International Journal of Human Resource Management and Research (IJHRMR) ISSN 2249-6874 Vol. 3, Issue 3, Aug 2013, 11-16 ÂŠ TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
STRESSORS ON WORK PLACE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON JOB COMMITMENT AMONG THE VETERINARIANS OF KERALA SOUMYA SANKAR1, REEJA GEORGE P2 & P. J RAJKAMAL3 1
Research Scholar, Department of Veterinary Extension, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Kerala, India
Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Extension, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Kerala, India 3
Professor, Department of Veterinary Extension, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Kerala, India
ABSTRACT The present study was done in 200 veterinarians in Animal Husbandry Department of Kerala. A questionnaire technique was adopted for the study. Majority of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40 years and 64 per cent were male. Job satisfaction, organizational role stress, working condition, organizational structure, organizational policy, inter personal relations, communication, team work, security, target and autonomy were selected as stressors for the study. The result of the study revealed that majority of the respondents had medium level of stress due to various stressors on the work place. Organizational role stress, communication, work condition, structure, team work and security had negative and high significant correlation with job commitment while stress due to target and policy had positive correlation. It also shows that job disatisfaction was perceived as the most important cause of stress on the work place.
KEYWORDS: Job Stress, Job Commitment, Veterinarians INTRODUCTION There is a dynamic interrelationship between both the self and the various roles an individual occupies. Each individual occupies and plays several roles simultaneously. All these roles constitute the role space. Any conflict among these roles is referred to as role space conflict. There are several forms of role space conflict such as inter role distance, self role distance, role expectation conflict, personal inadequacy and role stagnation. Role set is the role system with in the organization of which roles are part and by which individual roles are defined. Role set conflict take the form of role ambiguity, role overload, role erosion, resource inadequacy and role isolation. In addition to roles, there are different factors which cause job related stress such as various organizational characteristics which include organisational structure, policies, climate, technology, practice etc. Veterinarians of the Department of Animal Husbandry play a major role in carrying out various developmental activities in this sector. They have been traditionally involved in treatment of animals and of late they have the additional responsibility of carrying out project work associated with implementation of schemes in the animal husbandry sector in the panchayat where they work. Consequently, the responsibility and work load of an average veterinarian has increased considerably and the veterinarian is placed in a position where he has to play more than one role. In such cases if the role occupant is unable to balance the two roles it may lead to inadequate performance of either role, or role stress which could affect the productivity of the veterinarian. Thus from the point of view of the organization it is important to study the nature and type of stressors of the veterinarians in the state and its influence on job and social commitment. Numerous studies have been conducted about stress and burnout in healthcare professionals. However there are few formal studies
Soumya Sankar, Reeja George P & P. J Rajkamal
about stress among veterinarians (Hansez et al. 2008). Stress has a cost for individuals in terms of health, wellbeing and job dissatisfaction as well as for the organization concerned in terms of absenteeism and turnover which in turn may impact upon the quality of patient care. A better understanding of the stressors in veterinary practice may allow identification of strategies to improve the working conditions of veterinarians with resulting benefits for the quality of veterinary health care. The present study was under taken with the following objectives ď‚ˇ
To understand the nature and type of stressors of veterinarians
To examine the influence of organizational stress on job commitment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS The questionnaire technique was adopted in this study. Two separated lists of 920 veterinary surgeons and 270 senior veterinary surgeons of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Kerala who perform clinical as well as extension project functions were prepared by consulting official records as well as the address list of the Indian Veterinary Association, Kerala. Keeping in mind the practical difficulty of mailing questionnaires to the whole population, a simple random sample of 460 veterinary surgeons and 135 senior veterinary surgeons were selected from the prepared lists. Thus randomization of responses was ensured. A structured questionnaire was prepared by consulting the veterinarians of Animal Husbandry Department itself and sent to all by mail. A total of 47 senior veterinary surgeons and 170 veterinary surgeons returned the filled up questionnaires. Incomplete and carelessly filled questionnaires were discarded. The final study sample hence consisted of 155 veterinary surgeons and 45 senior veterinary surgeons .Veterinary surgeons and senior veterinary surgeons were considered as separate strata for comparison purpose. For the study scale were prepared and Joseph scale (1987) was adopted for job commitment.
RESULTS Table 1: Perception of Various Stressors on Work Place by the Respondents No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Dimensions Job satisfaction Team work/ cooperation Organisational policy Autonomy/Delegation Target/Objective Inter personal relation Structure Communication Working conditions Security Organisational role stress
Mean Score 3.09 3.06 2.84 2.83 2.69 2.62 2.49 2.24 2.01 2.00 1.57
Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Data in table 1 shows that job disatisfaction was perceived as the most important cause of stress on the work place followed by team work / cooperation, organisational policy, autonomy/delegation, target/objective, inter personal relation, structure, communication, working condition, security and organizational role stress in that order.
Stressors on Work Place and its Influence on Job Commitment among the Veterinarians of Kerala
Table 2: Relationship between Stressors on the Work Place and Job Commitment Correlation Regression Standard Coefficient Coefficient Error Organisationl role stress -0.201** 0.03300 0.035 Job satisfaction -0.067 -0.784 0.323 Interpersonal relation -0.089 -2.537 1.702 Target 0.009* 2.676 0.795 Communication -0.253** -0.268 0.612 Autonomy -0.01 1.569 0.556 Team work -0.118* -3.496 1.541 Policy 0.059* 0.638 0.135 Working condition -0.148* 0.112 0.290 Structure -0.1* -1.366 0.499 Security -0.336** 2.618 0.979 *(p<0.05) **(p<0.01) F=5.652 R 2 = 0.838 Intercept = 17.958 Dimensions
t-Value 0.941 -2.428** -1.490 3.368** -0.437 2.823** -2.269** 4.714** 0.385 -2.737** 2.673**
Data from table 2 indicate that organizational role stress, communication, work condition, structure, team work and security had negative and high significant correlation with job commitment while stress due to target and policy had positive correlation. In order to assess the relative contribution of the stressors on the work place , the data was subjected to multiple regression analysis. It could be observed that target, autonomy, policy and security had positive and high significant correlation to job commitment. Whereas job satisfaction, team work and structure were negatively and highly significantly related with job commitment. The multiple regression equation fitted to the data was Y=17.958+0.03300x1-0.784x2-2.537x3+2.676x50.268x5+1.569x6-3.496x7 +0.638x8+0.112x9-1.366x10+2.618x11. The coefficient of determination was found to be 83.8 per cent .This indicated that 83.8 per cent of the total variability in the job commitment could be attributed to the stressors studied.
DISCUSSIONS The results of the present study revealed that majority of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40 years and 64 per cent were male. So also majority had up to 16 years of experience and had children above 3 years of age. Ninty one per cent of the respondents were working with in fifty kilometers of their homes. Perception of Respondents about the Job Satisfaction as a Stressor Majority of the respondents (50.5%) felt medium level of stress due to job satisfaction. Lehal (2007) reported that there was a significant relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Low job satisfaction has been reported to be associated with high levels of stress (Hollingworth, et al.1988) . Landsbergis (1988) also reported that high levels of work stress were associated with low levels of job satisfaction. Perception of Respondents about Interpersonal Relation as a Stressor It was evident from the result of the present study that majority of the respondents (71%) perceived low level of stress due to inter personal relationship while 28 and one per cent respectively perceived medium and high levels of stress. Davey et al.(2001) observed that lack of support from supervisors and colleagues contributed to an increase in occupational stress among military personnel. Konstantinos and Christina (2008) also observed that inter personal relationship was the most frequent source of undesirable personal stress among psychiatric nurses who experienced intense inter personal involvement.
Soumya Sankar, Reeja George P & P. J Rajkamal
Perception of Respondents about Target as a Stressor Majority of the respondents (51%) perceived high level of stress due to targets where as 43 and 12 per cent respectively reported medium and low levels of stress. These findings were supported by Salleh et al. (2008) who observed that unrealistic objectives were the main source of job stress among the Malaysian furniture industry workers. They also observed that incompetent bosses, time pressure and deadlines were causes of stress. Perception of Respondents about Team Work as a Stressor Results of the present study that 62.5 per cent of the respondents felt medium level of stress due to the dimension team work where as 26.5 and 11 per cent respectively felt high and low levels of stress. Fairbrother and Warn (2003) reported that team work and supportive climates were not associated with stress among naval trainees. Efficient treatment of clinical cases involves the careful execution of a series of tasks begining from disease diagnosis ,correct dispensing and administration of medicines and follow of treatment. At each step the veterinarian is not alone. He or she depends on supporting staff whose performance of numerous tasks such as weighing of medicines, sterilization of instruments etc may have a crucial say in the success or failure of cases. Thus it is expected that any deficiency in task execution which has an important bearing on the outcome of clinical cases could be an important cause of stress for the veterinarian. Perception of Respondents about Communication as a Stressor Result of the present study revealed that majority of the respondents (90.5%) perceived medium level of stress due to communication while 9 and 1.5 per cent respectively perceived low and high levels of stress. The findings of the present study agree with those of Cherniss (2000) who reported that poor communication among workers, supervisors and managers was a significant cause of stress among the human service professional workers. Trygstad et al.(1986) also observed that inadequate communication was an important source of stress among nurses. Perception of Respondents about Autonomy as a Stressor Result of the present study indicated that majority of the respondents (60%) perceived autonomy as a stressor while 27 and 13 per cent respectively perceived high and low levels of stress on this account. This finding was endorsed by Jayachandran (1992) who reported that majority of the veterinary personnel in Kerala perceived only medium level of job autonomy. Pearson and Chong (2005) also observed that lack of autonomy was a cause of job stress among teachers. Perception of Respondents about Policy as a Stressor It was evident from the result of the present study that majority of the respondents (59%) felt medium level of stress due to organisational policies while 28.5 and 12.5 per cent respectively felt high and low levels of stress. Salleh et al. (2008) observed that lack of a performance related compensation policy was an important cause of stress among the managers of furniture industry. Davey et al. (2001) observed that policies of promotional opportunity and lack of organizational support including recognition from organisational peers caused low job satisfaction and were thus precursors of stress. Further more, Wanigasekara (2007) observed that policy that envisaged low chances of promotion at the workplace was a stressor. Perception of Respondents about Working Condition as a Stressor The findings of the present study revealed that majority of the respondents (53.5%) felt medium level of stress due to working condition while 33 and 13.5 per cent respectively felt high and low levels of stress. Veterinary practice is relatively very different from human practice as the former requires restraining an animal and this could be a major source
Stressors on Work Place and its Influence on Job Commitment among the Veterinarians of Kerala
of stress if facilities are lacking. Lack of good microscopes, operation theatre facility and shortage of supporting staff for clerical work were felt as important stressors under the dimension working condition. Hansez et al. (2008) observed that in addition to routine clinical practice Belgian veterinarians were also tied up with administrative work. The authors suggested that some extra help in administrative work could be one measure in improving well being at work in the veterinary profession. Rejula et al. (2003) also observed that administrative duties were important stressors among Finnish veterinarians. Kazmi et al. (2008) observed that lack of resources contributed significantly to job stress among medical house officers. So also Salleh et al.(2003) observed that resource inadequacy was a source of stress. Perception of Respondents about Organizational Structure as a Stressor The result of the present study indicated that majority of the respondents (52%) felt medium level of stress due to the structure of the organisation while 34.5 and 13.5 per cent respectively felt high and low levels of stress. Davey et al. (2001) observed that inconsistent promotional opportunity and lack of organizational support including recognition from organisational peers caused low job satisfaction and were thus precursors of stress. Wanigasekara (2007) too found low chances of promotion at the workplace as a stressor. Perception of Respondents about Security as a Stressor Result of the present study revealed that majority of the respondents (55.5%) felt low level of stress on account of job security while 32 and 12.5 per cent respectively perceived medium and high levels of stress. This could be due to the fact that government jobs in the state are of a relatively permanent nature and prospects of redundancy and layoff are remote in this sector. However, these findings are contrary to the findings of Salleh et al. (2008) who observed that job security was significant in explaining the variability in overall stress levels of employees in the Malaysian furniture industry. Relationships of Stressors on the Work Place with Job Commitment Job commitment was found positively correlated with stress on account of the dimensions target, autonomy, policy and security where as negatively correlated with stress on account of the dimensions organisational role stress, job satisfaction, team work and structure. Jayachandran (1992) also reported that organisational commitment and organisational climate were positively correlated with job satisfaction. Mosadeghrad et al. (2008) observed that among hospital employees, job satisfaction and organizational commitment were positively correlated. Dunham et al. (1994) reported that organisational support had positive relation with organisational commitment and this is can be inferred that stress on account of insufficient organisational support, team work and organisational structure would be negatively and significantly related with job commitment
Cherniss,C.(2000). Professional burnout in human service organizations. New York: Praeger. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
Davey,J.,Obst,P.,andSheeban,M.(2001).Demographic and workplace characteristics which add to the prediction of stress and job satisfaction within the police work place. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology,16,29-39.
Dunham, R. B., Grube, J. A., and Castaneda, M. B.(1994). Organizational commitment: The utility of an 82integrative definition. Journal of Applied Psychology,79,370-380.
Soumya Sankar, Reeja George P & P. J Rajkamal
Fairbrother,K., and Warn,J.(2003). Workplace dimensions, stress and job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 8-20
Hansez I.1, Schins, F.1., and Rollin, F.(2008). Occupational stress, work-home interference and burnout among Belgian veterinary practitioners. Irish Veterinary Journal, 61 , 233-241
Hollingworth,C.,Mathews,G., and Hartnett,O. (1988). Job satisfaction and mood : An exploratory Study.Work and Stress, 2, 225-232.
Jayachandran,S. (1992).Job performance and job satisfaction of veterinary personnel in Kerala.M.Vsc thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissure
Kazmi,R.,Amjad,S, and Khan,D.(2008). Occupational stress and its effect on job performance . A case study of medical house officers of district abbottabad. Journal Ayud. Med. Coll. Abbottabad,20,135-138
Konstantinos,N., and Christina,O. (2008). Factors influencing stress and job satisfaction of nurses working in psychiatric unit: A research review. Health Science Journal,2,183-194
10. Landsbergis,P.A. (1988). Occupational stress among health care workers: A test of the job demands- control model. Journal of Organizational Behavior,9,217-239 11. Lehal,R. (2007). A Study of Organisational Role Stress and Job Satisfaction among Executives in Punjab. Indian manage. studies Journal,11, 67-80 12. Mosadeghrad,A.M. , Ferlie,E., and Rosenberg,D.(2008). A study of the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention among hospital employees. Health Serv. Manage. Res., 21,211-227 13. Pareek, U.(1983). Organizational Role stress. San Diego California University 14. Pareek, U.(1993). Making Organizational Role Effective. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd,New Delhi 15. Pearson,L., and Chong,J. (2005). Contributions of job content and social information on organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An exploration in a Malaysian nursing context. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,70,357-374 16. Rejula, K., Rasanen, K., Hamalainen, M., and Rinta-Jouppi, M. (2003). Work environment and Occupational Health of Finnish Veterinarians. American J. of Industrial Med., 44, 46-57 17. Salleh,A., Bakar,A., and Keong,W. (2008). How Detrimental is Job Stress? : A Case Study of Executives in the Malaysian Furniture Industry. Int. Rev. of Business Res., 4 , 64-73 18. Trygstad,L.N. (1986). Stress and coping in psychiatric nursing. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 24,23-27 19. Wanigasekara,W.M.(2007). Gender difference in occupational stress and Coping strategies among middle level managers in Sri Lankan Private Sector organization.Kelaniya Journal of Hum.Resour. management,2, 121-133