International Journal of Computer Networking, Wireless and Mobile Communications (IJCNWMC) ISSN 2250-1568 Vol. 3 Issue 2, Jun 2013, 113-118 ÂŠ TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
SECURITY IN VANET SAVITI M. Tech Scholar, C.S.E Department, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh, Haryana, India
ABSTRACT Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subset of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET). In VANET, the security is more important because it is closely related to accidents.Therefore Long Term Evolution (LTE) in VANET is used in the presence of Roadside Units (RSUs). In this paper, VANET, security requirement for VANET and previous work are explained.
KEYWORDS: V2I, V2V, Security, LTE INTRODUCTION VANET is a combined technology of MANET which establishes networks between devices, Mobile IPv6 and Proxy Mobile IPv6 which provide devices mobility, and network mobility, depending on vehicleâ€™s characteristics. It is a subset of MANET. The similarity between these two networks is characterized by the movement and self organization of nodes. Also the difference between these ad hoc networks is that MANET nodes cannot recharge their battery power where as VANET nodes are able to recharge them frequently. The study of VANETs has recently become an increasingly popular research topic in the area of wireless networking as well as in the area of automotive industries. VANET is mainly designed to provide safety related information, traffic management, and infotainment services. Safety and traffic management require real time information and this conveyed information can affect life or death decisions. Simple and effective security mechanism is the major problem of deploying VANET in public. Without security, a VANET system is wide open to a number of attacks such as propagation of false warning messages as well as suppression of actual warning messages, thereby causing accidents. In VANET, the studies are being conducted mainly in network and security aspects. VANET can be divided into two ways by communication method, a Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication, and a Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication. The V2I communication is a communication between a vehicle and Road Side Unit (RSU), which is connected with an existing infrastructure and mainly provides convenience to users such as multimedia. The V2V is a communication between nearby vehicles, and is used for exchanging urgent messages mainly about preventing accidents. The goal of VANET research is to develop a vehicular communication system to enable quick and cost-efficient distribution of data for the benefit of passengers' safety or comfort. The usefulness of VANET in real road scenario. If an accident warning can be sent to cars approaching the accident region, it would allow the drivers to take preventive measures and avoid disaster. A good real time feedback of the traffic condition would surely decrease the number of accidents and persons killed every year in road accidents. A good system design also depends on understanding the applications that will be carried in the network. VANET applications usually require security and can be divided into two categories that are Non-position related applications and Position-related applications. Services like online payment services, online shopping, internet access comes under Nonposition related applications. These applications focus on the network access, for example from Ad Hoc wireless network to the Internet. Services like Traffic condition report, collision avoidance, emergency alert, driving suggestion or cooperative driving; traffic optimization, resource service comes under Position-related applications. The most important
thing in Position-related applications is position. If position information is not protected, this type of applications cannot work at all. These applications not only call for diverse solutions, such as bandwidth, delay, security, and reliability, but also demonstrate different communication patterns, such as one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many. However, most existing wireless network architectures could not efficiently support such demands. Therefore, it becomes a major challenge to support and enable diverse applications and services. VANET would support life-critical safety applications, safety warning applications, electronic toll collections, Internet access, group communications, roadside service finder, etc. Life-Critical Safety Applications Ex: Intersection Collision Warning/Avoidance, Cooperative Collision Warning, etc. In the MAC Layer, the LifeCritical Safety Applications can access the DSRC control channel and other channels with the highest priority. The messages can be broadcasted to all the nearby VANET nodes. Safety Warning Applications Ex: Work Zone Warning, Transit Vehicle Signal Priority, etc. The differences between Life-Critical Safety Applications and Safety Warning Applications are the allowable latency requirements, while the Life-Critical Safety Applications usually require the messages to be delivered to the nearby nodes within 100 milliseconds, the Safety Warning Applications can afford up to 1000 milliseconds. In the MAC Layer, the Safety Warning Applications can access the DSRC control channel and the other channels with the 2nd highest priority. The messages can be broadcasted to all the nearby VANET nodes. Group Communications Many drivers may share some common interests when they are on the same road to the same direction, so they can use the VANET Group Communications function. In the MAC layer, the Group Communications can use DSRC service channels except the control channel, with the lowest priority comparing with the safety related applications and ETCs. In the network layer, to support such application scenario, multicast is the key technology. In the past, Internet multicast has not been successful due to its complexity and, more important, because Internet multicast requires global deployment, which is virtually impossible. In a VANET, however, since all nodes are located in a relatively local area, implementing such group communication becomes possible. Rest of paper contains, in section II, background on VANET is discussed. Security requirements for VANET are explained in section IV. In section V, previous work is explained. At the end, conclusion is concluded.
BACKGROUND ON VANET In VANET, each vehicle is equipped with the technology that allows the drivers to communicate with each other and also with roadside infrastructure, e.g., base stations. Base stations also known as Roadside Units (RSUs), located in some critical sections of the road, such as at every traffic light or any intersection or any stop sign, in order to improve the driving experience and making driving safer. By using those communication devices vehicles can communicate with each other as well as with RSUs. VANET is a self-organized network that connecting the vehicles and RSUs, and the RSUs can be connected to a backbone network,
Security in VANET
so that many other network applications and services, including Internet access, can be provided to the vehicles. The basic tool for communication is the short range radios that are being installed in any of the nodes. Vehicular node has the shortest transmission range. Figure 1 shows an example of VANET.
Figure 1: An Example of VANET In reality, to successfully deploy VANET, a number of challenging issues must be addressed. In the following their focus on two major issues in network layer design:
Support of existing and future VANET applications. VANET poses some of the most challenging problems in wireless ad hoc and sensor network research. In
addition, the issues on VANET security become more challenging due to the unique features of the network, such as highspeed mobility of network entity or vehicle, and extremely large amount of network entities. In particular, it is essential to make sure that “life-critical safety” information cannot be inserted or modified by an attacker; likewise, the system should be able to help establishing the liability of drivers; but at the same time, it should protect as far as possible the privacy of the drivers and passengers. It is obvious that any malicious behavior of users, such as a modification and replay attack with respect to the disseminated messages, could be fatal to other users.
SECURITY REQUIREMENT FOR VANET There is some requirement of security in VANET. These requirements are divided into six parts that are Identification, Authentication, Integrity, Confidentiality, Non-repudiation, and Availability. Identification means identifying valid users. In VANET environment, there are concerns about privacy because tracking identifiable information is possible. The existing solutions for this problem are Anonymous authentication, Silentperiod, and Mix-zone. Authentication Authentication means a process to identify the users’ identity. Message must be protected from any alteration and the receiver of a message must corroborate the sender of the message. If the message is not delivered during the certain period, then that may cause an accident.
Integrity Integrity means that messages cannot be manipulated. The hash function for an integrity check is generally used Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA). The VANET provide the data integrity by comparing the hash values. In VANET, SHA256 is recommended as a default. Confidentiality Confidentiality means that when sending messages, they should not be exposed to an unauthorized third party. In VANET, Safety messages and Non-safety messages are transmitted. The safety message is not required confidentiality as emergency message to notify an accident. On the other hand, when sending a Non-safety message which provides multimedia or a web service, confidentiality is required. Non-Repudiation means that the sender should not be able to deny the transmission of messages. The safety message is not required the confidentiality, however, to prevent responsibility avoidance in case of an accident, a digital signature is needed to make the receiver not deny the received message. Privacy means preventing that users ID and private information from exposing to unauthorized third party. To prevent the exposure of ID, VANET provides Group Signature. Availability means data trust. In VANET, availability is divided into two categories: system availability and sensing data availability.
PREVIOUS WORK In this approach a node searches for possible explanations for the data has collected based on the fact that malicious nodes may be present. Explanations that are consistent with the node's model of the VANET are scored and the node accepts the data as dictated by the highest scoring explanations. They introduced the techniques for generating and scoring explanations. They achieved local security by enlisting the help of on-board radar to detect neighboring vehicles and to confirm their announced coordinates. Local security is extended to achieve global. In this solution is predicated on the widely accepted assumption that the vast majority of vehicles is honest and behave responsively. Extensive simulations confirm the quality of the proposed solution by measuring how fast compromised vehicles can be detected under various conditions. In this they consider both security requirements of the communications and the requirements of potential VANET applications and services. The proposed framework consists of two basic components: an application-aware control framework and a unified routing scheme. This study provided a guideline for the design of a more secure and practical VANET. In this they introduced a framework for behavior analysis of other vehicles in the vicinity approach. Based on the information, vehicles are classified into trustworthy, untrustworthy or neutral. In this various authentication schemes in wireless LAN, VANETS are discussed. A comparison between LAN and VANET schemes is done, which shows that the privacy can be maintained better by using new proxy encryption. This paper employs Identity-based group signatures (IBGS) to divide a large-scale VANET into easy-to-manage groups and establish liability in vehicular communications while preserving privacy.. With this approach, a vehicle selects only the messages affecting its driving decisions and validates the selected messages as if they were a single one. In VANET, the security is more important. They analyzed the problem of an existing solution for security requirements required in VANET, and resolve the problem of the existing method when a key management mechanism is
Security in VANET
provided for the security operation in VANET. Therefore, they represented suitability of the LTE in VANET for the solution of this problem.
CONCLUSIONS In VANET, the security is more important because it is closely related to accidents. Additionally, VANET raises a privacy issue because it can track the location of vehicles and users’ identity when a security mechanism is provided. Research will analyze the problem of an existing solution for security requirements required in VANET, and resolve the problem of the existing method. The algorithm will show suitability of the LTE in VANET in the presence of RSU. The implementation of the proposed technique will be done using NS2.
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