Page 1

International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research (IJEEER) ISSN 2250-155X Vol. 2 Issue 4 Dec - 2012 73-79 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.,

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC AND PEM FUEL CELL INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEM FOR RURAL AREA MANISH KHEMARIYA & ARVIND MITTAL Department of Energy, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India

ABSTRACT The conventional fossil fuel energy sources such as petroleum, natural gas, and coal which meet most of the world’s energy demand today are being depleted rapidly. Also, their combustion products are causing global problems such as the greenhouse effect and pollution which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the entire life on our planet. Hence renewable energy sources (solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, fuel cell etc.) are attracting more attention as an alternative energy. Among the renewable energy source, the most common combinations are Solar and wind & Solar Photovoltaic and PEM Fuel Cell Integrated system. Design of a integrated energy system is site specific and it depends upon the resources available and the load demand. This paper describes design, simulation and feasibility study of a Solar PV and PEM Fuel Cell Integrated system for rural area. National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s HOMER software was used to select an optimum cost of energy integrated system.

KEYWORDS: Stand-alone System, Integrated energy System, Optimization, HOMER INTRODUCTION In a Integrated energy system a number of electrical power generators and electrical energy storage components are combined together to meet the electrical energy demand of remote as well as rural area or even a whole community. In addition to PV generators, small hydro plants, fuel cells, wind generators and others sources of electrical energy can be added as needed to meet the electrical energy demand in a way other specifies. An Integrated energy system, also used as a stand alone power system, is an autonomous system that supplies electricity to the user load without being connected to the electrical power grid. Such Integrated systems have applications in remote and inaccessible areas where the population is living without electricity. In remote and rural areas the grid connection is not technically feasible and also not a cost effective option, therefore integrated energy systems are well suited for such area. The purpose of this paper is the optimal design of a solar photovoltaic and PEM fuel cell Integrated energy system. [2, 3]. The present Global energy consumption scenario is not very encouraging, if we see the energy consumption of developed countries like Japan and Germany it is 6kw per person and USA with an energy consumption of 11.4kw per person. While if we see the same rate in developing countries like India and Bangladesh it is merely 0.7kw and0.2kw per person respectively. So, this vast deference encourages us to opt for a alternative energy sources.National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software has been employed to carry out the present study. HOMER performs comparative economic analysis on a distributed generation power systems. Inputs to HOMER will perform an hourly simulation of every possible combination of components entered and rank the systems according to user-specified criteria, such as cost of energy (COE, US$/kWh) or capital costs. In this paper the simulation of an Integrated energy system composed of Solar Photovoltaic together with PEM Fuel Cell, and battery storage has been performed and a power management strategy has designed. Finally the HOMER Optimization results and discussion have been presented.


Manish Khemariya & Arvind Mittal

74

LOAD DEMAND FOR PROPOSED AREA In a remote rural village the demand for electricity is not so high as compared to urban areas. The basic energy requirements in such areas can be classified as domestic & agricultural .In the domestic sector electricity is required for appliances like CFL Lamp, fan, radio and in agricultural mainly it is water pumping system. An approximate number of electrical appliances used by 15 families of a rural village Jhariyakhedi, district Bhopal of Madhya Pradesh(India). Table I: Electrical Appliances Used by15 Families. Electrical Appliance Lighting load (Bulb/Tube light /CFL Fan Miscellaneous load(Radio/TV) I.M.

Power Type AC

Power Consumed [W] 60/25/15

Total No 15/12/20

AC AC

55 30/140

15 15/8

A.C.

5 H.P.(3730 W)

4

The load demand in the morning and late night hours are small. In this study we assumed that after the sun set load requirements becomes high. In the winter season load requirement is small and in the summer season load requirement is high. If it is considered component wise it is found that in the winter season the use of ceiling fan is minimum for this projected area. But in summer almost all the appliances gets the highest load demand. Here Figure 1 explores the average hourly load profile in the month of April.Figure2.shows the monthly load profile in a rural village Jhariyakhedi; district Bhopal of Madhya Pradesh (India). The measured annual average energy consumption has been consider to scale the load to 41 (kWh/d) in the present study. The peak requirements of the load dictate the system size. In this study 4.3 kW has been considered to scale peak load.

Figure1: The Average Hourly Load Profile

Figure 2: Monthly Load Profile in a Rural Village Jhariyakhedi; District Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh)


Optimal Design of a Solar Photovoltaic and PEM Fuel Cell Integrated Energy System for Rural Area

75

PROPOSED INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEM A Solar photovoltaic energy source should be integrated with other energy sources, whether used in either a standalone or grid-connected mode. Stand-alone energy systems are very popular, especially in remote areas. The system under study in this paper is the combination of a solar photovoltaic and PEM fuel cell based Integrated energy system, which consist of a photovoltaic generator, a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and Power Conditioning unit. The object of the study is to reach a design that optimizes the operation of a solar photovoltaic and PEM fuel cell integrated energy system [9,10].

Figure 3: Proposed Block Diagram of Solar Photovoltaic and PEM fuel Cell Based Integrated Energy System

DETAILS OF THE COMPONENTS Integrated energy system made up of Solar Photovoltaic together with PEM FC, and battery storage. The optimization of the size of integrated energy system is very important, and leads to a good ratio between cost and performances. Table II. Details of the Components Solar Photovoltaic 5 kW 2000 $/kW 1800 $/kW 10 $/year/kW 20 year No Tracking 30 % PEM Fuel Cell Power Produced 5 kW Capital Cost 3000 $/kW Replacement Cost 2500 $/kW O & M Cost 1 $/h/kW Life Time 1500 hours Efficiency 40 % Electrolyser Power Produced 5 kW Capital Cost 1800 $/kW Replacement Cost 1500 $/kW O & M Cost 10 $/year/kW Life Time 20 year Efficiency 85 % Power Produced Capital Cost Replacement Cost O & M Cost Life Time Tracking System Efficiency


Manish Khemariya & Arvind Mittal

76

Capital Cost Technology Capacity Nominal Capacity Voltage Min SOC Capital Cost Replacement Cost Life Time Capacity Capital Cost Replacement Cost O & M Cost Life Time Efficiency

Hydorgen Tank 1000 $/kg Battery Hoppecke20OPzS2500 5 kWh 2500 Ah 2V 30 % 250 $ 200 $ 20 year Converter 5 kWh 1500 $ 1300 $ 10 $/year 15 year 90 %

HOMER SIMULATION MODEL HOMER is an abbreviation of Hybrid Optimization Model For Electrical Renewable [8].This optimization model simulates the operation of a system by making energy balance calculations for each of the 8,760 hours in a year. For each hour, HOMER compares the electric demand to the energy that the system can supply in that hour, and calculates the flows of energy to and from each component of the system. HOMER performs these energy balance calculations and system cost calculations for each system configuration considered. Simulation results a list of all of the possible system sizes, sorted by Net Present Cost (NPC).The model has been developed using HOMER, consists of a Solar PV, PEM Fuel Cell Fed by Hydrogen, battery and Electrolyzer. The schematic of this integrated energy power system is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: HOMER Simulation Model of Solar PV and PEM Fuel Cell Based Integrated Energy System

INTEGRATED SYSTEM COST OPTIMIZATION The main aim of this study is to achieve a integrated energy generation system which should be approximant designed in term of economic, reliability measures subject to physical and operational strategies. The integrated system cost (ISC) is defined as sum of Solar Photovoltaic system cost CSPV, PEM Fuel Cell Cost CPEMFC, battery Cost CBAT, Electrolyser cost CELECTO, Power Converter cost CPCON and hydrogen tank cost CHTANK CIS= CSPV + CPEMFC + CBAT + CELECTO + CPCON +CHTANK Cost of each element of integrated energy system

(1)


Optimal Design of a Solar Photovoltaic and PEM Fuel Cell Integrated Energy System for Rural Area

Cek = Nk*[CapCk + RepCk*Mk + OMCk]

77

(2)

k= Solar PV; PEM Fuel Cell; Power Converter; Electrolyser; Hydrogen tank Nk=Number/Size of Integrated system component CapCk=Capital Cost of Integrated system component. RepCk=Replacement Cost of Integrated system component; Mk is no of replacement. OMCk=Operation and maintenance cost of Integrated system component.

HOMER SIMULATION RESULTS In this section we used the HOMER simulation model which consist of Solar Photovoltaic, PEM Fuel Cell, Battery and Electrolyser. The main energy source is Solar Photovoltaic whose capacity has been allowed to varies from 0 to 5 kW.PEM Fuel Cell power has been considered to change from 0 to 3 kW.The overall optimisation results with net present cost of HOMER Simulation model for 5.18 (kWh/m2/d) Solar radiations are shown in figure 5.

Figure 5: Overall Optimization Results with Net Present Cost The cost of energy(COE) of Integrated energy Solar PV/PEM Fuel Cell/Battery/Electrolyser system is found to be 0.239 ($/kWh).Figure 6. shows the total renewable power output. Figure 7 shows the cash flow summary based on capital, replacement, operating cost v/s net present cost. The cost of integrated system component is given in figure 8.

Figure 6: Total Renewable Power Output


Manish Khemariya & Arvind Mittal

78

Figure 7: Cash Flow Summary Based on Capital, Replacement, Operating Cost V/S Net Present Cost

Figure 8: Cost of Integrated System Component

CONCLUSIONS 1.

In this paper, Solar photovoltaic and PEM fuel cell based integrated energy system optimization based on HOMER software has been discussed.

2.

The cost flow summary and cost of integrated energy system has been calculated for the designed integrated system.

3.

The results analysis shows the combination of Solar photovoltaic and PEM fuel cell for off grid system proposed for rural village Jhariyakhedi located in Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh(India)

4.

The cost of Solar photovoltaic and PEM fuel cell based integrated energy system has been found 0.239($/kWh).

REFERENCES 1.

Kaldellis J.K., Kondili, E. & Filios, A, (2006), Sizing a hybrid wind-diesel stand-alone system on the basis of minimum long-term electricity production cost, Applied Energy, Vol.83, (pp. 1384–1403).

2.

Z.M. Darus, N.A. Hashim, (2009). The Development Of hybrid Integrated renewable Energy System for Sustainable Living at perhentian Island, Malaysia, European Journal of Social Science, Vol. 9, No.4 (pp.124-132).

3.

Dufo-Lopez, R. & Bernal-Agustin, J.L., (2007).Optimization of control strategies for stand-alone renewable energy systems with hydrogen storage, Renewable Energy, Vol.32, , (pp. 1102-1126).

4.

Kaushik Rajashekara, (2005). Hybrid Fuel Cell strategies for clean power generation,� IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 41, No. 3(pp.682-689),

5.

D. B. Nelson, M. H. Nehrir, and C. Wang, (2005) Unit sizing of stand-alone hybrid wind/PV/fuel cell power generation systems, IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting., vol. 3, June, (pp. 2116-2122).


Optimal Design of a Solar Photovoltaic and PEM Fuel Cell Integrated Energy System for Rural Area

6.

79

Katti K., Khedkar M.K. (2007) Alternative energy facilities based on site matching and generation unit sizing for remote area power supply. Renewable Energy;32(2), (pp.1346–1366).

7.

S. Jalilzadeh, A. Rohani, H. Kord, and M. Nemati, (2009) Optimum design of a hybrid Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell energy system for stand-alone applications IEEE Int. Conf. on Electrical Engineering, and Electronics (ECTI), vol. 1, (pp. 152-155), Thailand,

8.

Dufo-Lopez, R. & Bernal-Agustin, J.L., (2007) Optimization of control strategies for stand-alone renewable energy systems with hydrogen storage, Renewable Energy, Vol.32, (pp. 1102-1126).

9.

J. Lagorse, M.G. Simo˜es, A.Miraoui, (2008), Energy cost analysis of a solar-hydrogen hybrid energy system for stand-alone applications, International Journal Of Hydrogen Energy (pp .2871–2879).

10. S.M. Shaahid, and M.A. Elhadidy, (2008).Economic analysis of hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery power systems for residential loads in hot regions-A step to clean future, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, (pp.488503).

10.EEE.Optimal.FULL