Issuu on Google+

International Journal of Botany and Research (IJBR) ISSN 2277-4815 Vol. 3, Issue 4, Oct 2013, 21-28 Š TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

EFFECT OF SOIL SOLARIZATION, BIO-AGENTS AND ORGANIC COMPOSTS ON BLAST OF PADDY KAMALUDDEEN & SOBITA SIMON Department of Plant Protection, SHIATS, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT Soil solarization was accomplished covering by transparent polythene in summer season during 28 May to 30, June-2012. Control plots (without solarized) were left exposed to direct sun light. Total microflora population was counted at pre, post soil solarization and after 30 days of soil amendment. Peptone Dextrose-Rose Bengal agar (fungi) and NA (bacteria) media were used for the isolation of soil microflora from dilution 1:1000 and 1:100000. Result shows that soil microflora were greatly reduced in solarized soil as compared to unmulched soil. After the solarization, Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2.5kg/ha, Trichoderma viride @ 2 kg/ha and Vermicompost @ 2 t/ha were amended to the soil for improvement of soil health. FYM was applied @ 10t/ha in all the plots except the NPK amended in the control plots. After 90 days of transplants results of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma viride and bavistin found significantly reduced the disease intensity of Pyricularia oryzae as comparison with the organic composts (FYM and vermicompost) and check plot. Among the treated plots of Pseudomonas fluorescens was found significantly increased in shoot length, number of tillers, number of penicles followed by Trichoderma viride, Vermicompost, Bavistin, FYM and control plot respectively. Whereas, bavistin were found significantly increased in number of grains/penicle, yield and also significantly superior in controlling the disease with the lowest % disease intensity at 60, 75 and 90 DAT respectively.

KEYWORDS: Soil Solarization, FYM, Vermicompost, NPK, Pyricularia oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma viride and Bavistin

INTRODUCTION Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops of Asia and is consumed by 50% of the world population [17]. Rice production of India reached to a record high of 104.32 million tons. India 2nd and China is 1st position in rice production in the world [10]. Rice suffers from many diseases such as blast of rice (Pyricularia grisea or Pyricularia oryzae), brown leaf spot (Drechslera oryzae), rice sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani), false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) and bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). It is estimated that about 14-18% yield reduction was caused by these diseases worldwide [20]. Among these, blast of rice is the most widespread disease in Uttar Pradesh. Several rice blast epidemics have occurred in different parts of the world, resulting in heavy yield losses ranging from 50 to 90 % of the expected crop [2]. Soil solarization is a method of heating soil by covering it with transparent polythene sheeting during hot periods to control soil-borne diseases [7]. Biological control methods have the advantage of being non-toxic to the environment. Biological control is an innovative, cost effective and eco-friendly approach. Trichoderma viride & Pseudomonas fluorescens used against Pyricularia oryzae have been found to be effective but less so than chemical alone at the standard dose [25], [5]. Soil solarization technology alone and in combination with soil amendments (farm yard manure, chicken farm yard manure, neem leaves and biokhad) was used to control mycotoxins in corn by reducing soil borne fungi [3]. The


22

Kamaluddeen & Sobita Simon

present study was undertaken to see the effect of soil solarization, bio-agents and organic composts on disease intensity of Pyricularia oryzae in rice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiment was conducted in Central field of Plant Protection, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences Allahabad during kharif 2012. Soil sample were taken from the upper 20 cm of the soil from each plot using the method by [15]. Pre-solarization sampling was done 24 h after irrigation. Soil solarization was accomplished during the period 28-May to 30-June, 2012 covering moist soil with 40 Âľm thick transparent polythene traps on every plot except control plots (Plate: 1). Post-solarization soil sample was taken after removing polythene sheet. After soil solarization; Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viride were amended in the soil @ 2.5 kg/ha along with 50 kg FYM, vermicompost @ 2t/ha with FYM @ 10t/ha. Bavistin @ 2 kg a.i./ha and basal dose fertilizer of NPK @ 100:50:50 kg/ha were amended at puddling time and further in time field was to drenched twice at tillering stage and flage leaf stage. Isolation of Soil Microflora Pre-post solarization and after 30 days amended of the soil samples were process through serial dilution technique for the fungi 10-3 and bacteria 10-5. The suspension (10-3) was prepared and plated on the peptone dextrose-rose bengal agar (for fungi) medium plate. Such as final suspension (10-5) was prepared and plated on the nutrient agar medium (for bacteria) plate. The poured plates were incubated at 22-25 (+) 10C for 48 hrs (bacteria) and 72 hrs (fungi). This method was followed by [19]. C.f.u. was calculated using the formula given by [4]. Organism per ml/gm of the soil = The twenty four days old seedlings rice variety Pant-12 were transplanted @ 2 seedlings per hill in rows, at spacing (20Ă&#x2014;30cm). Observations were recorded at variations of soil temperature at different depths over the mulching period. The population of soil microflora was recorded at pre-post solarization, after 30 days of soil amendment. Plant growth on various parameters such as shoot length (cm), number of tillers, (%) disease intensity, number of penicles/hill, number of grains/panicle, and yield (q/ha) were taken at different days of intervals. Calculation of Disease Intensity Leaf blast intensity was calculated according the method of [13] by selecting 10 hills randomly in four corners and middle of the plot. Five leaves from the top in each tiller were taken and disease severity was noted as disease score from 0-9 scale basis i.e.; 0= no lesions; 1= small, brown, specks of pinhead size; 3= small, roundish to slightly elongated, necrotic, gray spots about 1-2mm in diameter; 5= typical blast lesions infecting < 10% of the leaf area; 7= typical blast lesions infecting 26-50% of the leaf area; 9= typical blast lesions infecting >51% leaf area and many dead leaves.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Results (Table:1 and Figure 1) revealed that soil temperatures elevated remarkably by mulching with transparent polythelene traps. Mulching increased average maximum soil temperature than unmulched one by 17.10 and 20.60 and 12.420C at 5, 10 and 15 cm depths, respectively. Maximum temperatures obtained at the layer 5, 10 and 15cm of the mulched soil was (66.6, 60.6 and 56.10 C). The present result is in agreement with [8] in which they reported that mulching increased average maximum soil temperature than unmulched one by 10, 7.75, 7.25 and 5.75 0C at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm depth, respectively.


Effect of Soil Solarization, Bio-Agents and Organic Composts on Blast of Paddy

23

Assay of Mesophilic Microflora At Zero Time The mean data regarding of (Table:2) total number of colonies/gm soil [bacteria (73.67) and fungi (98)] were present in the tested field. Many soil microbes was observed viz., Fusarium sp. (39), Rhizoctonia sp. (22), Aspergillus spp. (75), Alternaria sp. (31), Helminthosporium (18), Cladosporium (12), Penicillium (32), Verticillium (20), Trichoderma sp. (45), Pseudomonas spp. (83), Xanthomonas sp. (60) and Bacillus sp. (78) etc. were identified from the plate. Post-Solarization Period (after 30 Days) Results of (Table:2) revealed that population densities of total fungi and bacteria were greatly reduced in solarized soil. Reduction in total count of fungi and bacteria was found in mulched soil (32.7 and 49 colonies/gm of soil, respectively) as compared to unmulched soil. At 30 days, total count of soil microflora showed no significant difference between mulched and unmulched soil. However, the total count of microflora at 30 days was significantly reduced in mulched soil as compared to unmulched soil. Reduction in population densities of microflora was found after solarized the soil. The colonies of the organism are Fusarium sp. (12), Rhizoctonia sp. (10), Alternaria sp. (15), Helminthosporium sp., Cladosporium sp., Verticillium sp. (8), Aspergillus spp. (60), Trichoderma (30), Pseudomonas spp. (43), Xanthomonas sp. (23) and Bacillus sp. (32) were mainly responsible for the reduced population densities of total fungi. Whereas, the populations of Aspergillus spp. and Trichoderma sp. were increased as compared with other soil microflora populations in mulched soil. The present result is in agreement with [8] in which they reported that the population densities of Aspergillus spp., were significantly increased in mulched soil 20-40 days after starting soil solarization. This result is in line with also reported by [12, 22, 23, 24] Soil Amendments of Soil with Bioagents and Organic Compost Result (Table:2) indicates the total population densities of total fungi and bacteria were increased after one month of soil amended with P. fluorescens, T. viride, FYM and Vermicompost in the solarized plots. Beneficial micro-organisms such as Trichoderma sp. (95), Aspergilus spp. (132), Penicilium (45), Alternaria (8), Bacillus spp. (120), Pseudomonas spp. (165) and Actinomycetes (30) significantly increased from other plant pathogens. [1, 6, 9, 11, 16, 23, 24] reported that the substrate made available by soil solarization was rapidly occupied by the surviving organisms. Shoot Length (cm) Results indicate that the application of T5 (Soil solarization+Pseudomonas fluorescen+FYM) significantly increased the shoot length (cm) as compared with other treatments including control. At the 6o days after transplanting, it was observed that T5 significantly increased the shoot length (71.3cm) as compared with all other treatments including the control (61.9cm). However, treatments (T 4, T2) and (T3, T1) were found non-significant among themselves, but they are significant from the control. At 75 days after transplanting, the shoot length (cm) was significantly increased in T 5 (81.1cm), T4 (Soil solarization+T. viride+FYM, 80.45cm) and T2 (Soilsolarization+Vermicompost+FYM, 79.2cm). However, the treatments (T5, T4, T2) and (T3, T1) were found non-significant among themselves. At 90 days after transplanting, the shoot length (cm) was significantly increased in T 5 (90.55cm) as compared with all other treatments including the control. However, treatments (T4, T2) and (T3, T1) were found non-significant among themselves, but are significant from control. The results are in agreement with those of [14] who reported that Pseudomonas application increase growth rate (78.6 cm) of rice plant. The results are in agreement with those of [14] who reported that Pseudomonas application increase growth rate (78.6 cm) of rice plant.


24

Kamaluddeen & Sobita Simon

Number of Tillers per Hill At 45 days after transplanting, the number of tillers/hill was significantly increased in T5-(Soil solarization+Pseudomonas fluorescens+ FYM, 15.9) as compared with all other treatments including with control. However, treatments (T4, T2) and (T3, T1) were found non-significant among themselves. The result is in agreement with those of [14], who reported that combination of application of Pseudomonas was increased in number of tillers (15). [21] also reported that combination of application of Pseudomonas including seed treatments, seedling dip, soil application and foliar spray not only reduced sheath blight disease but also increased the grain yield. Number of Penicles/Hill The maximum penicles (Table:3) was recorded in T 5-(Soil solarization+ Pseudomonas fluorescens+FYM, 11.1) followed by T4-(Soil solarization+T. viride+FYM, 9.7) and T2-(Soil solarization+Vermicompost+FYM, 8.5) which was significantly increased number of penicles from T3 and T1. Further the treatments of T3 -(Soil solarization+ Bavistin+FYM, 6.6) and T1-(Soil solarization+FYM, 6.0) were found non-significant to each other. Number of Grains per Panicle Results

(Table:3)

shows

significantly

increased

in

number

of

grains/penicle

in

T3

-(Soil

solarization+Bavistin+FYM, 167), T5-(Soilsolarization+Pseudomonas fluorescens+FYM, 164) and T4-(Soil solarization+T. viride+FYM, 161) as compared with other treatments including control T 0 -(Non solarization, 101). Whereas, the treatments (T3, T5, T4) and (T2, T1) were found non-significant among themselves. Yield q/ha The maximum yield (Table:3) was significantly increased in T 3-(Soil solarization+Bavistin+FYM, 44) as compared with all other treatments including with control. However, the treatments (T5, T4) and (T2, T1) were found nonsignificant among themselves. The result is in agreement with those of [17], who reported that maximum grain yield was recorded in bavistin (4289 kg/ha). Disease Intensity % at 60 DAT Results indicate that the application of T3-(Soil solarization+Bavistin+FYM, 6.33%) significantly reduced the rice blast disease severity and the increasing the yield as compared with other treatments including control T 0 (Non solarization- 10.89%). At the 6o days after transplanting, it was observed that T 0 was found non-significant from T1. Whereas, the other treatments significantly reduced the disease intensity (%) to each other. At 75 days after transplanting was significantly reduced the disease intensity in T 3 and T5 (14, 14.83%) as compared withT4, T2 and T1. Whereas, the treatments (T3, T5) and (T2, T1) were fond insignificant from each other. At 90 days after transplanting was significantly reduced disease severity in T3 (27.49%) as compared with other treatments including control T 0 (44.05%). Whereas, the treatments (T3, T5) and (T5, T4) were found non-significant among themselves. The results are in agreement with those of [17], who reported that minimum % disease severity was recorded in bavistin (38.6%). Table 1: Diurnal Variations of Soil Temperatures at Different Depths over the Mulching Period (29 May- 30 June 2012) Treatment

Soil Depth (cm)

Unmulched soil

0 5 10 15

Total Averages of Soil Temperatures 0C Minimum Maximum Total Mean 27.2 44.8 72.0 36.0 37.25 55.75 93 46.5 35.8 52.2 88.0 44.0 39.8 47.6 87.4 43.7


25

Effect of Soil Solarization, Bio-Agents and Organic Composts on Blast of Paddy

0 5 10 15

Mulched soil

Table 1: Contd., 47.4 49.6 45.8 44.0

79.8 83.6 75.4 68.25

127.2 133.2 121.2 112.25

63.6 66.6 60.6 56.12

Table 2: Total Number of Bacteria and Fungi Colonies/gm of Soil at Different Intervals of Soil Solarization Dilution Factor

Organism BacteriaPseudomonas sp. Bacillus sp. Xanthomonas sp. FungiFusarium sp. Rhizoctonia sp. Aspergillus spp. Alternaria sp. Helminthosporium sp. Cladosporium sp. Penicillium sp. Verticillium sp. Trichoderma sp.

Average Number of Colony PrePostAfter 30 Days of Solarization Solarization Soil Amendment

10-5

10-3

83 78 60

43 32 23

165 120 -

39 22 75 31 18 12 32 20 45

12 10 60 15 12 8 30

132 8 45 95

Table 3: Effect of Soil Solarization, Bioagents and Organic Compost on Different Parameters of Paddy

60 DAT 61.9 63.6

75 DAT 68.95 73.4

90 DAT 79.2 82.0

No. of Tillers/ Hill 45 DAT 7.85 9.6

68.9

79.2

87.6

12.52

8.5

138

63.95 69.8

74.2 80.45

82.6 88

10.9 13.25

6.6 9.7

71.3

81.1

90.5

15.9

S 0.452 0.963

S 1.004 2.140

S 0.73 1.56

S 0.537 1.144

Shoot Length (cm) Treatments

To (Control) T1 (S. S+FYM) T2 (S.S+Vermicompost +FYM) T3 (S.S.+Bavistin+FYM) T4 (S.S.+T. viride+FYM) T5(S.S.+P. fluorescens+FYM) F- test S.Ed. (Âą) C.D. (P =0.05)

No. of Penicles/ Hill

4.65 6.0

No. of Grains/ Panicle 105 Days 101 131

75 DAT

Yield (q/ha) 120 Days 26 36

% Disease in Tensity 60 DAT

75DAT

90DAT

10.89 9.16

21.10 18.55

44.05 40.41

37

9.01

18.05

37.26

167 161

44 39

6.33 8.38

14 16.83

27.49 28.62

11.1

164

42

7.69

14.83

27.81

S 0.417 0.888

S 7.67 16.34

S 4.66 9.94

S 0.13 0.28

S 0.49 1.04

S 1.12 2.38

Where, S.S.= Soil solarization, FYM = farm yard manure, P. fluorescens = Pseudomonas fluorescens, T. v.= Trichoderma viride

CONCLUSIONS Six treatments were evaluated against rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae. Based on the result it was observed that soil solarization + Pseudomonas fluorescens + FYM, proved to be most effective against Pyricularia oryzae showing maximum shoot length, root length, number of tillers, number of grains/panicle and number of penicles. The results showed that the maximum yield and minimum disease severity was found in soil solarization + Bavistin + FYM. The results showed that the thermophilic fungi and weeds were significantly reduced after solarization. The results of the present study are of one crop season (2012 June - November) under Allahabad Agro-climatic conditions as such trials should be carried out to validate the finding.


26

Kamaluddeen & Sobita Simon

REFERENCES 1.

Abdallah, M.M.F., El-Hadad, S.A. and Satour, M.M. (1998). Improving vegetable transplants using soil solarization I- cabbage and lettuce. Proceeding, 7th conference of Agricultural, Annals of Agricultural science Cairo, special Issue, 3:817-829.

2.

Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant Pathology. Elsevier- Academic Press, San Diego, CA. (5):922.

3.

Ahmad, Yasmin and Ghaffar, A. (2007). Soil solarization: a management practice for mycotoxin in corn. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39(6):2215-2223.

4.

Aneja, K. R. (2003). Experiment in Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology. New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers. New Delhi, 157-161.

5.

Biswas,V.R. Kumar, Kumud, S. K. and Yadav, M. D. (2008). Evaluation of fungicides for the management of brown leaf spot (Drechslera oryzae) and blast (Pyricularia oryzae) of paddy. Farm Science Journal. 14(2): 3839.

6.

Botross, S.E., El-Assiuty, E.M., Zeinab, M. Fahmi and Abd El-Rahman, T.M. (2000). Long-term effects of soil solarization on density levels of soil-borne fungi and stalk rot incidence in sorghum. Egypt. Journal of Agriculture Research, 78(2):275-283.

7.

Elmore, C. L., Roncaroni, J. and Giraud, D. D. (1993). Perennial weeds respond to control by soil solarization. California Agriculture, 47(1):19-22

8.

El-Shanawany, A.A., El-Ghamery, A.A., El-Sheikh,H.H. and Bashandy, A.A. (2004). Soil solarization and the fungal composition of soil fungal community in Upper Egypt. Ass. University Bull. Environment Research, 7(1):137-151.

9.

El-Zayat, M.M., Ashour, W.E. and El-Shami-Mona, A. (1990). Residual effect of soil solarization for management of Fusarium wilt of tomato in the Nile Delta. Proceeding of the first international conference on soil solarization 19-25 February. Amman, Jordan, 35.

10. FAO (2012) food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. 11. Gamliel, A. and Katan, J. (1991). Involvement of flourescent pseudomonads and other microorganisms in increased growth response of plants in solarized soils. Phytopathology, 81:494-502. 12. Greenberger, A.; Yogev, A. and Katan. J. (1987). Induced suppressiveness in solarized soils. Phytopathology. 77:1663-1667. 13. IRRI (1996). Standard evaluation system for rice. 4th ed. IRRI,Manila, Phillipine. 14. Jeyalakshmi, C., Madhiazhagana, K. and Rettinassababady (2010). Effect of different methods of application of Pseudomonas fluorescens against bacterial leaf blight under direct sown rice. Journal of Biopesticides., 3(2):487-488 15. Johnson, L.F., Curl, E.A., Bono, J.H. and Fribouring, H.A. (1959). Methods for studying soil microflora plant disease relationships. Minneapolis publishing company, U.S.A.178


Effect of Soil Solarization, Bio-Agents and Organic Composts on Blast of Paddy

27

16. Keinath, A.P. (1995). Reduction in inoculum density of Rhizoctonia solani and control of belly rot on pickling cucumber with solarization. Plant Diseases, 79: 1213-1219. 17. Krishna Kumar, K. Vijay., Raju, S. Krishnam., Reddy, M.S., Kloepper, J.W., Lawrence, K.S., Groth, D.E., Miller, M.E., Sudini, H. and Du, Binghai (2009). Evaluation of commercially available PGPR for control of rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Journal of Pure and Applied Micribiology, 3(2):485-488. 18. Luo, Y.P.S., Tang, N.G., Febellar, D.O. and Te Beest. (1998). Risk analysis of yield losses caused by rice leaf blast associated with temperature changes above and below for five Asian countries. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environmets, 68:197-205. 19. Martin, J.P. (1950). Use acid, rose-bengal and streptomycin in the plate method for estimating soil fungi. Soil Science, 69:215-533. 20. Mew, T.W. and Gonzales, P. (2002). A handbook of rice seed borne fungi. International Rice Research Institute, Los Ban贸s, Philippines 83. 21. Rabindran, R. and Vidhyasekaran, P (1996). Development of powder formulation of Pseudomonas Pf ALR 2 for the management of rice sheath blight. Crop Protection 15:715-721. 22. Shyamala, L. and Sivakumaar, P.K. (2012). Integrated control of blast disease of rice using the antagonistic rhizobacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and the resistance inducing chemical salicylic acid. International Journal of Research in Pure and Applied microbiology, 2(4):59-63. 23. Stapleton, J.J. (1990). Thermal inactivation of crop pests and pathogens and other soil changes caused by solarization. Proceedings of the first international conference on soil solarization. Amman, Jordan, 37-43. 24. Stapleton, J.J. and De Vay, J.E. (1982). Effect of soil solarization on population of selected soil-borne microorganisms and growth of decidous fruit tree seedling. Phytopathology 72:233-226. 25. Stapleton, J.J. and De Vay, J.E. (1984). Thermal components of soil solarization as related to changes in soil and root microflora and increased plant growth response. Phytopathology, 74:255-259.

APPENDICES

Figure 1: Cover the Field by Transparent Polyethylene Sheet for Soil Solarization

Figure 2: Symptoms of Leaf Blast of Rice Caused by Pyricularia oryzae


28

Kamaluddeen & Sobita Simon

Figure 3: Total Pre Solarization Population of Figure 4: Total Post Solarization Population of Fungi Present 1g Soil in Martine Medium Plates Fungi Present 1g Soil in Martine Medium Plates

Figure 5: Total Pre Solarization Population of Bacteria Present 1g Soil in Nutrient Agar Medium Plate

Figure 6: Total Population of Bacteria at 30 Days after Amended Bio- Agents and Composts Present 1g Soil in Nutrient Agar Medium Plate


4 effect of soil full