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Aligned with the Australian Curriculum Ready-Ed

Junior

Publications

Junior

Scientists

Scientists

Book 1

Junior Scientists Book 1 helps teachers of Year 1 meet the requirements of the Australian Curriculum in their science classes.

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The book provides students with the opportunity to learn about science by: experimenting with materials, asking questions, recording observations, investigating and reflecting, and devising new ideas/theories about how the world works.

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Each activity page is paired with a page of notes for the teacher. These notes include: ideas for introducing each activity, background information, answers and possible student responses and extension activities.

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Physical Sciences

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Book 1

Ages 6-7 years

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Junior Scientists Book 1 is the first book in a three part Science Series which explores four areas of science: biology, physics, chemistry and earth and space. It is a ‘must have’ resource for any Year 1 teacher.

Also available:

yed.n et Junior Scientists Book 1 ISBN 978 186 397 831 6

  

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By Yolanda Cool


Title: Junior Science Book 1 © 2012 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: Yolanda Cool Illustrator: Alison Mutton

Acknowledgements i. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview Copyright Notice The purchasing educational institution and its staff have the right to make copies of the whole or part of this book, beyond their rights under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), provided that: 1.

The number of copies does not exceed the number reasonably required by the educational institution to satisfy its teaching purposes;

2.

Copies are made only by reprographic means (photocopying), not by electronic/digital means, and not stored or transmitted;

3.

Copies are not sold or lent;

4.

Every copy made clearly shows the footnote, ‘Ready-Ed Publications’.

educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited Level 19, 157 Liverpool Street Sydney NSW 2000 Telephone: (02) 9394 7600 Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601 E-mail: info@copyright.com.au

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Any copying of this book by an educational institution or its staff outside of this blackline master licence may fall within the educational statutory licence under the Act. The Act allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this book, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that

Reproduction and Communication by others Except as otherwise permitted by this blackline master licence or under the Act (for example, any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address below.

www.readyed.net www.

ready e

d.net Published by: Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 www.readyed.net info@readyed.com.au

ISBN: 978 186 397 831 6 2


Contents Section One: Biological Science

Student Activity 2 Student Activity 3

Animal Parts Teachers' Notes Student Activity

6 7

Seasons

8 9

The Moon

How Animals Move Teachers' Notes Student Activity

Plant Parts

Teachers' Notes Student Activity Teachers' Notes Student Activity

37 38 39 40

10 11

This is a Ready-Ed Section Five: Physical Science Senses Teachers' NotesPublications12 Teachers' Notes Student Activity 13 Student Activity 1 Animal and PlantBook Word SearchPreview 14 Student Activity 2 Teachers' Notes Student Activity

35 36

The Purpose of Plant Parts

42 43 44

Sources of Light

Section Two: More Biological Science

Teachers' Notes Student Activity

Sources of Sound

Habitats Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2

16 17 18

Land and Water

Teachers' Notes Student Activity

21 22

Section Three: Chemical Science Materials Can Change Teachers' Notes Student Activity

24 25

Changing Materials Teachers' Notes Student Activity

26 27

47 48

Types of Sound Teachers' Notes Student Activity

Š Ready-Ed19Publications 20 Section Six: Human Changing Habitats For preview purposes only.Endeavour: Teachers' Notes Student Activity Teachers' Notes Student Activity

45 46

49 50

The Nature and Development of Science Events, Features and Change Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2 Student Activity 3

52 53 54 55

Different Environments Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2

57 58 59

www.readyed.net Section Seven: Human Endeavour:

Section Four: Earth and Space Science

The Use and Influence of Science Science and Medicine

My Local Environment Teachers' Notes Student Activity

29 30

The Weather Teachers' Notes Student Activity

31 32

Recording the Weather Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1

33 34

Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1

60 61

Science in the Kitchen Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2 Student Activity 3

62 63 64 65

Other Suggested Activities

66 3


Teachers’ Notes Junior Science Book 1 is the first book in a three part Science Series which helps teachers of Year 1 meet the requirements of the Australian Curriculum in their science classes. When teaching science it is important to recognise that science is interconnected. To answer one question in biology, we must use chemistry. To understand why in chemistry, we can use biology and so forth. This book helps students to make links between the four sciences by examining all four areas within one book.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Young children are naturally curious about the world around them. This book provides them with opportunities to explore the world around Book Preview them by: experimenting with materials, asking questions, recording observations, investigating and reflecting, and devising new ideas/ theories about how the world works.

Each activity page is paired with a page of notes for the teacher. These notes include: ideas for introducing each activity, background information, answers and possible student responses and extension activities.

Š Ready-Ed Publications Australian Curriculum For preview purposes Links only. Biological Sciences Living things have a variety of external features (ACSSU017). Living things live in different places where their needs are met (ACSSU211). Chemical Sciences Everyday materials can be physically changed in a variety of ways (ACSSU018).

Human Endeavour: The Nature and Development of Science Science involves asking questions about, and describing changes in, objects and events (ACSHE021). Human Endeavour: The Use and Influence of Science People use science in their daily lives, including when caring for their environment and living things (ACSHE022).

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Earth and Space Sciences Observable changes occur in the sky and landscape (ACSSU019). Physical Sciences Light and sound are produced by a range of sources and can be sensed (ACSSU020).

4


This is a Ready-Ed Section One: Publications Book Biological Preview Science

Living things have a variety of external features (ACSSU017).

Š Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

5


 Teachers' Notes

Animal Parts

Curriculum link: recognising common features of animals such as head, legs and wings.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Concepts: Book Preview features, head, body, legs, wings, eyes.

Understanding that living things have a variety of external features.

Recognising features of animals such as body, head, legs, whiskers, feathers and claws.

Understanding that some animals have common features (e.g. chickens, emus and roosters all have wings).

© Ready-Ed Teaching Ideas: 1.

Publications For purposes only. Ask the class whatpreview animal features they know. Make a list of these on the board (head, legs, body, wings, eyes, whiskers, etc.).

2. Ask the class what they would like to know about the features of animals. 3. Instruct them to draw a picture of their pet or of an animal that they have seen or know. They should label their drawings in as much detail as possible, using more words than the ones available on the sheet. 4. Ask students to pair up with someone who has drawn a different animal from their own. Children should try to spot if the different animals have any similar body parts.

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5. Display students’ drawings so that children can further identify that different animals can have common features (e.g. cats and dogs both have paws).

Extension Activity: •

6

The children can make models of the animals that they have drawn.


Animal Parts All animals have body parts. Different animals can have the same body parts.

 Draw your pet or animal. This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.  Use some of your own words as well as the words below to label its body parts.

head

eyes

body legs www.readyed.net

nose mouth

My friend has drawn a picture of: ____________________________________________________ My animal and my friend’s animal both have: ____________________________________________________ 7


 Teachers' Notes

How Animals Move

Curriculum link: describing the use of animal body parts for particular purposes such as moving.

This is a Ready-Ed climb, crawl, fly, hop, move, run, swim, walk. Publications Book Preview Concepts: Important Words:

Understanding that different animals use different body parts to move.

Recognising that not all animals move in the same way.

Teaching Ideas:

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. Record the new words and display them next to the labelled animal

1. Read out the list of Important Words and model more language forms that describe action. 2.

drawings that the students completed on page 7. 3. Show them photographs of animals in action. Hold up each photograph and ask students to name the animal and then name the word for how the animal is moving, e.g. The animal is a frog. It is jumping. 4. Organise the class into pairs to practise using words that describe animal parts and action. One student can think of an animal and the other can say how it moves and which body part it uses.

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5. Use models made in class to talk about animals’ movements. 6. Students can then use what they have learned to complete the activity sheet individually.

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How Animals Move Animals move in different ways using different body parts.  Match the words with the pictures to show how the animals move.

climbing hopping This iscrawling a Ready-Edflying Publications running swimming walking Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

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 Colour the body part of each animal that helps it to move. 9


 Teachers' Notes

Plant Parts

Curriculum links: identifying common features of plants, such as leaves and roots. Describing the use of plant parts for particular purposes.

Important Words: plant, stem, roots, bud, leaf, seed, flower, petals, soil, nutrients, water, transport.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Identifying the features of plants (plant, stem, roots, bud, leaf, seed, flower, petals, soil). Book Preview

Concepts: • •

Describing the use of plant parts for particular purposes such as making food and obtaining water.

Teaching Ideas: 1. Show the class a seed and a plant (either picture or real). Tell them that a plant starts as a seed. Tell them that seeds come in all different sizes and can be blown by the wind or planted in a particular spot deliberately.

© Ready-Ed Publications Discuss whatFor seeds need to grow (food and water). Compare this with what preview purposes only.

2. Grow seeds in class and estimate how long they will take to grow into plants. 3.

children need to grow.

4. Read The Tiny Seed by Eric Carle. 5. Ask students to label the seed on the activity sheet and fill out the information. 6. Point out the plant’s roots on the activity sheet. Tell them that the roots drink water and nutrients in the soil, and this helps the plant to grow. 7. Give each member of the class a straw. Tell them to imagine that their straw is the root of a plant and they are the plant. Get each class member to drink water through the straw and liken this action to plants using their roots to collect water and food from the soil.

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8. Bring a stick of celery or a carnation into class. Place it in water with a few drops of food colouring and ask the children to watch the celery/carnation change colour. This will show them how the roots of a plant transport water and nutrients. 9. Students can now label the plant’s roots and soil on the sheet and fill out the information. 10.Help students to label other parts of the plant using a pencil and ruler. Show them the plant’s leaves, stem, buds, flowers and petals.

10


Plant Parts

 Draw the other half of the plant and label it. stem seed

roots flowers

buds leaves petals soil

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

 Fill out thewww.readyed.net missing information. I am a seed.

I am soil.

I need

I provide the plant with

and to grow.

to grow and .

I am the roots of a plant. I transport and

. 11


 Teachers' Notes

The Purpose of Plant Parts

Curriculum link: describing the use of plant parts for particular purposes such as making food and obtaining water.

Important Words: photosynthesis, chlorophyll, sunlight, light energy, carbon dioxide, food.

Concept:

This is a Ready-Ed Teaching Ideas: Publications 1. Ask the class what they do when they are hungry (eat food). Explain that a plant needs to Book Preview eat food to grow and survive also, but plants have to make their own food. •

Understanding how plants create their own food and water.

2. Explain how plants make their own food: - A plant’s leaves absorb sunlight (light energy); - A plant’s leaves contain a pigment called chlorophyll that makes the leaves green, the sunlight mixes with the chlorophyll in the leaves; - A plant breathes in carbon dioxide and this mixes with the chlorophyll and the sunlight; - A plant transports water and nutrients through its roots and the water and nutrients mix with the sunlight, chlorophyll and carbon dioxide to produce food. - Sunlight + chlorophyll + carbon dioxide + water and nutrients = food. - Also tell students that plants can use artificial light to get their light energy, from a light bulb for example. 3. Explain that the process of a plant making its own food is called photosynthesis. The word photosynthesis is made up of two words photo: (meaning light) and synthesis (meaning roots). All plants use photosynthesis; they use light energy from the sun and convert it into chemical energy (food) for growth. Photosynthesis is a process that happens in order inside the cells of green plants, just like a recipe. 4. Try an experiment to show how important the process of photosynthesis is to plants. Have students grow seeds when they are 5 cm tall. Place some in a dark place and some in the sun for a few days and compare what happens to the plant that has sun and the plant that is in the dark. Record your class results with photographs and place on display. 5. Plants also make oxygen for us to breathe. Plants are important to the Earth as they provide oxygen for all people and animals. Place a plastic bottle over one of your plants in the sun, watch how condensation forms – this shows how plants breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

Extension Activities: •

12

Get the class to collect a variety of leaves, paint the leaves and press onto paper to make a patterned print. This can be used as wrapping paper. The class can colour the leaves to reflect the season’s colours. Or get the class to trace the leaves out on coloured paper to make a leaf collage. Fossil leaf tiles: Give each student a slab of rolled out air-drying clay 10 cm x 10 cm. Place a leaf on the tile and press the leaf into the clay. Allow tile to dry. Paint the background in gold paint. The tile will resemble a fossil. Tell the students that today, the only evidence that certain plants lived millions of years ago are fossil imprints.


The Purpose of Plant Parts The process of the leaves absorbing sunlight to make food for the plant is known as photosynthesis. The recipeThis for photosynthesis – Match the words to show the is a Ready-Ed recipe for photosynthesis. Publications found in the cells Light energy Book Preview of green plants Carbon dioxide

from the sun

Water and Nutrients

from the air

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. collected by Chlorophyll

the roots

 Using the following words to label the diagram below.

Light energy

Carbon dioxide

Water and Nutrients

Chlorophyll

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13


Animal and Plant Word Search  Find the animal and plant words in the word search. P O G Z N R W I N D S F T R S

B H S O E D P Y A E J E M L G

T A O W E P Y Z E Z F C O L E

L F F T N F W U S S A L F T S F O F H T O E N L O J R O W O T A B Z T U D U D O L O isL a Ready-Ed A M I N A I R This D W S W A T E R E T Publications R J L Y S M O V E H Book Preview D M J H N L J L O M T X N U B T A N U S P W P B D Q H T L F G L U J C I L E E Y L D W R I R P D S P W Y V Y U F F O V I © Ready-Ed Publications I Z M B T F F S O X For L Hpreview F U Ypurposes C K S only. A L

leaves

head

animal

stem

sun

food

flower

soil

water

roots

seed

photosynthesis

bud

move

wind

body

eat

fruit

legs

plant

petals

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R Y B S T E M R Q M O Z X S N

P L I O S W Y X O L E A V E S


This is a Ready-Ed Section Two: Publications More Biological Science Book Preview

Living things live in different places where their needs are met Š Ready-Ed Publications (ACSSU211).

For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

15


 Teachers' Notes

Habitats

Curriculum link: exploring different habitats in the local environment such as the beach, bush and backyard.

Important Words: habitat, beach, bush, backyard, land, water, characteristics.

This is a Ready-Ed • Understanding that animals live in different habitats which have different Publications characteristics. Book Preview Teaching Ideas – Sheet 1: Concept:

1. Ask the students to give examples of habitats. Write these up on the board and follow with a discussion of what types of things are found in a habitat. Examples of habitats: beach, bush, desert, forest, wetlands, grasslands. Features of habitats: Forest – water, deciduous trees, birds, small mammals or marsupials. Grasslands – grasses, flat terrain, vegetation, periods of rain and drought, kangaroos, small marsupials, galahs. Deserts – dry with limited rain, varying temperatures, different landscapes, sandy or rocky. Cactus or hardy plants, eagles, hawks and small animals. Wetlands – water most of the year, vary in size like rivers, lakes and everglades. Varying plants and animals.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

2. Show students pictures of animals in a variety of habitats and ask them to describe each picture out loud. The students should comment on the animals and the habitat characteristics. 3. Students should complete the first activity sheet.

Teaching Ideas – Sheet 2: www.readyed.net 1. Give the students a photograph of a habitat or ask them to think of a habitat. In the middle circle, ask them to write the name of the habitat. In the five empty boxes, ask students to write words or phrases that describe the habitat that is written in the middle of the mind map. 2. After completing the mind map, review the characteristics of the habitat by getting students to share their words and phrases. 3. Students should fill in the spaces to create a sentence about their habitat and then draw a picture of it.

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Habitats 1  Circle the object which doesn’t belong in each habitat.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net  Cut out the animals and place them in the correct habitat.

17


Habitats 2  Write the name of a habitat in the middle of the circle. Describe the habitat in the boxes.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

 Write a sentence about your habitat. © Ready-Ed Publications Example: The beach a warm place where fish live. For ispreview purposes only.

My Habitat The ___________ is a ___________ place where ___________ live.

 Draw a picture here of your habitat. www.readyed.net

18


 Teachers' Notes

Land and Water

Curriculum link: recognising that different living things live in different places such as land and water.

Important Words: habitat, land, water, needs, survive.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Understanding that different animals live in different habitats with specific characteristics to survive. Book Preview

Concept: •

Teaching Ideas: 1. Discuss why different animals live in different habitats (to survive, to meet their needs, to source the right food, to keep them at the right temperature, etc.). 2. Brainstorm some animals and their habitats on the board. Categorise the habitats as either land or water habitats. Discuss how these land and water habitats serve the needs of the animals that live there.

© Ready-Ed Publications Land – birds needs trees to nest, lizards and snakes need rocks to sun on during the purposes only. day, bees For pollinatepreview flowers. Examples of habitats that serve the needs of the animals that live there:

Water – frogs and fish need ponds or rivers to bred and survive, estuaries provide dolphins with a safe place to give birth to their young. 3. Ask the students to complete the activity sheet by categorising the habitats. 4. Students can use the back of the sheet to write how each habitat serves one need of each animal. Students can cover the broad areas of food source, shelter, protection, safety, movement and reproduction. They might give examples like: Bird in land habitat: needs trees for nesting and shelter, needs worms as a food source. Kangaroo in land habitat: its food source is grass, allows it to move to new areas, needs rocks and trees for shelter. Crab in water habitat: rock pools provide a safe places to breed and hide from prey. Dolphin in water habitat: allows it to move and protect its skin, its food source is plankton. Lizard in land habitat: provides it with places to sun in to keep body temperature up, soil to hide in to protect itself and breed, get its food source from insects. Jellyfish in water habitat: allows it to move, its food source is plankton. Dingo in land habitat: allows it to move to find food source which is other animals and shelter from weather by trees and rocks.

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Land and Water  Cut out the pictures and paste them in the correct habitat box.  Use the back of this sheet to write one need of each animal met by its habitat.

Habitat - Land

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

Habitat - Water

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

1

7

20

2 3 www.readyed.net

8

9

4

5

6

10

11

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 Teachers' Notes

Changing Habitats

Curriculum link: exploring what happens when habitats change and some living things can no longer have their needs met.

Important Words: needs, survive, endangered species, threatened species, extinct species, population, life span.

This is a Ready-Ed Concept:Publications BookthatPreview • Understanding animals are affected when habitats change. Teaching Ideas:

1. Write endangered species on the board and ask students what they think this means. Brainstorm ideas as a class and write their ideas on the board. (A species that is in danger of becoming extinct. It is important to note that endangered species can be plants as well as animals.)

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

2. Ask students if they know of any endangered animals or plants. Make a list of their responses on the board. Some of the animals in Australia that are endangered are: bats, dolphins, frogs, kangaroos, killer whales, koalas, and peregrine falcons. 3. Ask students why these animals have become endangered. Reasons why Australian animals have become endangered: i. Loss of habit ii. Exploited by humans iii. Introduction of exotic species 4. Ask students to complete activity sheet.

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Extension Activities: •

Ask students to conduct a research quest on an endangered animal in pairs. Ask each pair to pull out of a hat the name of an endangered animal. They should research its original habitat and what has happened to its habitat to make it endangered.

Create a diorama of an endangered species and its habitat. Write a description of it. As a class, create a book of endangered species and their habitats.

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Changing Habitats  Circle and label what is endangering the animals and their habitats

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net  In your own words explain why plants and animals have become endangered. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 22


This is a Ready-Ed Section Three: Publications Book Chemical Preview Science

Everyday materials can be physically changed in a variety of ways Š Ready-Ed Publications (ACSSU018).

For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

23


 Teachers' Notes

Materials Can Change

Curriculum link: predicting and comparing how the shapes of objects made from different materials can be physically changed through actions such as bending, stretching and twisting.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

bend, stretch, twist, break, tear, predict, behave, compare, materials, characteristics, physical properties.

Concept: •

Understanding that different materials behave differently when they are manipulated (bent, stretched and twisted).

Teaching Ideas: 1. Lay out a collection of household items for students to observe (plastic bag, plastic bottle, plastic container, elastic band, fabric, letter, photograph, paper bag, sponge, magnet, water). Hold the items up and ask the students to identify each item and say what each is made from. 2.

© Ready-Ed Publications Explain that all materials have their own characteristics, which means that preview only. they behaveFor in different ways. Some purposes bend more easily than others, some

stretch more easily, some twist more easily. Talk about the objects’ properties (textures, strength, colours, etc.). Ask these questions about each item: Transparency: Is it solid, a liquid or a gas? Can you see through it? Colour: What colour is it? Is it shiny or dull? Is it light or dark? Texture: Is it rough or smooth? Is it a powder or a crystal? Elasticity: Can it bend and stretch? Does it go back to its original shape when stretched? Strength: How hard is it? Can it be squashed? Density: How heavy is it? Buoyancy: Does it float? Magnetism: Is it magnetic?

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3. In pairs or groups of three, students should select three items to bend, stretch and twist. They can record their predictions and results on the activity sheet.

24


Materials Can Change  Select three objects to bend, stretch and twist.  Record your predictions and results below.

Object 1

Predict what will happen ____________________ _________________________________________

This is a Ready-Ed What happened? Publications __________________________________ BookBend Preview Stretch ________________________________ Twist __________________________________

Object 2

Predict what will happen ____________________

© Ready-Ed Publications _________________________________________ ForWhat preview purposes only. happened? Bend __________________________________ Stretch ________________________________ Twist __________________________________

Predict what will happen ____________________ Object 3 www.readyed.net _________________________________________ What happened? Bend __________________________________ Stretch ________________________________ Twist __________________________________ 25


 Teachers' Notes

Changing Materials

Curriculum link: exploring how materials such as water, chocolate or play dough change when warmed or cooled.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

cool, warm, hot, change, melt, harden, boil, soften, liquid, solid, disintegrate, burn, predict, compare, materials.

Concept: •

Understanding that different materials have different properties and so react differently when warmed or cooled.

Teaching Ideas: 1. Arrange students in small groups.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

2. Allocate the five objects to each group for observation (chocolate, play dough, ice, paper, candle). 3. Ask them to identify each object and predict what will happen to each object if heated and cooled. They should record their predictions on the sheet. 4. Melt the chocolate as a class. Get the class to describe what they see on the activity sheet, e.g. the chocolate when heated becomes a liquid. 5. Cool the chocolate in a fridge. Get the class to describe what they see on the activity sheet, e.g. the chocolate when cooled hardens. 6. Repeat the experiment for each material. Ask the class whether the materials return to their original state when cooled.

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Extension Activity: •

26

Do a cooking lesson with the class. Bake some bread/damper and/or scramble or fry eggs. Get the class to answer the following question: What happens when you bake bread or fry an egg, do they change forever?


Changing Materials  Predict what will happen to the five materials below if heated and cooled. Will they stay the same or change?  Warm and cool the six materials listed. Record the results. Material Chocolate

Prediction

Appearance once heated

Appearance once cooled

Heated: This is a Ready-Ed Publications Cooled: Book Preview

Play dough Heated: Cooled:

Ice

© Ready-Ed Publications For Heated:preview purposes only. Cooled:

Paper

Heated:

www.readyed.net Cooled: Candle

Heated: Cooled:

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This is a Ready-Ed Section Four: Publications EarthPreview and Space Science Book

Observable changes occur in the sky and landscape (ACSSU019).

Š Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

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 Teachers' Notes

My Local Environment

Curriculum link: exploring the local environment to identify and describe natural, managed and constructed features.

Important Words: natural, managed, constructed, features, environment.

This is a Ready-Ed Concept: Publications Book Preview • Identifying natural, managed and constructed environments in the local area. Teaching Ideas: 1. Look at the pictures on the sheet of a desert, city, house, ocean, dairy farm, shed, rainforest, pine forest, wheat farm, bush, industrial site and river. 2. Write the words 'natural', 'managed' and 'constructed' up on the board. Ask the students to help you to define each one.

© Ready-Ed Publications Natural: All living and non-living things that occur naturally on the Earth. For preview purposes only. Managed: Landscapes influenced by humans. Constructed: Landscapes built by humans.

3. Ask the class to categorise the pictures on the sheet. Extension Activity: •

Organise a class excursion to your local environment and get the class to record natural, managed and constructed environments. Take photographs on your excursion. Back at school, get the class in groups to select two photographs to look at in more detail. They should use words to describe the photographs in front of the class, such as: wet, dry, rocky, sandy, crops, brick, etc.

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My Local Environment  Cut out the pictures and paste them under the correct headings

Natural

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Managed Book Preview

Constructed

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

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 Which environment do you see the most on your way to school? _______________________________________________________ 30


 Teachers' Notes

The Weather

Curriculum link: recording short and longer term patterns of events that occur on Earth and in the sky, such as the appearance of the Moon and stars at night, the weather and the seasons.

This is Important Words:

a Ready-Ed Publications cool, hot, sunny, windy, snowy, rainy, cloudy, hailing, warm, freezing. Book Preview Concepts: •

Understanding the changes that occur in the weather.

Discussing the three different types of clouds.

Teaching Ideas:

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

1. Talk about the weather and list useful words on the board (sunny, windy, snowy, raining, cloudy, hailing). 2. Create a weatherboard with useful words and photographs of the weather. 3. Show the class photographs of the three different types of clouds (cumulus, cirrus and stratus). Talk to them about clouds. Cumulus: tall clouds. The bottom is often dark and flat and the tops are puffy and white. They look like puffy cauliflowers. They are vertical clouds that go across layers in the atmosphere. These clouds bring rainy weather.

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Cirrus: whitish wisps of cloud that look like cotton candy. They are high clouds. These clouds indicate fair weather. They are similar to a trail left by a plane in cold weather but there are lots of them together. Stratus: low, dull, grayish clouds that cover the sky and totally block the sun. They produce drizzle and light rain. They look like mist across a landscape. 4. Ask students to complete the activity sheet.

31


The Weather

 Draw a symbol for each weather word.

This is a Ready-Ed sunny snowing hailing Publications BookofPreview  Match the pictures the weather with the words. windy

cloudy

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

rainy stormy

freezing  Write words to describe these clouds.

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Cumulus

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Cirrus

Stratus


 Teachers' Notes

Recording the Weather

Curriculum link: recording short and longer term patterns of events that occur on Earth and in the sky, such as the appearance of the Moon and stars at night, the weather and the seasons.

Important Words: wind vane, north, south, east, west, direction, rainfall, thermometer, rain gauge, cloud, compass.

This is a Ready-Ed • Understanding how to measure and record weather patterns. Publications Teaching Ideas – Sheet 1: Book Preview Concept:

1. As a class discuss where we get information about the weather (radio, internet, newspaper, TV, etc.). You could look at this weather website together: http:// sydney.edu.au/science/uniserve_science/school/curric/k_6/weatherunit.html 2. Tell the class that they are going to create a class weather station. They will need to record and publicise the weather. 3. Ask them to complete the first activity sheet. This will equip them with an instrument to measure which direction the wind is blowing in. Before they begin, teach them the rhyme: "Never (N) Eat (E) Soggy (S) Weetbix (W)" to help them to remember compass direction.

© Ready-Ed Publications For– preview purposes only. Teaching Ideas Sheet 2:

1. Every day for one week (Monday through to Friday), take your class outside and measure: the temperature (with an outdoor thermometer), the wind direction (with homemade wind vanes), the rainfall (they will need a rain gauge for this) and cloud type. 2. Take the measurements at about the same time each day. Record the readings on the activity sheet. 3. At the end of the week, challenge your class to analyse the week's data. Find the direction the wind came from most of the week. Find the coldest / hottest temperature for the week.

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Extension Activity:

Measure the temperature in the shade and in the sun, are there any differences? Explain why.

Teaching Ideas – Sheet 3: 1. Compare your class's results with the official data and discuss any differences. Extension Activity:

Record the weather for a month in a journal and compare it to the official weather.

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Recording the Weather 1  Follow this procedure to make a wind vane. Materials: • polystyrene cup • pencil with rubber end • pin This

• scissors • straw (cut in half) • texta or pen Ready-Ed

is a Publications Book Preview N

 W

E S

Mark north, south, west and east on the bottom of cup using texta or pen. ©theReady-Ed

Push pencil tip through the bottom of cup so the rubber end sits on top. Publications

For preview purposes only.

Find the centre of the straw and push pin through. Attach it to the rubber end of the pencil. Your teacher will help you with this step.

Press and flatten straw. Using scissors cut one end of the strawwww.readyed.net to resemble an arrow.

Test: Find a windy place and watch it spin. To use the wind vane, you must know where north, south ,east, and west are.

 Which direction is the wind blowing in today? ____________________________________________________ 34


Recording the Weather 2  Record the weather for a week. Rainfall

Wind Direction

Cloud Type

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Friday

Thursday

Wednesday

Tuesday

Monday

Temperature

www.readyed.net 1. What was the average weekly rainfall? ____________________ 2. What direction did the wind mainly blow in? _______________ 3. What was the highest temperature recorded? _______________ 4. What was the lowest temperature recorded? _______________ 35


Recording the Weather 3  Record the official weather () and the weather taken by you () for a whole week.

Friday

Thursday

Wednesday

Tuesday

Monday

Temperature

36

 

Rainfall

Wind Direction

This is a Ready-Ed   Publications Book Preview

Cloud Type

 

© Ready-Ed Publications    For preview purposes only.



www.readyed.net  


 Teachers' Notes

Seasons

Curriculum link: recording short and longer term patterns of events that occur on Earth and in the sky, such as the appearance of the Moon and stars at night, the weather and the seasons.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Concept: Book Preview autumn, winter, spring summer, seasons.

Understanding that the weather can be categorised under the four seasons.

Teaching Ideas: 1. Read a story about the seasons.

© Ready-Ed Publications ForSeasons preview purposes only. Maisy’s by Lucy Cousins

Suggested titles:

The Seasons of Arnold’s Apple Tree by Gail Gibbson

Seed, Sprout, Pumpkin, Pie (Picture the seasons) by Jill Esbaum Watching the Seasons by Edana Eckart Seasons by Stan Sakai The Seasons and the Gardener by H.E. Bates My Book of Seasons ( little Golden Book) by Stephanie Calmenson My First Look at Seasons by Board Books Seasons by Blexbolex

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What Makes the Seasons? by Megan Montague 2. As a class record the weather patterns in each season on the board. 3. In pairs the students should say to each other: In the (summer), I like to …. I know it is (summer) because it is (hot). 4. Ask them to complete the activity sheet.

37


Seasons

 Draw pictures to show the weather in each season. Complete the sentences.

Summer

Autumn

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

In summer I like to … __________________________

In autumn I like to … __________________________

__________________________ © Ready-Ed

__________________________ Publications For preview purposes only. __________________________ __________________________

Winter

Spring

www.readyed.net In winter I like to …

In spring I like to …

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

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 Teachers' Notes

The Moon

Curriculum link: recording short and longer term patterns of events that occur on Earth and in the sky, such as the appearance of the Moon and stars at night, the weather and the seasons.

Important Words: new Moon, full Moon, waning crescent, waxing crescent, waning gibbous, waxing gibbous, first quarter, last quarter.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Teaching Ideas: Book Preview 1. Complete a KWL chart (what I know, what I want to know, what I want to learn) with the Concept: •

Understanding the different Moon phases.

class to see what they know about the Moon. 2. Instruct the class to draw and label the appearance of the Moon for a week on the activity sheet. You can extend this to a month if you wish by making multiple copies of the activity sheet. Before they start to record its appearance, you could create a class key for the different moon phases (new Moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full Moon, waning gibbous, last quarter, waning crescent). 3. At the end of the week/month, discuss with your class why the moon changes shape. From our perspective, the moon changes shape as the amount of sunlight falling on it changes, as it moves around the earth.

© Ready-Ed Publications Eight Phases of the Moon Seen From the Southern Hemisphere For preview purposes only.

New Moon

The illuminated side of the Moon is away from Earth.

Waxing Crescent Moon (¼ Moon) First Quarter Moon (½ Moon) Waxing Gibbous (¾ Moon)

In the southern hemisphere we see the left side of the Moon illuminated and the northern hemisphere sees the right illuminated edge of the Moon. Half of the Moon is illuminated. The northern hemisphere sees the right side illuminated and the southern hemisphere sees the left half illuminated. A little more than half of the Moon is illuminated, but not yet a full moon. Looks like it has a full stomach.

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Full Moon

The Moon is fully illuminated and is at its brightest in the sky.

Waning Gibbous (¾ Moon)

The Moon is less than fully illuminated – looks like someone has taken a bit out of it.

Last Quarter (½ Moon)

Half of the moon is illuminated. The northern hemisphere sees the left half and the southern hemisphere sees the right half.

Waning Crescent Moon (¼ Moon)

The northern hemisphere sees the left side of the Moon illuminated and the southern hemisphere sees the right illuminated edge of the Moon.

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The Moon

 Draw what the Moon looks like in the sky on each day of the week. Label your drawings.  Monday

 Tuesday

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview Moon type:_________________

Moon type:_________________

 Wednesday

 Thursday

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Moon type:_________________

 Friday

Moon type:_________________

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Moon type:_________________ 40


This is a Ready-Ed Section Five: Publications Physical Science Book Preview

Light and sound are produced by a range of sources and can be Š Ready-Ed Publications sensed (ACSSU020).

For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

41


 Teachers' Notes

Senses

Curriculum link: recognising senses are used to learn about the world around us: our eyes to detect light, our ears to detect sound, and touch to feel vibrations.

Important Words: senses, sight, sound, taste, touch, smell, see, hear, feel, eyes, ears, tongue, nose.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications • Recognising the five senses and understanding how the senses are used. Book Preview Teaching Ideas – Sheet 1: Concept:

1. Identify the five senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell). 2. Discuss what we use these senses for (to see, to hear, to taste, to feel and to smell). 3. Discuss what parts of the body are used when we use the five senses (eyes, ears, tongue, hands/feet, etc., nose). 4. Explain to the class that we find out about the world we live in through our senses. It is how we learn. 5.

© Ready-Ed Publications Students can individually completepurposes the activity sheet. only. For preview

Teaching Ideas – Sheet 2: 1. Revise the five senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell). 2. Students should follow the instructions on the activity sheet to create one dice between two. 3. In pairs students can use the dice to play the Senses Game. Rules: Students take turns rolling the dice. If the dice lands on the picture of an eye, the student who threw the dice must say what eyes can be used for, e.g. I use my eyes to....

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Extension Activities:

42

Collect senses posters and display them around the room.

Read the book Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? by Bill Martin Jr and Eric Carle.

Ask the students to create their own “What do you see?” class book.


Senses 1

 Draw pictures to show which parts of the body we use to …  See

 Smell

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview  Hear

 Touch

 Taste

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

 Draw lines to match the pictures with the senses.

Sight

Smell

Touch

Hear

Taste

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43


Senses 2  Follow the instructions to create a dice. Then play the Senses Game.

2

1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

3

Roll Again © Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. Once you have 4 Instructions

decorated your dice …

1. Draw an eye for sight.

Cut it out and fold tabs along the dashed lines.

2. Draw an ear for hearing.

• Glue the sides together.

3. Draw a tonguewww.readyed.net for 5 taste. 4. Draw a nose for smell. 5. Draw fingers or toes for touch.

44

Another Idea • Keep something that symbolises your favourite sense inside the dice.


 Teachers' Notes

Sources of Light

Curriculum links: recognising that senses are used to learn about the world around us: our eyes to detect light, our ears to detect sound, and touch to feel vibrations. Identifying the sun as a source of light. Recognising that objects can be seen when light from sources is available to illuminate them.

Important Words: sight, sources, blindfold, guess, rely, eye, illuminates.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Appreciating the sense of sight. Book Preview Identifying different sources of light.

Concepts: • •

Teaching Ideas 1. Organise students into pairs, blindfold one student. The sighted student should lead the blindfolded student around the classroom or in an area of the playground. The blindfolded student should tell the sighted student what he/she hears, feels and smells. Students should switch roles. 2. Still in pairs, the sighted student should place different objects in front of the blindfolded student. Using his/her senses, the student should guess the objects. You could include food to include the sense of taste. 3.

© Ready-Ed Publications preview only. As a class,For discuss how difficult it is topurposes identify things with four senses. Discuss how we rely on our other senses, when we can't see. Ask if being blindfolded feels the same as walking around in the dark. Discuss the importance of sight as a sense. We see with our eyes, and sight tells us about things around us. Our eyes show us pictures; of the way things look in our environment. By seeing, we know where we are going, can find things and read. With our eyes we see: light, colour, shape, distance and the size of things around us.

4. Using a diagram of the eye, tell the students about the various parts of the eye and their functions. Retina – light passes through the pupil and lens to fall onto the retina at the back of the eye. Optic nerve – carries the messages from the retina to the brain to be turned into images. Pupil – the pupil is actually the gap created by the iris. Seen as the black spot in our eye. Iris – is the muscle around the pupil that we see as the colour of our eye. This muscle controls the amount of light through the pupil to the retina. Lens – sits behind the pupil. It helps the light pass through onto the retina. The lens helps in seeing far and near objects. Cornea – covers the front part of the eye (that is the iris, pupil). It has two functions. Its most important functions are to allow light to the retina through the lens. Its other function is to protect the eye. 5. Students can complete the activity sheet.

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Sources of Light  Circle the sources of light in each picture. Label the circled sources using a ruler.  Picture 1

 Picture 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview  Sources of light:

 Sources of light:

__________________________

__________________________

© Ready-Ed __________________________

Publications __________________________ For preview purposes only. __________________________ __________________________  Picture 3

 Picture 4

www.readyed.net  Sources of light:

 Sources of light:

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

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 Teachers' Notes

Sources of Sound

Curriculum links: exploring different ways to produce sound using familiar objects and actions such as striking, blowing, scraping and shaking. Comparing sounds made by musical instruments using characteristics such as loudness, pitch and actions used to make the sound.

Important Words: tap, scratch, rub, knock, bang, shake, scraped.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications • Understanding that we can cause different objects to make different sounds. Teaching Ideas: Book Preview Concept:

1. As a class sit in a circle and pass the following objects around: a coffee can, cereal box, Styrofoam egg carton, an aluminum plate, a walnut, corrugated cardboard and a yogurt container. 2. As the objects are passed around, ask each student to: tap (strike) each object with a pencil, scratch/scrape each object using fingernails or a comb, rub each object with their hands or a brush, knock each object using their knuckles and bang each object using their fists.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

3. Doing this activity helps students to understand that different objects make different sounds and that we may prefer some sounds to others. 4. Compare the sounds. Ask: Which is louder? Which is softer? Which sound do you like better? 5. Students should complete the activity sheet. Extension Activities: • •

Ask parents to donate large cans and have the class decorate their own drums. Lay a long sheet of aluminum foil in the middle of a circle of students, get everyone to lightly tap their fingers on it to make a rain sound, then ask them to slowly make the sound get louder and then softer to create the effect of a storm passing and fading away. With a smaller piece of aluminum foil, get the students to shake it lightly and listen to the BIG sound it makes. Make shakers out of rice, sand or seashells and compare the sounds. Make a Tupperware Container Guitar. All you need is a Tupperware container and a packet of rubber bands. Stretch the rubber bands over the Tupperware container and strum or pluck. Use different sized rubber bands to see if they make different sounds. Create a Mystery Music Can from a plastic container. Partly fill an opaque plastic container with different items like: erasers, Lego, wooden blocks, marshmallows, rice, anything you can think of. Get the class to guess what is inside by listening to the sound the container makes when shook.

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• •

47


Sources of Sound  Draw four objects. Describe the sound each object makes when you shake it.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

 When I shake this object it:

 When I shake this object it:

__________________________.

__________________________.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net  When I shake this object it:

 When I shake this object it:

__________________________.

__________________________.

 Cut out the objects and rearrange them from loud to soft.  Scrape the objects with your fingernails. Arrange them from loud to soft. Are they now in a different order? 48


 Teachers' Notes

Types of Sound

Curriculum links: exploring different ways to produce sound using familiar objects and actions such as striking, blowing, scraping and shaking. Comparing sounds made by musical instruments using characteristics such as loudness, pitch and actions used to make the sound.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Concept:Book Preview

percussison, instrument, pitch, low, high, fast, slow, tinkly, woody, hollow, rattly.

Understanding that different percussion instruments make different types of sounds that can be categorised.

Teaching Ideas: 1. Show the class a selection of percussion instruments. Pass the instruments around and get them to discuss and name each instrument. As each instrument is passed around ask: What is it made of? How do you play it? Would the way the instrument is played affect its sound? Can you guess what type of sound it is going to make? (Low pitched or high pitched.)

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

2. Play each instrument. Ask the children to describe the sound each instrument makes. Ask: Is the sound high or low pitched? Is it loud or soft? Is it fast or slow? Does it sound tinkly, rattly, hollow or woody? 3. Place two coloured hoops on the floor. Ask the class to sort the instruments into the following categories: low pitched and high pitched. Children could suggest their own categories. 4. Students can complete the activity sheet.

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Extension Activities: • •

Take digital photographs of the instruments. With the photographs, the students could make cards to play music bingo, music snap or what is that instrument? Play a recording of each instrument, and see if the children can guess the instrument being played.

49


Types of Sound  Cut out the instruments and paste them into the correct circles.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

high pitched

low pitched

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

 True or False? Circle the correct answers.

www.readyed.net

The guitar makes a tinkly sound. TRUE / FALSE The triangle makes a woody sound. TRUE / FALSE The drum makes a hollow sound. TRUE / FALSE The tambourine makes a rattly sound. TRUE / FALSE 50


This is a Ready-Ed Section Six: Publications BookHuman PreviewEndeavour:

The Nature and Development of Science

Science involves asking questions about, and describing changes Ready-Ed Publications in, objectsŠ and events (ACSHE021).

For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

51


 Teachers' Notes

Events, Features and Change

Curriculum links: posing questions about events and features of the local environment that are of interest and affect students’ lives. Recognising that descriptions of what we observe are used by people to help identify change.

Important Words: change, features, events, seasons, people, plants, animals.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Teaching IdeasBook – Sheet 1: Preview Concept: •

Understanding how events, features and change in the local environment affect the lives of people, animals and plants.

1. Tell the students that seasons can be classed as features in their local environment. Discuss the weather patterns in each season. 2. Discuss how the weather affects students’ lives (when it is hot we have to apply sunscreen, switch on the air-conditioning, save water, etc.). Discuss how the weather affects animals’ lives (in winter they don’t get their coats cut, they need shelter, etc.). 3. Explain that the names and descriptions of the seasons help us to identify change. 4. Ask the students to complete the activity sheet.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. • Help students to create a Four Seasons collage. Draw an outline of a tree trunk and branches

Extension Activity:

on an A4 sheet of paper. Make copies and give one to each student. Get them to cut out the outline of the tree and trace it on to four separate pieces of paper. They should label each piece of paper a different season. Ask them to cut out strips of textured paper and glue them onto the trees’ trunks, then paint the backgrounds of each season differently. They can use tissue paper to cut out leaf shapes and glue onto trees to fit each season.

Teaching Ideas – Sheets 2 and 3: 1. Get the students to document changes in their environment such as: a plant’s life cycle, the change of seasons. 2. Ask the class to bring in three photographs of themselves at different ages. Use these photographs to help students understand change and use words to identify change. Ask: How do we know there is a change? What are the clues? 3. Ask the students to complete the activity sheets.

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Extension Activity: • Invite someone into the classroom who has lived in the local area for a long time. Ask him/her to bring in photographs which show how the environment has changed over time. Ask the class to think about why the changes have happened and how they know there have been changes.

52


Events, Features and Change 1

 Draw and write how the seasons change in the life of a dog or other animal. Think about its coat and shelter.

Summer

Winter

This is a Ready-Ed Publications _______________________ _______________________ Book Preview _______________________

_______________________

 Draw and write how the seasons change a plant's life. Autumn

Spring

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. _______________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

 We wear different clothes in different seasons.

www.readyed.net Draw what you might wear during each season.

53


Events, Features and Change 2  Describe what you see in the photos.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview Photo 1

Photo 2

Photo 3

Photo 1:

I see __________________________________________

Photo 2:

I see __________________________________________

Photo 3:

Ready-Ed Publications I see © __________________________________________ For preview purposes only.

 Answer the questions.

1. Is it the same object? ____________________________________________________ 2. How do you know?

www.readyed.net ____________________________________________________ 3. What is different? ____________________________________________________ 4. What is the same? ____________________________________________________ 54


Events, Features and Change 3

Frame 4

 Make your own movie of: – how a plant grows OR – the different seasons. 1. On each frame of the film strip draw a picture to show change. Ready-Ed

Frame 3

This is a Publications2. Cut out the film strip along dotted line. Book Preview

3. Cut a 5 x 5 cm square from the front of a small cereal box. Cut one vertical slit in each side of the box. 4. Pull film strip through the two slots to see your movie.

Frame 2

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Frame 1

www.readyed.net

55


 Teachers' Notes

Different Environments

Curriculum link: discuss why some plants only grow in certain areas.

Important Words: desert, wetland, beach, garden, forest, lake, grow, environments.

This is a Ready-Ed Concept: Publications • Understanding that different plants grow in different environments. Book Preview Teaching Ideas - Sheets 1 and 2: 1. As a class, make a list of different environments that the students are familiar with, e.g. desert, wetlands, beach, garden, bush, forest, lake. 2. Discuss as a class: Why do plants only grow in certain areas? (need water availability, certain type of soil, a certain temperature, a certain amount and quality of light.)

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. What affects where a plant grows? (water, temperature, soil, light.)

How do plants adapt to their environment? (Plants in the desert adapt to little water by having waxy surfaces and deep roots. Plants in the rainforest have thin, wispy leaves to cope with the limited sunlight and fibrous roots to cope with the high rainfall. Plants in the wetlands develop long root systems to ground them. Plants in hot climates have small leaves and deep roots. Plants in cooler climates lose their leaves in winter and generally have large flat leaves and surface root systems.)

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3. Students can then complete the activity sheets. Extension Activity: •

56

Create a class diorama of a specific environment. Include in the diorama the types of plants and animals that you would find living there. This activity could include real plants and animals or pictures and models of plants and animals that they have at home.


Different Environments 1

 Draw three plants that grow in your local area. Name them.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

plants that don’t grow in your local area.  Draw three © Ready-Ed Publications Name them and say where they grow.

For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net Plant 4

Plant 5

Plant 6

 Circle the answer. Do all plants grow in soil?

Yes / No 57


Different Environments 2  Match the plants to the environments in which they grow.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. Locate plants growing in your school grounds.

 Choose one and draw a picture. www.readyed.net Complete the sentence. The _______________ grows in my school grounds because ____________________________________________________ 58


This is a Ready-Ed Section Seven: Publications BookHuman PreviewEndeavour:

The Use and Influence of Science

People use science in their daily lives, including when caring for Š Ready-Ed Publications their environment and living things (ACSHE022).

For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

59


 Teachers' Notes

Science and Medicine

Curriculum link: considering how science is used in activities such as cooking, fishing, transport, sport, medicine and caring for plants and animals.

Important Words: medicine, medicinal, aspirin, ginger, peppermint.

Concept:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Teaching Ideas: Book Preview 1. Ask the students when we use science in our daily lives. Write responses on •

Understanding how science is used in medicine.

the board, e.g. when recording the weather, visiting the doctor, visiting the vet, in the kitchen, in our garden, when building, when lifting and pulling heaving objects, making a pot, driving a car, riding a bike. 2. Discuss how scientists have used plants as medicine. Ask the class what they would think if their doctor gave them ginger if they were sick and peppermint if they had a headache. Tell them that long ago this is what they would have been given to feel better. These plants became known as medicinal plants, many are still used as medicine today. Modern scientists used the leaves and bark of the white willow tree to make the very first form of aspirin.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

3. Students should identify and draw a number of medicinal plants to complete the activity sheet. Medicinal plants you would find in your home: Licorice – strengthens immune system Rosemary – has digestive benefits Lavender – is relaxing, good on bee stings Tea tree – disinfectant Peppermint – has digestive benefits Ginger – helps motion sickness Aloe Vera – soothes sun burn Cinnamon – aides digestion Eucalyptus – is a disinfectant Rosehip – high in Vitamin C Chamomile – has digestive benefits Dandelions – high in vitamins and minerals

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Three basic functions of herbal medicine: Detox or laxative – cleanses the body Maintains health and wellbeing Health building 60


Science and Medicine

 Draw or paste pictures of six plants used as medicine long ago.  Label the plants. Write what illness each plant was used to cure.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

Plant 1 _______________

Plant 2 _______________

Plant 3 _______________

© Ready-Ed Publications _______________ _______________ _______________ For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net Plant 4

Plant 5

Plant 6

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________ 61


 Teachers' Notes

Science in the Kitchen

Curriculum link: considering how science is used in activities such as cooking, fishing, transport, sport, medicine and caring for plants and animals.

Important Words: spores, warmth, moisture, liquid, experiment, results.

Concept:

This is a Ready-Ed Teaching IdeasPublications – Sheets 1, 2 and 3: 1. Tell students that science has a place in the kitchen. Book Preview •

Understanding how science is used in the kitchen.

2. Tell them that Egyptians made ice using science (2,500 years ago Egyptians filled clay pots with water and placed them outside on a cold night to freeze. The ice was used during the day to keep the food from spoiling). 3. Tell them that the people who lived in medieval times made toast using science (1,500 years ago medieval people stuck bread on a long fork and turned it over a fire to make toast). Some people still do this when camping today. 4. Tell them that Vikings and pirates salted their meat in barrows as a way of keeping it fresh on their long journeys. 5. Before completing the activity sheets run through some Kitchen Science Rules: - Adult supervision when cutting and using kitchen appliances. - Follow all instructions. - Do not taste, eat or drink experiments unless told it is safe to do so. - Tie back hair and roll up sleeves. - Clean up after your experiment. - Wash your hands before and after the experiment. Results of Sheet 1: Large nuts sit on top of small nuts. Popcorn sits on top of salt. Results of Sheet 2: The warmth and moisture in the bag releases the mushrooms' spores. If there are no spores, tell students to leave their mushrooms and paper in the bag for a couple more days. Results of Sheet 3: apple with lemon juice - stays white; apple with vinegar - turns brown; apple with milk - stays white; apple with water - turns brown; apple with soda water stays white; apple only - brown.

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Extension Activities: •

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Tie dye a t-shirt with natural dyes. Place tea-bags into a bucket with hot water and soak for a few hours. Boil up some beetroot and onion in separate pots. Put aside to cool. Gather up sections of the t-shirt with rubber bands. Soak the t-shirt in the bucket, squeeze excess water. Hang t-shirt to dry. Dip the gathered sections of the t-shirt into either a pot of beetroot or onion. Dry. When dry remove rubber bands and iron. Do spore prints by cutting the mushroom in half and applying paint to the surface then getting the class to press them down on paper to create patterns. Mount finished pictures on coloured card.


Science in the Kitchen 1  Try this experiment. Process: 1. Place large and small nuts into plastic 1 cup salt jar and secure lid. ¼ cup unpopped 2. Roll jar on table until nuts are mixed. popcorn This is a3.Ready-Ed Tap jar on desk and watch what plastic jar with lid happens. four largePublications nuts 4. Empty jar. Book ½ cup small nuts Preview 5. Place popcorn and salt into plastic container and secure lid. 6. Roll jar on table until salt and popcorn are mixed. 7. Tap jar on desk and watch what happens. © Ready-Ed Publications

Materials: • • • • •

For preview purposes only.

 Draw the results of your experiment.

www.readyed.net Small and Large Nuts

Salt and Popcorn

1. What went to the bottom of the nut jar? ______________________ 2. What went to the top of the salt and popcorn jar?_______________ 63


Science in the Kitchen 2  Try this experiment. Process: 1. Remove stems from mushrooms. 2. Place mushrooms face down on white paper. a Ready-Ed

This is 3. Place mushrooms and paper into a variety of Publications snap lock bag and seal. mushrooms;Book four per Preview

Materials: •

student • white paper • snap lock plastic bag • magnifying glass

4. Leave in a warm place over night. 5. Open the snap lock bag, remove mushrooms and look at the paper with your magnifying glass.

© Ready-Ed Publications your different mushrooms look like. Label them.  Draw whatFor preview purposes only.

Mushroom 1

Mushroom 2

Mushroom 3

you saw on the paper.  Draw whatwww.readyed.net

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Mushroom 4


Science in the Kitchen 3  Try this experiment. Process: 1. Cut apple into six slices.

Materials: • • • • • • • • •

knife 2. Place a slice of apple on each of the six 6 plastic plates plates. 6 teaspoons aSpoon Ready-Ed lemon juice on a slice of apple. apple This is 3. water Publications 4. Then use: vinegar, milk, water and soda water on the remaining slices. Each soda water Book Preview slice of apple should be covered in a milk different liquid. vinegar 5. Leave one slice with nothing on it. lemon juice 6. Leave your plates for one hour and check your results.

© Ready-Ed Publications  Record the results by colouring each slice of apple on the plates below. For preview purposes only.

lemon juice

vinegar

milk

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soda water

Which apple slices turned: White Brown 65


 Teachers' Notes

Other Suggested Activities

Curriculum link: consider that technologies used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people require an understanding of how materials can be used to make tools and weapons, musical instruments, clothing, cosmetics and artworks.

Teaching Idea: •

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview Curriculum link: identify ways that science knowledge is used in the care of the local

Ask a local Aboriginal Elder to come into the school and talk to the children about how they use their knowledge of technology to make clothes, medicine and tools.

environment such as animal habitats, and suggesting changes to parks and gardens to better meet the needs of native animals.

Teaching Idea: •

As a class grow a vegetable garden and have chickens/fish/ birds to care for.

Take the students out on an excursion to a local habitat and have someone talk to the class about how native animals need to live in certain habits.

In class, discuss where animals live and why.

© Ready-Ed Publications preview purposes only. Get the classFor to group the different habitats according to scale, e.g. under stone,

under leaf, pond, plant or tree. You could make photographs or cards which the class can group. •

Get the class to make a portable miniature garden to answer the question: How can we make our garden a place where native animals may want to live? Extension Activities: •

Ask the children to think about what would happen if a pond drained of water: What would happen to the animals? What would happen to the plants? Ask the students why they think people destroy habitats (land use, mining raw materials). Make a Fern Forest using paints, fern leaves and white paper. Paint a pale green background onto white paper. Paint the fern leaves dark blue/green and press onto the paper. For a snowy scene paint white and gold fern leaves onto black paper.

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Answers P9 Emu – walking (colour legs) Koala – climbing (colour legs and arms including claws) Dingo – running (colour legs) Eel – swimming (colour body) Kangaroo – hopping (colour legs) Bird – flying (colour wings) Beetle – crawling (colour legs) P11 flowers petals leaves

P14 P O G Z N R W I N D S F T R S

B H S O E D P Y A E J E M L G

T A O W E P Y Z E Z F C O L E

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

L A O T L D R D T P G L W I L

F L E A O W J M X W L D Y Z H

F F N B L S L J N P U W V M F

T T L Z A W Y H U B J R Y B U

N S O T M A S N B D C I U T Y

F F J U I T M L T Q I R F F C

W O R D N E O J A H L P F F K

U F O U A R V L N T E D O S S

S H W D I E E O U L E S V O A

S T O O R T H M S F Y P I X L

R Y B S T E M R Q M O Z X S N

P L I O S W Y X O L E A V E S

P17 Habitat 1 – students should circle the bowl of fruit and add the octopus to the picture. Habitat 2 – students should circle the Hills Hoist and add the kangaroo to the picture. Habitat 3 – students should circle the television and add the chicken to the picture.

stem buds

roots

© Ready-Ed Publications Land = 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 seed Water = 3, 4, 5, 7, 9 For preview purposes only. I am a seed. I need food and water to grow. P20

soil

I am soil. I provide the plant with water and nutrients to grow. I am the roots of a plant. I transport water and nutrients. P13 Light energy – from the sun Carbon dioxide – from the air Water and nutrients – collected by the roots Chlorophyll – found in the cells of green plants

P22 Students should colour and label: the whalers, the rubbish/debris, the fire, the fog/gases, the oil, the fumes/gases. P30

natural

constructed constructed

natural

natural

managed

managed

constructed

managed

www.readyed.net Carbon dioxide

Light energy

Water and Nutrients

constructed

Chlorophyll

The suggested experiment will emphasise that a plant needs light (from the sun or an artificial source) to survive.

natural

natural

P46 Picture 1 – students should circle candle, lamps and lights. Picture 2 – students should circle torch, sun and candle. Picture 3 – students should circle fire, moon and torch. Picture 4 – students should circle stage light, aisle spot lights and watch.

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P50 High pitched = triangle and tambourine Low pitched = drum, acoustic guitar. False, false, true, true. P54 Photo 1: I see a new seed planted in the ground. Photo 2: I see that the seed has grown into a flower with leaves. Photo 3: I see the flower and its leaves wilting. P58 The sea plant grows in the ocean. The grass plant grows in the Australian bush. The rose grows in a domestic garden. The cactus grows in the desert.

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Š Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

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Junior Scientists 1, 6-7 year olds