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refill:

the portland brewing center an adaptive reuse of centennial mills

Tim Harkin Terminal Studio Project


Refill: The Portland Brewing Center, an Adaptive Reuse of Centennial Mills Terminal Studio Project by Timothy Harkin Master of Architecture 2011 Professor: Gerry Gast Research Completed Fall 2010-Spring 2011 Design Completed Winter 2011-Spring 2011


table of contents thesis statement project description project goals brewing information centennial mills relevant site issues program elements site strategies floor plans elevations sections perspectives construction/tectonics systems process final models precedents sources

4 5 6-7 8-9 10-15 16-19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26-27 28-29 30-33 34-36 37-41 42-43 44-47 48-49 50-51


thesis statement refill: With the growing need for sustainability in architecture, some are finding that the most sustainable building is the one already built. Through adaptive reuse, materials can be saved from disposal and given new purpose. Proper reuse of certain buildings can preserve history and maintain the character in which they were first built. By reusing the historic structures of Centennial Mills, the site can be revitalized while the memories of industry and history are preserved. The current complex lies at the intersection of an aging industrial district and the blossoming Pearl District. By taking advantage of the site’s location, connections can be made to the Pearl and other parts of Portland. Old industrial buildings will be refilled with a brand new purpose, adding to the vibrancy of the Pearl and linking the community to the Willamette River and to history.

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project information The Portland Brewing Center The Portland Brewing Center is a public destination that honors and celebrates the industry and history of the River District. The center reuses the industrial structures of Centennial Mills, built between 1910 and 1940, and injects them with new program meant to transform the site into a community gathering space. The main element of this transformation is a new craft brewery that will inhabit the lower levels of the old flour mill building. This brewery will collaborate with Oregon State University’s Department of Food Science and Technology to provide certification programs in brewing as well as a longer term Master’s Brewing program. Offices supporting these functions as well as business assistance for beginning microbreweries will be located on the upper floors of the Flour Mill. The classrooms and labs will be on the middle floors of the same building. The general public will have also have access to the labs for short home-brewing courses, and a distribution center on the ground floor will sell home-brewing equipment and ingredients. More public amenities will be located in the Feed Mill, which will house a restaurant and bar with amazing river views and samples of beer being brewed at the center. An event hall in the upper floor of the Feed Mill can hold brewing events or be rented out by the community for other general events. Appropriate to its surroundings, the Portland Brewing Center will add industry and culture to the shores of the Willamette River.

Oregon State University Oregon State University currently has a Fermentation Option in their Department of Food Science and Technology. This option is offered to undergraduate students seeking a Bachelor of Science in Food Science and Technology. At the Portland Brewing Center, OSU will have the resources for providing a graduate level degree, either through the Professional Brewers Certificate Program or the Masters of Brewing, modeled after the program offered by UC Davis.

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project goals Celebrate History

Encourage New Businesses

The Portland Brewing Center will strive to recognize and celebrate Portland’s history in a variety of a couple different ways. The reuse of old Centennial Mills structures will facilitate the revitalization of the site without having to remove evidence of the past. With the new development taking places in the Pearl District, it might be easy to lose sight of the neighborhood’s past as a center for Portland’s industry. While some new construction has reused the shells of old factory buildings, many more buildings have replaced the old structures previously on their site. The iconic nature of the Centennial Mills buildings gives a prime opportunity to retain a piece of the industrial past of the River District. The brewing industry, an old yet still strong element of Portland’s economy and culture, will also be celebrated in the center. A gallery with rotating exhibits will Portland’s industry and its rich brewing history will be explored and celebrated.

The certification program offered by the Portland Brewing Center is an excellent way to encourage new businesses in the Portland area. While people will enroll in certification classes for personal experience and improvement, the increase in new entrepreneurs into the brewing industry will help the city as a whole. As Portland becomes more and more recognized for its microbreweries, business will expand into other states around the country. At a small scale it may seem that more breweries means more competition, but an increase in production can only strengthen Portland’s reputation and lead to more business. New breweries in the area will also lead to an increase in available jobs. The center itself will also be able to provide services for start up companies to provide them with the resources they need to get them off their feet. These services will include help with finding and financing brewing equipment, finding available space to lease, as well as providing various management and marketing strategies for developing a new business.

Existing buildings display the age in which they were built

Henry Weinhard was an early pioneer for the local brewing industry

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Some of the different Portland brewpubs


Become a Cultural Destination

Strengthen Connections to the River

Of the various landmarks that are highlighted in Portland’s tourist guides, there are very few that are actually on the waterfront. A number of activities take place on the Tom McCall Waterfront Park during the summer months, but these outdoor activities are put on hold during the region’s long and arduous rainy season. As a prominent indoor and outdoor attraction, the Portland Brewing Center can host activities at all times, whether at the outdoor park in the summer or in its event hall during the winter. The center will have a daily life due to the functions of the brewery, offices, and education center, but it will also strive as a weekend and night attraction with brewery tours, gallery exhibits, festivals, and of course its waterside bar and restaurant. Whether through daily routines or special events, the center will have continuous activities that will make it a vibrant destination and great addition for Portland’s downtown tourism.

The outdoor space provided by the park will strengthen connections in two different directions. The first will be as a continuation of the river walk on the west bank of the Willamette. The current Centennial Mills complex protrudes out over the water, creating a barrier for the existing river walk which at that point diverts onto the sidewalk of Naito Parkway. By removing these structures and installing parks and boardwalks the public can continue along the river path further up into North Reach. People passing by may stop to enjoy the park at the foot Tanner Creek, or they may continue along getting an enhanced experience of the Willamette River. According to the River District Parks plan, the park at Centennial Mills will be the culmination of linked parks in the River District. In the plan laid out by Walker and Associates, Jamison Square, Tanner Springs, and The Fields park will all be visually connected by a boardwalk system that runs on the sidewalks. The Fields park, which will be completed in 2011, will then have a bridge that spans the train tracks and Naito Parkway to link the park to the Centennial Mills site and the Willamette River.

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brewing information Portland’s Brewing History

Breweries are an important part of Portland’s industry, culture, and history, and have their routes in the region dating back to the mid-nineteenth century. The first brewery in Portland was Liberty Brewery, started by German brewer Henry Saxer in 1852. In 1856 Henry Weinhard, a young German immigrant, moved to Portland and opens the city’s second brewery, City Brewery, with partner George Bottler. Over the next several years Weinhard buys Liberty Brewery as well as his partner’s interest in City Brewery, beginning Weinhard’s City Brewery. Throughout the years of national prohibition Weinhard’s City Brewery weathered the storm and outlasted other brewers in the area, eventually merging with Portland Brewing Early barrel delivery by horse and buggy Company to become Blitz-Weinhard Brewing Company. This brewery functioned out of the Pearl district until 1999. In the late 70’s a new resurgence in brewing took place in the Portland area. Interest in home brewing and microbrewing existed amongst a number of residents, but two bits of legislation turned these interests into actuality. The first was a national law signed by Jimmy Carter that legalized home brewing for volumes up to 100 gallons annually. The second was an Oregon state legislature signed in 1985 that legalized brewpubs, meaning breweries could now sell their beer on site. A number of new brewers took advantage of this legislature which really enabled them to expand their business. McMenamins, Widmer Brother’s Brewing Company, Bridgeport Brewing Company, and Full Sail Brewing Company were some of the first in a new wave of craft breweries in the region. Currently Portland has 28 breweries within the city, which is more than any Blitz-Weinhard Brewery in the early 1900’s other city in the world.

Oregon breweries during prohibition times

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Brewing Process 1. Raw Ingredients/Milling In the malt mill the malt is crushed and the starch is separated from the husk. The crushed malt and husks are dropped into a grist bin. 2. Mash Tun (60 minutes) The grist is moved to the mash tun and mixed with warm water. The temperature is raised to 160F after 30 minutes, and is held at 160F for another 160F. 3. Lauter Tun (120 minutes) A mechanical rake in the lauter tun drains a solution of water and sugars, “wort”, from the mash. Remaining sugars from the mash are extracted, and “brewers spent grains” are left behind. The wort is transferred to the wort pre-run tank during this process. 4. Wort Kettle (75 minutes) The wort is boiled for 75 minutes as different varieties and amounts of hops are added, depending on the type of beer. The impart the bitterness, aroma, and flavor of the beer. 5. Whirlpool Undissolved hop material settles to the bottom of the tank and then is pumped through a plate heat exchanger and yeast handling tank on the way to the fermentation tanks. On the way the temperature is cooled to 68F and yeast is added to the wort. 6. Fermentation Tanks (4-10 days) Held at a specific fermentation temperature and the beer will naturally carbonate under back pressure. Cooled to 32F before it is released. 7. Finishing, Bottling, and Kegging The beer will go to the keg filling machine or bottling machine, then put into cold storage.

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centennial mills site information Centennial Mills is a 4.75 acre site located just northeast of Portland’s popular Pearl District. It consists of 10 industrial structures built between the years 1910 and 1940. It’s prominent location along the Willamette River gives the complex great potential as a destination point for Portlanders. Because of this location and the significance of its structures, the PDC is currently looking at the site as an urban renewal project. In doing so there have been many studies of the site’s challenges and potentials. Currently, portions of the site are being used by the Mounted Patrol Unit of the Portland City police as a headquarters and horse stable. The MPU facilities are to be moved or discontinued when the site is redeveloped. In reusing the complex for the Portland Brewing Center, some of the structures will be demolished and some kept and renovated. The elements that stand out visually and give the site its character will remain, where other components will be demolished for creation of open space, continuation of the river walk, and the addition of new structures.

West facade on Naito Parkway

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Existing Structures 1.

2.

3.

5.

4.

7.

6.

2. Grain Elevator B (1925) -Designed by Leland Rosener -51’x86’, second largest elevator. 3. Warehouse D (1920) -Designed by Morris H. Whitehouse -100’x160’, one-story with basement

8.

9.

1. Grain Elevator C (1929) -Constructed by L.H.Hoffman -77’x81’, consists of laminated wood walls on timber pilings.

10.

4. Flour Mill (1910) -Designed by Leland Rosener -51’x109’, seven flrs w/basement 5. Grain Elevator A (1910)/Blending Bins (1918) -Designed by Leland Rosener/Whitehouse & Fouilhoux -39’x96’, bins extend to Flour Mill

11.

7. Warehouse B (1910) -Designed by Leland S. Rosener -100’x85’, L-shaped, one story with basement 8. Feed Mill (1928) -Designed by L.H.Hoffman -50’x83’, four stories with basement 9. Warehouse E (1921,1928) -Designed by Strong & MacNaughton/ L.H.Hoffman -109’x175’, one story with basement -has two mezzanines 10. Warehouse C (1940) -Constructed by L.H.Hoffman -200’x180’, T-shaped, one-story plus basement 11. MPU Paddock Currently used as a holding pen for horses in the Mounted Police Unit.

6. Warehouse A (1910) -Designed by Leland Rosener -50’x109’, one-story with basement

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site photos

View of west river bank from Broadway Bridge

View of Centennial Mills from water

Southwest bird’s eye view

Southeast bird’s eye view

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View of Centennial Mills from the Broadway Bridge ramp

View of Centennial Mills from the Fields Park

Grain Elevator C and the Flour Mill

View from south end of property

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interior shots of existing buildings

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surrounding context

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relevant site issues PDC Acquisition

The Portland Development Commission purchased the 4.75 acre site at Centennial Mills in 2000. The original intent of the PDC was to demolish the existing structures to make room for open park space on the riverfront. However, in public Centennial Mills assessment tour/tanner creek outlet interest meeting it became evident that neighborhood appreciated the character of the existing buildings and wanted them to remain. Despite feasibility reports determining that rehabilitating the buildings would not be cost effective, the PDC underwent studies for the reuse of Public process meeting/conditions assessment the Centennial Mills structures. IN May 2005, pressure from public interests led the Portland City Council to direct the PDC and the Bureau of Planning to develop a plan for redevelopment of the site. They created the Centennial Mills Framework Plan in spring of 2006, which laid out guidelines and principles for the redevelopment of the site. Part of the Framework Plan involved the help of a Citizen Advisory Group made up of residents, designers, developers, and representatives from local businesses and neighborhood associations.

Interior of Feed Mill/existing wharf conditions

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Framework Plan: Existing Conditions Report

In preparation for the Centennial Mills Framework Plan, a report was made the compiled the assessments conducted on the site. These assessments went over the site conditions, its importance, its current uses as well as its transportation, environmental, and planning contexts. Multiple groups collaborated for these assessments, including public agency stakeholders, the Portland Parks and Recreation Bureau, the Bureau of Environmental Services, the Portland Office of Transportation, the Bureau of Development Services, and the Historic Resources and Urban Design programs at the Bureau of Planning. As for historic merit of the site it was found that the buildings are eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. The retention of all the structures was deemed unlikely, but the Flour Mill and Feed Mill were given prioritization as being the most significant of the buildings. The structural report, conducted by KPFF, determined that most of the structures will need significant repairs and seismic upgrading for any redevelopment.


Centennial Mills Framework Plan The Centennial Mills Framework Plan serves as the basis for redevelopment of the site. As opposed to an actual design, it is a guideline of principles to aid the design based on the needs and values of the community. The five design principles laid out for redevelopment of the site are to provide open space, capture history, define a community focal point, strengthen connections, and embrace sustainability. Based on these five major principles, opportunities and constraints were laid out that express feasibility as well as values. In addition precedents were chosen that embody the main ideas of these principles. The precedent studies are all adaptive reuse projects, that A series of massing studies was laid out for possible approaches to building reuse and site planning. These were meant to show the various potentials of the site, not for influencing design proposals. Public process meetings and policies that affect the Central City and River District are summarized and examined.

Various reuse options

Opportunities and constraints

River district opportunities

Highlighting reuse opportunities

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River District Parks Plan

SEED Proposal CENTENNIAL MILLS

Dating back to 1992, when the area known as North Downtown was recoined as the “River District”, a series of plans and policies have been issued to address the planning needs of the neighborhood. In 1997, Portland Parks and Recreation issued a report titled “River District Recreation and Open Space Needs Assessment”. The report included an open space diagram that shows a parks plan that links a riverside park at the Centennial Mills site to a series of parks continuing to the North Park Blocks. In 2001 Peter Walker and Partners Landscape Architects conducted the Portland River District Park System Urban Design Framework study. The study identified the goals and locations of the open space system of the River District. The major parks, Jamison Square, Tanner Springs, and The Fields (2011) were connected through a boardwalk system that then continues as a bridge to the Centennial Mills site, which was unofficially planned as a fourth public park. Current plans for the The Fields park still address a bridge connecting it to the Centennial Mills site.

Site plan of The Fields Park

THE FIELDS NEIGHBORHOOD PARK OFFICE OF CHERYL BARTON

Landscape Architecture | Green Urbanism

KOCH Landscape Architecture KPFF Engineering Opsis Architecture PAE Consulting Engineers

SCHEMATIC PLAN 0

01 March 2010

1” = 20’

View looking East towards the Mills River District Park System Plan

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Early version of Parks Plan

10’

20’

40’

The Portland Development Commission issued a nationwide Request for Qualifications to development firms to partner with PDC in the Centennial Mills redevelopment. Six firms were then short-listed for design proposals matching the development goals in the Framework Plan. After public review and comment PDC selected Lab Holding, LLC as the development team. The proposal received from Lab Holding is titled “SEED”, and is a mixeduse development with market spaces and other businesses related to locally and organically grown food. Lots of open public space will be available for gathering and community events.


mix of uses

North Reach Plan

The proposed SEED program focuses all new commercial uses on the existing wharf footprint and leaves the remainder of the site for the MPU and potential future expansion opportunities (see detailed discussion on MPU integration on page 23). The majority of the proposed program is located within 6 key existing structures on the wharf that are rehabilitated for new uses. Analyzing the existing and proposed uses in the vicinity, we feel that a commercial use and significant community gathering space best serves the Portland community. With the proliferation of high rise residential towers around the project, we felt that this project needed to be an open space park setting for the public and low density to open the waterfront up to the community.

restaurants 45,711 SF 5,000 SF market stalls 27,525 SF retail culinary school/flex office/galleries 53,456 SF MPU building 13,920 SF TOTAL SQ FT 145,612 SF

CIRCULATION LEGEND Pedestrian/Bike Light Rail Automobile Rail Future Water Taxi

Circulation diagram for area

Consistent with the goals, policies and objectives of the Central City Transportation Management Plan (CCTMP) a major design goal is to incorporate the Centennial Mills redevelopment project in the existing fabric of Portland’s central core without creating a significant impact on the existing transportation system. Given the location of the site between the Willamette River and NW Naito Parkway, a successful project must take advantage of and properly integrate itself with the surrounding multi-modal transportation network. Elements of this integration include a design that focuses on pedestrian accessibility, enhancing connectivity to the adjacent neighborhoods and existing transportation infrastructure, and encouraging a vibrant street front through the use of on-street parking options. Strategic placement of vehicular access to NW Naito Parkway will be critical to maintaining the stability of traffic flow along this critical north-south arterial. Given the proposed development‘s focus on integration through connectivity and accessibility, the existing transportation infrastructure is anticipated to be sufficient to support the proposed Project. A more detailed analysis and design focus will fine tune the proposed plan and ensure a safe and efficient multi-modal development plan.

North Reach is the name given to the industrial market of the Willamette River region in the north part of Portland. Starting at the confluence retail with the Columbia River, the district extends south to the office/school Fremont Bridge on the west side and to the Broadway mpu Bridge. As the first phase in a larger River Concept plan, the North Reach Plan will involve a reinvestment in labor, land, and infrastructure of the industrial neighborhoods. There will also be a focus on restoring natural habitats and improving environmental conditions on the river. Improved access to the river from neighborhoods will be another element of the plan, installing parks, trails, viewpoints, and boating docks along the river. Centennial Mills is located just south of the district laid out in the plan, but will be affected by any changes to Naito Parkway and the river trails.

circulation

Site plan

program

restaurants

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Rendering of public plaza VIEW KEY

WHARF VIEW This view provides insight into the multi-level connections that occur at the center of the main wharf. The bridge and walkway systems converge at Elevator A, which cascades down to the main level wharf, providing visitors with multiple opportunities to relax and enjoy the various gardens and views. Conversely, the lower level wharf provides a continuous walkway for visitors to enjoy the river’s edge, with multiple stairs and ramps that allow users to rise up to the main level wharf from below.

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program elements Main Brewery Space

Classrooms/Lab

Offices

The focal point of the center will be the brewery and its supporting spaces. The brewery spaces will have an exposed industrial feel yet retain a light atmosphere that is welcoming to tourists as well as a pleasant work atmosphere for brewers and students. A large open space will make it easy for large groups to move around and allow for the movement of other equipment through the space. Catwalks in the main brewery space will allow employees to reach the higher parts of machinery but will also allow the public to observe the brewing process without being in the way of the brewers. The floor slab of the second floor will be removed so that the first floor is a double height space, and some of the equipment will be located in the basement level.

The classrooms will be another daily used section of the center in addition to the brewery. The classrooms will support students and professionals going through the Masters course and certification course, as well as be the meeting spaces for community classes. While the smaller rooms will be used for discussions and tests, the lab space will be an important element for experimentation and instruction. It will also be in the major lab space that smaller equipment will be located for the beer that is being brewed by the classes. The brewing courses that are open to the general public will also use this space for the community to brew their own beer. The classrooms and lab will occupy the middle floors of the Flour Mill building as well as part of the new construction.

The upper two floors of the Flour Mill building will be inhabited by open office space and supporting functions. These offices will belong to the people working at the center, both in the brewery and for Oregon State. Another function of the PBC is to provide consulting services for beginning breweries, providing them with business advice and equipment referrals. These functions will take place in the open office floors as well. The uppermost floor will be a doubleheight space that exposes the roof of the Flour Mill building and will have exposed pipes coming from the water tower. While this will be a quiet and comfortable office environment, the industrial quality of the space will not be lost.

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Restaurant/Bar

Event Hall

Distribution Center

The restaurant and bar will be the most frequently used of the public spaces in the center. While having easy access from the building’s entrance, the eating spaces will be situated towards the river, taking full advantage of the views and natural light. Views of the Fremont and Broadway Bridges will be provided. The bar will be located on the second floor of the Feed Mill, which will be cut down and converted to a mezzanine. The bar will serve beer that is brewed by the main brewery as well as samples of the beer brewed by the students in the different programs. This should allow for public interaction and feedback for the certification programs.

Portland is home to many beer festivals, both outdoor ones in the nice summer months as well as indoor ones in the winter. The main event hall of center can serve as another venue for beer festivals, as well as be rented out for other events such as conferences or weddings. The space will allow plenty of natural light so that it is a comfortable environment, and will have amazing views of the river and bridges. It will have access to restrooms, a room for the operation and maintenance of audio/visual equipment, and a large storage space for the tables and chairs that will make the space multi-purpose. It is also connected to the restaurant via the elevator, so that functions can be catered by the main kitchen.

The distribution center serves the purpose of providing ingredients and small equipment to local brewers in the area. While larger breweries will already have their sources of brewing ingredients, home brewers and start ups can use this location for all of their first time needs. The store should will have street access that is separate from the regular public spaces. A second entrance from the brewery will also be useful for visitors inspired to make purchases after brewery tours. Like the brewery, the distribution center is right off the loading dock area for the easy sale and transfer of kegs and other equipment.

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site strategies site plan

200’

current buildings

link with atrium

8

5 1

7 2

6 4 3

natio pkwy re-design 22

40’


stretch for new program

rotate mass

tighten construction

align with columns

site strategies 1. Connection is made to other Pearl parks via new pedestrian bridge 2. Naito Parkway is redesigned to slow down traffic, increase on street parking, and become more pedestrian friendly 3. Greenway trail is reestablished, making connections to the north and south 4. Columns and trusses of existing structures remain as landscape elements and frame for growing hops 5. Underground parking beneath the center is accessed through ramp north of flour mill 6. Tanner Creek is daylit at current outlet and becomes accessible to public 7. Ramp down to Tanner Creek also serves as public seating and a rain garden for treating water runoff on site 8. Part of existing wharf remains to provide access to river and possible future water taxi

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floor plans 1. parking garage 2. water/energy recovery 3. bottling/kegging 4. storage 5. mechanical lift 6. atrium/exhibition 7. distribution center 8. brewing/milling

100’ 9. loading dock 10. shipping/receiving 11. tasting room 12. fermentation/ conditioning 13. elevator lobby 14. walk-in freezer 15. open kitchen 16. restaurant

17. grain storage 18. water closet 19. office 20. bar 21. event hall 22. conference room 23. classroom 24. lab 25. mezzanine 26. audio/visual 27. open office

floor 01

basement 24

floor 04


floor 02

floor 03

floor 05

floor 06 25


elevations

128’

southwest elevation

northwest elevation 26


northeast elevation

southwest elevation 27


sections

section through flour mill 50’ 28


section through feed mill 40’ 29


atrium

30


main brewery space

event hall

31


old structure supports the hop garden

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view from river at night

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construction/reuse process

1. Current structures at Centennial Mills

4. Upgrade structure for seismic and remove some of the floor plates

2. Reuse the flour and feed mills, each a multi-level concrete structure

5. Install below-grade parking and a steel frame for new construction

3. Demolish existing buildings except for some structural elements

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6. Complete construction of new building and site elements


details

wall section through new construction 1/8” = 1’ - 0”

section detail at old/new connection 1/2” = 1’ - 0”

Copper roof panel Rigid insulation Metal decking Castellated steel beam Steel embed Anchor bolts Existing column Wide flange steel column

plan detail at old/new connection 1/2” = 1’ - 0” Wide flange steel column Anchor bolts Existing column Existing wall Steel embed Blocking Curtain wall Tube steel

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building materials perforated copper panels

tapered steel beam canopy

stone pavers

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copper paneled roof and siding

curtain wall with tube steel support


brewing/energy recovery process

energy recovery There are many breweries that are testing ways in which to minimize waste in the brewing process or at the very least find a use for it. One method that is being tested is using the spent waste as a source of fuel. By transferring waste to an anaerobic digester, the methane released by the process can be converted to electricity using fuel cell biogas generators. The process also separates the solids and liquids, the latter of which can be treated to use as toilet water or be emptied into the river through the rain garden. The solids can act as fertilizer in the hop gardens.

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water use strategy breweries and water use

Craft breweries are becoming some of the more environmentally conscious businesses in the United States, however there are still a lot of obstacles that can prevent breweries from achieving a net zero energy and resource use. One of the largest wastes produced by the brewing process is that of water. Water is an integral part of the brewing process but is also a huge waste by-product. Many breweries are striving to improve the brewing process so that not only are they using less water, but also finding ways to reuse the water that was before seen just as waste.

In the typical brewing process, an average of 7 barrels of water is used to make just one barrel of beer.

water reduction strategies Some of the more progressive breweries are finding ways to reduce the amount of water used and reuse the waste. While more efficiency in the machinery can certainly help to reduce waste, the necessary separation of spent grains and brewing effluent inevitably means that water must be removed from the process. After a filtering and treatment process this water can find new purpose in compost and irrigation or for the flushing of toilets. Water is also used in the washing of kegs and bottles as the beer is packaged, and in this instance it is possible to reuse the same water for multiple cycles of this. New Belgium Brewery is using water collection and storage to reuse water in this cleaning process, a large step in a number of factors that is helping them reduce their water use in the future to 3.5 barrels per barrel of beer. Canning beer can be an alternate process to bottling that can also use less water. This process was typically not used by smaller micro and craft brewers, but is becoming more common.

One of the most efficient users of water among breweries, New Belgium, is striving to reduce their water to beer ratio to 3.5 to 1.

water reuse in the Portland Brewing Center While the overall water use of the entire site depends heavily on the production quantity of the brewery, water reuse can make a big difference in the center. While there is great potential to collect and store rainwater on the site, the collection and treatment of brewing effluent will make the greatest difference for water usage at the center. For every 1,000 gallons of beer made at the brewery, there is potential for 2,500 gallons of water to be reused for toilet water, irrigation, or possibly even sink and shower water (with the proper treatment process).

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occupancy/water usage typical occupant water use SF/Occ. FTE

General Office Restaurant Educational, Post Sec. Warehouse (Brewery) Restaurant (Event hall) Retail (Dist. Center)

Lavatory Shower

Kitchen Sink

Water Closet (Female) Water Closet (Male) Urinal

AREA

250 435 2100 5000 435 550

User FTE VISITOR FTE VISITOR

12300 5200 12500 13000 5000 880

User

# of Occ. FTE 49.20 11.95 5.95 2.60 11.49 1.60

Uses/day

Visitors/day 10.00 300.00 100.00 100.00 200.00 30.00

Uses

DAYS/YEAR Multiplier 0.71 0.99 0.71 0.84 0.41 0.71

Average FTE

Flow/Flush rate Duration 0.5 0.5 2.5 2.5

Average Visitors

35.05 11.79 4.24 2.17 4.72 1.14 59.11

0.25 0.25 5 5

7.12 295.89 71.23 83.56 82.19 21.37 561.37

Water Use (gal) 22.17 21.05 73.89 0.00 117.11 42745.08

59.11 561.37 59.11 561.37

3 0.3 0.1 0

177.34 168.41 5.91 0.00

FTE VISITOR

59.11 561.37

1 0

59.11 0.00

2.5 2.5

0.25 0.25

36.95 0.00 13485.13

FTE VISITOR FTE VISITOR FTE VISITOR

29.56 280.68 29.56 280.68 29.56 280.68

3 0.3 1 0.1 2 0.2

88.67 84.21 29.56 28.07 59.11 56.14

1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

141.87 134.73 47.29 44.91 59.11 56.14 484.05 176678.06 232908.27

water use flow chart

brewery water use Production Quantity: 15,000 barrels per year 15,000 bbl x 31 gallons/bbl = 465,000 gallons per year 465,000 gal. beer x 3.5 gal. water/gal. beer = 1,627,500 gallons of water Approx. 1,162,500 waste water (total water-total beer)

restaurant/bar water use daily use= 15 gallons/15 sf 15 gal/15 sf x 5200 sf =5,200gal 5,200 gal x .99 (yearly use multiplier)= 5,148 gal 5,148 gal - 308 gal (occ. use calculated above)= 4,840 gal yearly use = 4,840 x 365 = 1,766,600 gallons

total water consumption without reuse 232,908 gallons (building occupants) +1,766,600 gallons (restaurant use) +1,162,500 gallons (brewery use) =3,162,008 gallons per year

total water consumption with reuse

3,162,008 -35,450 (collected rainwater/sitewater for sinks/showers) -176,678 (100% toilet water used from brewery waste) -618,310 (35% restaurant water use is for non-potable functions, could possibly used from treated brewery water) =2,331,570 (there is a potential for much of this water reuse to go back into the grid for use as toilet water)

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rainwater collection

sitewater collection

Area: 17,200 sf Annual rainfall: 37.07 in (3.09 ft) Volume of potential collection: 17,200 x 3.09 = 53,148 ft^3 (7,105 gal)

Area: 69,800 sf Annual rainfall: 37.07 in (3.09 ft) Volume of potential collection: 69,800x3.09 = 215,682 ft^3 (28,345 gal)

average rainfall for portland

potential water collection

inches

gallons

water collection potential

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rainwater

sitewater


basement level water storage

water collection and storage at feed mill

water collection and storage at flour mill

Water collection and treatment tanks can be located in the basement level of the buildings along with the energy recovery systems.

raingarden for excess water outflow to river

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process models

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final models

1/32” = 1’ - 0” 44


1/16” = 1’ - 0” 45


tectonic model

1/4” = 1’ - 0” 46


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precedents Anacostia Waterfront Washington, DC 2001-present Torpedo Factory Alexandria, VA Blackburn Architects (renovation) 1918/1983 (renovated MASS MoCA North Adams, MA Bruner/Cott & Associates 199 (renovation) Mill City Museum Minneapolis, MN Meyer, Scherer & Rockcastle 2003 Documentation Center at Congress Hall Nuremburg, Germany Gunther Dominig 1999 Sierra Nevada Brewing Company Chico, CA New Belgium Brewing Company Fort Collins, CO

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Rogue Ale House Astoria, OR Saracen Winery and Duckstein Brewery Margaret River, Australia Bollig Design Group 2008 Widmer Brewery Portland, OR Mark Garvey 1990-1996/2007 (expansion) Bridgeport Brewpub Portland, OR Holst Architecture 2006 (renovation) Boulevard Brewery Kansas City, MO 360 Architecture 2006 (expansion) Hofbrauhaus Munich, Germany 1589 Typhoon Brewery New York, NY CORE 2002 (interiors)

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sources “2010 Sustainability Report” Sierra Nevada Brewing Company. 2010. 32 pages. Bruno, Andrea. “Featuring Steel”. ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg. 2009. “Centennial Mills Framework Plan”. Portland Development Commission. Portland, Oregon. Fall 2006. 65 pages. “Centennial Mills Framework Plan: Existing Conditions”. City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Portland Development Commission. September 2006. 99 pages. “Centennial Mills Redevelopment Site”. Portland Development Commission. September 2006. 1 page. “Centennial Mills: SEED Proposal”. LAB Holding, LLC. February 2008. 70 pages. Frohlich, Burkhard. Metal Architecture Design and Construction. Birkhauser Publishers, Berlin. 2003. Gekas, Katherine. “National Brewery Benefits from Biogas.” Biocycle. Volume 50, Issue 10. October 2009, page 36. Gekas, Katherine. “Anaerobic Treatment, Fuel Cell At Brewery.” BioCycle. Volume 50, Issue 1. January 2009, page 42. Greer, Diane. “Brewery Digesters As Power Source For Healthcare Network.” BioCycle. Volume 50, Issue 12. December 2009, page 42. Interview with Steve Shain and Sarah Harpole from Portland Development Commission. Conducted by Kate Casselman. December 22, 2010. Libby, Brian. “The Art of Compromise: a LEED Platinum rehab in Portland finds a balance between preservation and sustainability”. Metropolis. Volume 26, no. 6. January 2007. Page 38. Lutzen, Karl F. and Mark Stevens. “Brew Ware: How to Find, Adapt, & Build Homebrewing Equipment. Storey Publishing, 1996. 261 pages. “Oregon Experience: Beervana”. Oregon Public Broadcasting. November, 2007. 29 minutes. “Our Sustainable Business Story”. New Belgium Brewing Company. November, 2010. 4 pages. “North Pearl District Plan” City of Portland Bureau of Planning. Adopted by Portland City Council: November 5, 2008. 66 pages.

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“Remaking the Urban Waterfront.” Urban Land Institute, Washington, DC. 2004. 237 pages. “Report of the Centennial Mill Review Committee on Future Options for the Property”. Prepared by The Portland Development Commission. May 2004. 26 pages. “River District: Recreation & Open Space Needs Assessment.” Portland Parks and Recreation. March 1997. 62 pages. “River Plan/North Reach.” City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability. http://www.portlandonline.com/bps/index.cfm?c=42540. 2011. Site Visit: Widmer Brothers Brewery. November 13, 2010 Site Visit: Full Sail Brewery. December 11, 2010. Site Visit: Bridgeport Brewpub. March 12, 2011 “Sustainable Water Utilization in African Breweries”. UNEP. 58 pages. Tucker, Molly. “Zero Emissions Brewery: Mad River Brewing Company.” Biocycle. Volume 48. Issue 2. February 2007. Pages 29-32.

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Thesis Document