Page 1

International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJMPS) ISSN(P): 2250-0049; ISSN(E): 2321-0095 Vol. 3, Issue 5, Dec 2013, 21-32 Š TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

IDENTIFICATION OF ANTIDOTE MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST SNAKE VENOM - A FIELD SURVEY VIJAYA P1, RANJANI R2, RAO M R3 & SUDARSANAM G4 1

Department of Botany, Government Degree College for Women, Begumpet, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India 2

Department of Virology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

3

Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

4

Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT Snake bites in India cause loss of many precious lives. Snakes are considered as harmful to human and to avoid them many snakes are killed by human. About thousands of people reportedly die of snakebite in India every year and however, the unreported cases also even more, mostly in rural India. There are two important aspects of snakebite Management, one is the management of victim of snakebite and then the timely medical management - antivenom serum therapy. Plant products have many pharmaceutical agents and are used as traditional medicine to cure disorders from ancient days. There was place for plant medicines, with proven biologically activity particularly for chronic diseases that were not cured effectively with synthetic medicines. It was very strenuous to generate, unbiased, objective, scientific data on such plant medicines used in India either directly as folk remedies or medicaments of different indigenous systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha, India has nearly 400,000 practitioners of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani etc. whose services were not appropriately used in the health care services. About 80% of the raw materials for drugs used in the Indian systems of Medicine and homeopathy is based on plant products. Field survey focuses mainly on alternative uses of plants for protection against poisonous bites, especially Naja naja - snake venom and identified many antidote plants.

KEYWORDS: Antidote, Antivenom, Medicinal Plants, Traditional Medicine, Naja naja INTRODUCTION Nature has bestowed India with enormous wealth of medicinal flora. Keeping in view of the vastness of the area and richness of vegetation, systematic efforts to explore and exploit this valuable potential has been lacking with the exception of some sporadic attempts by a handful of reputed investigators (Satapathy and Panda, 1992; Jain, 1992). The real progress in this field can only be achieved through intensive interdisciplinary work involving pharmacologists, botanists, organic chemists and physicians of various systems of medicine such as Allopathy, Homeopathys, practitioners of Ayurveda, Unani and indigeneous systems of medicine. There is a feeling in many quarters that tribal medicine is not based on any pharmacological experiment or scientific testing. Such a notion is largely erroneous because the aims and objectives of the pharmacological experiments or other means of scientific testing of drugs are achieved in a large measure in tribal medicine through the study and analysis of properties, therapy and actual experience over long periods. Tribal medicine did have pharmacological principles though without systematic, experimental or analytical basis.In recent years importance of plant products or herbal drugs are receiving great attention through pharmacological and clinical experimentation on the herbal drugs used in traditional medicine is in progress throughout the globe in order to establish their effectiveness and safety.


22

Vijaya P, Ranjani R, Rao M R & Sudarsanam G

Snakebite is an important medical problem in both developing and developed countries (Williams et al., 2010; Omale James et al.,(2013). The snake bites exceeding 5,000,000 per year in many countries, globally (Mariane et al., 2011). Snakebite cause approximately 50,000 – 60,000 people die each year globally. And one of the best practice is identifying herbal medicines for their antivenom activity (Atul Kaushik iet al., 2013). From several studies of plant extracts and their isolated active principles, Isolated inhibitors, such as steroids, terpenoids, and phenolic compounds, are able to inhibit phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) from different snake venoms when used against crude snake venoms or their toxic fractions (Carvalho, et al., 2013). A concrete steps on these lines was taken in 1954, when the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) tried to give a new dimension to research on Indian Medicinal plants by initiating to different disciplines such as botany, chemistry, pharmacology, etc., were brought together on to the same platform to study the efficacy of medicinal plants as an integrated and coordinated endeavour. As cited in the introduction part of this are very many investigators contributions by way of field survey, data collection helped to identify number of medicinal plants in and around the world including India. In view of this, the author has conducted intensive field work in selected mandal areas of Chittoor district of A.P., to explore the antidote plants used against snake-bite and the data obtained was presented.

RESULTS Field survey undertaken in 12 mandal areas out of 62 mandals of Chittoor district revealed the occurence of 31 medicinal plants especially used as antidote ones against snake-bite. The data presented in table:1 confir the prevalence of the following families of antidote plants. Acanthaceae 1, Alangiaceae 1, Amaranthaceae 1, Annonaceae 1, Apocynaceae 1, Aristolochiaceae 2, Asclepiadaceae 1, Asteraceae 5, Convalvulaceae 1, Cucurbitaceae 2, Dioscoriaceae 1, Fabaceae 1, Labiatae 1, Liliaceae 1, Loganiaceae 1, Menispermaceae 2, Mimosaceae 1, Plumbaginaceae 1, Rubiaceae 1, Sapotaceae 1, Scrophulariaceae 1, Solanaceae 1, Sterculiaceae 1. in each mandal required information was collected from 10 tribal doctor and the possible number of tribal doctors that prefer the individual plant species for treating snake-bite was shown in table 1. Of all the plants 3 plant species like Aganosma cymosa, Corallocarpus epigaeus and Randia dumetorum were found to be preferred by more than 70% of tribal doctors to treat snake-bites. The classification, part used, mode of administration of individual plants and their related information were presented (table -1). The information collected with regard to the indentification, use and dose of antidote plants collected from tribal doctors in the field survey was compared with the reports of earlier authors and was presented in table: 1.

DISCUSSIONS Andhra Pradesh is the fifth largest state in India. The present study was undertaken in this district area which lies geographically in the South-eastern part of the A.P., India. The district is located at the common borders of the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka with Andhra Pradesh. The district is situated between 1230 and 1405 of the north latitude and 7805 and 8008 of the East longitude and is bounded on the north by Anantapur, Cuddapah and Nellore districts of A.P., and on the east and south by the districts of Tamil Nadu state and on the west by Karnataka state. The soils of this district are red loamy and red sandy types with varying thickness from a few centimeters to a few meters. The elevation generally varies from 40 m to 1800 m above the mean sea level. The climate of the district as a whole is dry and salubrious with a maximum temperature of 40C and a minimum of 24C. The ethno-medico-botanical survey carriedout by the author in 12 mandal areas of Chittoor district of A.P.


23

Identification of Antidote Medicinal Plants against Snake Venom - A Field Survey

revealed the existence of 31 antidote plants especially used by various aboriginal tribes against snake bites alone and the photographs 1-31 of individual plants collected were presented The flora of Chittoor district has received much attention by Gamble, (1957); Naidu and Rao, (1967), (1969) and Naidu et al., (1971); Rao and Raja Reddy, (1983 a,b); and Rangacharyulu, (1991) have also made significant contributions to identify the flora of Chittoor district. Vedavathy et al., (1992); Narayana Rao et al., (1991); Sudarsanam and Siva Prasad, (1995); Madhava Chetti et al., (1998) have described the ethnobotanical uses of number of medicinal plants from Chittoor district. Amongst these the reports of Sudarsanam and Sivaprasad (1995) explored the occurrence of nearly 21 antidote plants in different areas of Chittoor district especially used for various poisonous bites. Compared to the reports of various authors as shown in table:1 against individual plant species the field survey results presented in table:1 are in agreement with reports of earlier authors, in relation to their classification, locality, part used, mode of administration, etc. One of the new aspects choosen by the author in the field survey data collection was that of the number of tribal doctors, i.e., as 10 and the number of tribal doctors that prefer the individual plants for treating the snake-bite was also presented. Table 1: Traditional Antidote Plants of Snake Poison in Chittoor District Botanical Name of the Plant Followed {Private} by Family and Local Name 1. Andrographis paniculata (Bourm.f) ex Ness (Acanthaceae) L.N. Nelavemu

No. of Part Used No. of Tribals as Locality Tribals Mode of Administration Prepared Antidote Enquired as Antidote Whole Chandrag 10 6 Leaf powder as antidote plant iri (Sudarsaname, 1987) root decoction as antidote (Nagaraju, 1992) root powder and paste as antidote (Sivaprasad, 1993) plant decoction used as antidote (Hemambara Reddy et al., 1996) plant used as antidote (Annie Bright et al., 2001); (Martz, 1992). Dry root powder (5 g) made into paste with hot water and smeared over bite : one spoonful leaf powder administered internally (Sudarsanam & Sivaprasad, 1995). Leaves poultice on the affected area (Siddigui & Husain, 1990). Plant is the prominent ethnobotanical antidote (Garg, 2001). Methanolic extract used as antidote (Alam, 2001).

2.

Aganosma cymosa (Roxb.)G. Don. Apocynaceae, L.N. Peddanagammale

3.

Alangium salvifolium Stem bark Veduru (L.f.) Wang. and root Kuppam Alangiaceae L.N. bark

Root

Changrag iri

10

8

10

4

Plant used to snake bite (Jain & Sahu, 1993; Selvanayagam 1994). Root powder or extract taken internally as antidote for cobra bite (Sudarsanam, 1987); (Reddy et al., 1989); (Basireddy, 1991); (Vedavathy, 1992); Sudarsanam & Sivaprasad, 1995). Juice of the bark is given to drink (Vedavathy, 1992). Plant as an antidote (Joshi, 1993);


24

Vijaya P, Ranjani R, Rao M R & Sudarsanam G

Botanical Name of No. of Part Used No. of the Plant Followed Tribals {Private} as Locality Tribals Mode of Administration by Family and Local Prepared Antidote Enquired Name as Antidote Ooduga (Pullaiah & Dharma Chandra Kumar, 1996). Aquious extract of the plant is used as antidote - (Singh & Maheswari, Allium sativum L. Karveti 1992); (Sallal & Aljada, 1996). 4. Liliaceae L.N. Bulb 10 5 Nagaram Tellagaddalu Plant is used as antidote (Singh et al., 2001). Root paste was used as an antidote to snake bites (Pullaiah & Dharmachandra Kunar, 1996). The decoction of the root mixed with black pepper gives as an antidote to snake bite (Singh & Rao, 1997).

5.

Achyrathes aspera L. Whole Amaranthaceae L.N. plant Uttareni

K.V.Palli

10

4

The flowering spikes (or) the seeds (dried) ground and made into paste with water, used as an external application for bites of poisonous snakes (Hemambara Reddy, 1996). The tablets prepared from the roots of A. aspera with 20 black peppers (Piper nigrum) raw rice and 20 leaves of Cynodon doctylon gives with cold water for 5 days to poisonous effect of snake bite (Sataphy and Panda, 1992) Plant as antidote (Otero et al., 2000). Root powder mixed with water and given to the snake bite victim (Siddiqui & Husain, 1990). Decoction used as antidote (Hemambara Reddy, et al., 1996); (Basi Reddy, 1991).

6.

7.

Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. Whole Aristolochiaceae L.N. plant Gadidhagadapa

Aristolochia indica L. Root Aristolochiaceae leaves L.N.Nalla eswari

Pileru

&

Kuppam

10

10

5

6

Root infusion for snake bite (Nagaraju, 1992) leaf, root paste as antidote (Siva Prasad, 1993); (Sudarsanam & Sivaprasad et al., 1995). Plant is a prominent antidote (Garg, 2001). Root paste made with neem oil is applied to eye as an antidote to snake poison and powder of the root about a teaspoonsful is given internally for 3 days (Vedavathy, 1992); (Basi Reddy, 1991); (Nagaraju, 1992); (Siva Prasad, 1993). Methanolic extract of the plant used as antidote to viper venom


25

Identification of Antidote Medicinal Plants against Snake Venom - A Field Survey

Botanical Name of No. of Part Used No. of the Plant Followed Tribals {Private} as Locality Tribals by Family and Local Prepared Antidote Enquired Name as Antidote

Mode of Administration (Alam, 2000). Plant used as a popular antidote to snake venom (Selvanayagam et al., 1994). Fresh root juice (50 g) is given orally 2 times with a gap of 2 h and the paste of leaves is applied on affected part (Imam et al., 1997). Plant is a prominent ethno antidote Garg 2001.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

Bacopa monnieri (L.) pennell Whole Scrophulariaceae plant L.N.Neerisambrani mokka

Cissampelos Pareira L. Whole Menispermaceae plant L.N.Adivi banka teega

Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottle.) Clarke Cucurbitaceae L.N. Nagadonda

Calotropis gigantea (L.) R.Br. Asclepiadaceae L.N. Erra gilledu Datura metal L. Solanaceae L.N. - Ummetha Dioscorea oppositifolia L. Dioscoreaceae L.N. - Yella gadda Diplocyclos Palmatus (L.) Jeffrey. Cucurbitaceae

Changrag iri

4

Plant decoction used in snake bite (Jain & Sahu, 1993). Plant as antidote (Nadakarni, 1954) leaf as antidote (Vedavathy, 1987); (Siva Prasad, 1993).

G.D. Nellore

Tuberous S.R.Pura root m

Root

10

Irala

10

5

Plant root are pounded and mixed with water used as antidote (Jain & Sahu, 1993). Plant is a prominent antidote (Garg, 2001). Root powder as antidote (Vedavathy, 1992). Dried tuber pounded with pepper, turmeric and garlic and taken orally for poisonous bite (Sudarsanam & Siva Prasad, 1995).

10

8 Root tuber sliced, dried, powdered / eaten or drunk with water (Hemambara Reddy et al., 1996).

10

3

Plant is a prominent antidote (Garg, 2001). Root paste mixed with turmeric powder is given (Vedavathy, 1992; Singh & Maheswari, 1992). Root is applied on snakebite (Jain & Sahu, 1993).

Leaf & Root

Chandrag iri

10

4

Root bark for snakebite (Basi Reddy, 1991).

Tuberous Tirupati root rural

10

2

Infusion / drunk (Hemambara Reddy, 1996).

Tuberous V.Kota root

10

3

Bitter tuberous root paste taken internally for snake bite (Sudarsanam & Siva Prasad 1995).


26

Vijaya P, Ranjani R, Rao M R & Sudarsanam G

Botanical Name of No. of Part Used No. of the Plant Followed Tribals {Private} as Locality Tribals by Family and Local Prepared Antidote Enquired Name as Antidote L.N. - Lingadonda

Mode of Administration

Plant is used as antidote (Garg, 2001). Ethanolic and aqueous extract of the aerial parts used as antidote to rattle snake (Mors et al., 1989); (Selvanayagam et al., 1994).

15.

Eclipta prostrata L. Asteraeceae L.N. -

Aerial parts

S.R.Pura m

10

5

Plant is used as antidote (Martz, 1992). Plant is used against crotalid venoms (Melo et al., 1994). Leaf juice with butter milk taken as an antidote for snake bite (Sudarsanam & Sivaprasad, 1995).

16.

Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) Leaves Convolvuaceae L.N. - Vishnu Kantha

K.V.Palli

10

4

Leaves used as antidote in poisonous bites (Sudarsanam & Sivaprasad, 1995). Plant as antidote (Nad Karni, 1954).

17.

Gymnema sylvestre (Reetz.) R.Br. Asclepiadaceae L.N. - Podapathri

Whole plant

Chandrag iri

10

5

Potassium gymnemate extracted from Gymnema sylvestre used as snake bite neutralizing agent (Manjunatha Kini and Veerabasappa Gowda, 1982).

18.

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. Asclepiadaceae L.N. - Sugandhapala

Root

Kuppam

10

4

19.

Leucas aspera L. Labiatae L.N. - Thummi

Whole Plant

V.Kota

10

5

20.

Root powder administered internally for poisonous bites (Sudarsanam & Siva Prasad, 1995). Leaf is an antidote (Nagaraju, 1992), tuberous root infusion / drunk (Hemambara Reddy, 1996).

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Fabaceae Seeds L.N. - Pilliadugu (or) Dulagondi

Chandrag iri

10

3

Root is antidote (Selvanayagam et al., 1994). Root paste is applied on snake bite (Jain & Sahu, 1993); (Maheswari & Singh, 1984); (Maheswari et al., 1986); (Khanna et al., 1996); (Alam et al., 1994); (Alam and Gomes, 1998); (Singh and Rao 1997). Leaf juice is dropped into the eyes as antidote (Vedavathy, 1992). Plant juice is given internally (Kannappa Reddy et al., 1993). Seed protein extract acts as an antidote (Aguiyi et al., 1997; 1999). Aqueous leaf extract used as antidote (Houghton & Skari, 1994).


27

Identification of Antidote Medicinal Plants against Snake Venom - A Field Survey

Botanical Name of No. of Part Used No. of the Plant Followed Tribals {Private} as Locality Tribals by Family and Local Prepared Antidote Enquired Name as Antidote

21.

22.

23.

Mimosa Pudica L. Mimosaceae L.N. - Atiipathi Marsdenia volubilis (or) Wattakaka volubilis (L.F.) staff Ascepiadaceae L.N - Teegapala Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae L.N. - Chitramoolam

K.V.Palli

10

2

Whole plant

Pileru

10

2

Plant as antidote (Nagaraju, 1992) Leaf decoction / drunk (Hemambara Reddy, 1996).

Root

Chandrag iri

10

4

Root decoction / drunk (Hemambara Reddy, 1996).

24.

10

5

25.

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miens. Menispermaceae L.N. - Tippa Teega

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R.Br. Apocynaceae L.N.Reppala Madhuca indica J. Gmelin Sapotaceae L.N.Ippa Chettu Helicteres isora L. Sterculiaceae L.N.Gubathada

Seed extract used against snake venom (Guerranti et al., 1999; 2001). Leaf extract used as antidote to snake bite (Mahanta & Mukherjee, 2001).

Leaves

Strychnos nux vomica Root, L. stembark, K.V.Palli Loganiaceae seed L.N. - Musti

Tylophora indica (Burm. F) Asclepiadaceae L.N. - Mustipala Randia dumetorum Lamk. Rubiaceae L.N. - Manga chettu

Mode of Administration

Plant is an antidote (Nadkarni, 1954) stembark chewed in krait poisoning (Sudarsanam, 1987); (Sivaprasad, 1993); (Sudarsanam & Sivaprasad, 1995). Root decoction used as an antidote (Hemambara Reddy et al., 1996). Seed extract used as an antidote (Chatterjee & Gomes, 2001). Stembark mixed with blackpepper is pounded and given (Vedavathy, 1992). Plant extract mixed with black pepper powder was made into decoction and is given immediately 3 to 4 teaspoons, as antidote (Sudarsanam, 1987); (Vedavathy, 1992). Leaf as antidote stem infusion/drunk (Hemambara Reddy et al., 1996). Leaf juice mixed in butter milk, is given to drink, which induces vomitings and cure (Sudarsanam, 1987); (Vedavathy, 1992).

Whole Plant

Chandrag iri

10

3

Leaves

Veduru Kippam

10

4

Root

Tirupati

10

7

Root extract given internally against cobra bites (Sudarsanam & Siva Prasad, 1995).

Root & stem

Karveti Nagaram

10

2

Root bark as antidote (SivaPrasad, 1993; Joshi, 1993) Decoction of leaves applied externally for snake bite Swati Samwatsar & Diwanji (1996).

Seed

Chandrag iri

10

4

Decoction / drunk (Hemambara Reddy et al., 1996)

Seed

Kuppam

10

3

Infusion / drunk (Hemambara Reddy et al., 1996)


28

Vijaya P, Ranjani R, Rao M R & Sudarsanam G

Botanical Name of No. of Part Used No. of the Plant Followed Tribals {Private} as Locality Tribals Mode of Administration by Family and Local Prepared Antidote Enquired Name as Antidote Annona squamosa (L.) Diels G.D.Nell Bark juice is given as antidote 31. Stem bark 10 3 Annonaceae ore (Vedavathy, 1992) L.N.Seethapalam

CONCLUSIONS From the data obtained from field survey, observed 31 medicinal plants have antidote property. Interestingly 3 antidote plants namely Aganosma cymosa, Corallocarpus epigeous and Randia dumetorum found to be preferred more than 70% of tribal doctors and since that objective of the author is to test the selected antidote plants for their neutralizing capacities of Naja naja venom (lethal dose), the above three plants alone were chosen for the experimental studies and related data was analysed.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank John Hopkins Institute, Bombay, Tribal doctors of Chittoor, Districts, Dr. Madhava Chetty, Department of Botany, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University for providing facility for completion of research.

REFERENCES 1.

Aguiyi, J.C., Igweh, A.C., Egesie, U.G. and Leoncini, R. (1999). Studies on possible protection against snake venom using Mucuna prurience protein immunization. Fitoterapia, 70(1): 21-24.

2.

Aguiyi, J.C., Uguro, M.O. and Gesa, A.A (1997). Mechanism of action of the aqueous seed extract of Munna Pruriens on the Guinea pigileum. Phytother. Res., 11: 328-329.

3.

Atul Kaushik, Anghesom Ambesajir, Jeevan Jyoti Kaushik, Berhane Girmay (2013). Snake Venom Neutralization Effects of African Medicinal Plants & Their Impact on Snakebites: A Review, Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3, (24), 1-6.

4.

Alam, M.I. (2000). Snake venom neutralization Indian Medicinal Plants. Abstracts of Research papers presented at the International congress on frontiers in pharmacolony at the therapentics in 21st century, New Delhi. Abstract No.319.

5.

Alam, M.I. (2000). Snake venom neutralization Indian Medicinal Plants. Abstracts of Research papers presented at the International congress on frontiers in pharmacolony at the therapentics in 21st century, New Delhi. Abstract No.319.

6.

Alam, M.I. and Gomes, A. (1998). Adjuvant effects and antiserum action potentiation by a (herbal) compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from the root extract of the Indian Medicinal Plant `Sarsaparilla' (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br). Toxicon, 36(6): 1423-1431.

7.

Alam, M.I., Auddy, B and Gomes, A. (1994). Isolation, Purification and partial characterization of venom inhibiting factor from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant sarasaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br). Toxicon, 32(12): 1551-1557.

8.

Annie Bright, A., Babu, A., Gnacimuttu, S.I. and Dory, S. (2001). Efficacy of crude extracts of Andrographis


Identification of Antidote Medicinal Plants against Snake Venom - A Field Survey

29

paniculata Nees. on Callosobruchus chinensis L. during post harvest storage of cowpea. Ind. J. Exp.Biol., 39:715-718. 9.

Basi Reddy, M. (1991). Ethno-medico - botanical studies in Rayalaseema Region of Andhra Pradesh and Screening of Selected Species for biological activity, Ph.D. Thesis, S.V.University, Tirupati.

10. Carvalho, B. M. A. Santos, J. D. L., Xavier, B. M. , Almeida, J. R., Resende, L. M. , Martins, W., Marcussi, S., Marangoni,S., Stรกbeli, R. G., Calderon, L. A., Soares, A. M., Da Silva, S. L. and Marchi-Salvador, D. P. (2013). Snake Venom PLA2s Inhibitors Isolated from Brazilian Plants: Synthetic and Natural Molecules, BioMed Research International Volume 2013, Article ID 153045, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/153045 11. Chatterjee, I. and Gomes, A. (2001). Antisnake venom activity of strychnos nux vomica seed extract on experimental Animals. Ind. J. of Pharmacol., 3(2): Abstracts of XXXIII Annual conference. 12. Gamble, J.S. and Fisher (Rep. ed.) (1957). Flora of the Presidency of Madras Vol. I - III. Adlard & Son Ltd., London. 13. Garg, S.C. (2001). Ethnomedicine for snake bite. J. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sci., 22(4A), 23(1A) : P.546-553. 14. Guerranti, R., Agniyi, J.C., Leonuni, R., Pagani, R., Cinci, G. and Marinello, E. (1999). 15. Hemambara Reddy, M. (1996). Indian Medicinal Plants: Achyranthes aspera L. J.Econ. Taxon .Bot. Addl.Ser, 12:37 - 39. 16. Hemambara Reddy, M., Vijaya Lakshmi, K. and Venkata Raju, R.R. (1996). Native phytotherapy for snake bite in Nallamalais, Eastern ghats, India . J.Econ. Taxon.Bot. Addl.Ser, 12:214 - 217. 17. Imam, S., Gupta, V.C. and Hussain, S.J. (1997). Folk - herbal medicines from the tribal pockets of Adilabad forests (A.P., India). Fitoterapia, LXVIII: 429-433. 18. Jain, A.K. (1992) Ethnobotanical studies on Tribals of Madhya Pradesh with special reference to medicinal plants. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. Addl. Ser. 10: 227-232. 19. Jain, P. and Sahu, T.P. (1993). An Ethnobotanical study of Noradehi Sanctuary park of Madhya Pradesh, India : Native Plant remedies for scorpion sting and snake bite. J. Econ. Tax. Bot., 17(2): 315-328. 20. Joshi, P. (1993). Tribal remedies against snake-bites and Scorpion stings in Rajasthan. Glimpses in Plant Research Medicinal plants: New vistas of Research, 10(1): 23-30. 21. Kannappa Reddy, M., Viswanathan, S., Thingnanasanbantham, P. and Kameswaran, L. (1993). Effect of Leucas aspera on snake venom poisoning in mice and its possible mechanism of action. Fitotherapia V. LXIV. No. 5. 442-446. 22. Madhava Chetty, K., Lakshmipathi Chetty, M. Sudhakar, A. Ramesh, C.(1998). "Ethno medico botany of some Aquatic Angiosermae in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh. Fitoterapia, (69): 7. 23. Mahanta, M. and Mukherjee, A.K. (2001). Neutralisation of lethality, myotoxicity and toxic enzymes of Naja Kaouthia venom by Mimosa pudica root extracts. J. of Ethnopharmacol., 75(1): 55-60. 24. Maheshwari, J.K., Kalakoti, B.S. and Brijal. (1986). Ethnomedicine of Bhill tribe of Jhabua district, M.P., Ancient Science of Life, 5: 255 - 261.


30

Vijaya P, Ranjani R, Rao M R & Sudarsanam G

25. Manjunatha Kini, R. and Veerabasappa Gowda, T. (1982). Studies on snake venom exzymes: Part I - Prification of ATPase, A toxic component of Naja naja venom & its inhibition by potassium Gymnemate. Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys., 19: 152-154. 26. Mariane, A., C.D. Eduardo, E.B. Sergio, P.F. Caio and F.R.L. Jonathas et al., 2011. Hypericum brasiliense plant extract neutralizes some biological effects of Bothrops jararaca snake venom. J. Venom Res., 2: 11-16. 27. Martz, W. (1992). Plants with a reputation against snakebite. Toxicon, 3(10): 1131-1142. 28. Melo, P.A., Nascimento, M.C., Mors, W.B., Suarej, K. Gand-Do-Nascimento, M.C., (1994). Myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities of crotalidae venoms by Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae) extracts and constituents. Toxicon-Oxford. 32(5): 595-603. 29. Mors W.B., do Nascimento M.C., Parente J.P., da Silva, M.M., Melo, P.A., Suarez-Kuriz, G. (1989). Toxicon, 27(9): 1003-9. 30. Nadkarni, K.M. (1954). Indian Materia Medica Vol.I & II. Popular Prakasam Pvt.Ltd., Bombay. 31. Nagaraju, N.(1992). Biochemical studies on some medicinal plants of Rayalaseema region .Ph.D. Thesis, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India. 32. Naidu, K.V. and Rao, R.S. P. (1969). Contribution to the flora of Tirupati hills part II. Indian Forester, 95: 618-28. 33. Naidu, K.V. and Rao, R.S.P. (1967). A Contribution to flora of Tirupati hills. Indian Forester, 93: 123-125. 34. Naidu, K.V., Swamy, P.M. and Rao, K.N. (1971). Contribution to the flora of Tirupati hills part III. Indian forester, 97: 89-100. 35. Narayana Rao, K., Nagaraju, N., Vedavathy, S. (1991). Use of medicinal plants in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh. Recent Advances in Medicinal, Aromatic and Spice Crops, 1: 135-141. 36. Omale James, Ebiloma Unekwuojo Godwin and Idoko Grace Otini (2013). In vivo neutralization of naja Nigricollis venom by uvaria chamae, American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 9 (3): 224-234. 37. Otero, R., Nunez, V., Barona, J., Fonnegra, R., Jimenez, S.L., Osorio, R.G., Saldarriaga, M. and Diaz, A. (2000). Snake bites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia, Part III: Nentra lization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom. J. of Ethnopharmacol, 73(1-2): 233-241. 38. Pullaiah, T. and Dharma Chandra Kumar, T. (1996). Herbal plants in Mannanur Forest Mahaboobnagar District Andhra Pradesh. J. Econ. Toxon. Bot. Addl. Ser., 12: 218-220. 39. Rangacharyulu, D. (1991). Flora of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India, Ph.D. Thesis submitted to S.V.University, Tirupati, India. 40. Rao, K.N. and Raja Reddy, K. (1983a). Extended distribution of endemic plant species on Tirumala Hills. Ed. Jain, S.K. and Rao, R.R. In: An assessment of threatened plants of India. Bot. sur. India. Howrah. 41. Rao, K.N. and Raja Reddy, K. (1983b). Threatened plants of Tirupati hills Ed. Jain, S.K. and Rao, R.R. In: An assessment of threatened plants of India. Bot. sur. India. Howrah. 42. Reddy, Y.Y, Rao, K.N. and Thammanna, (1989). Use of plants as medicine in the nearby villages of Tirupati,


Identification of Antidote Medicinal Plants against Snake Venom - A Field Survey

31

cited in Tirumala Flora, T.T.D. Publications, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India. 43. Satapathy, K.B. and Panda, P.C. (1992). Medicinal uses of some plants among the tribals of Sundaryarth District, Orissa. Bot.Addl.Ser., 10: 241-249. 44. Selvanayagam, Z.E., Gnanavendhan, S.G., Chandrasekharan, P., Balakrishna, K. and Bhima Rao, R. (1994) . Plants with antisnake venom activity a review on pharmacological and clinical studies. Fitotherapia, Vol.LXN, (2):99-111. 45. Siddigui, M.B. and Hussain, W. (1990). Traditional antidotes of snake poison in Northern India. Fitoterapia. Vol.XI, 41-44. 46. Singh, H. and Maheswari, J.K. (1992). Traditional remedies for snake - bite - and scorpion sting among Bhoxeas of Nainital district. Aryavaidyam, 6(2): 123. 47. Singh, K.K. and Rao, R.R. (1997). Role of Ethnomedicine in primary Health care of certain Adivasis in India. Manphar Vidya Patrika, Vol: 1(4.5) : 67 - 72. 48. Singh, V.P., Prithviraj, B., Sarma, B.K., Mandavisingh, Z. and Ray, A.B. (2001). Role of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in human and plant diseases. Ind. J.Exp.Biol., Vol.39(4): 310-322. 49. Siva Prasad, G. (1993). Ethnomedicobotanical Survey of Yanadi Tribes in Chittoor District, A.P. M.Phil Dissertation, Submitted to S.V.University, Tirupati. 50. Sudarsanam, G.(1987). Ehno-botanical Survey And Phyto-pharmaco-chemical Screening of Selected Medicinal plants of Chittoor District, A.P., Ph.D. Thesis submitted to S.V.University, Tirupati, India. 51. Sundarsanam, G. and Siva Prasad, G. (1995). Medical Ethnobotany of plants used as antidotes by Yanadi tribes in South India, Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medical Plants, 3(1):57 - 66. 52. Swatisam Watsar and Diwanji, (1996). Plants used in snake, scorpion and insect bites/stings by adibasis of Jhalaua (M.P) India. J.Ecom.Taxon.Bot.Addl. Ser. 12: 199 - 200. 53. Vedavathy, S. (1992). Studies on medicinal plants of Tirumala and Tirupati, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, Ph.D. Thesis, S.V.University, Tirupati, India. 54. Williams, D., J.M. Gutierrez, R. Harrison and D.A. Warrell, 2010. The Global Snake Bite Initiative: An antidote for snake bite. Lancet, 375: 89-91.


3 identification of antidote full  

Snake bites in India cause loss of many precious lives. Snakes are considered as harmful to human and to avoid them many snakes are killed b...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you