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International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD) ISSN(P): 2249-6890; ISSN(E): 2249-8001 Vol. 8, Issue 4, Aug 2018, 1099-1106 Š TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF NANOADDITIVES WITH BIODIESEL BLEND ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A LABORATORY CI ENGINE ANIL KUMAR PATIL1 & SHARANAPPA GODI GANUR2 1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki, Karnataka, India 2

School of Mechanical Engineering, Reva University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT Use of biodiesel has several disadvantages like higher density, lesser heating value, high fuel consumption and high oxides of nitrogen which affects the engine performance and emissions. These problems can be minimized by using additives in biodiesel. Many researchers have concluded that the additives play an important role for better combustion,

with fish oil biodiesel blend. The experiments were conducted on a four-stroke, direct injection laboratory compression ignition engine diesel for 40ppm, 80ppm and 120ppm of cobalt nano additive per liter is added with FOMEB20. The performance characters such as BSFC and BTE andemission characters such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were evaluated and the results were compared with diesel performance. Results have shown that the addition of nanoparticles to biodiesel resulted in reduced fuel consumption, improved brake thermal efficiency, reduction in CO and HC emissions and increased NOx emission due to better combustion quality of the fuel.

Original Article

fuel economy and improved characters. In the current study, it was decided to investigate the influence of cobalt oxide

KEYWORDS: Fish Oil Biodiesel, FFA, Nano Additives, Ultrasonicator, Diesel Engine, Performance & Emissions

Received: Jun 08, 2018; Accepted: Jul 22, 2018; Published: Aug 14, 2018; Paper Id.: IJMPERDAUG2018114

1. INTRODUCTION The tremendous growing population, subsequent energy utilization and the threat of global warming are alarming to search for a renewable alternative fuel. To save the environmental pollution, the government has imposed stringent regulations on the engine manufacturers to follow the emission rules. Biofuels are the most suitable alternate fuels which can reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and can replace petroleum fuels. Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats can be used in a diesel engine with or without minor modifications as the several properties of biodiesel and diesel are nearly similar. Biodiesel increases the oxygen content resulting in better combustion. There are certain disadvantages of using biodiesel such as reduced brake thermal efficiency and increased NOx emissions. These problems can be resolved by using nanoparticles in diesel/biodiesel. In the recent years, a lot of research is going on for the use of nanoparticles in the base fuel. Many researchers have presented that the use of nanoadditives in the base biodiesel not only improves the performance of the engine but also controls dangerous emissions like CO, HC, and NOx. Unique physicochemical characteristics (e.g. magnetic, optical and electrical features) make the use of nanoparticle ideal in manufacture industries. Researchers at [1]

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have shown significance of using the nanoparticles such as Cerium oxide (CeO), copper oxide (CuO), zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminium oxide and said that these nanoparticles used as fuel catalysts will reduce ignition delay, specific fuel consumption, increase brake thermal efficiency also have a control over harmful emissions. Nomenclature CI-Compression ignition FOME-Fish oil methyl ester FOMEB20 + CB40-20% Fish oil methyl ester + 40 ppm cobalt oxide CB-Cobalt oxide CeO-Cerium oxide Al2O3-Aluminum oxide CuO-Copper oxide MnO-Manganese oxide ZnO-Zinc oxide Cst-Centistoke KOH-Potassium hydroxide FFA-Free fatty acid BSFC-Brake specific fuel consumption BTE-Brake thermal efficiency CO-Carbon monoxide HC-Hydrocarbon NOx-Oxides of nitrogen Jones Matthew et. al [2] reported that the improvement in engine performance and reduction in exhaust emissions are obtained by adding some metal additives to biofuel as these nanoparticles contain higher surface to volume ratio and having higher surface area resulted in improved catalytic reactivity and magnetic properties. Diesel fuel reformulation has been conducted on the possible metal nanoparticles. Metal-based nanoparticles have been working as a combustion catalyst to help the combustion and reduce emissions. These metals based additives include calcium, cerium, cobalt, platinum, iron, and copper [3]. India has a very vast coastline and fisheries industry well developed. Because of the huge amount of availability of fish oil along the coastline, the cost production of biodiesel is low compared to other land-based trees which bear oil. Due to lack of awareness and no viable and economical use, in the coastal areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra, the fish oil is drained back into the sea. A number of industries and entrepreneurs have come up with fish oil biodiesel production at an economical cost as compared to other non-edible oils sources. The fish oil extracted from the discarded parts like head, tail,

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viscera etc. is used to produce the biodiesel by various methods. The fish oil biodiesel, also called fish oil methyl ester as it is produced through transesterification is clear and yellowish in color which can be used in any biodiesel engine. Fish oil can be used directly in diesel engines without any engine modifications as its properties are very close to that of pure diesel.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1. Biodiesel Production In due course of the test, it is observed that fish oil with high viscosity is having a high acid number. If it is transesterified in the presence of only sulphuric acid, a higher amount of acid is consumed decreasing the acid number resulted in the darkening of the final product. Hence the transesterification is carried out through all the three stages to get a clean yellowish biodiesel. In the first stage, it is optimized by adding methanol to fish oil with a volumetric ratio of 30:1 using orthophosphoric acid as the reagent. The mixture was heated for up to 1.5 hours at a constant temperature of 550C. 5.54% of FFA is produced in the first stage. The extra FFA (>2%) is converted into triglycerides in the second stage wherein 0.6% by vol. sulphuric acid was added to the oil-methanol ratio of 20:1 for a period of again 1.5 hours and at the same temperature. The experiment was directed for base catalyzed transesterification in the third stage in which 0.6% w/v of KOH was added to oil-methanol volumetric ratio of 12:1 yielding a maximum conversion of 97.2% at 60˚C with the reaction duration of 1.5 hours. The author’s et. al [4] have presented a detailed process of biodiesel production. Finally, the excess alcohol and other impurities present in methyl esters (biodiesel) are removed by washing the biodiesel with the water. Again, the separated biodiesel was heated at a constant temperature of 100˚C to remove the moisture. Table 2.1 shows the properties of biodiesel and diesel. Table 2.1: Properties of Diesel, Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blend Properties Density (kg/m3) Specific gravity Kinematic viscosity at 400C (Cst) Calorific value (kJ/kg) Flash point (0C) Fire point (0C) Oxygen content (%)

Diesel 850 0.850

Biodiesel 875 0.875

B20 870 0.866

3.0

4.0

3.68

43000 56 69 Nil

41325 175 188 10.8

41800 75 82 2.0

2.2. Nanoparticle Blending The process of adding nanoparticles to the fuel is done with the aid of an ultrasonic cleaner. The ultrasonicator technique enables to disperse the nanoparticles in the base fuel, as it helps in possible agglomerate nanoparticles back to nanometer range [5]. In this experiment, cobalt oxide nanoparticles are weighed to a predefined mass fraction say 40ppm, 80ppm and 250ppm dispersed in the biodiesel with the aid of ultrasonicator set at a frequency of 20 kHz for 30 minutes. The resulting nanoparticles blended biodiesel is named as FOMEB20+40CB, FOMEB20+80CB and FOMEB20+120CB. To avoid the settling down of the nanoparticles, the experiment was conducted within three hours of the blending.

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Figure 2.1: Schematic Layout of the Experimental Setup 3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The experimental setup is as shown in Figure 2.1 and engine the specifications are tabulated in Table 3.2. An AV1 Kirloskar diesel engine was used for the experimental work. The fuel injection pressure at 210 bar and speed at 1400 rpm are maintained constant. Time taken (in a sec) for the consumption of 10cc of fuel and the exhaust gas temperatures are noted at varying loads. The exhaust gases such as CO, Nox, and HC are measured by using the AVL exhaust gas analyzer. Experiments are conducted with pure diesel, diesel blend FOME for B20 and cobalt oxide nanoparticles as the additive by adding 40ppm, 80ppm, and 120ppm respectively. The curves are plotted for different parameters against Brake Power (BP). Table 3.2: Engine Specifications Model Engine Type Bore/Stroke Compression Ratio Total Displacement Volume Specific Fuel Consumption Speed

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Kirloskar – AV1 Diesel Engine Four stroke, Single cylinder, Direct injection 80mm/110mm 16.5:1 0.553L 245 g/KW-hr 1500 rpm

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0.9 25 Diesel FOMEB20 FOMEB20+CB40 FOMEB20+CB80 FOMEB20+CB120

0.7

20

BTE (%)

BSFC (kg/kW.hr)

0.8

0.6

0.5

15 Diesel FOMEB20 FOMEB20+CB40 FOMEB20+CB80 FOMEB20+CB120

10

5

0.4

0.3 0.5

0 1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

0.0

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3.0

BP (kW)

BP (kW)

Figure 3.2: Variation of BSFC with BP

Figure 3.3: Variation of BTE with BP

3.5

Diesel FOMEB20 FOMEB20+CB40 FOMEB20+CB80 FOMEB20+CB120

3.0

CO (%)

2.5

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0.0 0.0

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BP (KW)

Figure 3.4: Variation of CO with BP

Figure 3.5: Variation of HC with BP

Figure 3.6: Variation of NOx with BP

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This section reveals the performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine using FOME blend and cobalt oxide nanoparticles additives with three proportions. The results are compared with pure diesel performance. 4.1. Performance 4.1.1. BSFC BSFC is a measure of the efficiency of the engine in using the fuel provided to produce work. The BSFC of diesel

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engine depends mainly on the relationship between the volumetric fuel injection system, viscosity, fuel density, and energy contents. The lower heating value of the biodiesel resulted in increased values of BSFC compared to petrodiesel. Figure 3.2 shows the variation of BSFC with BP for diesel, FOMEB20, FOMEB20 + CB40, FOMEB20 + CB80 and FOMEB20 + CB120. It is observed that at all loads the BSFC of FOMEB20 + CB120 decreases by 7.6% as compared to FOMEB20 which may be due to the catalytic chemical oxidation of fuel leading to premixed combustion of the fuel. The researchers at [1, 13, 14, and 15] have reported a decrease in fuel consumption with the addition of nanoparticles to biodiesel. 4.1.2. Brake Thermal Efficiency The brake thermal efficiency indicates how efficient the energy of the fuel can be transformed into mechanical output. It is the ratio of the thermal energy of the fuel to the energy delivered by the engine at the crankshaft. As shown in figure 3.3 the BTE increases with an increase in load, at all load conditions the BTE of FOMEB20 is lower than diesel due to lower volatility and lower calorific value of the biodiesel. But the addition of nanoparticles to the biodiesel at 3/4th load shows 8.6% increment in BTE for FOMEB20 + CB120 compared to FOMEB20. This may be attributed to better combustion of the fuel. L. Jeryrajkumar et. al [14] in their experiment has shown an increase of 7% BTE for cobalt blended biodiesel. 4.2. Emissions 4.2.1. CO Emissions CO emissions critically depend on the air-fuel ratio relative to the stoichiometric proportions. As shown in figure 3.4 at initial loads, a similar trend is found with diesel, FOMEB20, and FOMEB20+Cobalt nano additives, but at higher loads, the lower value CO emission is obtained for the higher concentration of cobalt additives which may be due to improved ignition characteristics and better combustion in the engine cylinder. Similar results were found by researchers at [6, 7, and 8]. 4.2.2. HC Emissions HC emissions are the result of incomplete combustion of the hydrocarbon fuels. The hydrocarbon particles present in the fuel take part during combustion reaction in presence of the oxygen and excess HCs are emitted as unburnt hydrocarbons [6]. As shown in figure 3.5 at initial loads the HC emissions are higher for all fuels, then there is a slight decrease and again the rate of emissions increased further. The higher concentrations of nano additives resulted in decreased emission by 25-30 ppm than pure diesel. The experiments conducted by the researchers at [9, 10, 11] are also of the same opinion. 4.2.3. NOx emissions Many researchers have reported that there is a reduction in nitric oxide emissions with the addition of nanomaterials to the biodiesel [12]. For the titanium dioxide, blended biodiesel there is an increase in NOx emission at full load condition because the presence of fuel-bound oxygen promotes better combustion, resulting in higher cylinder temperature. At 50 % of the load, the cobalt oxide blended biodiesel shows that NOx emission is almost close to the pure biodiesel NOx emission [13]. Figure 3.6 shows the variations of NOx for diesel and FOMEB20 and FOMEB20 + additives with the load. With an increase in load, emissions of NOx increases and at all load conditions diesel emissions are inferior compared to FOMEB20 and CB additives. The emissions of FOMEB20CB120 are higher by 40ppm than pure diesel at full load. Impact Factor (JCC): 7.6197

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5. CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions are drawn from the investigation, •

The calorific value and kinematic viscosity of FOME are close to that of pure diesel.

There is a decrease in BSFC of CB nanoparticles blended FOME20 compared to FOMEB20.

The fish oil methyl ester having lesser BTE as compared with diesel. The nano additives blended biodiesel shows the slight increase in brake thermal efficiency.

At lower loads, CO emission for cobalt blended biodiesel is close to diesel, but at full load, the emissions are higher.

At all loads, the HC emissions are 30% – 35% lower compared to diesel.

The NOx emissions of cobalt blended FOMEB20 are greater than that of diesel.

SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK The performance and emission test conducted for cobalt nanoparticles added with fish oil methyl ester (B20), satisfactory results are obtained from the investigation except for NOx emissions. Most of the researchers have reported a decrease in NOx emissions for nanoparticles blended biodiesels. Hence, it essential to investigate withother biodiesels to get the clarifications. REFERENCES 1.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF NANOADDITIVES WITH BIODIESEL BLEND ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIO  

Use of biodiesel has several disadvantages like higher density, lesser heating value, high fuel consumption and high oxides of nitrogen whic...

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF NANOADDITIVES WITH BIODIESEL BLEND ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIO  

Use of biodiesel has several disadvantages like higher density, lesser heating value, high fuel consumption and high oxides of nitrogen whic...

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