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International Journal of Physics and Research (IJPR) ISSN 2250-0030 Vol. 3, Issue 2, Jun 2013, 17-26 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

PRODUCTION OF THE MEDICALLY RADIONUCLIDE 123I USING p, d and 4He PARTICLES INDUCED REACTIONS BASHAIR MOHAMMED SAIED Baghdad University, College of Education, Ibn-Al-Haitham, Baghdad, Iraq

ABSTRACT Cross section data were evaluated for the production of the medically important gamma emitter 123I (T1/2=13.2 d) via α‐particle induced reactions on Sb isotopes and p particle induced reactions on Te isotopes. The measured data available in the literature was checked and an average values was derived and used to calculate the integral yields. Figures of all considered cross sections and yields are presented.

KEYWORDS: Iodine-123, Excitation Function, Data Evaluation, Integral Yield INTRODUCTION Soon after the discovery of radioactivity by H.Becquerel in 1896, George de Hevesy, a Hungarian radio chemist first introduced radioactive tracers to study chemical processes in the metabolism of biological tissues. The development of nuclear reactors contributes largely to the production of a huge number of Beta and Gamma emitting radioisotopes suitable for medical investigations. Actually a large number of radioisotopes are produced by means of cyclotrons and accelerators. Depending on its decay characteristics and use, a radioisotope can therefore be classified as a diagnostics or a therapeutic radionuclide. In addition to radioactive isotopes, ionizing radiation has many applications in therapy. Besides photons, neutrons and electrons, high energy charged light particles heavy ions such as14N, 22Ne, etc... Have been finding increasing use in the treatment of various types of tumors and malignant diseases [1]. The cross section data for charged particles induced nuclear reactions, are required in a number of practical applications (medical radioisotope production, radiobiology etc.). The excitation functions which represent variations of cross sections for a particular reactions with incident energy are very important to the determination of the particle energy and optimal energy ranges required for each reaction type and to calculate the radioisotope production yield which can be expected for a particular reaction and determining the amount of possible impurities in the medical radioisotope production radionuclide [2]. The cross section data are subjects to some uncertainty in their possible values due principally to the different level of errors. Some reported cross section showed unacceptable deviations both in cross sections values and in their energy ranges which must be excluded from the selected process [3].For the calculation of medical radioisotope a large quantity of data is necessary to determine the production yields, also the determination of all competing reactions and the irradiation conditions are essential.

NUCLEAR REACTION DATA In cyclotron production of radioisotopes, the reaction cross section data play an important role due to rapid degradation of the projectile energy in the target material, the energy range covered within the target is relatively broad, and, since the reaction cross section varies rather rapidly with energy, it is not appropriate to adopt an average cross section over the whole energy range. One needs rather the full excitation function of the nuclear process to be able to calculate the


18

Bashair Mohammed Saied

yield with a reasonable accuracy [1].At small-sized cyclotrons, low energy reactions like (p,n), (p, ), (d, ), (d, ), etc. are used. At higher energies, on the other hand, (p,xn) reactions are commonly employed. In some special cases, the (p,spall) process is applied. From a given excitation function the expected yields Y of a product for a certain energy range (i.e. target thickness) can be calculated using the expression [4]:

Y=

)

where NL is the Avogadro number, H is the enrichment (or isotopic abundance) of the target nuclide, M is the mass number of the target element, I is the projectile current, dE/d(x) is the stopping power, σ(E) is the cross section at energy E,  the decay constant of the product and t the time of irradiation. The optimization of a nuclear process for the production of radioisotope at a cyclotron involves a selection of the projectile energy range that will maximize the yield of the product and minimize that of the radioactive impurities. PRODUCTION of I-123 The Iodine-123 is a radioactive isotope used in nuclear medicine imaging, including(SPECT) the single photon emission computed tomography. This isotope decay by electron capture to tellurium-123 by emitting gamma radiation (T1/2=13.22 h) with predominant energies of 159 keV (this is the gamma primarily used for imaging) and 127 keV. In medical applications, the radiation is detected by a gamma camera.Iodine-123 is produced in a cyclotron by proton, deuteron or alpha irradiation principally of Tellurium, Antimony or Xenon. In the direct method (low energy cyclotron), the principal reactions are

121

Sb(α,2n),

123

Sb(α,4n),

122

Te(d,2n),

123

Te(p,n),124Te(p,2n),

126

Te(p,4n),natTe (p,x), ….while in

the indirect method (medium and high energy cyclotron) the I-123 is obtained through the Xenon-123 precursor. The advantage of going through the Xe- 123 is that the xenon can be “separated from the original target material and allowed to decay which gives the I-123 with very little contamination from other radioisotopes of Iodine, the indirect method need a very energetic projectiles, the main reactions for this type are 127Xe(p,5n) and 127Xe(d,6n). ANALYSIS AND REDUCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA For charged particle data contrary to neutron reaction data, there are no comprehensive compilations available. Therefore, a numerous source of information has to be used such as mainly; the nuclear data sheet, scientific and technical journals.Exfor database of experimental reaction and reports maintained by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The obtained data were analyzed; an attention was given in particular to the cross-section values and estimation of the uncertainties of the cross-sections and the energy scale. FITTING PROCEDURE The fitting procedure of the acceptable data sets was done using a number of programs in Matlab language. The data were fitted in 0.5 MeV increments and weighted average value and their corresponding uncertainties were computed from the fitted ones at each point. Finally to eliminate the significant discontinuities arising from the fact that different energy ranges were investigated by different groups the weighted average were fitted once again, these final evaluated cross section values were used in the calculation of the yields using the stopping power program of Andersen and Zeigler the SRIM code[4].


Production of the Medically Radionuclide 123i Using P, D and 4He Particles Induced Reactions

19

Figure 1: Cross Sections of the Reaction Te-123 (p,n) I-123

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The 123Te(p,n)123I REACTION Four cross section data sets were found in the literature for producing 123I from 123Te by using the p,n reaction, one data set ( by Barall et al[5]) were rejected because only a single energy point reported the remaining three data sets by I.Mahunka et al[6],B.Schollen et al[7], and S.Takacs et al[8]in the range 4.5to 19.5 MeV of a maximum cross section of 614mb in 12.5 MeV were considered. The obtained production yield of 123Iin the chosen energy range is 45.12GBq/C. The cross section and yield of this reaction are shown in figure (1) and figure (9).This reaction appears to be modest for the purpose of Iodine-123 production. Figure 1: Cross Sections of the reaction Te-123 (p,n) I-123. The 124Te (p,2n) 123I Reaction This reaction is beneficial energy range of proton energy producing

123

I from a

124

Te target is 12 to 31MeV,five

authors data were considered (E.Acerbi et al[9],K.Kondo et al[10],A.P.Wolf et al[11],B.Schollen[12] and S.Takacs et al[13]) the maximum cross-section obtained from the calculated recommended values is 975 m b at 22.5 MeV as shown in figure (2). The calculated production yield of

123

I using SRIM code

[4]

in the chosen energy range is 209.7GBq/C for

this optimum energy range as shown in figure (10). This reaction appears to be very suitable for the purpose of Iodine-23 production.

Figure 2: Cross Sections of the Reaction Te-124 (p,2n) I-123


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Bashair Mohammed Saied

THE 127I (p,5n) 123Xe→ 123I The

127

I (p,5n) reaction is an important proton incident particle for producing

123

I . Data of eight authors

(A.M.J.Paans et al[14] , S.R.Wilkins et al[15] , M.C.Lagunas et al[16] , M.Diksic et al[17] , D.B.Syme et al[18] , H.Lundqvistet al[19] , S.Takacs et al[20] , C.Deptula et al[21] ), were founded in the literature in the energy range from 38 to 100 MeV . It's found that this reaction produce 123Xewith the maximum cross-section of 700mb occurred in 42 MeV figure (3). The theoretical thick-target yield obtained using SRIM is 187.34GBq/C figure (10). This reaction appears to be very good for the purpose of Iodine- 123 production.

Figure 3: Production of I-123 Via the Reaction I-127(P, 5N) XE-123 THE 121Sb (ALPHA, 2n) 123I This reaction has a beneficial range of alpha energy for producing

123

I from

121

Sb target is 17.5 to 44MeV of a

maximum cross-section of 1190mb in 26.5 MeV as obtained using the four authors data

of B.P.Singh et

al[22],A.Calboreanu et al[23],K.F.Hassan et al[24], M. Ismail et al [25],as shown in figure (4). The obtained production yield of 64Cu in the chosen energy range, using the SRIM code is 33.40 GBq/C figure (9). This reaction appears to be very modest for the purpose of Iodine -123 production.

Figure 4: Cross Sections of the Reaction Sb-121 (a,2n) I-123


Production of the Medically Radionuclide 123i Using P, D and 4He Particles Induced Reactions

21

5-THE 122Te (d,n) 123I Two cross section data sets were found in the literature for producing

123

I from122Te by using the deuteron

projectiles, (J.H.Zaidi et al[26] and S.Takacs et al[27] ) in the range 8.0 to 30.0 MeV of a maximum cross section of 395 mb in 10.5 MeV were considered. The obtained production yield of 123I in the chosen energy range is 38.52GBq/C. These cross section were fitted and yield of this reaction are shown in figure (5) and figure (9).This reaction appears to be modest for the purpose of Iodine-123 production.

Figure 5: Cross Sections of the Reaction Te-122(d,n) I-123

THE

Sb ( ALPHA,4n)

I

Three sets of cross sections data sets were found in the literature. One of them were excluded while the remaining two( B.P.Singh et al [28] and M. Ismail et al [29])were used the range of evaluation were considered from 37.0 to 57.0 MeV of a maximum cross section of 1200 mb in 10.5 MeV. The obtained production yield of

123

I in the chosen energy

range is 38.52 GBq/C. The fitted curve of these two data sets are shown in figure (6). The calculated yield of this reaction is shown in figure (9).This reaction appears to be modest for the purpose of iodine-123production.

Figure 6: Cross Sections of the Reaction SB-123 (A,4N) I-123


22

Bashair Mohammed Saied

THE natTe (p,x) 123I Six sets of cross section data were found in the literature for producing

123

I from the natural Tellurium by using

proton projectiles (E.Acerbi et al[30] , B. Scholten et al[31] , K.M.El-Azony et al[32] , S.M.Kormali et al[33] , B.Kiraly et al[34] and K.Zarie et al[35] ) in the range from 10.0 to 30.0 MeV of a maximum cross section of 130 mb in 27.0 MeV were considered. The obtained production yield of

123

I in this chosen energy range is 29.83GBq/C. The cross section and

yield of this reaction are shown in figure (7) and figure (9).This reaction appears to be not useful for the purpose of Iodine123 production.

Figure 7: Cross Sections of the Reaction Nat Te(p,x) I-123 THE 126Te (p,4n) 123I REACTION This reaction is beneficial energy range of proton energy producing

123

I from a 126Te target is 30 to 70 MeV ,three

authors data were found, the first one by N.G.Zaitseva[36] was rejected because of the considered energy range which is out of our interest, the second author data by L.B.Church[37] were rejected too because only a single energy point reported, only data of B.Schelten et al [38]) in the range from 30.0 to 70.0 MeV of a maximum cross-section obtained as700mb at 42.0 MeV as shown in figure (8 ). The calculated production yield of

123

I using SRIM code

[4]

in the chosen

energy range is 507.1GBq/C for this optimum energy range as shown in figure (10). This reaction appears to be very suitable for the purpose of Iodine-123 production.

Figure 8: Cross Sections of the Reaction Te-126 (p,4n) I-123


Production of the Medically Radionuclide 123i Using P, D and 4He Particles Induced Reactions

23

Figure 9: Yields of the Five Reactions: Sb123(a,4n)), natTe(p,x), Sb121(a,2n),Te123(p,n) and Te122(d,n).

Figure 10: Yields of the Reactions Te-126(p,4n),Te-124(p,2n) and I-127(p,5n)

CONCLUSIONS I-123 is a very important medical radioisotope. The excitation functions for the different proton and deuteron induced nuclear reactions on Te ,Sb isotope targets are compared with some previously measured data. This study aims to resolve some contradictions between the existing data, and to give a reliable data set for the production of I-123. Furthermore, the integral or thick target yields are estimated based on the measured excitation functions for all the investigated reactions. Finally, it is well known that for medical uses, enriched targets have to be used in the production to avoid the secondary produced unwanted impurities. While the studies on natural targets, gives an idea about the suitable energy range for maximum production of the wanted isotope and minimum of the impurities.

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Production of the Medically Radionuclide 123i Using P, D and 4He Particles Induced Reactions

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