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International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research (IJASR) ISSN 2250-0057 Vol. 3, Issue 3, Aug 2013, 143-148 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

MELISSOPALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEY OF APIS MELLIFERA FROM PLAINS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR AND TAMIL NADU GH. NABI SHAH1, V. MATHIVANAN2, MUDASAR MANZOOR3, G M MIR4 & SELVISABHANAYAKAM5 1,2,3,5

Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India

4

Division of Entomology, Sher-E Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology of Kashmir, India

ABSTRACT The honey samples of Apis mellifera were collected from plains of Jammu and Kashmir and Tamil Nadu. In present study honey samples was analysed by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and flame photometer. The mineral elements with high concentration were Mg4.1±0.03ppm, Ca53.09±0.34ppm, Mn1.954±1.7ppm, Fe2.854±0.7ppm, Cr0.421±1.23ppm in Apis mellifera from Jammu and Kashmir, while as Na 20.23±0.05ppm,K 65.33±3.76ppm, Cu 0.37±0.01ppm were high in Apis mellifera from Tamil Nadu region. All the mineral contents were within range and varied highly significantly (P≤.000) level.

KEYWORDS: Honey, Apis mellifera, Plains, Estimation, Concentration INTRODUCTION Honey is recognized as a biological indicator of environmental quality (Przybylowski & Wilczynska, 2001; Rodríguez García et al., 2006) and floral biodiversity. It is intrinsically connected to the territory in which it is produced and it is closely tied to the flora visited from the bees for its production. Pollen grains from the flowers visited by bees collecting nectar occur naturally in honey, as well as trace elements that the plants receive from the ground, water and air. Studies on honey have been carried out with emphasis on organic, but little has been done on inorganic aspect (Ramos et al. 2008). Mineral content in honey is of interest not only for quality control, but also for determination of environmental contamination (Maurizio, 1975b). Pollution of water, soil and air has led to increase in levels of mineral content in honey. The nectar, from which the honey is made, contains metals absorbed by the roots from the polluted soil, and may also contain metals carried by the bees from polluted water sources. Potassium is the most abundant element in honeys. Sodium, iron, copper, manganese, silicon, calcium, and magnesium are all present in honey (White, 1975; Belouali et al., 2008; Pisani et al., 2008; Downey et al., 2005; Rashed & Soltan, 2004; Sulbaran de Ferrer et al., 2004, Terrab et al., 2003; Nanda et al., 2003). There is great variability in the mineral content of honeys, due to botanical origin rather than geographical and environmental exposition of nectar sources (Bogdanov et al., 2007). To verify the relationship between the botanical and geographic origin and mineral content in honey, many authors have used the principal component analysis (PCA) (Seif Eldin & Elfadil 2010; Pisani et al., 2008; Fernández-Torres et al., 2005; Terrab et al., 2003). The aim of this study is to determine essential metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe) and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As) in honey samples collected from plains of Jammu and Kashmir and Tamil Nadu India.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ELICO India, SL 173), Flame atomic absorption spectrometer (AA-6200), lame photometer (Systronics Flame Photometer-128), hollow cathode lamps, air/acetylene flame.


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GH. Nabi Shah, V. Mathivanan, Mudasar Manzoor, G M Mir & Selvisabhanayakam

SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PREPARATION Honey samples were collected from Plains of Tamil Nadu and Jammu & Kashmir during March- April 2013. The honey was put in air tight sterilized plastic containers and stored at room temperature under hygienic conditions. 5 g of each sample was weighed using an analytical balance, transferred into a beaker, digested using nitric/perchloric acid and filtered into a 50 ml volumetric flask. Distilled water was used to make the solution to the mark. For the determination of calcium and magnesium, strontium was added to reduce interferences from aluminum and phosphorous (A. Mbiri et al 2011).

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Data of all mineral contents of honey samples were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Correlation test, along with F test, highly significant values were determined by using F table (P≤.000).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The mean results and basic statistics obtained for various Mineral Contents of the honey samples of A. mellifera were collected from Jammu and Kashmir and Tamil Nadu are summarized in (Table 1) ,Figure (1) and (a,b,c,d). Table 1: Mineral Contents in Honey Samples Collected from Different Regions Sample from Kashmir Sample from Tamil Nadu Mineral Contents Apis Mellifera Apis Mellifera Sodium(ppm) 19.84±4.07 20.23±0.05 Magnesium(ppm) 4.1±0.03 2.98±0.41 Calcium(ppm) 53.09±0.34 48.25±0.33 Potassium(ppm) 62.27±0.61 65.33±3.76 Manganese(ppm) 1.954±1.7 0.812±0.02 Iron(ppm) 2.854±0.7 1.963±2.57 Copper(ppm) 0.299±0.37 0.37±0.01 Chromium(ppm) 0.421±1.23 0.301±0.01 Highly Significant (P≤.000)

Figure 1: Correlation Test of Honey Samples


Melissopalynological Characterization of Honey of Apis mellifera from Plains of Jammu and Kashmir and Tamil Nadu

145

Macro and Micro Mineral Elements of Honey of A.mellifera from Plains of Kashmir & Tamil Nadu in the Year

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Mineral content (ppm)

Mineral content (ppm)

March-April 2013 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Different Mineral Macro-ions (Kashmir)

Different Mineral Micro-ions (Kashmir)

(a)

(b) 2.5 Mineral content (ppm)

Mineral content (ppm)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Different Mineral Macro-ions (TamilNadu) (c)

Different Mineral Micro-ions (TamilNadu) (d)

`From the results obtained, Palynological Characterization of honey varies from one sample to another depending upon the Environmental conditions, floral origin and extraction techniques. The minerals of honey were categorized as major or Macro minerals (potassium, phosphorous, calcium, sodium and magnesium) and minor or Micro minerals (iron, manganese, copper, chromium and zinc) based on quantity of individual elements. The basic statistical data obtained for the content of K, Na, Ca and Mg with mean content values ranging from 62.27- 65.33ppm, 19.84-20.23ppm, 48.25-53.09, and 2.98-4.1ppm respectively. The Apis mellifera from Jammu and Kashmir region has mean content of Ca,Mg, Mn, Fe, Cr, is higher than the Tamil Nadu region, while the Na,K,Cu content is high in Apis mellifera from Tamil Nadu. Analysis of variance, Correlation test along with F test has shown that mineral contents of all the honey samples varied highly significantly (P≤.000).

DISCUSSIONS The first group was formed by the major elements. The most abundant was potassium 65.33ppm , which agrees


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GH. Nabi Shah, V. Mathivanan, Mudasar Manzoor, G M Mir & Selvisabhanayakam

with other studies indicating that potassium is the most common element in honeys (Belouali et al., 2008; Pisani et al., 2008; Downey et al., 2005; Rashed & Soltan, 2004, Sulbaran de Ferrer et al., 2004; Terrab et al., 2003; Nanda et al., 2009),(Table,1) The highest concentration of Na were recoreded in Apis melllifera from Tamil Nadu with a mean value of 20.23±0.05ppm. as compared to Apis mellifera 19.84±4.07 from Jammu and Kashmir. Concentration of Na recorded in this study was higher than in earlier studies where the mean values were found to be 116.7 and 11.88ppm respectively in Kicevo and Berovo (Elena et al., 2008).The highest concentration of Na in our present samaples may be due to tempature conditions , ripening or due to storage techniques.(Figure b). The concentration of Ca were found high in Apis mellifera from Jammu and Kashmir region with a mean value of 53.09±0.34ppm while as Ca level in Apis mellifera from Tamil Nadu with a mean value of 48.25±0.33ppm. .In this study the value of Ca are comparable to those reported in Kitui (A. Mbiri, et al 2011) ranging from 19.33-56.00.(Figure a). The Mg level was found high in Apis Mellifera from tamil nadu with a value of 2.98±0.41ppm, while the lowest value was recorded in apis mellifera4.1±0.03ppm from Jammu and Kashmir with a value of 4.1ppm. ). The levels of Mg in this study is lowest as comparable to those reported in Macedonia (Elena, Trajce, Robert , 2008) ranging from 11.78 to 116.7 ppm and those from Zulia (Betzabé et al 2004).which had a mean of 52 ppm.(Table, 1,Figure b). The Fe content was recorded high in Apis mellifera from Jammu and Kashmir with a value of 2.854±0.7ppm while as lowest was recrded in Apis mellifera from Tamil nadu with a value of 1.963±2.57ppm. In our study the values of Fe recorded were lower than those values of 13.5 and 3.37 ppm reported earlier in Zulia and Tenerife (Frias et al., 2008), and closer to values reported earlier by (A. Mbiri,et al 2011) ranging between 0.08-0.59.(Figure c). The highest concerattion of Mn was found in Apis mellifera from Jammu and Kashmir with a vasluer of 1.954±1.7ppm as compared to Apis mellifera from Tamil Nadu with a value of 0.812±0.02ppm.(Table,1). The concentration of cu was recoreded high in Apis mellifera from Tamil nadu with a value of 0.37±0.01ppm and lowest was recorded in Apis mellifera from Jammu and Kashmir with a value of 0.299±0.37ppm. The concentration of Cu in present samples were lower, compared to the values recorded in Swiss and Tenerife honey which were 0.88 and 1.28 ppm (Stefan, Max, Werner, Gallman, 2007) a and closer to values reported earlier by (A. Mbiri,et al 2011) ranging between 0.02-0.03.(Figure d). All honey samples have lower contents of Cr as compared to other minerals in our study. The level of Cr was recorded in Apis mellifera with a value of 0.421±1.23 ppm from Jammu and Kashmir and lowest were recorded in Apis cerana 0.301±0.01ppm from Tamil Nadu,(Table 1).

CONCLUSIONS The present study revealed the Palynological Characterization of honey is essential for nutritional quality ,storage of honey, processing and honey products with regards to contents of major and minor elements. The Apis mellifera from Jammu and Kashmir region has mean content of Ca,Mg, Mn, Fe, Cr, is higher than the Tamil Nadu region, while the Na,K,Cu content is high in Apis mellifera from Tamil Nadu. The present study concludes that indian honey quality with respect to Palynological Characterization is satisfactory and safe for human consumption.

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Elena S., Trajce S., Robert S., (2008). Monitoring of trace elements in honey in the Republic of Macedonia by atomic absorption spectrometry. Springer e-journals. Environ Monit. ,142 , pp 117-126.

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Frias, Inmaculada, Gonzalez-Iglesias, Rubio, C., Angel, J., (2008).Metals in fresh honey from Tenerife Island, Spain. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and toxicology, 80(1), pp 30-33.

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The honey samples of Apis mellifera were collected from plains of Jammu and Kashmir and Tamil Nadu. In present study honey samples was analy...

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