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International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research (IJEEER) ISSN(P): 2250-155X; ISSN(E): 2278-943X Vol. 4, Issue 2, Apr 2014, 145-152 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

A BIOMETRIC-SECURE CLOUD BASED E-VOTING SYSTEM FOR ELECTION PROCESSES SAMSUL J AKHTAR & M B LIMKAR Department of Electronics, Terna Engineering College, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT Many democracies are plagued by poor voter turnout, mainly due to non convenience. Hence to increase poor voting percentage a modern robust technology could be of great use. In this paper we propose a secured Cloud based E-Voting system using robust authentication. It is expected to make the election process low cost, systematic, transparent, efficient, fraud resistant and consequently make voters satisfied. This system will completely remove the duplicate and expired entries from central database server. The proposed voting system is deployable across the country. The proposed system is client/server architecture cloud based using web base, and a communication Technology, as a result voter can cast vote from anywhere. The propose system’s process contain three components that are Registration phase, Administration Phase and Vote casting phase. The security of the system is assured by the use of biometric fingerprint, iris authentication. The software application verifies if voter is registered in database or not and also verifies if the voter has already cast the vote or not. Person not having finger or hand can cast vote using iris authentication plus smart card option.

KEYWORDS: Accountability, Verifiability, Protocol Analysis, Fingerprints, Security, Electronic Voting (E-Voting) INTRODUCTION In democracy People should show their opinion by electing their leaders. In traditional process there are a chance to E-voting system allows voters to make sure that their votes were actually counted and that the published result of the election is correct [1]. The Current Voting System is critical to our Election Commission of India for conducting Elections and announcing the results because the money involved in employee remuneration and the complexity of the legal requirements is more. The basic idea of online voting system is that the Candidates can poll their votes from anywhere during election time by using finger print authentication or Irish authentication or smartcard number. The System will maintain the voter details along with personal information. The result of the election is published within a short time once the election is completed [2]. Cloud computing base E- voting system must meet security requirements such as confidentiality, integrity, fairness, forgery attack, verifiability. The ultimate aim of e-Voting system is to provide voter a good environment so that voter can cast their vote with minimum cost and efforts on the cloud computing environment using finger print authentication [11]. Authentication procedures, based on the simple username–password approach, are insufficient to provide a suitable security level for the applications requiring a high level of protection for data and services. Biometric-based authentication systems represent a valid alternative to conventional approaches. www.tjprc.org

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The fingerprint is unique to each individual and cannot be shared. Fingerprint is an oriented texture pattern consisting of ridges and valleys present on the tip of an individual’s finger. The distribution of these points in a fingerprint has been observed to be unique across individuals. A template consisting of a set of salient features (e.g., singular points, such as core and delta, and ridge anomalies, such as minutiae) from the fingerprint image is stored in the database. Think for those voters who don't have finger or hand. Such cases voters have to provide smartcard Identification or Irish detection method. The Voters need to carry RFID smartcard to cast their vote. The RFID detectors are needed to be installed in booth. Overall process should be transparent Secure less expansive and reliable. Voter can cast their vote any time and from anywhere without standing in long queue.

RELATED WORKS An embedded cloud computing based E Voting management system using Biometric finger print or Iris authentication or Electronic card and card reader using serially interface to the digital computer. In cloud computing environment data send received from database and update record in. Author using cloud computing base e secure management system that authenticate using biometric fingerprint scanner or iris reorganization that can finish all the process including capture image of finger print or iris, extracting minutiae, storing and matching[10]. This system uses fingerprints for identification because the fingerprint is unique to each individual and cannot be shared. It allows voter to register for vote with ease and eliminate errors that are associated with election process and generates reports at the end of the Election process.

SYSTEM OVERVIEW The systems that are based on biometric mechanisms are client-server architectures, in which system administrator has privileges to manage the system. Biometric fingerprint device having built in libraries is used to integrate fingerprint control to the system. The server side is the Election Commission where a database is maintained about all the voters and candidates’ information having got being confirmed from National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA). On every client machine a local database server is maintained which stores the data of voters in order to decrease the traffic load on the network and in order to election process faster. We developed system using Visual Basic .NET and Microsoft Fingerprint scanner SDK is interfaced with system, which takes fingerprint scan as input and recognizes the legal voter by performing authentication process. Once having taken prints it opens the voters concern record from the database to validate the voter‘s information like voter is registered or not, voter has already casted vote or not.

ADMINISTRATION APPLICAION The proposed system provides solution to Election process problems through the use of vote management software that is interfaced to a fingerprint device. The Voter's Information Including Voter unique Identification number, Name, Gender, Date of Birth, Place of Birth, present address and the fingerprint Image is enrolled first into the database. The fingerprint is captured using a fingerprint device. When a voter want to cast their vote, the fingerprint device at that time just his fingerprints are needed that would be match with the stored fingerprints, if matched then voter will be allowed to cast vote otherwise it would be prompted that Impact Factor (JCC): 5.9638

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0


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you are not a registered user. End of election server displays results of election of referendum on every client machine and on the website just by generating reports.

CLIENT MACHINE APPLICATION Space is given that is displaying text to tell voter that you have to press your right thumb on Fingerprint scanner and our Microsoft scanner has ability to recognize thumbs in which angle has been pressed on scanner. If voter comes to scan second time then after scanning it would prompt that you have already casted vote. Now if voter is registered then after his scanning fingerprints a welcome screen displays. List of candidate, their name and selected symbol will display as a table format. A press button will be there near the corresponding symbol. Voter will press the button and cast their vote successfully. Once voter cast their vote the user will lock in central database permanently till result declare.

FINGERPRINT Fingerprint identification, known as dactyloscopy, or hand print identification, is the process of comparing two instances of friction ridge skin impressions, from human fingers or toes, or even the palm of the hand or sole of the foot, to determine whether these impressions could have come from the same individual.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Fingerprint Identification is the method of identification using the impressions made by the minute ridge formations or patterns found on the fingertips see in Figure 1and 2. No two persons have exactly the same arrangement of ridge patterns, and the patterns of any one individual remain unchanged throughout life. Two Methods are adopted in fingerprint recognition system are Histogram Equalization in Figure 3 & Fourier Transform Histogram equalization is to expand the pixel value distribution of an image so as to increase the perceptional information.

Figure 3: The Original Histogram of a Fingerprint Image

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Figure 4: Histogram after the Histogram Equalization

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Fourier Transform Divide the image into small processing blocks (32 by 32 pixels) and perform the Fourier transform according to

for u = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31 and v = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31. In order to enhance a specific block by its dominant frequencies, we multiply the FFT of the block by its magnitude a set of times. Where the magnitude of the original FFT = abs (F(u,v)) = |F(u,v)|. Get the enhanced block according to

Where F-1(F (u,v)) is done by

for x = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31 and y = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31 k=0.45 to calculate

Figure 5: Fingerprint Enhancement by FFT Enhanced Image (Left), Original Image (Right)

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Figure 6 Impact Factor (JCC): 5.9638

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HARDWARE DESCRIPTION Biometric Voting Machine hardware mainly contains a microcontroller, finger print module, EEPROM, LCD display, PC interface, power supply, key pad (Figure 6).

FINGERPRINT MODULE

Figure 7 Optical fingerprint verification module is the latest release of Bioenabletech Co., Ltd [4] see in Figure 7. It consists of optical fingerprint sensor, high performance DSP processor and Flash. It boasts of functions such as fingerprint Login, fingerprint deletion, fingerprint verification, fingerprint upload, fingerprint download, etc.

SOFTWARE DESIGN Visual Studio dot net Software is use to design front end screen and Interface access with Hardware. Data and Image accept from Hardware will send to database server. SQL server will be in backend to store Information [6]. Using web service and RFC Communication data will send/received to central server in Cloud Computing environment.

PROBLEMS The RS232 Communication can't function properly. If Microcontroller is unable to read, then we have to use interrupts to store and then read the data as required. If Biometric machine not functioning properly then Fingerprint will not reorganize and voter can't able to cast their vote. For such situation pooling officer can use option to use Smartcard authentication of Irish authentication. Basically a person's all fingers Image will store in central database server and while go to cast their vote the voter can use any fingerprint for authentication purpose. The system will work in Cloud Computing environment. So the entire system is highly secure and systematic. There are not possible to losses data and communication.

INTERFACING All the above systems have been independently Design and developed by the experts. The interface between User device to Central Database server is grouped according to the following categories:Digital Inputs A digital input by pressing a Push button detects if a voltage is above/below a specific threshold. If the voltage is higher than some value, the computer will detect the digital input as high/set/1. Scanner will received input Image signal and verify with central database server .A successful message will display after casting vote by voter [5].

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Digital Outputs A digital output allows you to control a voltage with a computer. If the computer instructs the output to be high, the output will produce a voltage. If successfully able to cast vote then a green LED light will blow. If fail message appear a Red LED Light will blow. The Information will store in database server if a person will try to access illegally as well as warning message will send to local control room. Serial Communication In RS232 Standard, Communication is defined as an asynchronous serial communication method [7].RS-422 and RS-485 can used as per machine design and depend upon Microcontroller [8]. Modbus TCP/IP TCP/IP allows blocks of binary data to be exchanged between computers. It is also a world-wide standard that serves as the foundation for the World Wide Web. The primary function of TCP is to ensure that all packets of data are received correctly, while IP makes sure that messages are correctly addressed and routed [9].

FUTURE TECHNOLOGY As Mobile communication technology is rapidly increasing in market. The android base Mobile technology will help us to use E voting system in cloud environment. We can use Smartphone to cast Vote in Cloud computing environment.

CONCLUSIONS In this paper we have developed a secure e-Voting system based on biometric fingerprint method. Using this system we can get rid of all the traditional voting systems’ problems and we will have an ideal election process containing all properties of a system like Accuracy, loving democracy, verifiability, convenience, flexibility, mobility and fastness. Mobile system in which voter can cast his vote from anywhere anytime without waste time to stand in Queue. So there is a chance to achieve of 100% voting as present days the ratio is only 40% to 75%. The system will give immediate results right after session time expires. Same machines and software can used every time, then Cost free election means there will be no paper and printing cost and there will be no need to hire Presiding officers hence time and cost will be saved for forever.

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http://www.ipcsit.com/vol18/5-ICIIC%202011-C009.pdf

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Impact Factor (JCC): 5.9638

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http://www.omega.com/literature/transactions/volume2/analogio.html.

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http://www.acromag.com/IntroductionToModbusTCP/IP.[10]http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumb er=4648818&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F4636076%2F4648794%2F04648818.pdf%3 Farnumber%3D4648818.

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AUTHOR’S DETAILS

Samsul J Akhtar received the B.Tech Degree in Electronics Engineering from Yashwantrao Maharashtra Open University Nashik in year 2009 and pursuing the M.E. Degree in Electronics Engineering from University of Mumbai. He is currently working for a Software project development at SVKM Mumbai as SAP Technical Consultant. He is a member of International Society of Automation (ISA). His current research interests include industrial automation.

M. B. Limkar received the B.E. Electronics degree from Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University in year 1986 - 1990, and M.E. Power Electronics from Gulbarga University in year 1997 - 2000. He is with the Department of Electronics Engineering, at Terna Engineering College, Navi-Mumbai as Professor. His current research interests are dosimetric aspects of the interaction between Power Electronics fields and biological systems, medical applications of electromagnetic fields, and numerical techniques. He is member of many professional bodies.

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