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ALUMNO: Alan Tirado Pérez

PROFESOR: Ing. Julio Carlos Delgado H.


Plastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function. Though cosmetic or aesthetic surgery is the best-known kind of plastic surgery, most plastic surgery is not cosmetic: plastic surgery includes many types of reconstructive surgery, hand surgery,microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. 20th century In World War I, a New Zealand otolaryngologist working in London, Harold Gillies developed many of the techniques of modern facial surgery in caring for soldiers suffering from disfiguring facial injuries. Kazanjian and Blair, two men hired for plastic surgery by the United States army, learned from Gillies in England.[11] His work was expanded upon during World War II by his cousin (23.01.2012) and former studentArchibald McIndoe, who pioneered treatments for RAF aircrew suffering from severe burns. McIndoe's radical, experimental treatments, led to the formation of the Guinea Pig Club. In 1946, Gillies carried out the first female-to-male sex reassignment surgery.

Techniques and procedures In plastic surgery, the transfer of skin tissue (skin grafting) is a very common procedure. Skin grafts can be taken from the recipient or donors: 

Autografts are taken from the recipient. If absent or deficient of natural tissue, alternatives can be cultured sheets of epithelial cells in vitro or synthetic compounds, such as integra, which consists of silicone and bovine tendon collagen with glycosaminoglycans. (23.01.2012)

Allografts are taken from a donor of the same species.

Xenografts are taken from a donor of a different species. (23.01.2012)

Reconstructive surgery

Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by burns; traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures and breaks; congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips; developmental abnormalities; infection and disease; and cancer or tumors. Reconstructive plastic surgery is usually performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance. The most common reconstructive procedures are tumor removal, laceration repair, scar repair, hand surgery, and breast reduction. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, the number of reconstructive breast reductions for women increased in 2007 by 2 percent from the year before. Breast reduction in men also increased in 2007 by 7 percent.






procedures include breast

reconstruction after a mastectomy, cleft lip and palate surgery, contracture surgery for burn survivors, and creating a new outer ear when one is congenitally absent. Plastic surgeons use microsurgery to transfer tissue for coverage of a defect when no local tissue is available. Free flaps of skin, muscle, bone, fat, or a combination may be removed from the body, moved to another site on the body, and reconnected to a blood supply by suturing arteries and veins as small as 1 to 2 millimeters in diameter .

Cosmetic surgery Aesthetic plastic surgery can also be called as Medical aesthetics involves





"enhancement" of appearance through surgical and medical techniques, and is specifically concerned with maintaining






enhancing it beyond the average level toward some aesthetic ideal. In 2006, nearly 11 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States alone. The number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United States has increased over 50 percent since the start of the century. Nearly 12 million cosmetic procedures were performed in 2007, with the five most common surgeries being breast augmentation, liposuction, nasal surgery, eyelid surgery (23.012012)

and abdominoplasty. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery looks at the statistics for thirty-four different cosmetic

procedures. Nineteen of the procedures are surgical, such as rhinoplasty or facelift. The nonsurgical procedures include Botox and laser hair removal. In 2010, their survey revealed that there were 9,336,814 total procedures in the United States. Of those, 1,622,290 procedures were surgical (p. 5). They also found that a large majority, 81%, of the procedures were done on Caucasian people (p. 12).[12]The increased use of cosmetic procedures crosses racial and ethnic lines in the U.S., with increases seen among AfricanAmericans and Hispanic Americans as well as Caucasian Americans. In Europe, the second largest market for cosmetic procedures, cosmetic surgery is a $2.2 billion business.[13]Cosmetic surgery is now very common in countries such as the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. In Asia, cosmetic surgery has become an accepted practice, and

China, followed by India has become Asia's biggest comestic surgery markets. [14] Children undergoing cosmetic eye surgery can be seen in Japan and South Korea

Sub-specialties *burn *Cosmetic *Craniofacial *hand *Micro *Pediatric (23.01.2012)

plastic surgery  

Plastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function

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