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International Journal of Botany and Research (IJBR) ISSN 2277-4815 Vol. 3, Issue 3, Aug 2013, 27-34 Š TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

INFESTATION AND HOST STUDIES OF MELOIDOGYNE GRAMINICOLA IN RICE NURSERIES OF ALLAHABAD MUKESH DONGRE & SOBITA SIMON Department of Plant Protection, SHIATS, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT A survey was conducted during July-August 2012 in Allahabad to find out the infestation of rice root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) in rice nurseries. Field survey revealed that M. graminicola was widely distributed in most of the rice growing areas in Allahabad district. Rice root-knot disease was more prevalent in dry bed condition then wet bed. Second stage juvenile (J2) penetrate the roots closely behind the root tip, migrate to vascular cylinder turning it into multinucleated giant cells by end mitosis and cell developed hypertrophy characterized by hook shaped galls. The galled (diseased) seedling had significantly shows shorter roots and shoots. Most of the farmers did not know about the nematode problem and did not follow any management practices to control it in nurseries and unknowing the infected plants were transplanted in the main field. Host range of M. graminicola also studied in other graminae family cereal crops and grasses viz Wheat, Sorghum, Bajra, Barley, Oat and Motha grass was found suceptible of M. graminicola where as no infection was found in Maize and Dub grass.

KEYWORDS: Meloidogyne graminicola, Survey, Host Range INTRODUCTION Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the world’s most important food crop of Asian origin. In India the area under rice cultivation is 43.77 million hac. with total production of rice is 104.32 million tones [1]. It is also grown successfully in humid to sub- humid region under subtropical and temperate climate. In India the major soil groups where rice is grown are riverine alluvium, red- yellow, red loamy, hill and sub- montane, terai, laterite, costal alluvium, sandy loam, mixed red and black and medium and shallow black soils. The soil borne diseases specially diseases caused by plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are major bottlenecks to crop productivity in the high input intensive cropping systems such as the rice and wheat based cropping systems [2]. Among Meloidogyne sp., the rice root-knot nematode (M. graminicola) [7] attacking rice and wheat, is considered the most serious nematode in upland rice cultivation [3] and causes economic losses in upland, lowland, and deep water rice and also in rice nurseries [4]. More than 200 species of PPNs have been reported to be associated with rice [5]. Among them the rice root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.) are considered as the major problem in rain fed, upland and lowland rice fields whereas the rice root nematodes (Hirchmanniella sp.) are problematic on low land rice growing areas of South and Southeast Asia [5]. Rice RKN is widely distributed in the countries of South East Asia, Burma, Bangladesh, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, India, China, the Philippines and USA both on upland and lowland deepwater rice [6]. M. graminicola was first described in 1965 from grasses and oats in Louisiana [7]. It has since been found on rice mainly in South and Southeast Asia but also in South Africa, United States, Colombia, and Brazil. In India, it is reported to cause 17-30% yield loss due to poorly filled kernels [8, 9]. Survey at Allahabad district show that population densities of M. graminicola associated with 15 village of Allahabad out of 15 villages surved [10].


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Mukesh Dongre & Sobita Simon

MATERIALS AND METHODS Survey of Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) in Rice A survey was conducted during July 2012 in 10 village of Allahabad district viz Mahewa, Dadri, Madouka, Tenuamvan, Dabhao, Gouhaniya, Sadwa, Ghurpur, Champatpur and Miaqpura 10 village of Allahabad district to find out the infestation of M. graminicola in rice nurseries. Information on cropping history, type of soil, seeding methods, rice varieties, date of seeding, type of seed bed, seed and soil treatment information were gathered from the selected villages from 3 farmers of each village. Rice seedlings were sampled from 4-5 spots, from each spot 2 plants were gently uprooted and washed with running tap water to remove soil and other materials. Meloidogyne graminicola second stage juveniles (J2) were recorded from the measured of different size (1-6mm.) of galls/root system. Incidence of root-knot disease was measured by root gall index (1-5) scale as; given by [11] 1 = no galling; 2 = 1-10 galls; 3 = 11-30 galls; 4 = 31-100 galls; 5 = more than 100 galls/root system. Host Range Screening of Meloidogyne graminicola The cereals crop viz Wheat, Maize, Sorghum, Bajra, Oat, and Barley were sown in small pots with sterilized soil in the greenhouse at 300(Âą) C. and grasses available with the field of rice viz Cyprus difformis, and Cynodon dectylon Dub grass. The root gall of Meloidogyne graminicola were removed from rice root and grinded in grinder further process and inoculated @ 200 larvae/pot (containing 100g of soil) and replicated four times. After 30 days of inoculation the plants were depotted, washed and examined for infestation of Meloidogyne graminicola under stereoscopic microscope. Host range was also studied by recording incidence root gall index in cereals and some grasses.

RESULTS The survey data indicates that majority of the farmers 80% grew rice seedlings in fallow land. None of the farmers used chemicals for seed and soil treatment during nurseries of rice 22 days old seedling were removed and were found that Meloidogyne graminicola galled in the seedling stage of crop. Further the severe of incidence was recorded and root knot index as ranged was found from 4.8 to 6.2 on 0-5 scale. Whereas in village wise highest incidence of (root-knot index) of root-knot disease was observed in Mahewa (6.2), followed by Ghurpur (6.0), Miaqpura (6.0), Dabhao (5.8), Gouhaniya (5.8), Champtpur (5.8), Sadwa (5.8), Madouka (5.4), Tenuamvan (5.4). The lowest intensity was observed in Dadri (4.8). The different size (1-6mm.) of root-knot was observed and it was noticed that with maximum population of M. graminicola J2 was found in 6mm. length (2291.66) infested root tip followed by 4mm. (1882.22), 5mm. (1667.78), 3mm. (683.33), 2mm. (241.66), 1mm. (184.99). Table 1: Meloidogyne graminicola Root-Knot Index in Rice Root from the Selected Villages of Allahabad District S.N.

Village Name

Farmers Number Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3

P1 2 3 3

Root Gall Index P2 P3 P4 P5 1 4 3 1 4 1 2 2 1 1 2 3

1

Mahewa

2

Madouka

Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3

2 1 2

3 2 3

3 1 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

3

Dabhao

Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3

4 2 3

1 2 1

2 1 2

1 1 2

3 3 1

Mean Root Gall Index 2.2 2.4 1.6 6.2 2.2 1.4 1.8 5.4 1.8 1.8 1.4 5.8


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Infestation and Host Studies of Meloidogyne graminicola in Rice Nurseries of Allahabad

Table 1: Contd., Farmer 1 1 1 1 Farmer 2 1 3 1 Farmer 3 2 3 2

2 2 1

2 1 1

Gouhaniya

Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3

2 3 1

1 2 2

1 1 3

3 2 1

3 1 3

6

Ghurpur

Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3

1 2 3

3 1 3

3 2 2

1 3 1

3 1 1

7

Champtpur

Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3

2 1 2

1 3 1

3 3 2

1 2 3

2 2 2

8

Tenuamvan

Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3

3 3 1

3 3 2

1 1 2

1 1 1

2 2 3

9

Sadwa

Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3

3 1 1

2 3 2

1 2 1

1 3 3

2 1 3

10

Miaqpura

Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3

3 2 1

1 3 2

2 1 3

1 2 1

3 3 3

4

Dadri

5

Total Overall

1.4 1.6 1.8 4.8 2.0 1.8 2.0 5.8 2.2 1.8 2.0 6.0 1.6 2.2 2.0 5.8 2.0 1.6 1.8 5.4 1.8 2.0 2.0 5.8 1.8 2.2 2.0 6.0 5.08

Table 2: Population of M. graminicola (J2) Present in Various Size of Infected Rice Root at 22 Days Old Seedlings Emergence of Meloidogyne graminicola J2 Mean of Four Replicates 184.99 241.66 683.33 1882.22 1667.78 2291.66 1158.61 S 128.74 280.51

Size of Root Length(cm.) 1 mm. 2 mm. 3 mm. 4 mm. 5 mm. 6 mm. Overall Mean F-Test S. Ed. (Âą) C. D. (P = 0.05%) Host Range

Host range of M. graminicola was studied other than rice crop of cereals viz Wheat, Sorghum, Bajra, Maize, Oat, Barley and grasses Motha and Dub grass in the polyhouse. Results was found that root-knot of Meloidogyne graminicola was present on Wheat, Sorghum, Bajra, Oat and Barley and also present in grasses (Cyperus difformis L.). Whereas no infestation of M. graminicola was found in maize and Dub grass (Cynodon dectylon L.). Table 3: Root Galls Index of M. graminicola in the Root System of Selected Cereals 30 Days after Inoculation S. N. T1

Name of Cereals Wheat

R1

R2

R3

R4

2

3

2

3

Mean of Root Gall Index of Cereals 2.50


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Mukesh Dongre & Sobita Simon

T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

Maize Sorghum Bajra Oat Barley Overall Mean Name of Grasses Cyperus difformis L. Cynodon dectylon L.

Table 3: Contd., 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3

2 1

3 1

J2 Larvae

2 1

1 3 3 3 3

1.00 2.25 2.75 3.00 2.75 2.37

2 1

2.25 1.00

J3

Eggs

Female

Male Figure 1: Various Stages of Meloidogyne graminicola


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Infestation and Host Studies of Meloidogyne graminicola in Rice Nurseries of Allahabad

Barley

Wheat

Bajra

Oat

Sorghum

Maize

Figure 2: Root Gall Infestation in Selected Cereals and Weed Grass


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Mukesh Dongre & Sobita Simon

Rice Seedlings

Cyprus difformis

Rice Root

Cyprus difformis

Figure 3: Root Knot Symptoms in Cereals and Grasses

DISCUSSIONS Seedlings infected with M. graminicola grew slowly [12] because of root damage. Further reported that more damage from M. graminicola occurred in the aerobic upland systems [13]. However, under lowland (continuous flooding), rice roots might escape invasion by M. graminicola [12] and limited the spread of the nematode [14]. Permanent flooding might limit the migration of J2 between roots of the same system [12] resulting in a lower root damage. Among Meloidogyne sp., the rice root-knot nematode (M. graminicola) [7] attacking rice and wheat, is considered the most serious nematode in upland rice cultivation [3] and causes economic losses in upland, lowland, and deep water rice and also in rice nurseries [4]. Most of the farmers grew seedlings in upland (dry) soil and there was more rice root-knot disease and second stage juvenile (J2) population in both nursery soil and seedling root [15]. It is a serious problem in the nurseries and upland rice but has been recently found to be widespread in the deepwater and irrigated rice also, in many states of India [16, 17, 18, 8, 4, 19]. and in Allahabad. M. graminicola was first described in 1965 from grasses and oats in Louisiana [7]. [20] Meloidogyne incognita was reported to reproduce on the largest number of weeds with over 138 weedy plant hosts throughout the world.


Infestation and Host Studies of Meloidogyne graminicola in Rice Nurseries of Allahabad

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16. Prasad, J. S., Panwar, M. S. and Rao, Y. S. (1985). Occurrence of root knot-nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola in semideepwater rice. Curr. Sci., 54: 387-388. 17. Prasad, J. S., Panwar, M. S. and Rao, Y. S (1986). Screening of some rice cultivars against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola. Ind. J. Nematol., 16: 112-113. 18. Rao, Y. S., Prasad, J. S. and Panwar, M. S. (1986). Nematode problems in rice: crop losses, symptomatology and management. In: Swarup G, Dasgupta DR (eds) Plant Parasitic Nematodes of India: Problems and Progress, IARI, New Delhi, India, 179-299. 19. Jairajpuri, M.S. and Baqri, Q. H. (1991). Nematode pests of rice, Oxford and IBH Publisher, New Delhi, India, 66. 20. Rich, J. R., Brito, J. A., Kaur, R. and Ferrell, J. A. (2008). Weed species as hosts of Meloidogyne : A review. Nematropica 39:157-185.


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