International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research (IJASR) ISSN 2250-0057 Vol. 3, Issue 4, Oct 2013, 109-120 ÂŠ TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

INFLUENCE OF TILLAGE PATTERN AND FORWARD SPEED OF THE TRACTOR IN THE EFFICIENCY TILLAGE AHMED ABED GATEA Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq

ABSTRACT The experiment in one of the agricultural fields in the district Aziziyah / Wasit ,Was the clay loam soil, and used by the tractor TUMOSAN 74 (2WD) with mould-board plough 4 boards Turkish-made, Used in the experiment split-plot design under Randomized Complete Block Design and three replications , Bringing the number of experimental units 24 and the experimental unit(2 Patterns field *3 Forward Speed of tractor *3 replications) their influence on the pattern plowing efficiency, depth of plowing, fuel consumption, percentage of slip, the appearance of the soil and field efficiency. was obtained at the highest efficiency plowing when the spaced pattern amount 58.63% and the highest depth of plowing 22 cm and the highest fuel consumption 58.19 l/ha, while the pattern convergent on the minimum rate of fuel consumption and less number appearance tillage decreased diameter less than 10 cm, while the effect of forward speed of the tractor influence significantly where it was get the highest efficiency of plowing the amount of 62.3% at the forward speed of 7 km/h, and the highest depth plowing at speed 24.66 cm. Show a significant difference to the energy requirements when you change the plowing pattern and reduced energy requirements at the increased speed forward .

KEYWORDS: Convergent Pattern, Spaced Pattern, Forward Speed of Tractor, Plowing Efficiency Nomenclatures w f Sp Se W L C3 Sf Tu T1 P Fc Pf C.V th me

The actual width of the Plough length the groove forward speed Actual travel speed on the pillow Field width field length constant speed traffic at the end field the utilized time the summation of lost power consumed fuel composition , L /h. density of diesel fuel thermal efficiency of engine, mechanical efficiency of engine

m m km/h km/h m m 1000 Km/h min per ha min per ha KW L/h. kg / L kcal / kg % %

INTRODUCTION Became necessary to use agricultural mechanization to accomplish different agricultural processes in order to raise the efficiency of agricultural production and improve quality and reduce costs. As well as the increase the productivity of agricultural land. Needed to assess the tillage method used then and the work of agricultural machinery in the field to know some of the variables during the test and then a final place the necessary calculations that illustrate the

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efficiency of tillage method used and the efficiency of the performance of prepared to work under conditions in which the test. For plowing an important role in improving the qualities of soil and improve the quality of plowing in order to prepare the cradle of appropriate seeds and provide the appropriate conditions for germination by improving the qualities of soil physical and give the appearance of plowing and roughness well and if the chosen method of planning the field for tillage used and the tractor and machine occasion. The main objective and the basic behind the development of an effective model for planning field is to reduce the amount of transportation field is the number of revolutions of others operation thereof and the distance traveled in the circulation and the amount of movement of others operating within the field of all elements of on-productive of valuable time and energy that must be disposed of if at all possible [[Hunt, D. R. ]. Hunt,D.R. shows that substantive improvements in can be made in the field efficiency by analyzing and changing the model for planning and field operations that depend on the area and shape of the field. As well as a signal that there are variables that must be taken into account when determining planning model of efficiency, for example actual width of Plough, along the groove and speed of tillage, the actual speed of the conduct of on the pillow as well as the field width and the length of the field. Daniel and the signal that it is a necessary calculate time it takes to tillage and mobility and end grooves Dead to estimate the efficiency of the form field layout. Daniel also found that the fields are long and rotations fast and machines widescreen and high speeds have a significant impact on the actual field capacity. Daniel explained that there should be an appropriate time and location for the rotation of the machines on the field and the pillow also concluded

that the

overall

circulation

time farm machines large a

little

less compared

to the

smaller machines. Form is known as the headland pattern the field is ploughed in runs parallel to each other. It starts at one boundary of the field and ends at the opposite with turns being made on the headlands. The display is twice operating display, start with the parties the field and ending at the other side and the process of circular rotation angle (180) on the headland. The Up and back pattern efficiency depended the rotations fast at pillows, Necessary to be wide and flat pillows enough to allow easy rotation of the work in few seconds. The Objectives of the Present Study are to

Comparison between convergent pattern in spaced pattern and their impact on the traits (pattern plowing efficiency, depth of plowing, fuel consumption, percentage of slip, the appearance of the soil and field efficiency.

Choose the best tillage pattern for using the mould-board plough (4 boards) Turkish-made.

Study the effect of forward speed of the tractor and the impact pattern plowing efficiency.

Study of power requirements when changing the plowing pattern of and forward speed of the agricultural tractor.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials The following equipments were used to accomplish the present research: Tractor: TUMOSAN 74-80 DT-T (2WD) of 75/2500, 4 vertical cylinders, gear box 12 forward 3 reverse, cooling system water. Plough: Mould -board plough 4 boards Turkish-made, with working width of 130cm. weight 470 kg, Length 320cm.

METHODS Studied Factors

Two field Patterns (convergent pattern, spaced pattern)

Influence of Tillage Pattern and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Efficiency Tillage

ď‚ˇ

111

Three Forward Speed of tractor (5.5, 6.3, 7.5 km/h). Table .1. The mechanical analysis of the experimental soil was classified as Table 1: Mechanical Analysis of Soil Soil Depth (cm) 0 - 20

Particle Size (%) Sand Silt Clay 36 28 36

Soil Textural Clay loam

MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS Pattern Efficiency (Pe) Estimating pattern efficiency (PE) to account for time spent plowing and mobility and end furrows Dead. Are not taking the time required plowing into pillows into account when determining the number of endeavors: ( Hunt, D. R. 1999) Impose That Endeavors, with the number of Back furrow = n Endeavors, with the number of Dead furrow =n-1 Endeavors, the total number of=2n-1

Can be calculated walk time in par hours =

(1)

Can be obtained on the number of endeavors, to complete the blocks through =

Total hours required for plowing blocks=

(2)

Average distance to the rotation in one of the ends of widget can be calculated by (3)

(3) Average time of rotation of the end of the field can be calculated by the following equation (4)

(4) The total rotation time blocks can be extracted from the following equation (5)

(5) Pattern efficiency (PE)

(6) Get a make a comparison between the Patterns tillage, the need to calculate the time required to end the headland where it should be added to the equation above.

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Can calculate the time of tillage to end the headland

(7) The total time of rotation at the ends of the headland, can be calculated of equation (8)

(8) By adding equations Declaration to the equation number (9): Become pattern efficiency (PE) :

(9)

Figure 1: Photocopies of the Field The by spaced pattern efficiency is calculated by the total time rotation and total time tilling: Total time rotation calculate by equation (10)

(10) Total time tilling calculates by equation (11)

(11) The spaced pattern efficiency is calculated by equation (12)

(12)

Influence of Tillage Pattern and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Efficiency Tillage

113

FIELD MACHINE PERFORMANCE Field Capacity and Efficiency The theoretical and actual field capacity and efficiency were determined using the following equation (13)

(13) W = working width, m. S = forward speed, km/h The Actual field capacity was calculated as follows equation (14)

(14)

Field efficiency (F.E) is the ratio of actual field capacity to theoretical field capacity expressed as follows equation (15) .( Hanna, M.2002)

x 100 ,%

(15)

Fuel Consumption, Power and Energy Requirements Fuel consumption was recorded by accurately measuring the decrease in fuel level in tank immediately after executing each operation. as follows equation (16) ( GENAIDY, M. A. I,2008) (16) Energy Requirements( kw.h/ha) The energy required for tillage operation was calculated by using the following formula (17) (GENAIDY, M. A. I, 2008)

(17) Fuel Consumption (L/ha) (18) Specific Fuel Consumption (L/kw.h) as Follows Equation (19)

(19)

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Average Plowing Depth (A.P.D.) To determine the efficiency of the plow, it is necessary to know the depth of tillage accurate manner, and to find the regularity depth tillage, measured the depth of tillage in three repetitions in each treatment length of less than 50 m and at

intervals

of 2

m along

the groove,

and

uses a

ruler

to measure

the depth

and recorded depth

measurements obtained in each iteration and calculates the average depth of the tillage of the following relationship (20). (Liliana.M& Mircea. B 2011)

(20) Where: h= average plowing depth (mm) = Total measured depth (mm) It then calculates the error rate in the rear by knowing the exact depth of the plow by the relationship (21)

(21) hb =The exact depth of Plough by the (mm). Eh =The error rate in the tillage depth (%) Appearance Tillage Was measured by the appearance of tillage by taking three samples randomly in each treatment area of the sample one (1) m2 where the measured dimensions of the blocks dirt inside the sample blocks earthen diameters o more than (10) cm were recorded numbers and adopted in measuring the earth mounds which diameters less than (10) cm, has been abandoned and neglected and the lack of measurement adopted in the appearance of your tillage.( AL-Hashimy) Slip Percentage of the Tractor (S %) A mark was made on the tractor drive wheel with colored tapes and the distance the tractor moves forward at every 10 revolutions under no load and the same revolution with load on same surface was measured. Expressed mathematically as (ANSI/ASAE S296.5 DEC2003 (R2009)) as follows equation (22).

(22) An= distance covered at every 10 revolutions of the tractor drive wheel at no load (m) A1 = distance covered at every 10 revolutions of tractor drive wheel with load (m). Statistical Analysis Used in the experiment split-plot design under Randomized Complete Block Design and three replications , Bringing the number of experimental units 24 and the experimental unit(2 Patterns field * 3 Forward Speed of tractor * 3 replications) Statistically analyzed data were selected less significant difference at 5% for the comparison between the averages of the transactions by using a statistical analysis (SPSS)

.

Influence of Tillage Pattern and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Efficiency Tillage

115

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Pattern Plowing Efficiency Table (2) influence the field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in the Pattern plowing efficiency, as observed significant differences when changing field pattern of spaced pattern in convergent pattern as fall plowing efficiency of 58.63% to 53.48% for the reduction rata of 8.78%. This is due to the total time for plowing in a convergent pattern was higher than the spaced pattern and the limited of grooves consisting, Also achieved average speed forward of the tractor effect significantly as increasing the speed forward of 5 .5 to 6.3 and then to 7.5 km/h to increase the efficiency of plowing pattern from 49.33 to 52.83%, an increased rate 6.62% and then rise to 58.3% by increased rate 9.38% .may why decrease total time for plowing when the increase speed forward of tractor. While there was significant effect when interaction between field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in the Pattern in plowing efficiency. Were obtained at the highest efficiency of 66.30 % when interaction between spaced pattern and forward speed 7.5 km/h. And less Pattern efficiency 49.33 % when interaction between convergent pattern and forward speed 5.5 km/h. Table 2: Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Pattern Plowing Efficiency Pattern Efficiency (PE) (%) Mean Field Patterns X Field Patterns Forward Speed Mean Field Patterns Forward Speed km/h 5.5 6.3 7.5 Spaced pattern 51.60 58.00 66.30 58.63 Convergent pattern 49.33 52.83 58.30 53.48 Mean forward speed 50.46 55.41 62.30 ___ L.S.D of Pattern efficiency (5%) : field Patterns= 4.02 field patterns x forward speed=1.79 Forward Speed= 2.69 Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Plowing Depth (P.D.) Table (3) influence the field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in Plowing depth. Where table noted the presence of no significant differences when changing field pattern of spaced pattern in convergent pattern, We also note the presence of significant differences at the forward speed of the tractors increased speed from 5.5 to 6.3 and then to 7.5 km/h as decrease average of plowing depth from 24.66 to 20 .83 cm, decrease rate 15.5% and then to 18 cm, decreased rate13.58% decrease rate. The reason for this is that plowing depth actual influenced by increasing forward speed as the relationship between them is usually inverse the more the forward speed the less depth tillage. While there was significant effect when interaction between field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in the Pattern in plowing efficiency were obtained at the highest Plowing depth of 25.33 cm when interaction between spaced pattern and forward speed 5.5 km/h. And less Plowing depth 17.33 cm when interaction between convergent pattern and forward speed 7.5 km/h. Table 3: Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in Plowing Depth Plowing Depth (P.D.) (cm) Mean Field Patterns X Forward Speed Field Patterns Mean Field Patterns Forward Speed km/h 5.5 6.3 7.5 Spaced pattern 25.33 22.00 18.66 22.00 Convergent pattern 24.00 19.60 17.33 20.33 Mean forward speed 24.66 20.83 18.00 ___ L.S.D of Plowing depth (5%) : field Patterns= N.S field patterns*forward speed=1.03 Forward Speed= 1.14

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Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Slip Percentage of the Tractor (S %) It table (4) influence the field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in Slip percentage of the tractor, As observed no significant differences when changing the field Patterns, and the same table shows that there are significant differences when you increase the forward speed of the unit from 5.5 to 6.3 and then to 7.5 km/h which resulted in to an increase in slipping percentage of 8.28 to 11.48 % increased rate 27.8% and then to 17.01%, an increased rate of 32.5%, The reason to increase forward speed of the tractor result to an increase in rolling resistance increase in the percentage of slipping because the speed is directly proportional with him.He also found that there is significant effect of field patterns and forward speed of the proportion of slipping.Were obtained at the highest slipping percentage of 17.36 % when interaction between spaced pattern and forward speed 7.5 km/h. and less slipping percentage 7.73 % when interaction between spaced pattern and forward speed 5.5 km/h. Table 4: Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in Slip Percentage of the Tractor (%) Slip Percentage of the Tractor (S %) Mean Field Patterns X Forward Speed Field Patterns Mean Field Forward Speed km/h Patterns 5.5 6.3 7.5 Spaced pattern 7.73 12.63 17.36 12.57 Convergent pattern 8.83 10.33 16.66 11.94 Mean forward speed 8.28 11.48 17.01 __ L.S.D of Slip percentage of the tractor (5%) : field Patterns= n.s field patterns*forward speed=2.51 Forward Speed= 2.94 Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Fuel Consumption (L/ha) and Energy Requirements( kw.h/ha) It table (5) influence the field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in fuel consumption. As observed significant differences when changing field pattern of spaced pattern in convergent pattern, where fuel consumption rate decreased from 58 .17 to 44.23 l/ha decreased rata 23.9%. As well as between the table and the presence of significant differences when increasing the average forward speed of the tractor from 5.5 to 6.3 and then to 7.5 km/h to decreased fuel consumption rate of 69 .52 to 53.23 L/ha decreased rate of 23.4% and then 30.86 L/ha decreased rate 42% because increase in fuel consumption with decreased forward speed of the tractor that has made low-speed depth plowing largest in as of high-speed increase then load factor. While there was significant effect when interaction between field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in fuel consumption. Were obtained at the highest fuel consumption of 75.44 l/ha when interaction between spaced pattern and forward speed 5.5 km/h. And less fuel consumption 24.00 l/ha , when interaction between convergent pattern and forward speed 7.5 km/h. Table 5: Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in Fuel Consumption (L/ha) Fuel Consumption L/ha Mean Field Patterns X Forward Speed Field Patterns Mean Field Patterns Forward Speed km/h 5.5 6.3 7.5 Spaced pattern 75.44 61.37 37.72 58.17 Convergent pattern 63.60 45.09 24.00 44.23 Mean forward speed 69.52 53.23 30.86 ___ L.S.D of Fuel consumption (5%) : field Patterns= 13.00 field patterns*forward speed=6.15 Forward Speed= 7.79

Influence of Tillage Pattern and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Efficiency Tillage

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Table 6 through notes there are significant differences when changing field pattern with decreased energy from 184.85 kw.h/ha to 137.9 kw.h/ha decrease rate 25.39%. May be it's because access to the highest power at spaced pattern and because of increased fuel consumption rate, and that a positive correlation relation between energy requirement and power. Through the same table shows there is an influence significant at change the forward speed of the tractor where the energy requirement decreased from 235 .0 kw.h/ha to 161.5 kw.h/ha decreased rate 31.2% at the forward speed to increased from 5.5 to 6.3 km/h, and then reduced 87.55 kw.h/ha down rate 45.78% when increasing speed 7.5 km/h, There was significant differences when the when interaction between field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in Energy requirements. Were obtained at the highest energy requirements of 255.0 kw.h/ha when interaction between spaced pattern and forward speed 5.5 km/h. And less energy requirements 59.5 , when interaction between convergent pattern and forward speed 7.5 km/h. Table 6: Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in Energy Requirements ( kw.h/ha)

Field Patterns

Energy Requirements( kw.h/ha) Mean Field Patterns X Forward Speed Mean Field Patterns Forward Speed km/h 5.5 6.3 7.5 255.0 183.9 115.6 184.85 215.0 139.1 59.5 137.9 235.0 161.5 87.55 ___

Spaced pattern Convergent pattern Mean forward speed F.test L.S.D of Energy requirements (5%) : field Patterns= 46.00 field patterns*forward speed=15.03 Forward Speed= 22.74 Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Field Efficiency (%) It table (7) influence the field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in field efficiency, as was found through the table, there is significant differences when changing the pattern from spaced pattern in convergent pattern when changing the forward speed of the tractor, as they were getting the highest field efficiency 89.91% when tillage spaced pattern and higher field efficiency 90.05% at forward speed 7.5 km/h. While there was significant effect when interaction between field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in field efficiency. Were obtained at the highest field efficiency of 90.13 % when interaction between spaced pattern and forward speed 7.5 km/h. And less field efficiency 86.33 % , when interaction between convergent pattern and forward speed 6.3 km/h. Table 7: Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in Field Efficiency (%) Field Efficiency (F.E)( %) Mean Field Patterns X Forward Speed Mean Field Forward Speed km/h Patterns 5.5 6.3 7.5 Spaced pattern 89.93 89.67 90.13 89.91 Convergent pattern 89.00 86.33 89.97 88.43 Mean forward speed 89.47 88.00 90.05 ___ L.S.D of Field efficiency (5%) field Patterns= 0.022 field patterns*forward speed=0.02 Forward Speed= 0.022 Field Patterns

Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Appearance Tillage (%) It table (8) influence the field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in the appearance tillage, through a table (8) observed no significant differences when changing tillage pattern from spaced pattern in convergent pattern, where

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appearance tillage decreased diameter less than 10 cm from 8.88 to 7.55 cm by decreased rate 14.97%, as well as showing the presence of significant differences when change the forward speed of the tractor from 5.5 to 6.3 and then 7.5 km/h ,were down blocks soils with a diameter of more than 10 cm from 11 .5 to 7.66 cm/m2 by decreased rate 33 .39% and then 5.5 cm/m2 by decreased rate 52.1 %. The reason for lower number of blocks soils increase the speed to the high speed works to increase speed throwing and hitting the blocks soils distance beyond the slow speed and thus dismantling blocs soils have the best and number less and this is consistent with what he referred Banna (1986) to the increased speed work to increase ejaculation blocks soils leading to increased coefficient disassembly. While there was significant differences when interaction between field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor in appearance tillage. Were obtained at the appearance tillage of 12.66 c m/m2 when interaction between spaced pattern and forward speed 5.5 km/h. And less appearance tillage 5.00 cm/m2, when interaction between convergent pattern and forward speed 7.5 km/h. Table 8: Influence the Field Patterns and Forward Speed of the Tractor in the Appearance Tillage (cm/m2) Appearance Tillage ( cm/m2) Mean Field Patterns X Forward Speed Field Patterns Mean Field Patterns Forward Speed km/h 5.5 6.3 7.5 Spaced pattern 12.66 8.00 6.00 8.88 Convergent pattern 10.33 7.33 5.00 7.55 Mean forward speed 11.50 7.66 5.50 ___ L.S.D of Appearance tillage(5%) : field Patterns= N.S field patterns*forward speed=0.804 Forward Speed= 0.94

CONCLUSIONS From the above study the following conclusions can be drawn

As observed significant differences when changing field pattern of spaced pattern in convergent pattern as fall plowing efficiency of 58.63% to 53.48% for the reduction rata of 8.78%.

Increased the efficiency of tillage pattern when increase the forward speed of the tractor, when 5 .5 to 6.3 and 7.5 km/h to increase the efficiency of plowing pattern from 49.33 to 52.83%, and 58.3% respectively.

The results showed that there is a no significant difference to the plow depth and appearance of plowing when change the pattern of tillage.

The reason for this is that plowing depth actual influenced by increasing forward speed as the relationship between them is usually inverse the more the forward speed the less depth tillage.

Increased Slip percentage of the tractor when increase forward speed of the tractor.

Tables 5 show a significant difference when change the field pattern on the average fuel consumption, where decreased from 58 .17 to 44.23 l/ha decreased rata 23.9%. Through Table 6 and significant differences when changing the plowing pattern and reduced energy requirements at the increased speed forward.

Interaction between field Patterns and forward speed of the tractor significant differences on a Pattern plowing efficiency , Plowing depth , fuel consumption , energy requirements, Slip percentage of the tractor, Field efficiency and appearance tillage.

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ANSI/ASAE S296.5 DEC2003 (R2009), General Terminology for Traction of Agricultural Traction and Transport Devices and Vehicles. St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659, USA ph. 269-429-0300.

2.

AL-Hashimy.L.A.Z, 2012 the Effect of Disc Tilt Angle, TILLAGE SPEED AND DEPTH ON SOME OF MACHINERY UNIT TECHNICAL AND ENERGY REQUIREMENTS PARAMETERS. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science 33 (1): 131-143.

3.

Banna, Aziz Remo and Tariq meat cream and Saad Eddin Mohammed Amin Abdullah Sheikhli , 1986. Earth impact velocities for some types of plows on the quality of plowing in ascii all your area. Journal of Zanko, 4 (4): 51-61.

4.

Hunt, D. R. 1999. Farm power and machinery management. 9th Edition. Iowa State Press, Ames.

5.

Hanna, M.2002. Estimating the field capacity of farm machines , IOWA State University , University extension.File A3-24 April 2002,PP4.

6.

Liliana.M & Mircea. B 2011, promotion OF RESEARCHES IN THE TECHNOLOGY FOR FOUNDING WEEDING CROPS IN UNPLOUGHED SOIL,Annals of the University of Craiova - Agriculture, Montanology, Cadastre Series . Vol. 41 No. 2 pp. 381-389.

7.

GENAIDY, M. A. I,2008. PERFORMANCE OF A SMALL COTTON TRANSPLANTER UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS. Misr J. Ag. Eng., 25(1): 1-14.

14 influnece of tillage full

Published on Oct 25, 2013

The experiment in one of the agricultural fields in the district Aziziyah / Wasit ,Was the clay loam soil, and used by the tractor TUMOSAN 7...

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