations do not make use of such systems, formal evaluation systems and processes for assessing coaching performance, one dimension of which is the athlete performance. As a result, the performance of coaches, measured by the level of their job satisfaction and job burnout, could reveal interesting information about the performance of the athletes and the athletic departments and teams. Within this framework, another interesting research that could be conducted is a survey in the athlete satisfaction. Athlete satisfaction has been defined as a “positive affective state resulting from a complex evaluation of the structures, processes and outcomes associated with the athletic experiences” (Laurin and Nicolas, 2009, p. 170). Given the assumption of Cunningham and Dixon (2003) that the coaching performance influences the athlete performance and the statement of Laurin and Nicolas (2009) that the athlete satisfaction is affected by a number of factors, including motivation, fulfillment of personal needs, pleasure derived from participation and the commitment of individuals, it would be if great interest to


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examine whether the coach performance and hence the coach job satisfaction has an impact on athlete satisfaction and thus their athletic performance. Within this context, a study that would be useful would be one examining the leadership effectiveness of coaches through the Chelladurai‟s Multidimensional Model of Leadership which would investigate the satisfaction and performance of athletes. This is based on the assumption of Vallée and Bloom (2005) that athlete satisfaction and performance is influenced by leadership behaviours and more precisely from required leadership behaviors, preferred leadership behaviors, and actual leadership behaviors.

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Belias Dimitrios, Koustelios Athanasios, Zoutnatzi Eleni, Koutiva Maria, Sdolias Labros & Barbi Ioanna

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4 job satisfaction and full  

This paper aims at examining the issues of job satisfaction and job burnout in coaches of various sports. Through the review of the literatu...