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International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJMPS) ISSN 2250-0049 Vol. 3, Issue 4, Oct 2013, 23-28 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

INNOVATIVE USE OF OUTDATED TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE DRUG TO DYE JUTE PRASHANT GANGAWANE & USHA SAYED Department of Fibers and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Nathalal Parekh Marg, Matunga, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT Tetracycline used in the treatment of common infections in children and adults. Taking outdated tetracycline (an antibiotics) can cause serious side effects. Expired Tetracycline was known to be responsible for kidney impairment. There have been rare reports of renal tubular dysfunction or Fanconi-like syndrome associated with ingestion of outdated tetracycline. Therefore outdated Tetracycline hydrochloride drug should be thrown out or discarded if there is any leftover. Discarding unused, outdated or expired tetracycline hydrochloride in the toilet is a common practice. But this method may not be any safer than throwing in the trash, because it still is contaminating water supply. Deposing of such drugs is a major problem in today’s pharmaceutical Industries. The present study used the Tetracycline Hydrochloride Drug in textile processing. The successful dyeing of Jute fiber with this drug by the exhaust process has paved the way for the use of expired or ineffective medication which otherwise would have been flush or thrown in trash. This method of unused medicines valorization can solve two major environmental and economical problems: limitation of environmental pollution with pharmaceutically active compounds and reduction of the disposal costs of expired drugs. Reuse of Tetracycline to dye jute by this method can keep unused Tetracycline medication from being illegally abused or sold. The performance property of such dyed Jute fabric was found to be good.

KEYWORDS: Infections, Kidney, Antibiotics, Children, Tetracycline Hydrochloride, Expired Drugs, Jute INTRODUCTION Tetracycline were introduced in 1948 as broad-spectrum antibiotics that may be used in the treatment of common infections in children and adults.1-3 Most drugs simply lose potency and are nontoxic after the expiration date. Human toxicity related to taking expired drugs has only been linked to degraded tetracycline. There have been rare reports of renal tubular dysfunction or Fanconi-like syndrome associated with ingestion of outdated tetracycline.4-9 The majority of the cases were reported in the 1960s. Degradation products of tetracycline (i.e., anhydrotetracycline and epianhydrotetracycline) accumulate within mitochondria of renal cells and interfere with oxidative phosphorylation and can potentially cause nausea, vomiting, lethargy, polydipsia, polyuria, glycosuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, proteinuria, acidosis, and hypokalemia.6 Taking outdated tetracyclines can cause serious side effects. Patients should not take these medicines if: 

The color, appearance, or taste have changed


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Prashant Gangawane & Usha Sayed

The drug has been stored in a warm or damp area

The expiration date on the label has passed Outdated tetracyclines should be thrown out10. Some medications may instruct the user to discard in the toilet, if

there is any leftover. This method may not be any safer than throwing in the trash, because it still is contaminating water supply. Therefore, our study was focused on the usage of expired Tetracycline Hydrochloride drug or unused Tetracycline Hydrochloride drug because of patient’s non-compliance that contain in their composition active substances with inhibitory properties. In our previous study, silk, wool and Nylon have been successfully dyed with Tetracycline hydrochloride by exhaust process.11-13 In this work we made successful attempt to dye Jute fabric with outdated tetracycline. This method of unused medicines valorization can solve two major environmental and economical problems: limitation of environmental pollution with pharmaceutically active compounds and reduction of the disposal costs of expired drugs. Collection of unused or outdated Tetracycline can be done by various methods like community take back programs and further can be use to dye Jute which not only keep Tetracycline out of the water , but can keep unused Tetracycline medication from being illegally abused or sold.

MATERIAL AND METHODS Material Commercially available ready for dye (RFD) Jute fabric was used for the study. Drug Used Tetracycline Hydrochloride (TCH) by Piramal Healthcare Limited, Gujrat, (Batch No. 1558, Mfd. Jun 2010, Exp.May 2012)

Chemicals Hydrochloric Acid(HCL) , Ammonium Acetate (CH3COONH4), L Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, Sodium Chloride, Disodium hydrogen phosphate. All chemicals are supplied by S.D. Fine Chem. Ltd.and are of AR grade.

Methods Dyeing of Jute 1% stock solution of Tetracycline Hydrochloride was prepared for dyeing. Jute was dyed with Tetracycline hydrochloride keeping liquor ratio of 20:1, at 1000C for 60 min. Then rinsed and dried. Colour Measurement Dyed samples were evaluated for the depth of the colour by determining K/S values using a Spectraflash SF 300, Computer Colour Matching System supplied by Data color International, U.S.A. An average of four readings taken at four different sample areas, was used to calculate the reflectance values, and Kubelka Munk K/S function which is given by:


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Innovative Use of Outdated Tetracycline Hydrochloride Drug to Dye Jute

( 1 - R )2 K = S 2R Where, "R" is the reflectance at complete opacity. "K" is the absorption coefficient. "S" is the scattering coefficient. Tone of the Colour is also measured on the same machine Tone of the Colour in terms of CIE L*a* and b* values. Washing Fastness was carried out by ISO 105-CO1. Light Fastenes was carried out by ISO 105-B02.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Drugs lose their potency beyond their expiration date, and therefore their effectiveness and their ability to dissolve can be affected. For patients who rely on medications to stay alive, like heart medications, expired drugs can be dangerous because they may not be getting the full effectiveness of the drug. It depends on the medication. Expired Tetracycline (an antibiotic) was known to be responsible for kidney impairment. The present work has used Tetracycline hydrochloride an antibiotic for dyeing of Jute fabric. It is an innovative experiment since jute is more used as a packaging material and less in apparel sector. At the outset the Jute fabric was dyed at 100oC for 60 min and the concentration was varied between 0.5% to 3% and the results are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1, 2, 3 and 4. Table 1: Colorant Strength Calculation Values of Jute Substrate Dyed with TCH Dissolved in Dilute Hydrochloric Acid at Varies Concentration Sr No. 1 2 3 4

TCH Conc. % 0.5 1 2 3

L*

A*

B*

C*

H*

55.427 56.357 55.769 53.807

3.613 3.466 3.631 4.049

30.763 32.367 30.846 28.133

30.974 32.552 31.059 28.423

83.268 83.854 83.253 81.777

Colour Strength (%) 100 181.496 340.851 451.462

K/S 4.8543 8.8103 16.5458 21.9152

Table 2: Fastness Properties of Jute Substrate Dyed with TCH Drug Dissolve in Carious Dilute Acids Sr. No. 1 2 3 4

TCH %Shade 0.5% 1% 2% 3%

Washing Fastness 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5

Light Fastness 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-8

Figure 2: Shade Card of Dyeing of Jute with Tetracycline Hydrochloride at Various Concentration


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Prashant Gangawane & Usha Sayed

Figure 3: H* Vs Concentration of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in %

Figure 4: Colour Strength (%) Vs Concentration of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in %

Figure 5: K/S Vs Concentration of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in % The drug is yellow in color with the brown cast powder, acidic in nature and hence easily soluble in dilute Hydrochloric acids. On varying the concentration of Tetracycline hydrochloride solution used for dyeing a wide range of shade of colour was obtained. Level dyeing accompanied with reproducibility of the dyed fabric is one of the selling features. Table 1 indicates that as the L value increases 0.5 % to 1% the lightness increases and become maximum at 1% and when concentration of Tetracycline hydrochloride increases more from 1% to 3% the L value decreases and become minimum at 3%, hence as the concentration of Tetracycline Hydrochloride increases the lightness characteristic initially increases and become maximum at 1% then after darkness increases and shows maximum darkness at 3%. The value of a*found to be decreasing from 0.5% to 1% and further increases from 1% t0 3% as the concentration increases. Hence it can be observe from figure 2 that as the concentration increases the Redness characteristics decreases initially and become minimize at 1% then after redness characteristic found to be increasing and become maximum at 3%. The value of b* initially increases from 0.5% to 1% and become maximum yellower at 1% then after decreased from 1% to 3% which indicate that yellowness decreases as increase in %shade and its minimum at 3%. At 3% shade Jute fabric become maximum Redder and bluer as compare to all other shades. From the table 1 it has been observed that the Colour Strength


Innovative Use of Outdated Tetracycline Hydrochloride Drug to Dye Jute

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increases and maximum at 3%. The K/S values also increases with the increase in concentration. Thus Tetracycline Hydrochloride drug can be used to dye Jute fabric by the exhaust process. TCH ionizes into chloride groups and hence can easily form ionic bonds with the cationic groups of Jute. And therefore as seen in table 1 with increase in concentration of tetracycline hydrochloride , the colour strength increases and K/S values was also increases. Since in the acidic pH the protonation of Jute increases and hence the increase ionic concentration of the drug is able to capture more sites and form bonds resulting in higher uptake. The mechanism is very similar to that of an acid dye used for dyeing of Jute. The light fastness as seen in table 2 is good, indicating ionic bond linkages which are faster to light. The figure 1,2,3 and 4 again indicate the above mechanism. The successful dyeing of Jute by using a drug which has expired potency for human consumption can be recycled to dye the Jute fabric instead of polluting the effluent and the whole process is environmental friendly and a very good alternative for the use of the expired tetracycline hydrochloride drug. Such a dyed Jute can be use in Carpets, Bags, ropes coasters, etc.

CONCLUSIONS Tetracycline hydrochloride is a common antibiotic and waste of expired drugs contributes to a large extent. Thus the above project through an innovative light of using the expired drugs in textile processing especially in dyeing of jute imparting antimicrobial property which is a great value addition for packaging material like jute. The above experimentation has exhibited the uniform level dyeing of Jute can be achieved by using expired TCH as an acid dye for dyeing of Jute with a wide gamut of colors with increasing concentration. Such an innovative experimentation on expired drug has been studied for the first time in the Textile processing.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are thankful to the Department of Fibers and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai for providing infrastructural facilities and University Grant Commission (UGC) India for providing financial support for this research work.

REFERENCES 1.

Andrés R. Sánchez, Roy S. Rogers III, and Phillip J. Sheridan,, Tetracycline and other tetracycline-derivative staining of the teeth and oral cavity. Int J Dermatol. 2004 Oct;43(10):709-15.

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http://www.lindagreenwall.co.uk/docs/adt_nov_newsome-greenwall_v3.pdf (accessed on July 18, 2013).

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Daniel C. N. Chan, Gregory Shayne Rozier, Angela Steen , William D. Browning, Mahmood S. Mozaffari, Standardized method to produce tetracycline-stained human molar teeth in vitro, Quintessence Int ,2006;37:637– 646

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Gross JM. Fanconi Syndrome (adult type)developing secondary to the ingestion of outdated tetracycline. Ann Intern Med 1963;58:523-8.

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Frimpter GW, Timpanelli AE, Eisenmenger WJ, etal. Reversible “Fanconi Syndrome” caused by degraded tetracycline. JAMA 1963:184;111-3.

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Montoliu J, Carrera M, Darnell A, Revert L. Lactic acidosis and Fanconi’s syndrome due to degraded tetracycline. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed)1981;283:1576-7.

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Fulop M, Drakin A. Potassium-depletion syndrome secondary to nephropathy apparently caused by “outdated tetracycline.” New Engl J Med 1965;272:986-9.


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Wegienka LC, Weller JM. Renal tubular acidosis caused by degraded tetracycline. Arch Intern Med 1964;114:232-5.

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Hemstreet BA. Antimicrobial-associated renal tubular acidosis. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:1031-8.

10. http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/St-Wr/Tetracyclines.html (accessed on July 18, 2013). 11. Prashant Gangawane, Dr. Usha Sayed (2013), Dyeing of silk with discarded tetracycline hydrochloride drug, Asian J. Pharm. Tech., 3(1), 34-36 12. Prashant Gangawane, Usha Sayed (2013), Dyeing of Nylon with discarded tetracycline hydrochloride drug, International Journal of Textile and Fashion Technology, 3(1), 49-54 13. Prashant Gangawane, Dr. Usha Sayed (2013), Dyeing of Wool with discarded tetracycline hydrochloride drug, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 6(3), 244-246


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