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International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Research (IJECR) ISSN 2250-0006 Vol. 3, Issue 3, Aug 2013, 21-42 Š TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.


ABSTRACT The globalization of capitalism and new liberal policies has led to the spread of prostitution markets that quite widely subject to the organized crime gangs that contradict with the norm, religion and good ethics. This is not attributed to the reason that prostitution is outlawed or comes under the prohibition circle. Egypt is not isolated from other world countries as it is affected by the international and regional changes that contribute to the production and trade of this phenomenon. The research problem dwells on the raising the overlooked hidden side of economic globalization and new liberal policies that transfer man into a commodity that has monetary and consuming value sold and bought at the human trade markets with the purpose of sex exploitation (prostitution) or what is known as tourist marriage phenomenon. The research significance dwells on breaking the silence that shrouds this phenomenon and face the reality with mechanisms that prevent this phenomenon exacerbation in the future. The research aims to identify the world sex markets according to the supply and demand theory; then reveal mechanisms that control the sex industry under the market value and organized crime. It aims as well to identify the spread extent of this phenomenon, its social and economic reasons at the world level in general. It also aims to identify the size of sex industry in Egypt; showing the affecting factors behind this phenomenon increase in the light of the results of the fieldwork study on a sample of some female interviewees working in the sex industry in Egypt. The study provides suitable suggestions to curb this phenomenon exacerbation in the future.

KEYWORDS: Prostitution Markets, Sex Industry, Supply and Demand Theory, Interviewees’ Sample, Egypt INTRODUCTION The organized crime has increased with market liberalization under the economic globalization to play a fundamental role in the global economy. The globalization of capitalism and new liberal policies has led to the spread of prostitution markets that quite widely subject to the organized crime gangs that contradict with the norm, religion and good ethics. This is not attributed to the reason that prostitution is outlawed or comes under the prohibition circle. Whether in the countries that consider prostitution is outlawed like (Tunisia, Germany, The Netherlands) or in the countries in which prostitution houses are owned by the state (Turkey and Indonesia), or in the countries that recognize prostitution as a vital industry for the national economy (Thailand and the Philippines), the role of organizes crime gangs remains fundamental in organizing the prostitution markets since violence is the decisive factor in producing the sex industry (Patricia Green,2010). Egypt is not isolated from other world countries as it is affected by the international and regional changes that contribute to the production and trade of this phenomenon. This trade differs from a country to another, as there is a transit country to other countries, there are destination countries of this trade and there are origin countries of it. Egypt is considered as a transit and destination country of sex trade. Therefore, it is necessary to study the dichotomies, reasons and effects of this phenomenon in order to curb its exacerbation in the future through focusing on only two forms of this phenomenon, namely tourist marriage of women in line of human trade and sex exploitation and prostitution.


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The Research Problem It dwells on the raising the overlooked hidden side of economic globalization and new liberal policies that transfer man into a commodity that has monetary and consuming value sold and bought at the human trade markets with the purpose of sex exploitation (prostitution) or what is known as tourist marriage phenomenon. The official institutions, authorities and governments often keep silent towards it despite this phenomenon increase year after another. In addition to the defect of government social assurance that does not include the poorest women; so as avoid them getting indulged in this phenomenon and the marginalizing women role without getting them fully involved in the society. This matter contradicts with the customs, traditions and the rules of Islam particularly in Egypt. The research significance dwells on breaking the silence that shrouds this phenomenon and face the reality with mechanisms that prevent this phenomenon exacerbation in the future through opening new horizons of further research for those researchers interested in this phenomenon. Research Objectives The research aims to identify the world sex markets according to the supply and demand theory; then reveal mechanisms that control the sex industry under the market value and organized crime. It aims as well to identify the spread extent of this phenomenon, its social and economic reasons at the world level in general. It also aims to identify the size of sex industry in Egypt; showing the affecting factors behind this phenomenon increase in the light of the results of the fieldwork study on a sample of some female interviewees working in the sex industry in Egypt. The study provides suitable suggestions to curb this phenomenon exacerbation in the future. Research Approach This is the first research of its kind in Egypt that handles the sex trade or prostitution from a social and economic perspective. It is a very complicated issue and highly sensitive as well. Its data collection can be impossible due to circumstances related to the suitable Egyptian society in terms of norms and traditions. The study has relied on the descriptive quantitative economic analysis technique to describe and analyze the development and reasons behind this phenomenon. The study has used the social survey technique through conducting confidential personal interviews of a deliberately selected sample of (20) prostitutes working in hotels and night clubs at Al-Haram Street and the Nile Cornish in Giza. Each interview is conducted in full confidentiality according to the wishes of the interviewees and their employers. The results of data collected from the interviewees sample are obtained by using a statistical technique. The interviews were conducted during the period of 1st February till 1st May 2013. The researcher has relied on this phenomenon data on the descriptive aspects only on the statistical and fieldwork studies conducted by other independent researchers or other UN affiliated researches on a group of countries where this phenomenon spreads. Research Plan The research is divided into the following five parts: First: The theoretical framework of sex markets according to the supply and demand theory. Second: The world development of sex industry size and its reasons. Third: The sex industry size development in Egypt and its reasons. Fourth: Results analysis of the interviewees’ sample in Egypt.

Economics of Prostitution in the World and its Implications with Reference to Egypt


Fifth: Research findings and recommendations.

FIRST: THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF SEX MARKETS ACCORDING TO THE SUPPLY AND DEMAND THEORY Like the market for any commodity or service, the illicit commercial sex market is a function of supply and demand. Wherever demand occurs, supply and distribution emerge. The sex industry is lucrative and it has expanded rapidly in worldwide within the past few decades. For the men and women working in the sex trade, prostitution provides a way for people of low education to earn a high salary (Shrage, Laurie,2010). For the different countries, Sex tourism is the major source of foreign exchange and is vital to world’s economy. Unfortunately, only within the past three decades has the world governments given much attention to the social costs, such as the spread of HIV and the growth in human trafficking that the sex industry creates (World AIDS Campaign,2010 and CATW,2006). Sexual economy referred to the resources men offer to women in order to acquire sex. In this sense, the heterosexual community is considered as a marketplace where sex is bought and sold. Where in the sex economy men are the buyers, and women are the sellers (Griswold, Michael,2011). The decisions made regarding sex between a man and a woman may be influenced by the market conditions. As with all economic principles, price is determined by supply and demand, product variety, complicity among sellers, competition between sellers as well as other factors will all determine the price of sex. Becker Gary (1976) was the first theorist to define human behavior in terms of economics. There are four main assumptions to his definition. First, an individual’s behavior is interrelated in a market system in which individual choices are determined by cost and benefit in the framework of stable preferences. Second, scarce desirable resources are assigned by shifts in price and other influences on the market. Third, those that sell goods and services will compete with one another, and fourth people want to maximize their outcomes. This theory is used in a cultural sense to analyze the behavior of individuals as it is shaped by the market (Becker, Gary S.,1976). The interaction between a man and a woman through the evaluation of cost and benefit to each is referred to as Social Exchange Theory. If each one gains more than it loses in an interaction, the exchange will continue. Therefore, the main crux of the social exchange theory is the assumption that in every social interaction each person gives and gains something from the other, which is what constitutes the exchange. The broader market as well as individual preferences will determine the value of the gain and exchange process. The application of economic principles to social rewards enables the prediction of the way in which social behavior will advance. In using the social exchange theory to analyze sex, sex is viewed as a female resource (Wang, Emily,2009). The woman is giving the man sex, which is considered as valuable. The interaction is mis-represented unless the man gives the woman back something in return of equivalent value. Scarcity increases the value of a commodity, as emphasized by social exchange theorists (Cockerille, James,2007). If a woman is known to provide sexual favours regularly to different men she is perceived as of low value. A woman is perceived as of a high value if she rarely provides sexual favours. In this sense a woman’s sexual favours are a non renewable resource, which provides a woman with an incentive to allocate them moderately. Therefore, the sex for a man has ample benefits at little cost, however for a woman, the cost is substantial even if the pleasure is high. Sex evolves into part of an economic system (Altink, S.,1995). The price of sex is not limited to money, it has a wide conception of resources including, respect, love, time, gifts, affection or commitment. Negotiation is dependent on the going rate of price, that is a better deal for the man or the woman (Anderson, B., 2006). The most obvious indication of the extent to which she is desired by men is her beauty and sex appeal. A woman who conforms to the standards of beauty set out by the society in which she lives can command a higher price than women


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who do not conform to this standard. Sexual norms are therefore characterized by a local going rate as to the acceptable price for sex. There will be a variation in rates between different cultures, and across divergent historical periods (Barry, K., 1995). During the third quarter of the twentieth century sexual attitudes and behaviours encountered a considerable conversion. The sexual revolution served as a “market correction” in which the price of sex was significantly reduced. Social exchange theory would cite a reason for this as a change in woman’s circumstances such as her no longer needing to depend on a man for finances, and the ability to have sex without getting pregnant, led to a reduction in their reliance on the fact that sex was their most valuable resource (Bernstein, E.,2001). Despite the sexual revolution bringing about many positive changes for women, these changes also served as a disadvantage in the devaluation of their sexual resources. If the price of sex has reduced it, limits their potential to find a suitable mate who will pay the highest price, because he can find sexual resources elsewhere without having to pay more (Chapkis, W.,2000). Supply, Demand and Elasticity: In terms of sex the female resource theory stipulates that supply is constructed by the woman and demand is constructed by the man. When the pool of desirable women is significantly greater than the pool of desirable men, this is an indication that supply has exceeded the demand. This leads to a price reduction in which men can obtain sex by offering next to nothing in exchange (Farr, K.,2005). In reverse a scarcity of desirable women in relation to men proposes that demand is greater than supply which will drive the price up. Pornography and prostitution can be observed as low cost alternatives for the desired other of sex with a coveted women. Economics within the sexual marketplace will advocate that men will be the target of such low cost substitutes, and to some differing degree will be embraced by men (Garcia, L.,2009). If pornographic material can satisfy the male demand for sex, then it may create a reduction for a demand of her specific sexual favours and result in her having to accept a lower price (Glickman, C.,2011). Postulating that the majority of men have a preference for sex with loving female companions, as opposed to the alternative of prostitutes or watching pornography and masturbating, the women within a community could possibly create a monopoly if they are capable of binding together and reducing the competition between themselves. A viable economic strategy pursed by several monopolies or conglomerates is the artificial restriction of supply in order to push prices up. In the sex economy, this could involve women coming together and agreeing to abstain from sex with a man under strong laws and actions norms(IUSW,2009). In the business world this strategy has been successful enough that governments of countries in advanced nations have implemented laws against it. Therefore women should work together and restrict the supply of sex in order to get a higher price. The cost of commercial sex can influence demand, with some clients preferring lower prices and some clients seeking out higher priced sex workers. In addition to cost, clients’ preferences can also depend on age, attractiveness, personality and character, virginity, body type, and racialized identities (ILO,2006). prostitution supply is solely determined by men’s demand for prostitution and by those who are perceived to enable male clients to pay for sexual services from female sex workers . Visibility and affordability of commercial sexual services also factor into clients’ decisions to pay for sexual services. It is not the number of customers but economic trends and social conditions such as unemployment and a shortage of living wage opportunities that determine the number of sex workers at any given time. The decision to buy sex is partly shaped by cost considerations (Hughes, D.M.,2001). If the price of commercial sexual services rose, then demand would certainly fall dramatically. In this sense, we can say that a supply of prostitutes who are willing or forced to sell sex at affordable prices creates demand as much as the other way about. Prostitution women in sex work can only be commodities that clients can use however they wish. Lena Edlund and Evelyn Korn (2006) suggest there is a marriage market explanation behind why prostitutes are so well-paid: A woman cannot be both a

Economics of Prostitution in the World and its Implications with Reference to Egypt


prostitute and a wife. Combine this with the fact that marriage can be an important source of income for women, and it follows that prostitution must pay better than other jobs to compensate for the opportunity cost of forgone marriage market earnings. By the illicit commercial sex market the need for people to provide a supply and for pimps and traffickers to distribute the supply to buyers would not exist without demand (ITUC,2011). In commercial sex markets, it is not always true that there are third parties brokering exchanges between those providing commercial sex and the consumers of commercial sex. On the other hand, the incentives of paying for a prostitute continue to be enough to cultivate a demand for prostitution. The demand for prostitutes is inelastic. As prostitutes were arrested, supply dropped which elevated the equilibrium price. Demand stayed the same as customers continued to pay the elevated wages. Allie, a high end prostitute, consistently raised her prices but did not experience a decrease in demand for her services (Kontula, A.,2008). In Egypt a majority of clients of prostitutes are foreign tourists from Arab gulf states men, significantly add to the sex industry. Despite the large influence that tourism has had upon the sex industry, there is also an important local demand for prostitution. The supply side of the sex industry is predominantly composed of young women or minors from poorer, rural areas in Egypt , North africa and Eastern European prostitutes also work in Egypt, which reflects the increasing globalization of sex industry. Poverty is the primary factor pushing women to join the sex industry (John R, Bradley,2008). Most sex workers are poorly educated and often have several family members that they are supporting financially. In addition, greed, consumerism, the desire to lead a western lifestyle and own western goods, and the low value that Egyptian society places on women all contribute to the increasing number of women who join the sex trade. Prostitution is the most lucrative form of employment that a woman with little education and skills can enter. There are many different locations and forms in which prostitution takes place in Egypt. These including: brothels, massage parlors, discotheques, night clubs, bars, and restaurants. Sex workers can be divided into four major categories depending on the motives for working in the industry and the conditions under which they work (Anderson, B.,2007): 

The lowest income earners who are sold into the trade and are working under some kind of restraint. Generally, these women work in brothels and teahouses and serve a high number of clients per day.

The second group consists of those under heavy economic compulsion to work to support dependants.The majority in this group consists of single mothers with low education, typically working to support a child.

The third group is comprised of women who are young, attractive, and entrepreneurial and enter the sex industry because of the economic incentive.

The fourth group includes women who perform sex work part-time to supplement their income. They may be students or have regular jobs. Many sex workers suffer severe from physical damage, including sexually transmitted diseases, and put

themselves at higher risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. The psychological harm can be equally destructive. Many women who work in the sex industry experience feelings of extremely low self-esteem and self worth, self-blame and guilt, and extreme depression. Many sex workers also undergo denial of their involvement in prostitution and many sex workers have suicidal tendencies. Research from countries that have already legalized prostitution shows that the legalization or decriminalization of prostitution does not empower the women in prostitution but does everything to strengthen the sex industry (Weekes, A.,2006 and Wilcox, A., Christmann, K., Rogerson, M. & Birch, P.,2009 ).


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SECOND: THE WORLD DEVELOPMENT OF SEX INDUSTRY SIZE AND ITS REASONS Prostitution means every act or conduct and its related actions with the purpose of its trade and earning money for it. The world prostitution concept is divided into two parts: the first is prostitution that is providing and selling sex, the second is the sex industry which includes all types of dance and nudeness; providing sex via the internet or the sex services. The distinction between these concepts is attributed to the punishments stated in the legal systems of every country in terms of license, allowed and disallowed things, etc (Agustin, L,2010). Undoubtedly, the growing sex industry in most countries of the developed and developing world is attributed to several economic, social, political, personal, security interrelated factors. The most important of these factors are the aspects of poverty, low-income, prices rising, economic policies, the permission of night-clubs opening license, holding Miss World and Miss Country competitions, the large difference between social classes deteriorated standards of living, family violence and disharmony, family size, literacy spread, discrimination among children, unemployment, addiction, marriage avoidance due to its high costs, high rates of sinister, women legal and illegal migration, internal conflicts, administrative corruption and other reasons that may vary from one country to another. The sex industry is a work that needs not scientific qualifications or experience but rather only beauty. This is the main qualification which the prostitution profession needs to let the woman join that profession and professionalize the sex industry(Brents, B.G., Jackson, C.A., & Hausbeck, K. (2009). Reviewing the sex industry in the Netherlands, France, Germany, Austria, Britain, Belgium, Greece, Italy, Spain, Denmark, and Finland, it is permitted and unpunished provided the harlot has a working permit. She does not enjoy, however, the workers rights or the social assurance privileges. As for those non-European, they are not permitted to work in the sex industry. In certain cases like (Italy), they can obtain work permit as artists and accordingly they can work as entertainers at clubs, bars and striptease. They will leave the country and their visa cancelled when they encroach that rule. As for the sex industry in Ireland, prostitution is prohibited, illegal and considered as a crime punished according to the law, while dancing and striptease are legal and permitted as they require visa and work permit for foreigners (Andrijasevic, R.,2010). As for the sex industry in the Arab world, prostitution is illegal and punished by the law either by imprisonment or whipping as the case of Saudi Arabia despite its spread particularly in countries described as tourist countries like Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia and Lebanon. According to the report of the US department of state in 2011 entitled “human trade� that covered 184 countries concerned with the phenomenon as the number of the least-prostitution spread countries is 32 countries, mediumprostitution spread countries are 129 countries including Egypt while the most-prostitution spread countries are 23 countries. The number of the most effective global networks in the sex field is about fifty networks around the world. According to the United Nations program for Development in 2010, the world criminal product of this industry represents third of the most profitable activities of the international trade after that of drugs and weapons. It is valued almost $ US 1200 annually and represents 15% of the world trade size. This phenomenon spreads in some Asian countries (India, The Philippines, Thailand, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka), Mexico has recently joined, the Central America countries (Cuba, Costa Rica, Dominica), South America countries (Brazil), the former Soviet Union countries and Africa (Kenya, Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt).

Economics of Prostitution in the World and its Implications with Reference to Egypt


The number of women working in prostitution in Thailand is about two million women, in the Philippines 50 thousand women, in Indonesia about 65 thousand women, in India almost 10 million women, in Malaysia about 142 thousand women, in Vietnam about 70 thousand women, in the United States almost one million women, in the Netherlands almost 30 thousand, and in Germany about 20 thousand. The number of women working in the prostitution activity in the South East Asia is about half a million. In the independent countries that were formerly affiliated to the Soviet Union, the Eastern and central Europe countries about 200 thousand, in the Latin America, Caribbean islands almost 100 thousand and in Africa about 50 thousand (GAATW,2006). The statistics of the World Labor Organization in 2010 indicate that since the early 1990s, 200 thousand of Bangladeshi women were deported to Pakistan to practice prostitution, while in Thailand there are more than 30 thousand women originally from Myanmar working in the sex industry. There are more than 150 thousand women working in the sex industry in Japan who are not from Japanese origins, 50% of them are from the Philippines, 40% of them are from Thailand. India annually hosts less than 18 years old 30 thousand Nepalese women to practice prostitution through women trafficking channels. In the Western Europe, foreign women represent more than of 70% of women working in the sex industry. In some countries like Greece, Austria this rate reaches 90% while in Belgium it is 80%. The sex industry activity has recently witnessed in different regions of the world a remarkable increase particularly in the former Soviet Union countries, Eastern and Central Europe. The Netherlands has become a world favorite sex tourist destination, in the capital, Amsterdam there are 250 prostitution places among the total 700 places in the Netherlands as a whole. Eighty percent of women working in sex activity belong to foreign origins; 70% of them are staying illegally. To flourish the prostitution market in the Netherlands, the Dutch minister of justice in 2000 has called for the necessity to allocate a legal quota for the sex profession for the foreign women as long as the Dutch prostitution market requires variety of bodies offered for sale. As the prostitution activity has become in the Netherlands in October 2001 a legally recognized industry, the activity has witnessed a growth estimated 25% and it represents 5% of the Dutch economy. Despite the legal recognition of the prostitution profession in the Netherlands, the rate of registered prostitutes in that activity is only about 4%. Thus, the legal recognition of the profession has not provided a solution of the outstanding problem, but it has led to the emergence of new problems as the illegal places exceeded the legal ones. The domestic prostitution related to migration from the village to town and then the cities in Japan, West Europe, North America has flourished to provide sex services (O’Connell Davidson, J.,2006). The problem of women working in this industry dwell on the method controls organizing this type of services (whether at the operational level or the working circumstances level). It is the method of forcing agreement (compulsory trafficking). Therefore, the distinction between the volunteer or forced worker in this industry is the basis of this problem. Some believe that prostitution is not a kind of violence against women, but a tarnished profession. In fact, this liberal stance has the support of the world and European organizations. This concept overlooks the answer of the following question: how can a man become a commodity and the social relationships turned from being moral value to cash value? Undoubtedly, the commoditization of man happens for high price that is the use of violence and force through which the man turns to a commodity consumed in different forms and ways. According to the United Nations estimates in 2007 there are 9 million annually enter the trafficking field which has a return of $ US 5-7 billion for the criminal organizations. The United Nations asserts that the number of women working in the prostitution field highly exceeds the number of those exploited as maids or cheap labors. These women as being commodities represent doubled interest for their owners in terms of the money value and the service value (production) at the same time. These commodities are sold in the domestic markets, then the regional and international markets where a series of distribution is followed and launched


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in areas with poor capitals then in intensive-money areas. Some believe in the light of the early-mentioned that the global prostitution trafficking activity for sex end essentially looks like all other patterns of illegal trade. Others believe that the market law whether legal or not is the one that explains the vitality of this economic sector (sex industry) which subjects to the conditions of supply and demand as well. The successive auctions of selling and purchasing women to the world mafia in order to distribute hem according to the world supply and demand represents an inhuman and merciless action. This the prostitution activity is not a mere trade but an industry requires high organizing ability through prostitution pimps organized within the criminal networks spread around the world with the aim of attracting, transporting and selling in order to achieve huge profits with the aid and collaboration of those benefited from this industry like the world hotel chains, airlines and tourism industry. The governments themselves benefit from this industry which the international organizations consider as one of the national income components in the countries where this phenomenon spreads. The World Labor Organization in 1999 estimates prostitution to represent around 2-12% of the GDP in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. In 1995, the prostitution yields in Thailand valued about 59-60% of the government budget. Therefore, the Thailand government in 1997 had promoted the sex tourism in various ways the transfer of the sex trade into an industry has contributed in developing and providing sex production and services according to the regional and international division of the work. The pornography movies industry is considered as integral services of the sex industry as their transactions valued about 52 billion Euros. The studies (GAATW,2011) refer to about 85-90% of sex workers subject to the prostitution pimps as a precondition of work; the pimp obtains about 75-90% of the activity daily return. In France the, the activity daily return for one case valued about 50-800 Euros daily (110 thousand Euros annually) for the prostitute’s owner. And the returns differ from a case to another. The workers in the activity in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Austria and some other countries rent compartments look like cages to offer their sex services to the customers. This activity subjects to legal, administrative and regular health conditions such as permits, insurance, tax payment, health checkup to assert they are free of certain diseases like Aids. The compartment daily cost about 90 dollars with average daily customers’ number of 15-25 customers. Therefore, they are required to work for 10-15 hours per day. It is difficult for them to remit money abroad as they are not allowed to travel and they are constantly observed by the pimps to avoid the escape cases. The obtained money is usually spent in sex-service related purchases or paying fines for encroaching the work procedures, etc. Kidnapping, raping, horror, liquidation, murder and social isolation by the crimeorganizing gangs and the career pimps are important elements contribute to the industry continuity. These elements are important not only for developing the prostitution markets but producing these inhuman commodities. The studies refer to real humiliation camps where women are raped and tamed to work in the prostitution career in some countries like the Balkans, Thailand, Brazil, the USA and others. Although June 26 of every year is considered as an international day against drugs abuse and illicit trafficking, it is regrettable that sexualisation is considered as an entertaining industry and legal work after Germany and the Netherlands have added the legal legitimacy to the prostitution activity under the liberal trend, globalization, liberalization of prostitution and sex markets (women trafficking for sex goals) in the light of supporting the international organizations stances including the United Nations, the World Trade Organization support of that trend. The legalization of sex markets

Economics of Prostitution in the World and its Implications with Reference to Egypt


will lead to support and encourage the activities of pimps organizations and organized crimes Some believe that the legalization of prostitution contributes to publicly highlight, organize and control the phenomenon. It incorporates it into the national economy sectors yielding taxes and contributing to the trade promotion. Its legalization is considered as a means to curb it and prevents its hidden extension to al areas in the state. However the truth contradicts this as the phenomenon legalization leads to its spread. The experiences of several states refused to legalize prostitution then have recently joined the option of prostitution prevention or at least curb its space such as Sweden that approved the anti-prostitution act in 1999 that stipulates stronger punishment for the customers more than that of the prostitutes themselves. Among states that abstain from legalizing prostitution is Bulgaria in line of the anti-human trafficking efforts for the prostitution purposes. Among the states in which the prostitution legalization experience has failed is the Netherlands that calls for the necessity of overall review of the prostitution act and impose further stronger restrictions for granting the work permits. According to these restrictions, 33 working license are cancelled for sex companies as part of anti-prostitution campaign.

THIRD: THE SEX INDUSTRY SIZE DEVELOPMENT IN EGYPT AND ITS REASONS Several young ladies in Egypt are trafficked due to the worse economic conditions of their families. This trafficking can be noticed in the form of continued exploiting the poor women who works for the rich in Egypt besides the exploitation results from temporary working as maids. Egypt has experienced a new type of women trafficking, i.e. the tourist marriage. According to the US department of State in 2010, Egypt is considered as source, transit stop and destination of women movement for sex purpose. It has become a destination Iraqi women coming to it for this purpose; besides the sex exploitation and enforcement to work at the night clubs of some African immigrants and refugees (the Sudan, Ethiopia, and Eritrea). Egypt has become a transit country for the Israeli women coming from Russia, Ukraine, Moldavia, and Eastern Europe countries for sex trade. Egypt comes on the top of the Arab countries after Morocco in which the tourist marriage spreads as its number in 2007 estimated 40 thousand cases. The tourist marriage duration (often of underage) ranges between two weeks and two months, it may extends for a year or more. This marriage has been largely promoted among the gulf circles (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE), particularly among the rich and sometimes those looking for sex enjoyment but under legal cover away from the prohibited ways. The Arab world sex trade size values more than US $ 20 billion annually. The tourist sex size in Egypt values almost U $ 3 billion or the equivalent of 30% of the Egyptian tourist income (Women National Council in Egypt, 2011). In addition, another problem embodies in the Egyptian youth marriage (20-25 years old) of above-age foreign tourists (50-60 years old), particularly in the tourist cities like Luxor, Hurghada, and Sharm El-Sheikh whose number estimated 35 thousand case according to the Egyptian Justice Ministry in 2010. Some of them own lands, real estates in Egypt, a mater that leads to the remarkable rise of prices (John R, Bradley, 2008). A fieldwork study has shown the social effects of the tourist marriage phenomenon. It targeted 40 young ladies who have experienced that marriage which often comprises the age category of 20-24 years old by 38%, followed by the age category of 15-19 years old by 35% and the age category of 25-29 years old that came in the lowest rank by 20% of the sample total (Research Centre for Social Studies,2010). Thirty percent of the tourist- marriage young women are secondary-school educated, followed by 22.5% of primary-school educated and in the third place are the preparatory-school educated by 17.5%. the rate of university tourist marriage young women is 12.5%, then those who can read by 7.5% and the diploma-holders tourist marriage young


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women are equal to those literate young women by 5%. The study has indicated that most of the sample interviewees are inhabitants of the city by 29.5% of the total research sample, while the rural inhabitants constitute only 7.5% of the total research sample. In addition, 57.5% of families approves the tourist marriage are average-income families, largely followed by poor families that constitute 30% only of the total research sample, while the rich families constitute 12.5% of the total research sample. In a recent study conducted in three towns affiliated to October 6 governorate, the tourist marriage rate is almost 7.4%. This type of tourist marriage is concentrated in known areas namely Cairo, Alexandria, Luxor and the areas of Hammadaya and Badrashin in Giza where most families agree to the marriage of their undereighteen tear old daughter to the rich Arab for ten thousand Egyptian pounds. Should the daughter disagree to the marriage, she will be met by violence and refusal on the part of her family to force her accepting that marriage. She may escape from her family and in that case she will face another type of trafficking i.e. prostitution. The reasons behind the increase of this phenomenon in Egypt are attributed to the poverty rate increase in Egypt from 19.6% to 21.6% according to the human development report of 2010. The other reason behind the increase of this phenomenon is that the increase of the slums areas in Egypt which lack most of the main utilities and services. This leads most of the young women living in the poor areas to escape from their families’ houses to look for new life in the city away from villages and slums. According to the UN anti-Aids report in March 2008, more than 42% of Aids infected Egyptians acknowledges their involvement in sex trafficking. The Egyptian government declared the results of a survey conducted in 2009 that 50% of the homeless young women in Egypt practice sex, 45% of them were raped. According to a recent report of the United Nations in 2010 on drugs and crimes, 79% of the human trafficking is conducted for the purpose of sex exploitation. The harlots are spread in the Cairo and Giza streets, mainly the Haram Street for L.E. 300 only. In addition, the phenomenon of the most-expensive pornography tapes spreads as well. The most-well known streets of sex in Cairo are Emad El-Din Street, Mohamed Ali Street and Klout Bek Street. Notably, prostitution is Egypt was legalized and allowed; then later that law was abolished (Heba, Mohamed, Ali, and Mo’ataz, Sayed, Gomma, 2004). According to the US Department of State in 2010 “the Egyptian government does not represent the minimum standards to eliminate the human trafficking”. There is no official statistics on the rates of prostitution and its places in Egypt, perhaps because the government does not care to face that crime committed against women and young women, or as there is inadequate information provided by families to the police on the issues of prostitution and young women escape fearing of scandals. Among the most important anti-prostitution and women trafficking efforts exerted by the Egyptian government is the creation of the national coordinating committee based on the Prime Minister’s decree in July, 2007 besides the approval of the Egyptian People Assembly in April 2010 to pass the anti human trafficking Act no. 64 of 2010. Furthermore, the enforcing regulation of the Act was approved by the decree no. 3028 of 2010 as it stipulates the responsibility of the ministries of Home, Health, Education, Family and Population to implement the Act aims to face all human trafficking related crimes that violate the main human rights. The Act stipulates the punishment of those involved in that crime by hard imprisonment and not less that L.E. 50 thousand fine. The Act criminalized human trafficking for sex exploitation purpose, prostitution, forced labor or compulsory serving.

FOURTH: THE ANALYSIS OF INTERVIEWEES’ SAMPLE RESULTS IN EGYPT First: Analysis of Primary Results of the Interviewees’ Sample Table 1: Results Analysis of the Primary Data of the Interviewees’ Sample in Egypt Features Statement Number % 1. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Age Less than 18 years 19-22 6 9

Economics of Prostitution in the World and its Implications with Reference to Egypt

Table 1:Contd., 23-26 9 45 27-30 3 15 31-34 1 5 35-38 1 5 More than 38 years Total 20 100 2. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Religious Affiliation Muslim 17 85 Christian 3 15 Other Total 20 100 3. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution by Educational Level literate 5 5 Read and write 4 20 Average education 13 65 University 2 10 education Total 20 100 4. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Marital Status single 11 55 Married 4 20 divorced 5 25 Widow Total 20 100 5. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Economic Situation Less than average 18 90 average 2 10 high Total 20 100 6. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Profession worker 3 15 Not worker 51 51 Student 2 51 21 511 Total 7. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Housing Area Dokki 5 1 Imbaba 3 51 Shubra 3 51 Dar Elsalam 2 51 El Agoza 5 1 Elwaraq 5 1 Faisal 2 51 Elhaoamdia 2 51 Eldarb Elahmer 5 1 Helwan 5 1 El-Haram 2 51 EL Maady 5 1 21 511 Total 8. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Housing Property Possessed 4 21 Rent 51 51 Others 5 1 21 511 Total



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Table 1:Contd., 9. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Current Residence With the family 51 01 a private residence away from the 2 51 family Others 21 511 Total 10. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Demographic Origin Rural 54 51 Urban 6 31 21 511 Total 11. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Father Status still alive 52 61 dead 6 31 still alive but he live with another 2 51 wife 21 511 Total 12. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Mother Status still alive 53 61 dead 5 1 divorced mothers 2 51 married to other man rather than the 4 21 fathers 21 511 Total 13. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Number of Brothers and Sisters 1-2 4 21 3-4 55 11 5-6 3 51 More than 6 2 51 21 511 Total 14. Interviewees’ Sample Distribution According to Monthly Income Less than LE 300 2 51 LE 300-500 1 41 LE 500-700 3 51 LE 700-1000 2 51 LE 1000-1300 5 1 LE 1300-1500 5 1 LE 1500- 1700 5 1 LE 1700- 2000 2 51 More than LE 2000 21 511 Total Results of interviewees’ sample

BASED ON TABLE NO. 1 THE FOLLOWING RESEARCH RESULTS ARE INDICATED As for the interviewees’ distribution according to Age, table no 1 shows the highest rate of interviewees age is between 23-26 years old by 45%, followed by those whose age ranges from 19-22 years old by 30%, then those whose age is between 27-30 by 15%. This indicates that the is dominant among the younger-age women. The younger the age, the

Economics of Prostitution in the World and its Implications with Reference to Egypt


more the sex enjoyment is. Consequently the demand increases on them. Thus, they occupy the first place in the sex selling market. Notably, the examined young women sample is free of those whose age is under 18 years old. This is a good indicator of awareness at this stage as young omen occupy their time by training programs and employment to avoid getting involved in the deviation path. As for the interviewees’ distribution according to religion affiliation, table no 1 shows 85% of them are Muslims while 15% of them are Christians. This asserts the religious unawareness to curb the exacerbation of that phenomenon As for the educational level, the table indicates that the highest rate of interviewees have completed their intermediate education by 65%, followed by those who can only read and write by 20%, then the university educated by 10% and finally the literate interviewees by 5%. This refers to the low education level of the interviewees. As for the marital status of the interviewees, table no.1 shows most interviewees are single by 55%. This asserts the inherited value of virginity in the Egyptian society does no longer prevent young women from practicing and selling sex outside the marriage framework. This is considered as an encroachment of the society’s norms, culture and traditions. They are followed by the divorced women by 25%, then finally the married women by 20% whose task is much easier than that of young women who are not virgin. One of the interviewed women declared that is unofficially married for the purpose of covering her career as a prostitute to avoid paying the attention of her surrounding neighbors. As for the interviewees’ distribution according to their economic conditions, table no. 1 shows 90% of them belongs to less-average economic conditions, 10% belong to average economic conditions. This matter refers to the economic factor and getting money as the main stimuli for working as prostitutes. As for the interviewees distribution according to work, majority of them are jobless by 75%. This justifies their involvement in selling sex as a source of sponsoring themselves and sometimes their families. Fifteen percent of the interviewees have low jobs whose income does not exceed L.E 500 monthly which is not enough to meet their personal spending not the spending of their families. In addition, there are two Faculty of Arts students, another student at the Social Service Institute by the rate of 10%. This indicates that a young woman regardless of her status as a student may work as a prostitute. As for the interviewees’ distribution by the residence area, most of the interviewees live in popular areas with low incomes and services, the maximum rate of them live in the two areas of Imbaba and Shobra by 15% for each area, followed by Dar Essalam, Faisal, Haram, Hamaddaya by 10% for each area. They are also rural popular areas with low incomes and services, with the exception of Al-Haram area. This reflects the level of how those women handle their deteriorated financial status by deviated ways as a means of meeting their main needs. As for the interviewees’ distribution according to ownership of residence, most of them rent apartment by 75%, about 20% of them only owns apartment based on the very old ownership system. Only one of them stays with her friends from time to time because of escaping from a legal sentence against her. As for the interviewees’ distribution according to current residential status, table no. 1 shows 90% of them staying with their families, while 10% of them stay in a private residence away from the family. This asserts the family loose and the family weakness as the main factors behind the spread of that phenomenon. As for the interviewees’ distribution by the demographic origin, most of the interviewees are from rural origins by 70% and migrated to Cairo with their family looking for jobs because of the worse economic conditions in the countryside, while 30% of them come from urban origins and suffer from several financial and family problems.


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As for the interviewees’ distribution by the father’s status, about 60% of the interviewees’ fathers are still alive. However, they can practice prostitution under their fathers’ existence and power, followed by 30% of them whose fathers are dead. This means that father is the center of decision making and controls his daughter’s status, when to leave his house and where to go. The absence of the father’s power because of death facilitates the young women task to behave as she wishes and adopts whichever life style, followed by 10% of those whose fathers are still alive but because of having another wife he stays away from his family and has no responsibility or financial connection to his main family. The interviewees’ distribution by the mother status, 65% of the interviewees’ mothers are still alive, 20% of them have mothers who are married to other men rather than the fathers and stay away with their husbands, 10% have divorced mothers, and finally the mothers of 5% of them are dead. This refers to the mothers’ weak power of decision making; or they cannot control their daughter because of illness, divorce or married to another man rather than the father and lives with away from her children in the pretext of family sponsor which is the main motive behind the young women’s deviation to financially support their families. As for the interviewees’ distribution by the number of their brothers and sisters, about 5% of the interviewees have 3-4 brothers and sisters, while 20% of them have one or two brothers, 15% of them have 5-6 brothers and sisters and finally 10% of them have more than 6 brothers and sisters. Notably, bothers in the Egyptian family are the decision makers concerning their sisters as they control when to go out of the house and where to go. One of the contradictions resulted from the current study is that there are some young women work in prostitutions to support their unemployed brothers and pay for the treatment expenses of their ill-mothers. The question is does the Egyptian man accept that his sister practise prostitution to provide the family’s expenses? Finally as for the interviewees’ distribution by the family monthly income, the monthly income of 40% interviewees ranges between L.E. 300-500, followed by the monthly income of 15% of them is between L.E. 500-700, then the monthly income of 10% of them is less than L.E. 300 and the same rate of hose whose monthly income is between L.E. 1700-2000. There is no any case among the interviewees’ monthly income is above L.E. 2000. This indicates that the lowlevel of the family monthly income is the main motive behind adopting the prostitution career path to meet the main requirements of daily life under the continued prices rising while the government abandons the social solidarity programs to help the poor families.

SECOND: RESULTS ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIAL DATA OF THE INTERVIEWEES’ SAMPLE IN EGYPT: Table 2: Results Analysis of the Interviewees’ Sample (Prostitutes) in Egypt Statement

Prostitutes in Egypt Number % 1. Have you heard about the Prostitution Career before Working in it Yes 18 90 No 2 10 Total 20 100 2. How did you Get to know about the Prostitution Activity for the First Time? The internet 10 50 school/university 4 20 the hairdresser’s 2 10 friends 2 10 marriage bureaus 1 5 massage bars 1 5

Economics of Prostitution in the World and its Implications with Reference to Egypt

Table 2:Contd., other Total 20 100 3. How did you Come to Work in this Activity Job advertisement 8 40 through male and female friends 5 25 money temptation 4 20 deception 1 5 compulsion 1 5 rape 1 5 others Total 20 100 4. What are the Stimuli Behind Working in this Activity Getting money 7 35 spending on the family 5 25 loose of family 3 15 unemployment 2 10 drugs 2 10 watching pornography movies 1 5 religious unawareness official marriage age delay the husband discontent personal freedom sexual desire others Total 20 100 5. Do you Know Friends Working in that Field Yes 8 40 No 12 60 Total 20 100 6. Do you have Another Income Source Rather than that Activity Yes No 20 100 Total 20 100 7. Do Some Family Members know about the Nature of your Work Yes 4 20 No 16 80 Total 20 100 8. Do you Agree to have a Law that Allows Prostitution in Egypt? Yes 3 15 No 17 85 Total 20 100 9. Do you Take Any Type of Drugs or Smoke Yes 7 35 No 13 65 Total 20 100 10. Do You Work in this Field for Your Own Benefit for that of Others own benefit 4 20 others benefit 16 80 Total 20 100 11. Do you Have Sexual Relationships with High Officials in the State Yes 5 25 No 15 75 Total 20 100 12. What is your Daily Income from that Activity Less than LE 500 7 35 LE 500-1000 10 50 More than LE 1000 3 15 Total 20 100



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Table 2:Contd., 13. What is the Number of Customers with them you Practice Sex Daily 1-3 17 85 4-6 3 15 More than 6 Total 20 100 14. Do you have Sex with Non-Egyptians Yes 20 100 No Total 20 100 15. What are the Other Nationalities Besides the Egyptians with them you have Sex Gulf states 17 85 Libya 2 10 other 1 5 Total 20 100 16. Is there a Unified Rate for Sex with Different Nationalities Yes No 20 100 Total 20 100 17. Does the Government Offer you to work for an Intelligent Mission Yes No 20 100 Total 20 100 18. Do you have work Permits or Document to work in this Activity Yes No 20 100 Total 20 100 19. Do you Suffer from Certain Diseases Because of that Profession Yes 13 65 No 7 35 Total 20 100 20. Have you Previously Accused in a Vice Cause Yes 3 15 No 17 85 Total 20 100 21. Have you Previously Imprisoned in a Vice Cause? Yes 1 5 No 19 95 Total 20 100 22. Have you Previously been Aborted Voluntarily or Compulsorily Yes 2 10 No 18 90 Total 20 100 23. Do you Pay Bribes to Continue working in this Activity Yes 20 100 No Total 20 100 24. Have you thought to Stop Working in this Activity Yes 14 70 No 6 30 Total 20 100 25. How do you Feel now after Getting Involved in this Activity Depression 5 25 no chance of official marriage 5 25 health problems 3 15 regret 2 10 self-discontent 2 10 family abandonment and scandals 2 10

Economics of Prostitution in the World and its Implications with Reference to Egypt


Table 2: Contd., desire of committing suicide 1 5 other Total 20 100 26. Do you Agree to Marry an Arab Tourist for a Short Period Yes 16 80 No 4 20 Total 20 100 27. What are the Reasons Behind your Marriage from an Arab Tourist for a Short Period Getting money 17 85 getting presents and high dowry 2 10 providing job opportunities inside or 1 5 outside Egypt for family members deprivation others Total 20 100 28. What are the Nationalities that Offer you the Idea of Tourist Marriage for a Short Period Saudi Arabia 12 60 Kuwait 5 25 UAE 1 5 Libya 1 5 others 1 5 Total 20 100 Results of interviewees’ sample

BASED ON TABLE NO. 2 THE FOLLOWING RESEARCH RESULTS ARE INDICATED About 90% of the interviewees have heard about the prostitution activity before working in it. The sources of hearing about this activity are the internet network 50%, school and university 20%, friends and hairdressers 10% for each of them, marriage bureaus and massage bars by 5% each successively. As for the means of joining work in this activity are successively job advertisements, job applications or artist offers by 40%, advice of friends working in the field whose conditions remarkably improved by 25%, temptation by 20% and finally 5% of them joined prostitution because of reasons related to raping, compulsion and deception. As for reasons behind the interviewees’ work in the prostitution activity are getting money 35%, spending on family expenses 25%, loose of family 15%, unemployment and drugs spending 10% each, and finally watching the pornography movies 5%.The results of the investigated interviewees sample indicate that 40% of their friends are working in the same field since more than ten years. This matter is reflected on their economic conditions. The results indicate that 100% of the interviewees do not have any other income source rather than this activity. About 80% of the family members do not know about the nature of their work at all, while 20% of their mothers, brothers and husbands know about their work. Mothers conceal the matter ensure spending on the family and provide their medical treatment that require high income sources. Meanwhile brother conceal the matter for getting financial sums to spend on the family because of long period of unemployment. The sample results indicate the disapproval of most interviewees by 85% to have an act for the activity, while 15% agrees to legalize the prostitution activity. The justifications of the act-opponents are that Egypt is a Muslim state that does not allow such an act, besides the act will have certain measures and conditions and tax payment which restrict the work nature and limit the personal freedom.


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The results indicate that 65 % of the interviewees do not take any kind of drugs but some cigarettes in certain times to attract customers. Meanwhile 35% of them believe that taking drugs and smoking are essential elements of their work in that activity even though they do not have the ability to continue and communicate with the customers.The sample indicates that 80% of them are working for the benefit of others through pimps to send them to the customers in different places and wait for them till they complete their tasks. However, 20% of them are working for their own benefit through attracting customers from certain usual places where their active has become known there. Twenty five percent of them acknowledge that they have sex with high officials in the state to protect them against arrest and facilitate their daily tasks and their family affairs. Seventy five percent of them do not prefer that because of being afraid of being chased when disobeying their demands as they do not pay anything except misusing their power; they are namely police officers, prosecutors, districts heads and others. As for the daily income of the interviewees from that activity, 50% of them obtain the average between L.E. 500-1000, about 35% of them have les than L.E. 500, 15% of them have more than L.E. 1000 per day. The number of customers per day ranges between one to three customers for 85% of them, while 15% of them have sex with four customers. The sample results indicate that nationalities from the Gulf states, particularly Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Libya as well are the most nationalities with the interviewees have sexual relationships by 100% for high prices that may be valued three folds of those paid by the Egyptians. Hundred percent of the interviewees indicate that they do not have any offer from the Egyptian government to work in intelligent tasks whether inside or outside Egypt. In addition, 100% of the interviewees do not have work permits or documents to work in this activity as they work in a confidential manner away from the vice squad investigation department. Sixty five percent of the interviewees indicate that they suffer from prostitution activity related diseases, namely strong exhaustion and repeated abortion. The sample results indicate as well that 15% of the interviewees are previously accused of in vice causes while 5% of them were imprisoned because of prostitution accusation. It is one case that was fabricated by a police officer as she refused to satisfy his repeated desire without paying her. The results indicate that 10% of the interviewees suffered abortion because of undesired pregnancy whether through their wish or the work place and in the case of her refusal she is threatened by retrenchment from her work or financial pursue through unstated payment sums cheques signed by them to continue working. The results indicate that 100% of the interviewees pay sex bribes to continue working and not to be arrested by the police. In the case of their disobedience, they will be continually chased and brought to justice with different fabricated accusations. As for stop working as prostitutes 70% of them declare their interest provided they have money and work in order not to return once again to hat career, while 30% of them do not think of stop working as prostitutes to avoid returning to poverty once again. As for their feelings after getting involved in this career, the sample results show 25% of them have psychological depression, and non-official marriage. However, 10% of them have regret and self-discontent and family abandonment and scandals. Ten percent of them have great health problems and finally 5% of them think of committing suicide as they have lost everything in their life. As for approval of getting married to an Arab tourist, 80% of them agree to that marriage for short period as an introduction and umbrella for stop working as prostitutes in the future in return of having money, high dowry and presents by 85% and 10% successively. Meanwhile, 5% of them wish to have job opportunity outside Egypt for one of her family members. The interviewees indicate that the tourist marriage offered to them by different nationalities from Saudis in the first place 60%, followed by the Kuwaitis 25%, then by those from the UAE and Libya and other countries by 5% each.

FIFTH: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The research results indicate that Egypt like other world countries is not isolated from the increased phenomenon

Economics of Prostitution in the World and its Implications with Reference to Egypt


of human trafficking (tourist marriage of women, prostitution and sex exploitation). The research indicates the following results: 

The lack of economic and social strategy capable of solving the women dilemma in Egypt.

Absence of adequate protection of escaping from the human smuggling networks for the purpose of prostitution.

Lack of effective and decisive legal system facing the human trafficking and prostitution.

The tourist marriage in Egypt is based on a one of the compulsion forms that resulted from different factors including poverty of families, fathers’ power and dominance over their daughters, feeling of deprivation in line of the aspects of richness and money temptation, delinquency culture on that type of marriage.

The most important nationalities wish to have tourist marriage to Egyptian young women are those from the Gulf States (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and UAE).

The results indicate that the young women age at the tourist marriage is less than 18 years old. The husband age difference in this type of marriage is very huge that can be sometimes more than 50 years old. Most of the young women are victims of unemployment and literacy, etc. The actual tourist marriage duration rages from a month and less than a year.

Mediators play an important role in the tourist marriage for getting financial sums. Some young women do not accept that type of marriage, however they were forced to accept that marriage or leave the family house.

The main reasons behind the tourist marriage are related to economically helping the families and avoid poverty, solving and avoiding the problems of family ill-treatment and contributing to provide job opportunities to their siblings inside or outside Egypt.

The father obtains several advantages out of the tourist marriage such as the dowry which is paid by the husband and ranges from L.E. 3-10 thousand or more, while the young woman obtain gold presents (marriage presents) valued from L.E. 10-40 thousand besides clothes and other presents for her family.

The results of the tourist marriage include the non-acknowledgment of the related divorce period or others, thus, the young women can marry more than once in a short period without being divorced from their first husbands. This leads to problems related to the children’s rights.

Most of those working as prostitutes were attracted to the activity by temptation, tricks, deception or compulsion.

About 80% of the interviewees are working for others in the profession of prostitution in Egypt.

A prostitute does not have the will to refuse the customer’s demands.

In the Light of the Early-Mentioned Findings, the Research Recommendations are as Follows 

Facing poverty, unemployment and limited opportunities as the main effective factors of the different problems of human trafficking.

Supporting the poor marginalized families because of their effective role in producing victims can be trafficked.

The religious, educational and media institutions can play a more effective role by clarifying the family’s role in right social upbringing.


Ezzat Molouk Kenawy

The media institution should perform its role to curb the human trafficking problems and face the culture supporting these problems.

Reconsidering the Egyptian labor law no. 12 of 2003 and abolish the exception included in the fourth article that exclude the maids from the law protection.

Reconsidering the criminal anti-prostitution Act no. 10 0f 1961 in order to face the anti-human trafficking crimes.

Hard sentences should be issued for those involved in the tourist marriage to become a model for others who will be indulged in the tourist marriage in order to avoid the sex exploitation of the Egyptian women and protect the reputation.

Devising an overall strategy to face that phenomenon which has educational, cultural, media, social and economic dichotomies.

Inclusion of an awareness school subject or a university course to familiarize young women of the dangers of diseases resulting from illegal sex relationship such as Aids and others.

Intensifying the sudden police campaigns on the suspected places and arrest prostitutes and bring them to justice to curb he spread f this phenomenon in the future.


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