Issuu on Google+

"Settling the Colonies Booklet" activity, as described on page 4' Note: Reproduce pages 9-11 for students to use with the

THE NEW ENGLAI{D COLOI{IES

Connecticut (1633)

Massachusetts (1620)

New Hampshire (1622)

Rhode lsland (1636)

Algonquian lndian words meaning "on the long tidal river"

Farming (corn and wheat), fishing

Massachuset lndian words meaning "near the great

hill"

Farming (corn and cattle), fishing, lumbering, shipbuilding

County of HamPshire in England

Farming (potatoes), fishing, textiles, shiPbuilding

Dutch words for "red island"

Farming (cattle and dairY), fishing, lumbering

A *av,nn

. ^^l^^i^l

Pr)T-Kf,'T I.INTRODTTCTION TO COLONIAL AMER]CA


THE MIDDLE COLONIES

Delaware (1638)

New Jersey (1664)

New York (1624)

Delaware tribe and early governor of Virginia, Lord de la Warr

Fishing, lumbering

lsle of Jersey in England

I

Duke of York

Farming (cattle, rice, indigo, wheat), i ronworks,

ronworking,

lu

mbering

shipbuilding

Pennsylvania (1682)

1O

POCKET

1.

William Penn and sylvonia (Latin for forest)

INTRODUCTION TO COLONIAL AMERICA

Farming (corn, wheat, cattle, dairy), papermaking, textiles, shipbuilding

EMC 3709 . Colonial America . 02003 bv Evan-Moor CorD.


THE SOUTHERN COLOI{IES

Virginia

North Carolina

South Carolina

Georgia

Carolina (1663)

'',

Carolus (Latin for Charles), Charles I of England

Farming (indigo, rice, tobacco)

Georgia (1732)

King George ll of England

Farming (indigo, rice, sugar)

Maryland (1632)

Queen Henrietta Maria of England

Farming (corn, indigo, rice, wheat), ironworks, shipbuilding

Elizabeth I of England

Farming (corn, tobacco, wheat)

North Carolina (1712) South Carolina (1712)

Virginia (1607)

02003 by Evan-Moor Corp. 'EMC 3709 'Colonial America

POCKET l.INTRODUCTION TO COLONIAL

AMERICA

11


1750

Colonial Lifestyles The New England Colonies

The Southern Colonies

Most settlers in the New England colonies did some farming, but the land was actually poor for growing crops. It was strewn with rocks and tree stumps, and the growing season was short. There were many fine

Agriculture dominated the economy of the southem colonies. Large plantations were established by successful landowners and used to grow cash crops, which were exported rather than sold to the local population. Tobacco, rice, wheat, and indigo (a blue dye) were the main cash crops. This kind of economy required alarge supply of cheap labor. Although indentured servants were used in the early years of settlement, the importation of black slaves from Africa soon became the source of cheap labor. The southern colonies included Virginia, Maryland, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Caroiina. Charleston, South Carolina, and Savannah, Georgia, were thriving ports where crops could be exported and supplies

harbors, however, and many colonists were involved in fishing, shipbuilding, and shipping goods to and from other colonies and England. There were many merchants, artisans, and skilled workers in these towns. Most families lived near a village, shopped regularly, and attended weekly church services. Many of the citizens were Puritans or other dissenters from the official Church of England. The New England colonies included Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire.

imported.

The Middle Colonies New York, Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania comprised the middle colonies. There were many English settlers but also people from Germany, Sweden, Scotland, the Netherlands, and other countries. These colonies were often freer about practicing unpopular religions and were open to Quakers, Catholics, Jews, and dissenters from established churches in Europe. Most people owned small farms, although some wealthy landowners had huge holdings, especiaily in New York and New Jersey. The most powerful Indian tribe was the Iroquois, a powerful oonfederation of tribes in New York.

#32 1 3 Cokt:tiul Attrt

ritrr

t1

Q7?ttclrcr Created Resources, Inc,


1750

Colonial Lifestyles Travel and Transportation

(con, )

Strangers were usually distrusted. The sheriff might warn a stranger that if he caused any trouble he would be run out of town or amested. Because many con men and other criminals were travelers, this was sometimes a sensible precaution. People were very impressed by family connections, titles, wealth, length of residence in a community, education, and political influence.

The fastest way to travel anywhere during colonial times was by water. Colonists crossed the Atlantic Ocean in sailing ships to get to the New World. Most early towns and cities were built along the Atlantic coast or near rivers so that trade and travel would be easier. Rafts, keelboats, and canoes were used to travel along rivers and streams. Cities such as Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Charleston developed into important ports.

Personal Hygiene It is difficult today to imagine the sanitary

On land most people traveled by foot. Some colonists could walk as many as 30 miles in 10 hours. Roads were usually trails or dirt tracks used by wagons. Some rode horses, and many families owned a wagon. A few wealthy men owned carriages or coaches. People traveling from one city to another on business usually took a stagecoach, which provided a bone-jarring ride, often punctuated by bad weather, impassable roads, mechanical breakdowns, and the sheer monotony of a iong, dusty ride. By the mid1700s there was a network of roads connecting the major cities.

conditions that were common during colonial times. The only showers that people took occurred when they were caught in a thunderstorm, and baths were virtually unknown. Sometimes men and boys took a swim in the summer, but women and girls rarely bathed. Deodorant had not come into use, and perfume was seldom used. Clothes were washed only about once a month and sometimes even less often. Many colonists had pockmarks on their faces from having contracted and survived smallpox.

Village Life Village life during colonial times would shock most modern Americans. The streets were rarely paved. They were muddy in the wet seasons and full of dirt at all times. Waste products from horses, cattle, and freeroaming pigs ended up in the streets. It was noisy, too, with the sounds of people and animals, rattling carts, and the hammering of craftsmen.

@Teacher Created Resources. Inc.

t5

#3213 CoLonial America


[l**_-e-** 1650 1600

1750

17oo

Colonial Lifestyles

1800

1850

(cont )

victim's tongue. Poor communities made do with a split shaft of wood placed over the tongue. Neither afforded the gossip any opportunity to talk.

Crime and Punishment In colonial days, punishments for criminal offenses involved both shame and physical pain. In fact, almost all punishments involved some form of public humiliation witnessed by the community and family. By today's standards, they seem exceedingly

Criminals often had their ears sliced partially or completely off or were branded. A person branded with a capital "T" was a thief. A criminal could wear an "F" for forgery, a "B" o'R" for rogue or vagabond' for burglar, or an Capital crimes, which carried the death penalty, were usually carried out on the gallows where men were hanged and their bodies sometimes allowed to rot as a warning to other criminals.

degrading. Stocks were wooden frameworks in which the ankles and wrists were locked while the criminal sat on the ground. These could be used for people who were public nuisances and also for more serious crimes. The pillorlt was a favorite punishment for treason, witchcraft, perjury, wife beating, forgery,

cheating, fortune telling, or drunkenness. The pillory had holes for the victim's head and hands. People were permitted to throw stones or rotten food at the person in the pillory. A bilboe. was a long heavy bar used to shackle ancl hold a culprit up by the legs.

Criminals could also be tied to the whipping post and publicly flogged tor everything from disturbing the peace to being a slave running away from an owner. The ducking stool was another method used. It had a seat tied to a long rail. The person sentenced to this form of punishment was ducked in and out of a pond or river several times. It was a popular punishment for scolds, nagging women, and quarelsome couples. Gossips and nagging women often were forced to r.vear a gossip's bridle, or brank. It was an iron cagd over the head with an iron tongue, often with spikes, placed over the

#32 1 3 CoLon.ial Anrc

riur

16

QTe tu:

h rt

r

C re

ated

Re

s

ource s,

Inc'


bffi,w***we*'lN

-*Fâ‚Ź.*-Bs*@.

1500

1650

1700

@l@

1750

1800

18s0

Children and Education Children and Chores

At the Table

Although children enjoyed playing and adults valued opportunities to recreate, every member of the family and the colonial community worked long hours. Even small children barely past the toddler stage were expected to work. Children arose at dawn with the rest of the family. They gathered firewood, shucked corn, made their beds, and did errands.

Children often did not sit at the main table with their parents. In some cases, they stood behind an adult who handed them food. In other homes, they sat at a separate table or at one end of the table. Children were expected to eat silently, quickly, and without asking for anything. The salt shaker was often a boundary between the parents on one side of the table and children and servants on the other side. Children and servants were said to be "below the salt," indicating a lessfavored place.

Older children often attended school when they were not needed to work in the fields. But before and after school and during days off, they fed the animals, milked cows, worked in the garden, cut wood, made brooms, churned butter, made candles and soap, and often helped prepare meals or clean up afterward. Many children learned to hunt alone for squirrels, possums, rabbits, and other small animals before they were 10 years old.

Games and Entertainment When they were not doing chores, children enjoyed many simple games and activities. They liked walking on stilts, rolling hoops, or playing with tops. They played Blindman's Bluff and hide-and-seek. Children made and flew kites and went fishing in nearby brooks. They also had swings on trees and seesaw boards. They bowled on grass or dirt, rolled marbles, and played quoits by trying to toss a ring over a stake. Some colonists also enjoyed playing board games, charades, card games, and chess in the evening. A few had time to read or play a musical instrument, such as the violin.

@Teacher Created Resources, Inc.

t7

ll

t

l l.l ('rilttttlttl

Arnrr lt rt


t**--'-=-'

-:-

-..-li-=z--

1600

_

-_

l-. - .--:*

1650

1750

1700

1800

1850

Children and Education (conr) New England Schools

Home Learning

Massachusetts passed a law h 1642 that required parents to teach their children to read. In 1647 Massachusetts required that every town with 50 families set up a school that all children could attend' Some private

Most children were educated at home' They received on-the-job training as farmers and craftsmen. Boys often learned a trade by helping their fathers. Mothers taught their daughters to cook, sew, spin, and care for the home, although daughters often learned how to care for livestock, plant crops, and help in their father's occupation as well.

grade schools and academies were started even before that. Education was considered important so that people could read the Bible and participate in church activities.

Some parents knew how to read and write and taught these skills to their children. Books were expensive and rare in most homes although most families did own a Bible. In the 1700s almanacs, newspapers, and some cheaper books became more

Because paper was rare and expensive, there were few books. Children learned from primers and a hornbook. A piece of paper with the alphabet, the Lord's Prayer, Roman numerals, or the like was covered by a transparent sheet of cow horn and mounted on a piece of wood with a handle at one end

common.

Apprenticeships

for the child to hold.

Sometimes very young children became apprentices, and it was quite common for a boy of 10 or l1 to be apprenticed to a craftsman in order to learn a trade. The apprentice lived with the master and was fed by him. The master had complete power over an apprentice, who couid be punished or whipped for disobedience or doing a job poorly. Children were apprenticed to become candle makers, tanners, wagon builders, silversmiths, printers, glass blowers, and many other trades. Ben Franklin, for example, learned his trade as a printer when he was apprenticed to his older brother.

#32 I

3 Colonial Amtrit'u

t8

OTeacher Created Resources, Inc.


Children and Education (con,) Higher Education

Education in the Southern Colonies

Quite a few of the original leaders of New England were college-educated men. Harvard College in Massachusetts was established in 1636. It was supported by a tax on the general populace. Latin grammar schools, both public and private, prepared students for coilege and offered classes in religion, mathematics, Latin, Greek, and English composition. Some academies were established in the 1700s to provide specialized education in practical subjects. Some academies allowed girls or were established for girls only. However, none of the half-dozen colleges in the colonial period admitted women.

Southern educational experiences were much more rare. The sons of wealthy planters went to college in Europe or to William and Mary College, founded in 1693. There were few opportunities for poor or middle class children to receive even a grade-school education, although this improved somewhat in the 1700s.

Education in the Middle Colonies The middle colonies offered some opportunities for children to be educated, but publicly financed schools were not required as in Massachusetts. Parents desiring to improve their station in life and who wanted their children to be successful sent their children to local, private schools. One of the most common books in these schools was the New England Primer It was first published in the 1690s and had the Ten Commandments, some religious instruction, rhymes for the alphabet, and similar material. Good penmanship was considered a mark of an educated man. A few colleges had started in these colonies.

It was illegal in most southern states to teach slaves to read and write. Owners feared that education would make the slaves realize how badly they were treated and encourage them to escape or revolt. However, some slave owners did teach their slaves.


[g-.-,"

**

1600

1650

1750

1700

1800

1850

l{ative Americans and New Settlers Indian who had been kidnapped and taken to England years earlier. He spoke English and showed the new settlers which crops to plant and how to plant them in the cold New England climate. He also helped them fish and find clams. These Pilgrims also were able to make friends with Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag tribe. The settlers of Jamestown learned to survive from their Indian neighbors as well. The Indians introduced them to new foods and traded with them when they needed food.

Land Use In every colony the basic conflict between the colonists and the Native Americans involved land. Indians of every tribe had been accustomed to living on and using the land freely. Many tribes planted some crops, but they also hunted and fished over wide areas. The white colonists fenced off their land, dug up the earth, and destroyed the hunting grounds. Even when the whites purchased iand from the Indians-usually for things of little real value-the Indians were only conceding the right of the colonists to use the land as they did themselves. The Indians did not have a sense of land ownership that allowed people to exclude others from using it, too.

Penn's Attitude Some colonies had more enlightened Indian policies. Wiliiam Penn actually did buy land from the Indians, and he insisted that they be treated fairly. The Quaker people who settled Pennsylvania usually had respect for their Indian neighbors. Roger Williams not only purchased Rhode Island land from the Narraganset Indians but also lived with them one winter and learned their language. He was respectful of their culture, and they appreciated his attitude.

lndian Guides Some colonies would never have succeeded without the help of Native Americans. The Pilgrims who came on the Mayflower would probably not have survived if they had not been fortunate enough to meet Squanto, an

#3213 Colonial America

20

ATeucher Created Resources, Inc.


1750

Natirre Americans and New Settlers Trade

(cont)

spread through large areas and sometimes decimated whole tribes.

When European settlers and Indians met, they usually exchanged gifts and engaged in trade. The colonists wanted food, furs, and sometimes information. The Native Americans were especially attracted to guns, hatchets, steel knives, cloth, beads, and glass objects. Indians often became dependent on these European products and stopped using their native weapons, clothes, and tools.

Conf

lict

Many Indians and whites reached the same conclusion. They understood that the whites were unwilling and unable to truly live in peace and share the land. Sometimes a colony deliberately determined to drive the Indians off the land. Some whites used racism or religion as an excuse to kill the Indians. As a result, some Indians became violently opposed to the culture and existence of the Europeans.

Some tribes became very dependent on firearms and ammunition. Guns gave a tribe enormous military advantages over tribes that had less access to firearms. When the Mohawk Indians acquired weapons from their Dutch neighbors in New York, for example, they achieved great power over the Algonquian tribes in their homeland. Sometimes trade also helped to cement alliances between Europeans and Indian tribes. Hatred for the French coupled with English trade kept the powerful Iroquois confederacy strongly supportive of the English during the French and Indian War and also during the American Revolution.

Disease The clash of cultures between the Europeans and the Native Americans had a severe impact on most tribes. Diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza wiped out entire villages because the native people had no immunity to diseases they had never encountered. During the 150 years of colonization, more Indians died of disease than from any other cause. These epidemics

@Teacher Created Resources. Inc.

2t

#3213 Colonial America


1850

Colonial Time Line 1492-Chri stopher C ol umbu

s di scovers Americ a.

1565-The first permanent colony in present-day United

States is founded by the Spanish at

St. Augustine, Florida.

1585-Sir Walter Raleigh establishes the first English colony in North America It does not survive.

at Roanoke, Virginia.

1607-The first permanent English settlement in North America is founded at Jamestown, Virginia. Pocahontas saves John Smith's life. 1609-Henry Hudson explores the Hudson River, Virginians begin growing tobacco as a cash crop. About 440 of 500 Jamestown residents die during a winter of starvation. 1613-Pocahontas is kidnapped by Jamestown colonists. 1614-Pocahontas marries John Rolfe in Jamestown.

1616-Smallpox epidemic destroys most of the Indian tribes from Maine to Rhode Island. l6l7-Pocahontas dies of smallpox in England.

1619-The first African

slaves

arive in Virginia.

The first legislative assembly in the English colonies, the House of Burgesses, convenes in Virginia.

1620-Pilgrims arrive on the Mayflower and found Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts. 1622-Jamestown's conflict with powerful neighboring Indian tribes leads to massacres of white settlers and Indians.

1624-The Dutch begin settling New Netherlands. 1626-Dutch West India Company buys Manhattan Island from the Indians.

1627-About

1,500 kidnapped children arrive in Virginia from England to help populate the colony.

1629-lxbout 900 Puritans led by John Winthrop found Massachusetts Bay Colony. 1630-John Winthrop establishes the town of Boston.

L632-Lord Baltimore founds the colony of Maryland.

1634-A smallpox epidemic kills mole than 90 per cent of Indians living in the Connecticut River Valley.

1636-Roger Williams establishes a colony in Rhode lsland open to diverse religious groups. Thomas Hooker leads settlers establishing colony in Connecticut. Harvard College is founded in Massachusetts. 1637-Religious dissenter Anne Hutchinson flees from the Massachusetts Bay Colony to Rhode Island. The colony of New Sweden is founded in what is now Delaware.

@Teacher Created Resources, Inc.

6t

#3213 Colonial Americu


Colonial Time Line

(cont)

I647-Massachusetts requires public schools in most settlements.

1652-Rhode Island enacts the first law in the colonies banning slavery' L663-Carolina is founded. it New York' York property' New his from The Duke of York cfeates New Jersey

1664-The English capture New Amsterdam

and rename

1670-Charleston is founded in South Carolina'

1675-King philip's War between colonists and Indians

ieads to massacres on both sides'

I676-Bacon's Rebellion against the Virginia government destroys much of Jamestown. 1679-New Hampshire is fbunded. 1681-Witliam

Penn founds Pennsylvania as a Quaker colony'

1701-Delaware becomes independent of Pennsylvania.

L704-The Boston News-Letter becomes the first successful newspaper in the British colonies. 1706-Ben Franklin is born in Boston, 1730-North

Massachusetts.

and South Carolina split into two royal colonies.

1732-Georgia is founded as a haven for debtors by James Oglethorpe. Ben Franklin begins publishing Poor Richard's Almanac'

I734-The

Great Awakening, a widespread religious revival, spreads through the colonies'

1752-Ben Franklin performs his famous kite experiment.

\754-The French

and Indian War between France and Britain begins.

1763-The French

and Indian War ends with British control of eastern North America.

Assignment 1. Find at least 10 dates in American history before 1800 to add to the Colonial Time Line" These dates could include wars, inventions, disasters, birth dates of colonial leaders, or other events. Use textbooks, encyclopedias, and Internet searches to find events and dates.

2. Make a list of these dates in chronological (time) order to share with the class. Be sure to include brief background intbrmation about each of these additional dates. Extension 1. Make a time.line with 10 important world events that have occurred in your lifetitpe.

2. Then add 3.

tl-12

10 dates of important events in your own

Share your time line

I.l ('rtlttttirtl

Atnt'ri< tt

life to the time line.

with a small group or the entire

62

class.

@Teacher Created Resources, Inc.


Where Were the First Colonies?

Where Were the First Colonies? By the mid 1700s, there were many colonies along the eastern coast of what later became the United States.

Use an atlas or other reference Sources' Label these cities on the map' Baltimore New York Portsmouth Savannah

Albany Hartford Plymouth Salem

6\ hilarlz Trrain hlodia

lnc

PrrblishefS

Boston Norfolk Providence Williamsburg

Charles Town (Charleston) Philadelphia Saint Augustine


Readers' Theater: The Starving Time The following script is a tictional account of a meeting at the end of the terrible winter when the settlement o1'Jamestown came close to total failure.

of 1609*1610

Narrator:

The tirne is May l6l0 in Jamestown, virginia, after a terrible winter which f'ewer than 60 settlers out oi 500 have survivecl. Thc settlement had been on the edge of survival since it was founcJecl ip the spring of 1607. Most of the settlers were spoiled gentlemen adventurers who_were not prepared by personuiity ot iraining for a life of extreme physical labor and hardihip. only a few hardworking farmers, some servants, and an oicasional craftsman were scattered among the gentlemen. sir Thomas Gates, the new governor, has just arrived in the settlement, which is in ruins. He joins three men who are sitting in the ruins of a house. captain George Percy is the acting governor. Reverend waite and john Laydon, a carpenter, are the other two. Sir Thomas Gates: We have just arrived from England. Our ship was wrecked in a hurricane near Bermuda, and we had to spend several months there building two small vessels to get us here. This is not the settlement I expecied. we heard that Jamestown was becoming prosperous. What has happened? Reverend Waite: This has been a winter of terror and terrible sadness. I feel at times that we have been abandoned by God. we spend most of our time burying our dead. We are almost too weak to do a decent Christian job of it. we barely get them beneath the earth and say a few prayers.

John Laydon:

Captain Percy:

John Laydon:

At least they are mostly buried. one poor man slew his own wife when she was near death and started eating her. He is not the only one here to go raving mad either. we are grateful to see you, Governor, but we have nothing to offer you. I hope you brought food. Our people are starving to death. we have had a terrible time. The winter has been bitter cold. So

many men were ill that many of the houses and parts of the fortification have been used for firewood. This has been especially troublesome because the savage Indians have determined to destroy us. We cannot go outside the settlement without being attacked by a swarm of anows fired from a dozen different hiding places. Jamestown was a terrible place for a settlement in the first place. It is not easy to defend, and the chief of the local Indian tribe has determined to destroy us. When Captain Smith was here, we olicrrr were able to trade with the Indians for corn and other loocl but ltrr longcr.

@Teqcher Created Resources, lru:.

,7

ll.j) l.j ('t,lurttrrl ,\tn,'t'r, tt


Readers' Theater: The Starving Time

(cont)

told about? Sir Thomas Gates: where are all the gold and riches we were and our The golcl is in the fool heads of the investors i1 England Reverend Waite: "g.ntlemen. They spent the entire summer last year digging up o*n i;"i';g;id and looking io1. g*t and riches. It was the only work those worthless gentlemen did' John Laydon: Captain PercY:

Reverend Waite:

the rule, It was different when John smith was governor._ He made rule' ,'If you do not work, you do not eat," uttd he enforced this

I took over when Captain Smith was wounded and left for England in October. We thought there was plenty of food 1n the settlement una.ury hunting in tf,e forests, buithe Indians killed many of 9.Y1 Wild hunters. The corn was quickly devoured, some of it by rats' pigs ano birds are in the forest, but we cannot get to them. we have had terrible sicknesses, too. This land is swampy. T!9 water is bad and often not fit for drinking. We have had typhoid fever, dysentery, and all other manner of iltrness. Most of the women and children here have died.

John Laydon:

We have eaten everything we could. You will notice there are no dogs or cats. They huu.long since been in the cook po!s. -We have every form of snake and creature that has been unlucky "u[n enough to be seen. The few pigs and hens that were in the settlement were eaten by the gJntlemen. They were not inclined to share either.

Reverend Waite:

Many of us have eaten our boots and shoes, as you can plainly see' Our people are nearly as barefoot as the Indians'

Captain Percy:

We do not even know what happened to some of our residents' Desperate for food, they went outside the fort and never returnedeither killed or captured by the natives. I do not know which would be worse. What shall we do?

your Sir Thomas Gates: I do not see any choice but to return to England. We can load survlvors onto bur two boats and hope we make it back to England.

Narrator:

That is exactly what was done. On June 7, 1610, the settlers climbed aboaid ship and set off for England. They sailed olry^u short distance befoie encountering a fleet of ships camfrng 300 more settlers and a new governor. They returned to Jamestown, and this time theY stuck it out.

l :

: I

iI

/132 I

3 CoktninL America

5B

@Teacher Created Resources, Inc.


Why_Did People Become Colonists?

Life in the Colonies

//-,:4-.

//t f//,

Y',

1/'

/

'//.7

'

Why Did Pe-ople Become Colonists?

People left their homes to travel to a new, unknown land for many reasons. Some sought adventure and riches. Some left because they were not allowed to practice their religions. Others did not like the way the government was run. Some were poor and wanted a chance to own land and have a better life. They were looking for a brighter future for themselves and their families. People from every social class, religion, and occupation immigrated to the colonies. Doctors, merchants, business people, and lawyers became colonists. So did craftsmen, fur trappers, soldiers, and farmers, They came alone or with friends and families. b' Most of the early colonists were from Europe, mainly England, France, Scotland, Sweden, Spain, GermanY, lreland, and the Netherlands. No matter what country theY were from, what their occupation had been, or where in the colonies they settled, the first priority of colonists would have been to survive. To do that, they needed food and shelter.

1.

List ten things that colonists would have had to do within a short time after arriving in America.

2.

Number the items in your list from 1 to 10 in the order you think is most impoftant'

@ Mark Twain

Media, lnc., Publishers

5


Moving to the Colonies

Life in the Colonies

Movinq to the Colonies world to begin a new life' How excitGreat news! Your family will be sailing to the New {^arl ^t^rt^^^ rood, wiu you set your crothes, g"tll"l::,_yl.ere v"' ingr unknowns. arid furniture? where will you live? There are many you need and be at the dock in pu.k vou rr'rouro I llti uavtctll "u"rything ^^A trnr rroalf sisiet, older younger father, mother, your includes family Your week. one ?l?11 i:'"I"^Y:tfl: y.u win need Howevei there isn't much ?ffi and the rarse trunks (about 4' rong, 3' wide, and 3' hish) "rlv'.'*" clothing You will wear' planting' you know that there are great forests for wood in the New world, good land for and pleniy of fresh water. So ... what do you really need?

e;;ii. ffi;i ;'T;;';ilf,6;'.' I

Jil;;;J

ffit"# ffiilt;';;il.'n #.;:i;J1ffiffi;;;1il 1.

i::::lIY:

:l:

to buird a house and start a new life' Make a rist of ail the items you think you wiil need two trunks' Remember, everything on your list must fit in the

tri 1.

i

O Mark Twain Media, lnc., Publishers


as described on page 15' Note: Reproduce this page for students to use with "The Mayflower Compact" activity,

{iut

Name:

"l

THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT ln Novemb er 1620,the Pilgrims landed on what is now the Cape Cod peninsula in Massachusetts. The Pilgrims had to make an important decision. They had to decide if they wanted to sail down the coast to Virginia, since that was their original destination, or stay up north and build a new settlement. The Pilgrims decided to stay. The leaders on board the ship demanded that every adult male sign an agreement' Women and male servants were not allowed to sign the agreement. The Mayflower Compact stated that everyone would obey an elected governor and stay together to start a new settlement. The Pilgrims agreed that they all needed to work together to survive in their new settlement'

d2,', -d* W)*fg.trt, 4/ Wft-*rd-, (M@

{rg..**

)A"

POT-KFT 7. THF FIRST SETTLEMENTS

EMC 3709' Colonial America'02003 by Evan-Moor Cot


OI{ THE MAYFLOWER I I

I

\ I I

I

\ \

I

It I

I I

I I

I

I l/t

\l

I

ti I

I

,J

I

\ \ I

I

I I (

(

I

I I

I I

L

I I I I I I I

I I I

I I

I I I I

t_

22

POCKET 2.THE FIRST SETTLEN,IENTS

EMC 3709 . Colonial America . 02003 by Evan-Moor Corp


ON THE MAYFLOWER

tr@ Europe to North America lasted 66 days' from only one chest with September to Novemter 1620. Each family could bring

Tir" uoyune of the Mayflowerfrom

tolerable' People slept all their belongings. Conditions on board were only deck below the squeezed between other passengers on a hard wooden (dry biscuit)' and main deck. Food consisted of salted meat, hardtack seasick limited water. Storms battered the ship, making passengers cockroaches, and miserable. Passengers shared their quarters with life' flies, and rats. Still they maintained hope for a new

nu@

America Clc003 by Evan-Moor Corp. 'EMC 3709 ' Colonial

23 POCKET 2.THE FIRST SETTLEMENTS


zTHE\

/'

z//

LEGEND

"THE

CORI{ BOOKLET

oF .,

THREE \

, slsrERS"

PATTERI{S t,

l\ l\

\

t\ It

l\ l1 l1 l\

The lroquois believed that the spirits of three beautiful sisters lived in the fields and protected three crops. The lroquois \ wore s.pecial cornhusk masks as they t, ,/ , ', blessed the earth and asked the world to grant them a good \ There are many versions of the legend r \ "The Three Sisters." This is one of

; / /

I I

spirit

,' I t /

-\ ^// t\ '\t\

harvest. of them:

/t 1 Once there were three sisters. They were

\ \

I I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

r only happy when they were together. They I were the happiest when they were planted I I in the same field. The oldest sister's name was

I

I

r

j Corn. She was tall and proud. tter stenJer U"OV I , and long green hair swayed in the wind. The

and one grow the the

I

in sang I Sun. t, Huruert time came to the fields, and the i sisters gave nourishment to the native t 1 peoples t living in the region. Some t \ say if you go out into a cornfield on t \, a moonlit night, you can actually I hear the growing. crops The t , r three sisters are once again / \, protecting a new crop of / tr' aorn, beans, and squash.

,/

rni?003 by Evan-Moor Corp. . EMC 3709 . Colonial America

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

:

I

at

The sisters enjoyed the warm sunshine , smiled greatly upon the earth. Whenever 1 of the sisters grew, the other two would r too. Something magical would happen to I sisters on clear summer nights. When moon shined upon them, the three sisters , changed into young girls. Dressed all green, they sang and danced. They r praises to Mother Earth and Father

I

I

I

was

sisters.

I

I

I

her oldest sister, Corn. The youngest sister named Squash. She was shy and-liked to protect I , Corn and Bean. That's why she crawled along 1 the feet of her two

I

I

I

r middle sister was called Bean. She was wiry and t graceful. Bean loved to wrap her arms around

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

;

I

I

I

I

I

j

I

I

I

I

I

I I

t t

I

I

I I

I

;

I I

t I

r

I

I I I

I

\

\

POCKET 3.THE NATIVE AMERICANS 29


f,o, I I I I I I I

i pEacrintift ln 1621the Pilgrims of Plymouth and the Wampanoag tribe agreed to a peace treatyothat would last 50 years. The pilgrims needed the wampanoag io help them learn how to survive in this new land. The Wampanoag wanted to find an ally to help them fight their enemies, the Narraganset. squanto helped negotiate this treaty between the Pilgrims and Chief Massasoit. lt was the first known treaty of its kind.

I I I

I

I52I PEACI TREATY WITH MASSASOIT 1, That neither he nor any of his should injure or do hurt to any of our people.

I I

I

2.

And if any of his did hurt to any of ours, he should send the offender, that we might punish him.

3.

That if any of our tools were taken away when our people were at work, he should cause them to be restored; and if ours did any harm to any of his, we would do the like to them.

I I I

I I

I I

I

4.lf

any did unjustly war against him, we wourd aid him; if any did war against us, he should aid us.

I I I

I I I I I I

I I I

L

5. He should send to his neighbor confederates, to certify them of this, that they might not wrong us, but might be likewise comprised in the conditions of peace. 6. That

when their men came to us, they should leave their bows and arrows behind them, as we should do our pieces when we came to them.

Lastly, that doing thus, King James would esteem of him as his friend

_:T:"I _ _ _ I I I I I

I I

I I

I I I I I I

tQ?003 by Evan-Moor Corp. . EMC 3709 . Colonial America

pocKET

3.

ei#

THE NATIVI: AM]inlfid,N#,.':

*,ll


1850

Colonial Terms Directions: Match each worcl in Column I with its correct meaning in Column 2. Use a dictionary, the glossary at the encl qrf the book, anci student-reacling pages to heip you clefine the,.ie worcls retaieO to the birth of the United States. Column

I

Column 2

l.

apprentice

a.

to steal and destroy

2. colony 3. debtor 4. found 5. hornbook 6. indigo 7. massacre 8. plunder 9. population

b.

to start a colony

L.

killing many people

10. primer

d. a plant which produces blue dye e.

territory owned by another nation

f. book used to teach reading 0 b'

board used to teach the alphabet

h. a person who owes money

i. number of people in an area

j

a person learning a craft

Directions: Write the word from the following list that marches each definition.

Word List

Burgesses indentured servants lroquois

Parliament Pilgrims Powhatans

puritans

euakers Wampanoags

lords proprietors

11. religious dissenters who wanted to reform the church of England 12. members of the five nations Indian confederation in New york 13. people who agree to work for several years to pay for their passage 14. members of the Society of Friends 15. settlers at Plymouth Colony 16. powerful New England Indian tribe

17. rich men given land grants 18. elected representatives in Virginia 19. England's lawmakers

20. powerful alliance of tribes in Virginia @Teacher Created Resources, Inc.

4.1

#i2 I 3 (olunift,l

Arut,

rit'rr


I I

I

FOOD FOR ALL SEASONS

j t

{

I

\/ It I

I I I

- SPRINC

'-SUMME

t/ It

\ I I

FhLL

WINTER '

fish

dried fruit and

ham and bacon,

wild

squash, and sweet

butter and cheese, corn bread and

potatoes

stews

and

strawberries,

peaches, apples,

seafood, nuts,

corn, beans,

and

blackberries. and blueberries

02003 by Evan-Moor Corp. . EMC 3709 . Colonial America

wild

game

game

POCKET 5.DAILY

LIF'I' 47


ColonialTools

Life in the Colonies

Date:

Name:

Colonial Tools Match the descriptions of the tools with the illustrations.

1.

A frying pan with legs and a long handle was called a spider.

A.

Mp E' ht

a+\

\.--_--y

2. Hot coals were put inside this iron.

B.

When hot, women used it to smooth wrinkles from clothes. 3.

To warm a cold bed at night, colonists filled a warming pan with hot coals and moved it between the covers.

4.

A goffer was used to iron bows and frills on hats and collars.

5.

Farmers used a long-handled hay fork to gather up straw or hay.

6.

Metalworkers used tongs to hold hot metal.

7.

Woodworkers used a drawknife to shape wood by shaving off thin layers.

8.

Women used a hackle to comb knots from wool and make long

c.

D.

E.

F.

G.

threads.

L

10.

-

H.

Colonists placed a ruggle behind a wagon wheel to keep the wagon from rolling away. To clean carpets, people used a

rug lieater. J.

@

Mark Twain Media, lnc., PLblishers

14

f@-n


t

Note: Reproduce this page for students to use with the "Daily Schedule" activity, as described on page'56.

DAILY SCHEDULE

{ia

Children in colonialAmerica had a very demanding"'{chedule. They were expected to do many chores to help the family. By the age of three or four, children were assigned 'Jobs" around the house and farm. By the age of five or six, children worked with their parents. Girls learned how to cook, sew, make candles, knit,

and work in the garden. Boys learned how to plant crops, hunt, fish, and tan hides. lf the father had a trade, such as being a blacksmith, the boys in the family worked in the family business by the time they were about seven. Children worked before and after school. There was little time left over for play.

Colonial Student's Daily Schedule

4:00

do chores

l2:00

lunch

5:00

eat breakfast

l:00

math

6:00

walk to school

2:00

learn manners

7:00

school begins

3:00

coPy sentences

8:00

recite poems

4:00

rvalk home

9:00

read from the Bible

5:00

do chores

l0:00

recess

6:00

supPer

1l:00

penmanship

7:00

homework

8:00

bedtime

's Daily Schedule

l2:00

3:00 4:00 5:00

6:00 7:00

8:00

02003 by Evan-Moor Corp. . EMC 3709 . Colonial America

POCKET 6.SC}"IOOI.


PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

{ia Dai!

writing and penmanship were important in colonial schools. Pencils were expensive, so most students had to write using a quill pen. The pens were made from goose or turkey feathers. The quills were sharpened with a knife to make a point. Students dipped the quill pens in bottles of ink continually as they wrote. Students had to copy the alphabet and sentences over and over again until the teacher was happy with their penmanship. Young students were allowed to use lined paper to practice, but older students were expected to write neatly and straight on unlined paper. The ink was messy, so after the students finished writing, they had to use blotter paper to soak up the excess ink.

TYPICAL HANDWRITINC STYLE OF THE

"l

1500s

k %eâ&#x201A;Ź-- ffi,* F-ry dr.'ru, 4u Al

t"

60

9z /23+507/gc

POCKET6.SCHOOL

_

L

_

_r'1n':oYolo:o..:r1't"lt_

.^,

EMC 3709 . ColonialAmerica . O2003 by Evan-Moor Corp,


l I

f"

"l

HORNBOOK PATTERN I I I

I I

I I I I I I :

In colonial times, paper

was scarce and expensive. Most students did not have textbooks. The main learning tool was the hornbook. The hornbook was invented to protect the paper on which children's lessons were printed.

I

I I I

I I I

I

i l

I l

I '

I I

I I I I I

I

The hornbook was a flat board with a handle. A piece of paper with information on it was pasted to the board. The lessons usually contained letter combinations, Roman numerals, and the Lord's Prayer. The board was covered with a piece of cattle horn cut so thin that the lessons could be read through it.

I I I

I I I

I I

I

I

I I I I I I

I

The handles of hornbooks had a hole drilled in them, through which a cord could be strung. Colonial students often wore the hornbook around their necks so it was handy for lessons.

I I

I I I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

\

I I I I

I

l

I I I I

I

t"

62

POCKET 6.SCHOOL

it

rJ) I

\.1"

dw

.^,

EMC 3709 . Colonial Arnerica . @2003 by Evan-Moor

Corp.

.i..

.r;;*[


What's for Dinner?

Life in the Colonies

Name:

What's for Dinner? The colonists ate many of the same foods we do today, such as bread, potatoes, beef, ham, turkey, chicken, carrots, corn, and peas. They also ate foods that aren't so common anymore, like squirrel pie and possum stew.

1.

List six things colonists could have eaten if they had a cow for milking, chickens that laid eggs, and grain to make flour.

frlE/Fz /,U

/urs\:-z' ,/ I =a --.<' l<lt \

\-/'

\

2.

List six animals colonists might have hunted or trapped for food.

3.

List six other foods colonists might have been able to find in the woods or growing wild.

il :l

li i' i,

1

ll ,,:]1,

t.

4. List six vegetables

colonists may have grown in a garden.

5. Using only foods available to colonists, write a menu for three meals and a snack. Breakfast:

Lunch:

Supper:

Snack:

@

Mark Twain Media, lnc., Poblishers

16


The First Thanksgiving

Life in the Colonies

Name:

The First Thanksgiving h

Giving thanks for a bountiful harvest began long before the Pilgrims landed in the New World. The

tl \-

ancient EgYPtians, Chinese,

/tl

Greeks, and Romans all held fall festivals. People in Europe enjoyed feasting, dancing, and PlaYing games at harvest festivals following the grain harvest. The first American Thanks( giving, three days of praver ' t"easting, was celebrated by the mouth colonists in 1621 to give about thanks for their first harvest. The first settlers knew little Half of them died during that first vY tl le wilderness. ll I the VlVll lv in surviving 5Ul only with the assistance of Native Ameriterrible winter in Massachusetts. The others survived cans. festival, they prepared food for themWhen the pilgrims planned their first thanksgiving to iegend, nearry g0 Native Americans arrived' serves and their ten expected guests. According insuring plenty of food for all' However, chief Massasoit's hunters brought venison, many details of what they did The date of this thanksgiving festivll is unknown, as ate corn, fish, fruit, and venison. The next year and ate. The menu probabry iictuoLd wird turkey, wasn't held until 1623' the harvest was poor. A second thanksgiving festival as the colonies grew, but no single The custom of holding a thanksglvingiestival spread some in November. Even within the same date was set. some praces-cerebrated in october, year' settlement, the date changed from year to November 26, 1789, as the first national pro.l"it"d President George washington to celebrate Thanksgiving on differThanksgiving holiday, but various communities continued ent days. president Abraham Lincoln to declare Thanksgiving as ln 1863, Sarah Hale persuaded in November. Many peopre ooiggled when an annuar nationar horiday herd on the rast Thursday give t'hird rhursday in November in 1939, to Franklin D. Roosevelt moved rhanksgiving to tl.re states, 23 continued to observe the fourth peopre more time for christmas shopfiing.bf the 48 states, Texas and colorado, celebrated Thursday and 23 celebrated on the earller date. Two the date back to the fourth rhursday, Thanksgiving on both days. rn 1g41 , congress changed and there it has remained.

and I Ply-

1

@

.

LI /

\-t ('--s / \-

have taken place on the first Thankson another sheet of paper, write a dialogue that might

guest' giving between a pilgrim and a Native American

Mark Twain Media, lnc', Publishers

17


North American Colonies