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This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Ready-Ed Acknowledgements i. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission. ii. Corel Corporation collection, 1600 Carling © 2013 Ready-Ed Publications Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7.

Title: Australian Geography Series Year 7 - Unit 2: Place And Liveability

Publications

Printed in Australia Author: Fiona Back Illustrator: Alison Mutton

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Published by:

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ISBN: 978 186 397 882 8 2


Contents

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Teachers' Notes National Curriculum Links

4 5

Section 1: The location of indigenous australians

6

Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 1 Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 2 Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 3 Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 4 Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 5 Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 6

7 8 9 10 11 12

Section 2: Liveability

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

The Australian Population 1 The Australian Population 2 The Australian Population 3 Where Australians Live 1 Where Australians Live 2 Choosing To Live In Australia 1 Choosing To Live In Australia 2 Choosing To Live In Australia 3 Choosing To Live In Australia 4 Remoteness 1 Remoteness 2 Remoteness 3 Living In Different Parts Of Australia 1 Living In Different Parts Of Australia 2 Living In Different Parts Of Australia 3 A Declining Town 1 A Declining Town 2

Section 3: Around The World Other Countries

Australia And China 1 Australia And China 2

33 34

Section 4: Centrality

35 36 37 38 39

The Creation Of Cities 1 The Creation Of Cities 2 Australian Urbanisation 1 Australian Urbanisation 2

Section 5: OTHER Factors That Affect Where We Live The Growth Of Local Towns 1 The Growth Of Local Towns 2 Technology Can Determine Where We Live 1 Technology Can Determine Where We Live 2 Technology Can Determine Where We Live 3 Technology Can Determine Where We Live 4

Section 6: Living Now And In The Future

40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Weighing Up Where To Live Where You Live Future Living 1 Future Living 2 Future Living 3 Future Living 4

47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Why People Live Where They Do Glossary Population Glossary

54 55

Answers

56

31 32

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Teachers’ Notes

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Year 7 - Unit 1: Resources In The World and Year 7 - Unit 2: Place And Liveability have been specifically written for Year 7 students studying Geography in Australia. The books have been written by the same author and are both part of the Australian Geography Series which comprises nine books in total. Year 7 - Unit 2 is divided into six sections which clearly link to the Australian National Curriculum.

The first section investigates the factors which have influenced the location of Indigenous Australians over the years. It traces their movements and the reasons behind these movements. The second section entitled Liveability, explores the reasons why people live where they do in Australia, and compares Australian life in urban, rural and remote places. Around The World is the title of the third section of the book and it makes a comparison between Australia and other countries. Centrality is the name of the fourth section of the book as it explores urbanisation. The fifth section examines more factors which contribute to people's decisions to live in certain places, and the final section considers future living. As students complete the activities in this book, they will learn to describe the significance, interconnection and characteristics of places, and identify the relationships between these. They will use concepts relating to location, distribution and pattern, to describe their observations and findings. Each activity sheet is designed to engage the students and help them to develop an appreciation of why people live where they do. Students will be encouraged to develop Geography skills by: observing, questioning, planning, collecting, evaluating, processing, analysing, interpreting and drawing conclusions.

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National Curriculum Links

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

The factors that influence the decisions people make about where to live and their perceptions of the liveability of places (ACHGK043) • investigating their and others’ interpretations of the concept of liveability and choices about where to live, for example, connections to cultural groups, adolescent ‘bright lights’ attraction, retiree tree-change and families with children locating near schools, and other facilities • discussing the concept of liveability and the ways it is measured and comparing objective measures such as transportation infrastructure, with subjective measures such as people’s perceptions • comparing student access to and use of places and spaces in their local area and evaluating how this affects perceptions of liveability • discussing that many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples choose to live on their Country/Place or might prefer to if they had the choice The influence of accessibility to services and facilities on the liveability of places (ACHGK044) • comparing accessibility to and availability of a range of services and facilities between different types of settlements (urban, rural and remote) in Australia and other countries, for example, access to clean water, sanitation, education and health services • examining the role transport plays in people’s ability to access services and participate in activities in the local area • comparing transportation and accessibility in Australian cities with cities in countries of the Asia region or Europe The influence of environmental quality on the liveability of places (ACHGK045) • researching the effects of air pollution on the liveability of cities • explaining the importance of water quality to the liveability of places • investigating the concept of environmental quality and surveying the environmental quality of their local area and its effect on liveability The influence of social connectedness, community identity and perceptions of crime and safety on the liveability of places (ACHGK046) • discussing the different types of places where people can feel included or excluded, safe or threatened, and evaluating how this affects perceptions about liveability of places • investigating the extent to which people in their place are socially connected or socially isolated and its effect on liveability The strategies used to enhance the liveability of places, especially for young people, including examples from Australia and Europe (ACHGK047) • researching methods implemented in Australia and Europe to improve the liveability of a place, and evaluating their applicability to their own locality • developing a specific proposal to improve an aspect of the liveability of their place, taking into account the needs of diverse groups in the community, including young people • discussing the impact of housing density on the liveability of places, examining whether liveability and environmental sustainability can be enhanced at the same time

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5


This is a Ready-Ed Section 1: Publications' book preview. The Location Of Indigenous Australians

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Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 1

Thisi is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the text below then complete the task. Torres Strait Islanders are people whose heritage and culture comes from a group of islands to the north of Queensland. Torres Strait Islanders are a part of Australia’s indigenous population. In 2012 it was estimated that 6% of Indigenous Australians were Torres Strait Islanders. Australian Aboriginals are also a part of Australia’s indigenous population. In 2012 it was estimated that Aborigines made up 2.6% of the Australian population. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples are believed to have come to Australia over 45,000 years ago. How and where they lived then, is different to how and where they live in modern times. When Aborigines first arrived in Australia, they lived all over Australia, however, the coastal

areas were the most highly populated. After European settlement, Aborigines were driven away from coastal areas and began to live in inland Australia. Prior to colonisation, Aborigines moved from place to place according to the seasons in order to manage the environment. For example they would move from area to area in order to allow the land and its resources to replenish, so that it never became depleted of life giving foods, water and shelter. The Aborigines who lived in inland Australia hunted and gathered in the bush and the desert. They burnt the undergrowth of the bush which encouraged the growth of new vegetation and attracted the animals that they hunted for food. They

were also experts in seeking out water. Where Aborigines lived in Australia precolonisation was determined by the resources that the land provided for them. When the Europeans came to settle in Australia in 1788 it was estimated that there were between 300,000 and 750,000 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples living in Australia. This number began to rapidly decline due to the introduction of foreign diseases and fatal disputes with the Europeans.

 Aborigines obey certain laws. The adherence to these laws determine their movements around Australia. Read the laws below.

Physical World " Our Land Our Life "

'We don't own the land, the land owns us.' 'The land is my mother, my mother is the land.' 'Land is the starting point to where it all began. It is like picking up a piece of dirt and saying this is where I started and this is where I will go.' 'The land is our food, our culture, our spirit and identity.' 'We don't have boundaries like fences, as farmers do. We have spiritual connections.'

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A. After reading the above information, explain in your own words what determined where Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples lived before and after colonisation. Write on the back of this sheet or in your workbook. Section 1: The Location Of Indigenous Australians

7


Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Read the text on page 7, then complete the task below.

A. Further investigate why the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples moved from place to place in order to live harmoniously with the land. Write an information report which includes factual information, illustrations and headings. Plan this report by completing the table below.

u General Classification Describe the different regions of land in Australia, i.e. coastal, inland, etc.

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

u Description Describe what each region contained in relation to food and water supplies. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

u Location Give an example of where each region is located within Australia. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

u Behaviour Describe specific features, such as any adaptations that the Indigenous Australians made in order to live in a particular environment or region. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

u Summary Summarise how the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People's customs affected the distribution of their people in Australia. ____________________________________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

8

Section 1: The Location Of Indigenous Australians


Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 3

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' i book preview.  Read the text, then complete the tasks on page 10.

Physical, Religious And Kinship Systems Affect Where Aborigines Live

Economic opportunities, lifestyle preferences, personal income and safety mainly determine where people choose to live in western society. The traditional social organisation of Indigenous Australians is quite different.

Family, bands, clans and tribes affect the population distribution and the mobility of the Aboriginal people. Traditionally, the Aboriginal people lived from day to day in family groups known as bands. Each band had an area in the territory where they had the right to hunt and collect food. Bands would sometimes meet together and form clans which could consist of as many as 500 people. Clans could conflict if one clan invaded another's territory. When clans would gather together they were known as tribes. Tribes would often meet for ceremonies - clan members would gather together at one time, travelling great distances to attend. Where Aboriginal people lived depended on the bands, clans and tribes to which they belonged.

Tribes Clans Family groups or bands

Another social system which affects indigenous population distribution and mobility is kinship. Kinship is a social structure which means that all Aboriginal people are related to one another.

responsible for another person’s debt or wrong doing. For these reasons the location in which an Aboriginal person chooses to live can be closely linked to their kinship responsibilities.

1890

1970

The Stolen Generations Affected Indigenous Distribution The term ‘Stolen Generations’ refers to the actions of European people who forcefully took away the children of Aboriginal people between the 1890s and the 1970s. For nearly a hundred years Aboriginal families were split up, breaking their previously unbreakable bonds of family, horde, tribes, clans and kinship. The impact that these actions had on the Aboriginal people were in-depth and far reaching. In terms of mobility and population distribution, the Stolen Generations changed the face of Aboriginal society, as the continuity of their social systems which had gone before were taken away, never to fully recover. During these years, European settlers also attempted to ‘move on’ adult Aboriginal people from their land as ‘new’ European townships and settlements emerged. No consideration was given to their connection with the land and their people.

Kinship can affect the mobility and population distribution of Aboriginal people as the kinship system structures their relationships, obligations and behaviour. It defines matters such as who looks after a child if a parent dies, who can marry whom, who is responsible for taking care of the elderly and even who is

Go to www.readyed.net Section 1: The Location Of Indigenous Australians

9


Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 4

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  After reading the text on page 9, complete the questions and tasks below.

A. Answer the questions.

1. How many people on average would a clan consist of?

_________________________________________________________

2. Why would clans conflict?

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

3. European settlers could not see that the Aboriginal people had their own social organisation. If the early settlers had understood the indigenous system of social organisation, do you think relations would have been different? Explain your answer.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

B. Complete the flow diagram to show how Aboriginal society was organised.

Bands

formed

formed

C. Use lines to complete each sentence about the Stolen Generations.

1. Children were forcibly taken from their …

servants

2. Children were taken to white families as …

families

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3. For … years Aboriginal families were torn apart.

orphans

4. Children were told that they were …

ninety

10

Section 1: The Location Of Indigenous Australians


Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 5

Thisi is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Read the text, then complete the tasks on page 12.

Aboriginal People – The Traditional Inhabitants Of Australia

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island Peoples have lived in Australia for over 45,000 years. 500-600 groups of Aboriginal people, totalling an estimated 750,000 people were living in Australia at the time of European settlement during the eighteen and nineteen hundreds.

In the 18th century Captain Cook declared Australia 'terra nullius' (land belonging to no-one). Legally this meant that no civilised people had lived in Australia previously and therefore there was no-one to claim the land other than the European settlers. The Aboriginal people had no say in this decision and no means to fight against the new law. In effect, the land which they had owned for tens of thousands of years was taken away from them simply because they did not have their laws written on paper in English. The mobility and population distribution of the Aboriginal people was highly affected by the creation of large-scale reserves for the Aboriginal people to live on in the late 1900s. Many were forcibly removed from their traditional country and moved hundreds of kilometres in order to make way for new pastoral and farming uses of the land. The breaking of close ties with their land and their people had devastating effects on the Aboriginal people. In the 1930s, the Aboriginal people started to find a voice and staged their first recognised protest against the harsh treatment that they had received. This brought to the attention of the Australian public the plight of the Aboriginal people. It was also made public at this time that Aboriginal children were still being forcibly taken from their parents.

difficult for the government to ignore their claims. In 1966 the first step by the Australian Government to grant Aboriginal title to land happened. The South Australian Parliament created the Aboriginal Lands Trust of South Australia. This gave the freehold title of land used as Aboriginal reserves to the Aboriginal people.

1n 1972 a Tent Embassy was set up on the lawns of Parliament House in Canberra. The Embassy was designed to draw public attention to the fight by the Aboriginal people for land titles. The Commonwealth Government announced it would grant leases of reserved land in the Northern Territory to Aboriginal communities and would set aside five million dollars to buy land for communities outside reserves for the Aboriginal people.

An Important Step Forward – Native Title In February 1973, the Woodward Royal Commission into Aboriginal Land Rights was set up. The report recommended that reserve land should be given to indigenous people and Crown land should be made available for them to claim. In 1976 the Aboriginal Land Rights Act (Northern Territory) became law. The Act was not repeated immediately in the other states, but by 1984 South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland had all passed Land Rights legislation. Aboriginal The 1990s witnessed further Land Rights rights milestones, including Act government legislation that returned a great degree of autonomy, and increased wages and welfare benefits to Aboriginal people. This has had an impact on the movement of Aboriginal people into more urban centres. There is still a long way to go in regard to native land entitlements.

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Over the next 30 years the Aboriginal people slowly started to take political action over land rights. It was a long slow process but with each claim and each public protest it became more

Section 1: The Location Of Indigenous Australians

11


Distribution Of Indigenous Australians 6

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą After reading the text on page 11, complete the tasks on this page.

Source 1

Source 2

1. Which state or territory has granted the most native title?___________________________ 2. Which state or territory has granted the least?_____________________________________ 3. Has any native title been given in urban areas?____________________________________ 4. 1,300 claims have been lodged, but only 121 native titles have been given. What is the percentage of success?_ ______________________________________________________ B. Complete one frame of the storyboard for each significant event that happened to the Aboriginal people in relation to land ownership.

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Challenge

12

C. Find out what the Tent Embassy is in Canberra. Explain what it represents on the back of this page.

Section 1: The Location Of Indigenous Australians

www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/land/native-title-issues.html#ixzz20x26jJW8

A. Source 1 is a map showing where native title has been applied for by Aboriginal people. Source 2 is a map showing how much title has actually been granted. Look at the sources then complete the questions below.


This is a Ready-Ed Section 2:Publications' bookLiveability preview.

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The Australian Population 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' i book preview.  Read the text below which maps changes that have occurred in the Australian population over the last 100 years, then complete the tasks on pages 15 and 16. Over the past 100 years Australia’s population has been affected by historical events such as World War I and II, the Great Depression, medical advances, the Baby Boom, post-war immigration, and technological and global social and economic changes.

Federation 1901: After Federation in 1901, when all of the states joined to become one nation, Australia experienced strong levels of population growth due to a strong faith in the future and reasonably stable economic times. Migration from European countries was strong due to the Commonwealth Government's support of immigrants. It is estimated that at the time of Federation Australia’s population was close to 400,000. The First World War (1914-1918): World War I changed the general growth pattern of Australia’s population. Men and women left for war, and approximately 60,000 soldiers did not return. There was also an outbreak of the flu - the Spanish Influenza Epidemic of 1919. It is estimated that 10,000 people died from it. The Great Depression: The 1930s Depression slowed down the population growth of Australia. Fewer migrants arrived in Australia and some even left in hope of finding employment in another country. Many families delayed having children until they found employment. The Second World War (1939-45): By 1939, Australia’s population was estimated to be nearly seven million. The population remained reasonably stable at this time. Even though 550,000 men fought in this war, it is estimated that over 500,000 soldiers returned. Records show that nearly 40,000 Australians died in the war.

estimated at 2.2% per year in comparison with just 0.9% during the Depression. The Australian Government however, believed that Australia’s population was still not high enough to ensure its security in the face of another war, or its economic development into the future. Immigration continued to be supported and the Baby Boom, which lasted up until 1971, provided the reassurance the world needed that Australia was an economically stable country. 1970s: In the early 1970s some new factors came into play. A change in attitudes towards the role of women in society allowed women to enter the workforce in previously discouraged roles. This meant more autonomy for women and a fall in population growth. The contraceptive pill was made available on a mass basis at this time which allowed women to more easily control how many children they had, if any. Fertility levels between 1972 and 1980 actually dropped to below those during the Great Depression. 1980s To The Present: Since the 1980s low fertility rates have continued in Australia. Increased immigration has managed to counterbalance low fertility rates, however, the Government has made recent changes to parental leave conditions and maternity pay in order to encourage higher birth rates. The Future: Australia is currently faced with an ageing population. The Baby Boomers are now retiring and living longer due to Australia’s high level of sanitation, diet, public health and medical technology. The future of Australia is in the hands of future generations.

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Post War Immigration And The Baby Boom: After World War II, from 1946 to 1971 post-war immigration and the Baby Boom greatly increased Australia’s population. Population growth was 14

Section 2: Liveability


The Australian Population 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the text on page 14, then complete the tasks below.

A. Complete the following timeline to show the major events that influenced Australia’s population trends from 1901 to the present.

1901

E.g. Federation

B. Complete the questions. 1. Why do populations grow in times of economic security? _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why did the Australian Government want a high population for ‘security’ reasons after World War II? _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. How did access to the contraceptive pill change life for women? _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. What will the current generation of Australians need to do to ensure the continued growth of Australia’s population? _ ______________________________________________________________________________ C. Complete the questions. 1. Which time period do you think had the most impact on the population growth in Australia? _ ______________________________________________________________________________

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2. What facilities do you think it is important to have for retiring Baby Boomers (your grandparents)?

_ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ Section 2: Liveability

15


The Australian Population 3

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the text on page 14, then complete the tasks below. A. Answer the questions by choosing from the list below. a) World War I and World War II b) 7 million c) contraceptive d) retiring Australians e) 1901

f) 1946-1971 g) 60,000 h) less i) economically stable j) fall

1. Which wars had an impact on the population of Australia? 2. Federation occurred in which year? 3. How many soldiers did not return from World War I? 4. Did the Great Depression cause more or less immigrants to come to Australia? 5. What was the population of Australia at the time of World War II? 6. Between what years did the Baby Boom happen? 7. A steady rise in the population of Australia gave the world confidence that Australia was what? 8. During the 1970s more women joined the workforce. This caused the population to….? 9. The introduction of what pill caused a decrease in fertility rates? 10. What does the term ‘Baby Boomers’ refer to? B. Mark on each line how much you agree or disagree with the statement. Explain why after each one. Statement 1: It is important that men and women have equal opportunities in work. Disagree

Agree

Explain why: _________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Statement 2: Immigration has been very important in sustaining Australia’s population growth. Disagree

Agree

Explain why: _________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Statement 3: It is important that younger generations assist the elderly as they age.

Go to www.readyed.net Disagree

Agree

Explain why: _________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 16

Section 2: Liveability


Where Australians Live 1

Thisi is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the information then complete the tasks on this page and on page 18. Pre-colonisation, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples inhabited mainly the coastal areas of Australia, and a lesser number, the interior of Australia. European settlers focused on coastal settlements in order to access fresh water and food, and drove indigenous Australians inland. Today more than three quarters of Australia’s population live in coastal areas, mostly along the south-east and south-west of Australia. The population within these regions is concentrated in urban areas, particularly in the state and territory capital cities.

Over the past 100 years, even with the enormous technological advancements in irrigation, agriculture and mining, 89% of Australians live in coastal regions, and only 11% live in rural and remote locations.

Population Distribution In Australia Darwin

Population Density Population density refers to the number of people living per unit in an area. It measures how densely populated an area is. Australia’s population density is currently 2.9 people per square kilometre (sq km). The states' and territories' population statistics are presented below.

Brisbane Perth Adelaide 1 dot = 1000 people

Sydney Canberra Melbourne

STATE OR TERRITORY

PEOPLE PER SQ KM

POPULATION

AREA (KM SQ)

Australian Capital Territory Victoria New South Wales Tasmania Queensland South Australia Western Australia Northern Territory

162.1 25.54 9.05 7.48 2.6 1.67 0.94 0.17

370,700 5,574,500 7,247,700 511,700 4,513,000 1,645,000 2,387,200 232,400

2,280 227,146 800,642 68,401 1,730,648 983,482 2,529,875 1,349,129

A. Answer the questions about the distribution of the Australian population. 1. Is the population evenly or unevenly spread? _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Where do most people live? _ ______________________________________________________________________________

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3. What is the least populated area?

_ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Why do you think this is? _ ______________________________________________________________________________ Section 2: Liveability

17


Where Australians Live 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Read the information on page 17, then complete the tasks below.

A. Summarise the distribution of Australia’s population. Think about the following factors: environmental (climate, etc.), employment, natural resources, services and facilities, attachment to place, etc. Write a practice paragraph first, then edit your writing. Write your final copy underneath your practice paragraph. You can use the back of this sheet or your workbook if you need more space to write.

Practice Paragraph:_ ___________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Final Paragraph:_ ______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Challenge

18

B. Choose a rural town that you have heard of or have a connection to and compare the population density of that town with your closest capital city.

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

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Choosing To Live In Australia 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' i book preview.  Read the information below, then complete the tasks on page 20.

Since 1945 the Department of Immigration and Citizenship has enabled more than seven million people to settle in Australia. Australia’s society has been greatly shaped by the cultural and social traditions of those seven million people and subsequent families. A slant on Australia’s immigration program was the White Australia Policy. This policy was in existence in different forms from 1901 until it was finally totally disregarded in 1973. The policy only allowed people from ‘white’ backgrounds to

immigrate to Australia. Since 1973 this imbalance has been corrected. After World War II thousands of European people were displaced from their own country. Between 1945 and 1950, 200,000 people immigrated to Australia. One million more migrants arrived between 1950 and the early 2000s. The largest numbers of migrants have come from the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Asia.

Immigrants contribute to the distribution of population across Australia by supplying labour skills and knowledge. Agriculture and industry has expanded due to an increase in experienced professionals and workers. New technological knowledge has also benefited the rural development towns. A growing population has also meant additional taxes - so there is more money to put into new industries such as mining.

Internal Migration In Australia Factors such as drought and changes in mining and industry have led to changes in internal migration in Australia. In Australia, migration is predominantly to coastal areas from rural and remote areas, however, over the past ten years Australia has seen a shift back to some rural and remote areas where the mining industry is supporting populations.

Metapedia

Source 1: The Australian Government poster entitled "Australia: Land of Tomorrow". Between 1949 and 1951 this poster could be seen in reception rooms and dining halls at Australian migrant reception centres. Its purpose was to encourage people to make Australia their new home. Joe Greenberg is the creator of this poster, and the story goes that a migrant from Czechoslovakia told Greenberg that he had seen the poster in a European migrant camp and it had played a part in persuading him to migrate to Australia.

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Section 2: Liveability

19


Choosing To Live In Australia 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  After reading the information on page 19, complete the tasks below.

A. Study the poster entitled "Australia: Land of Tomorrow" (Source 1) on page 19, then answer the questions below. 1. Who do you think the poster was trying to attract?

_ ______________________________________________________________________________

2. Where do you think the poster was specifically trying to attract people to move to? _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Explain what a ‘migrant camp’ was. _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Explain how the poster could have influenced people. _ ______________________________________________________________________________ B. Create your own poster aimed at attracting people to move to Australia today. Plan it below, then create a good copy of your poster on the back of this page, on A4 paper or in Comic Life posters (MacBook application).

Subject: Immigration poster Target audience: ________________________ Key points to include about Australia and immigration: ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ Headings for the poster: ________________________ ________________________ Rhyming slogan/jingle:

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________________________ ________________________ ________________________

DRAFT OF POSTER DESIGN 20

Section 2: Liveability


Choosing To Live In Australia 3

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Use your research skills to complete the tasks below.

A. Find out approximately how many people moved to Australia between 1946 and 2012. Research which five main countries they came from.

Country

1946 - 1971

1972 -1990

1991 - 2012

Number Of People

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

B. Choose a group of migrants from the table above. Research the five topics numbered below, then copy the concept map onto a plain piece of A3 paper and record your information about the migrants’ move to Australia on the concept map. Include illustrations and articles from newspapers and magazines which relate to the topics. TOPICS 1. The challenges that they faced when they moved to Australia. 2. The advantages of moving to Australia. 3. Who they left behind. 4. Why they left their homeland. 5. What they have contributed to Australia. Concept Map

Challenges Contributions

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Immigrants

Who they left behind

Why they left Section 2: Liveability

21


Choosing To Live In Australia 4

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Complete the fieldwork below.

A. Interview a person who has moved to Australia in the last 65 years. They may be a member of your family, a classmate or a family friend. Prepare ten questions to ask him/her which will discover why they moved to Australia and what their experiences have been like.

Tips for writing your interview questions. • • • • • •

Write down all the questions that you wish to ask. Make sure that the interviewee knows the objective of your research. Ask if you can have permission to share his/her story. Find out the background of the person: where he/she was born, where he/she lived, what languages he/she speaks. Find out the person's feelings and attitudes: whether he/she wanted to leave, what his/her journey was like, etc. Draw specific answers from the interviewee through your questions – What did you do once you arrived? Where did you work? What were / are your religious beliefs and traditions?

Decide how you can best share your information with others – oral presentation, computer presentation, recording of the interview (with permission), report, etc. Prepare your interview below.

Interview Topic: Immigration To Australia My name: _____________________________________________

Date: ___________________

Today I am interviewing: ____________________________________________________________ I have permission to video or record this interview:

Yes

No

I have permission to share this information:

Yes

No

Questions

Answers

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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9. 22

Section 2: Liveability


Remoteness 1

Thisi is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Read the information, then complete the tasks on pages 24 and 25. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The population in Australia decreases the further away it is from an urban centre. Areas in Australia can be categorised as urban, rural and remote.

Urban: an area characterised by a higher population density and built features than the area around it.

Major cities of Australia Inner Regional Australia Outer Regional Australia Remote Australia Very Remote Australia Migratory (preparing to leave Australia)

In 2012, the Australian Bureau of Statistics estimated that 66% of Australia’s population lived in urban centres, 31% lived in inner and outer regional areas and only 3% in remote or very remote areas. The Northern Territory had the highest proportion of people living in remote (21%) and very remote (24%) areas. The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) had the least, with 99.8% of the population living in urban areas.

Rural / Regional: an area that has a low population density and where the land is typically used for agriculture.

Look at the source below. It shows that in comparison to the general population, a relatively high proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples lived in rural and remote areas in 2001. However, at this time, urban areas were home to the majority of indigenous people.

Remote: describes a geographical area where a community is located over 350 kilometres from the nearest service centre having year-round road access. The Remoteness Structure of Australia developed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics further classifies Australia into six regions. They are:

Remoteness of Area

Source 1: Population, By Indigenous Status – 30 June 2001 Major Cities Inner Regional Outer Regional Remote Very Remote

Go to www.readyed.net 0

Indigenous Non-indigenous

25

%

Section 2: Liveability

50

75

23


Remoteness 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą After reading the information on page 23, complete the tasks below.

A. Sort the words into the correct boxes.

List of Words

swimming pools city skyscrapers highways roads storage sheds dams houses apartments stables traffic lights hotels bus stations train stations airports cafĂŠs petrol stations parks skate parks

Urban Population

Rural Population

Remote Population

B. Complete the table by listing ten towns in order of distance from your closest capital city. Start with your closest capital city and finish with a remote town.

Name Of City/Town

Distance From Capital City (KM)

Classification: Urban, Rural Or Remote

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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10. 24

Section 2: Liveability


Remoteness 3 A. By following the steps listed on this page prepare a travel itinerary for a group of geologists who are looking for a new mine site location in Australia.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Step 1: Choose ten rural or remote towns in Australia and locate them on the map below.

Step 2: Research each town that you have chosen to find out its geographical data. Prepare a table for each of your chosen ten towns based on the table below. Use your workbooks or the back of this sheet to draw up the tables. Name of town: Infrastructure (roads, water supply, essential buildings, sewage): Facilities (services, shops, health and medical facilities): Location: Current industries: Tourism: Climate:

Population:

Step 3: Study your data and write a report about which town would be best to model the new mining town on. Use the back of this sheet or your workbook.

Go to www.readyed.net

B. Challenge

Speak to someone who lives or has lived in a country town or remote community. Interview them about the advantages and disadvantages of living there. Section 2: Liveability

25


Living In Different Parts Of Australia 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Complete the Before Reading section of the Anticipation Guide below, then read the information on page 27. After you have read the information, complete the After Reading section of the Anticipation Guide.

Subject: The advantages and disadvantages of living in different parts of Australia.

Anticipation Guide

Selected Statements

Before Reading

After Reading

1. The cost of living is usually less in remote towns than cities.

I think this statement is …

q  True q  True I think this statement is … q  False q  False

2. It is easier to access public transport in urban areas.

I think this statement is …

q  True q  True I think this statement is … q  False q  False

q  True q  True 3. There are more public facilities in rural I think this statement is … I think this statement is … areas than in remote areas. q  False q  False 4. The coast of Australia is the country’s most popular area to live.

q  True q  True I think this statement is … q  I think this statement is … q  False False

5. The living conditions are not the same in all rural towns.

I think this statement is …

q  True q  True I think this statement is … q  False q  False

6. Living in a remote community means living an isolated life.

I think this statement is …

q  True q  True I think this statement is … q  False q  False

7. Rural communities can provide an important role in continuing cultural traditions in Australia.

I think this statement is …

q  True q  True I think this statement is … q  False q  False

8. Unemployment levels vary between urban, rural and remote centres.

I think this statement is …

q  True q  True I think this statement is … q  False q  False

9. People living in remote communities q  True q  True have more health issues than those in I think this statement is … I think this statement is … q  False q  False urban or rural towns.

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10. There is a high number of indigenous q  True q  True people living in remote Australian I think this statement is … I think this statement is … q  False q  False communities. 26

Section 2: Liveability


Living In Different Parts Of Australia 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the information, then complete the After Reading column on page 26.

Each town in Australia has its own set of unique circumstances. For this reason the advantages and disadvantages vary greatly from town to town and region to region. Some rural towns are dependent on one main industry and the success of that industry directly affects the facilities and infrastructure found there. Rural communities in Western Australia and Queensland are often based on the mining industry. Other rural communities in New South Wales and the central coast act as ‘satellite’ towns. Their main function is to provide a community for people who work in the city but don’t wish to live in an urban environment.

i

i

CASE STUDY: TAMWORTH Tamworth, located on the Peel River in New South Wales, was established in 1832. It is representative of many rural towns in Australia. In comparison to urban cities there can often be: more low income earners, higher unemployment, more married

the unique feature of being the ‘country music centre’ of Australia and hosts an annual country music festival which brings a huge amount of people to the town for a limited period of time.

CASE STUDY: roxby downs Roxby Downs is a rural town which was established in 1988. It is located in South Australia, 550 kilometres north of Adelaide and 250 kilometres north of Port Augusta. It has approximately 4,500 people living there. Roxby Downs is quite a unique town in the history of Australia as it was specifically set up in a joint venture between the South

i

couples, a stronger family focus, a higher level of home ownership, fewer immigrants, younger school leavers and either fewer young adults or a higher rate of youth unemployment. Tamworth’s population is usually about 45,000. Tamworth does have

Australian State Government and a mining company. Roxby Downs is sometimes referred to as ‘the most modern town in the outback’. The mining company provided the town's infrastructure, housing, lighting, electricity and water. The Australian State Government provided the town's recreation facilities, educational facilities, policing and town administration.

Roxby Downs has a variety of shopping and cultural facilities as well as educational, health and sporting facilities. Roxby Down's water is provided by the Great Artesian Basin which is one of the largest underground water reservoirs in Australia. The majority of residents are high income earners working in the mining industry. Roxby Downs is not necessarily a typical example of what life in a rural town is like.

CASE STUDY: halls creek Halls Creek is located in Western Australia in the Kimberley region. It is a remote location approximately 2,850 kilometres from Perth. The closest town is 365 kilometres away. Approximately 1,200 people live in Halls Creek.

a caravan park and two roadhouses. It is also the base for several tours to the Bungle Bungles and to Wolfe Creek Crater. The town provides basic services for remote cattle stations in the region. Living conditions are basic, as they are in many other remote towns in Australia.

The area is home to the indigenous Jaru and Kija peoples, and is home to some Tjurabalan peoples from the desert to the south of the town, which together represent more than 60% of the town's population.

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The town has a hotel, a motel,

Section 2: Liveability

27


Living In Different Parts Of Australia 3

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the information on page 27, then complete the tasks.

A. Study each case study on page 27. List the key points for each in the journal boxes below. In the final ‘My Synthesis’ box write how you would feel about living in each place and which one you would choose to live in.

SYNTHESIS JOURNAL

Name:____________________ Topic:____________________ Date:________________ CASE STUDY 1

CASE STUDY 2

CASE STUDY 3

Location / Population:

Location / Population:

Location / Population:

Services Available:

Services Available:

Services Available:

Quality of Life:

Quality of Life:

Quality of Life:

My Synthesis:

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B. Challenge

28

Research the town of Roxby Downs further and find out why the town has been such a continued success. Do you think this success will last into the future? Write your response on the back of this sheet or in your workbook. Section 2: Liveability


A Declining Town 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Conduct some research about your state or territory to find a town which has experienced a decline in population and the quality of life available to its residents. Follow the steps below to help you draw conclusions.

A. Complete the following table on your chosen town.

Name of town:

Main industry in the past: Main industry now: Highest population: Current population: Initial services: Services available now:

Number of people

Number of people

B. Collect population data to show how the population has changed over time and record this data on the three graphs below.

Years

Number of people

Years

Go to www.readyed.net Years

Section 2: Liveability

29


A Declining Town 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Continue to record your findings from the research carried out on page 29.

A. Using the information that you have gathered on a town with a declining population, complete the flow chart below to show the effects that the declining population has had on the townspeople. Use images to fill in the missing boxes.

Challenge

30

B. Do you think a town can reverse a fall in population? Explain what would need to happen for this to occur.

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net Section 2: Liveability


Section 3:Publications' This is a Ready-Ed Around The World book preview.

Go to www.readyed.net 31


Other Countries

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' i book preview. ď ą Read the information, then complete the tasks. Regardless of where you live in the world, humans have the same requirements: food, water and shelter. It is not a coincidence that cities, towns and settlements, no matter how small or large they are, are established near a water supply, usually a river, sea or ocean.

People choose where they live depending on their interests and opportunities. For example, a cattle or sheep station worker will live in the outback, as this is where he/ she can make a living. Others will live in towns or cities as this is where the highest number of employment opportunities

exist in service, business or industry.

The majority of the world’s population does live along the coastal regions of their country. People living in rural areas are often more culturally tied to the natural environment around them, than those living in a large metropolitan area.

A. Research the population distribution data of two countries. Compare the data and draw your own conclusions about why the people from each country have chosen to live where they do.

COUNTRY 1: ___________________________

COUNTRY 2: __________________________

Total population

Total population

City population

City population

Rural population

Rural population

Main industry

Main industry

Main agriculture

Main agriculture

Natural resources

Natural resources

Area of land

Area of land

Area of desert

Area of desert

Area of coastline

Area of coastline

B. Compare and contrast your data about each country to identify any population trends. Record your findings below.

MY SYNTHESIS

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Section 3: Around The World


Australia And China 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' i book preview.  Read the information below, then complete the tasks on page 34.

china's Rank In Size And Population

Australia’s Rank In Size And Population

As a continent The continent with the most number of people. As a country 9.5 million square kilometres, the largest in size. Population 1,347,350,000 - the country with the world’s largest population. Population density 133 people per square kilometre.

As a continent Australia has the least number of people in comparison to the rest of the world’s six inhabited continents. As a country The world’s sixth largest in size (7.7 million square kilometres). Population Fifty-third in the world at 22,679,000 (2012). Population density On average only 2.9 people per square kilometre (low).

Population Distribution And Movements Of China

Population Distribution And Movements Of Australia

China’s population is distributed in a different way than it is in Australia. Australia’s land is 70% desert, whereas China borders on the Gobi Desert and has much more fertile land than Australia in its inland regions.

It is estimated that 85% of Australia’s population live in coastal areas. Australia’s population is unevenly spread because people live where opportunities lie. In Australia 11% of people work in manufacturing industries, 10% in the construction industry, 15% in the tertiary and service industries, 12% in health and community services and 10% in property and business services. The majority of these jobs are found in urban areas and cities. Only 3% of Australians work in agriculture, this means that the population distribution is very highly concentrated in urban areas.

China has exceptionally high population density in its capital cities. For example, Beijing has 20.1 million people in comparison to Canberra’s population of 386,000 people. Even Sydney, Australia’s largest city has a population of just 4.6 million people. China has many complex natural resources spread unevenly all over the country. This has led to exceptionally high population densities along inland river plains as well as regions of largely uninhabited land. Due to China having the world’s largest population the Chinese Government encourages all regions to be inhabited. In some regions young intellectuals and former members of the military are encouraged to form new mining and industrial towns.

The concept of a ‘Sea Change’ or a ‘Bush Change’ has been popular with retirees, that is, moving to a semi-rural area and leaving suburban life. These numbers have not been enough though to substantially change the population distribution of Australia.

China has a history of disastrous events such as political upheaval and famine. At these times there have been great shifts in China’s internal migration. Today (2013) large numbers of Chinese people migrate to other countries in the world; they are however expecting that by 2025 another 243 million people will have immigrated to China.

Go to www.readyed.net Section 3: Around The World

33


Australia And China 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą After reading the information on page 33, complete the tasks below.

A. Use shading to show a comparison between the population distribution in Australia and China. Explain in your own words how they are different in the Compare And Contrast box. Population Distribution In Australia

Population Distribution In China

Compare And Contrast

B. Determine if the data on page 33 (about what areas people work in) is correct. Survey 15 employed people to find out what their occupation is and where they live (urban, rural or remote areas). Ask family friends and relatives.

OCCUPATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

WORK SECTOR

WHERE THEY LIVE

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C. Compare your results with the statistics on page 33. Explain your findings in your workbook. 34

Section 3: Around The World


This is a Ready-Ed Section 4:Publications' bookCentrality preview.

Go to www.readyed.net 35


The Creation Of Cities 1

This i is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Read the information and complete the task. Humans historically led a nomadic existence, moving from area to area, hunting and gathering to survive. Ancient civilisations began the cultivation and farming of plants and animals which led to people settling in permanent locations to tend to their crops and stock. These settlements were usually made along rivers and in coastal locations in order to give people the best chance of survival. For example, more than 5,000 years ago the Egyptians built their great civilisation along the River Nile. The Nile was important both socially and economically for the Ancient Egyptians as they relied on the Nile for food, transport and trade. Cities became important for many reasons other than to just supply food. They became places for storage, trade and manufacture. They also created social and cultural centres for people to meet in, create laws and maintain order. Ancient cities often had sacred places. These sacred places were often associated

with cemeteries or tombs celebrating great leaders. Cities also usually had large temples and religious buildings which reflected the people’s religious beliefs. As cities developed and increased in size they often provided protection for people from enemies and foreign invasion. Walled cities such as Ancient Rome emerged; people felt safer living in close proximity to others, sharing their lives and working together to defend their cities. For thousands of years cities have served as centres of government and rule. Cities today are still the main centres for the management of trade, services and industry. Capital cities today are nearly always located on a main transport route, a river or a sea. Today, 60 percent of the world’s population live in cities and urbanised areas.

A. Complete the cross-stick on Ancient Rome.

1. What is the capital of Italy? (4) 2. Rome was (4) to the Romans. 3. The region was known as the Roman (6). 4. The Romans needed to store (8). 5. In cities the Romans would buy and (4).

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6. Rome was (5) by Julius Caesar.

7. Some people felt (4) moving to a city.

36

Section 4: Centrality


The Creation Of Cities 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Read the information on page 36, then complete the tasks below.

A. Imagine that you are living in the year 4,000 BCE (Before Common Era). Design a city for people to move to. Think about why they would want to move to a city and what facilities and services they will require. Draw your city from an aerial view. Use a key to label the features.

Design A City

B. Find out how the Ancient Egyptians used the Nile River to support their population. Consider the scale of what they did with such primitive equipment. How would the Ancient Egyptians have recorded data and kept records regarding how effective their irrigation and agricultural techniques were?

Inquiry Question 1: List the ways in which the Ancient Egyptians used the Nile River.

Inquiry Question 2: What techniques did the Ancient Egyptians use to irrigate their fields?

Inquiry Question 3: What happened if the Nile did not flood?

Go to www.readyed.net Section 4: Centrality

37


Australian Urbanisation 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' i book preview. ď ą Read the text, then complete the tasks on page 39.

Population Growth And Decline

In Australia the highest numbers of people can be found in areas surrounding the main capital cities. Australia has a high level of urban sprawl. Until recently the majority of Australians have chosen to live in residential areas with family housing, parks, recreational facilities and shopping centres. In the 2010s in Australia a new trend emerged with people in their early 20s seeking to live in the heart of the CBD (Central Business District). Record numbers of apartment buildings were built to accommodate this trend. Abandoned docklands in Sydney, Perth and Melbourne were transformed into state of the art housing highly sought after by a new generation of city dwellers. For example in Perth from 2007 to 2012, large scale supermarkets appeared in the centre of the city as well as health clubs, recreation centres and medical facilities, some of which were accessible 24 hours a day.

One reason for this shift in historic population trends is the rise of materialistic values and a focus on the individual within a community. As well as the inner city living trend, cities have seen a shift in young families moving to inner city suburbs and choosing to live on smaller blocks of land closer to cafĂŠs and amenities.

Demand For Housing, Sanitation, Transport Or Service Provisions Urban centres face an ever increasing demand for housing, waste disposal, transport and services such as: public transport, hospitals and medical facilities. Town planners and engineers work together to upgrade infrastructure such as: sewage connections, water supplies, electricity and gas supplies in order to accommodate the ever increasing number of people living in urban centres.

The Positives And Negatives Of Urbanisation There are both positive and negative aspects of living in urban centres.

Disadvantages

Advantages 1. Jobs for people 2. Wealth 3. Public transport 4. Services 5. Specialised health care 6. Educational facilities 7. Recreational facilities 8. Water and sewage services 9. Speciality shops 10. Wide variety of entertainment

1. Poverty 2. Overcrowding 3. Diseases 4. Affordability of housing 5. Increased time away from home in traffic 6. Multicultural differences 7. Infrastructure breakdown 8. Lack of community values 9. Homeless population 10. Loneliness

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Section 4: Centrality


Australian Urbanisation 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą After reading the text on page 38, complete the tasks below.

A. Complete a class survey to find out what types of housing your classmates live in.

Type of home

tally

Free standing house Terrace house Duplex Unit Villa Apartment Town house Caravan Other

B. Complete the pie graph above right using the results of your survey. C. Answer the questions below.

1. What is the most common form of housing in your class?

2. What is the least common form of housing in your class?

3. Was there a type of housing that you had to add to the survey?

4. Predict what type of housing you will live in, in the future.

D. Describe the area where you live. Is it a suburb? Do you live in the city? Do you live in a rural town? Say what makes this area a desirable or undesirable place to live.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net Section 4: Centrality

39


Section 5: Publications' This is a Ready-Ed Other Factors Thatpreview. Affect Where We Live book

Go to www.readyed.net 40


The Growth Of Local Towns 1

Thisi is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the information, then complete the tasks. Urban cities and rural towns which have profitable and progressive industries, businesses and services attract people and perpetuate their growth. People are attracted to areas in which infrastructure such as sewage, roads, water supply, public transport, parks and recreation areas are all readily available and in good working order. When a town’s main industry closes down, (such as the mines in Halls Creek), less people stay, which means less people are there to contribute to the community in terms of expenditure in the community and land rates to the local council. Shops close down and essential services struggle to stay open. Thriving communities attract qualified and experienced professionals such as doctors, nurses, teachers and childcare workers. Without essential workers like these it is very

difficult for towns to continue. The larger the community, the more employment opportunities there are for skilled labourers such as mechanics, plumbers and electricians. It follows that there are also more opportunities for young people to study, work in the service industry and become apprentices. The term ‘oasis town’ means that when a town has experienced a decline in population due to a change in the productivity of that town’s industry, another town close to it acts as the service centre to the town in decline. Businesses and employment move to the ‘oasis town’. This is good for the 'oasis town' as it perpetuates its growth. Of course, it is not so good for the town in decline. This happened to the town of Tottenham in New South Wales - it is still continuing to prosper as other sizable towns in the shire such as Condobolin and Lake Cargelligo decrease in population each year.

A. Complete the table below to show how often you use services and facilities in your local area.

Service/Facility

Daily

Weekly

Monthly

Yearly

Local school Local park Skate park Hospital Doctor's clinic Public library Recreation centre Public swimming pool Restaurants / take away Shops Youth centre

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B. Which five facilities do you think are the most essential to a community? Discuss your answers with the class.

______________________________________________________________________________

C. On the back of this sheet explain in your own words what an 'oasis town' is. Section 5: Other Factors That Affect Where We Live

41


The Growth Of Local Towns 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Complete the tasks below. Reading the information on page 41 will help you.

A. Name four different towns in Australia which have increased their population in the last five years due to the expansion of industry. Fill in the chart below.

Town:

___________________

Town:

___________________

Industry:

___________________

Industry:

___________________

___________________

___________________

Outcome:

Outcome:

Town:

___________________

Town:

___________________

Industry:

___________________

Industry:

___________________

___________________

___________________

Outcome:

Outcome:

Compare And Contrast

42

B. In your own words describe any patterns or trends that you have discovered about population growth in towns.

Go to www.readyed.net

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

Section 5: Other Factors That Affect Where We Live


Technology Can Determine Where We Live 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' i book preview. ď ą Read the information below, then complete the tasks on the next three pages.

The Rise Of Technology

Technology has changed the way in which people work and live. In the early 1990s, only a few thousand people owned a mobile phone. In 2012, it was estimated that Australia had the highest rate of phone ownership per capita in the world. In 1990 only 15% of households had a home computer, at this time ADSL internet access had just become available and a small percentage of households were accessing it. In 2012 75% of Australian households had a personal home computer with broadband internet access.

How Technology Affects Where We Live Prior to the last 15 years, people needed to live within reasonable travelling distance to their workplace. The majority of people had to physically be at a specific workplace in order to do their job. In 2012 with the rise in home internet usage, Skype, FaceTime, email and texting, over one million people worked either full-time, parttime or casually from home. The ability to work from home and not be dependent on having to travel to a workplace has given people greater flexibility when choosing where to live. Work is not the only area that technology has made more flexible. Access to Skype, the internet, mobile phones and iPhones with FaceTime, has also meant that people can live further away from family members and friends and still maintain meaningful contact with them.

In the 1940s the School of the Air (SOA), was set up by the Australian Government so that children living in remote areas could access an education without having to be sent away to boarding school. At first, students had to use pedal-powered radios to receive their lessons, they could not communicate back to the teacher. Later, high frequency transceivers which both sent and received messages made it easier for students living in remote areas to communicate. The School of the Air became famous worldwide when the TV series ‘Skippy’ featured the use of it in the 1960s. The School of the Air operated in conjunction with Correspondence Schools in each state. Correspondence Schools were set up by the Australian Government in the early 1900s to assist in the education of not only children but also adults wanting to complete teacher training. Educational opportunities were still quite limited for students in rural and remote areas until the development of the internet.

In Western Australia in 1995 the School of Isolated and Distance Education (SIDE) was formed when the Correspondence School, (by then renamed the Distance Education Centre) and the School of the Air amalgamated. SIDE focused on using the internet to provide more interactive and engaging lessons for remote and isolated students - the electronic classroom was born. Students today join in state of the art, interactive lessons with many other students, regardless of their location. Overall the SIDE and other similar schools all over Australia give people the choice of staying in rural and remote areas rather than having to move to larger towns or urban centres.

Accessing The Internet In Rural And Remote Areas The internet and technology has created greater flexibility for people when choosing where to live because it has made communication easier, people feel less isolated and made information and products more accessible. But what did people do before internet access reached their homes?

Go to www.readyed.net Section 5: Other Factors That Affect Where We Live

43


Technology Can Determine Where We Live 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' i book preview. ď ą Read the information on page 43 and below, then complete the tasks.

Communication For Residents

possible for some people.

Telecentres, now known as Community Resource Centres were set up in the 1990s by the Australian State Government in order to support people who lived in semi-rural, rural and remote areas. These centres were initially established to provide access to residents to post-compulsory education programs. They soon became the hub of the community providing internet access, telephone connectivity, TV, video and DVD players, and satellite reception facilities. These centres provided a highly valued service and always aimed to educate, train, communicate and employ. Without these Community Resource Centres the choice to stay in rural communities may not have been

Technology Creates The Home Office

Technology not only brought with it the opportunity to work from home, but also meant that jobs converted from paper to computer. Architects who once drew their designs, began to use computer programs to create their designs. Accountants who one wrote ledgers by hand, began to use computer programs and email financial data to compete their work. It became possible to work from home saving travel time, travel expenses, office space and resources. The ability to work from home and the rise of internet-based home businesses allowed more people to make flexible decisions about their work and where they wanted to live.

A. List the items that you would need to set up a home office. What would the top two most important items be? 1.

6.

2.

7.

3.

8.

4.

9.

5.

10.

B. Explain why your top two items are the most important.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

C. Circle the occupations that could suit a home environment.

Accountant Doctor Author Journalist Personal Trainer Dietician

Teacher Bank Clerk Dancer

Plumber Book Keeper Online Business Taxi Driver Pilot Farmer Urban Planner

Research

44

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D. Use the internet to locate five Community Resource Centres. Record the location, population and the services provided by each centre. Create a table like the one right on the back of this sheet or in your exercise book.

Name Of Centre

Section 5: Other Factors That Affect Where We Live

Location

Population

Services Provided


Technology Can Determine Where We Live 3

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Complete the task below. Reading the information on pages 43 and 44 will help you.

A. Imagine that you live in a rural town with a population of 5,000 people. The Community Resource Centre needs to raise some money to buy five new iPads for the centre. Plan an event to raise the $5,000 needed by completing the table below.

Action Plan

Raise money to buy new iPads for the Community

Summary Of Event:_______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Event Organiser: _ _________________________________________ Date of Event:___________________ Event Title:_____________________________________________________________________________ Volunteers’ Names:_______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ My Support Team/ Co-worker(s):____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Fundraising Goal:________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Equipment Required:_____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________

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Signature Of Event Organiser: ________________________________ Date:__________________________ Signature Of Community Resource Centre Manager: _____________ Date:__________________________ Signatures Of Co-Workers: _ _________________________________ Date:__________________________

Section 5: Other Factors That Affect Where We Live

45


Technology Can Determine Where We Live 4

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Complete the tasks below. Reading the information on pages 43 and 44 will help you.

A. Complete the following Plus, Minus and Interesting Chart on the School of Isolated and Distance Education (SIDE). Compare what it would be like to receive your lessons by email, online and Skype, to physically attending a school.

Minus

Interesting

Attending A School

School of Isolated and Distance Education (SIDE)

Plus

B. Would you prefer to get an education via SIDE or by attending a boarding school? Complete the Pros and Cons charts below.

Pros

Cons

Go to www.readyed.net C. Choose one pro and one con from your list to write on a post-it. Take your pro and con post-its to the board and add it to a class T chart. Discuss your peers’ responses. 46

Section 5: Other Factors That Affect Where We Live


Section 6:Publications' This is a Ready-Ed Living Now And In The Future book preview.

Go to www.readyed.net 47


Weighing Up Where To Live

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Complete the two simulations below which highlight that there are many factors which affect a person’s decision to live in a particular area. The simulations require you to: • ask questions • organise information • analyse information • answer geographic questions.

Simulation A - Sarah and Tom

Sarah and Tom are married. Tom has just taken a job managing a retail store in a country town one and a half hours from their present home in the suburbs. Sarah is a primary school teacher at her local school and wants to stay in her current job. List the advantages and disadvantages of each scenario presented below.

Scenario

Advantages

Disadvantages

1. They move to the country town.

2. They move closer to the country town but not all the way. 3. They stay where they are and Tom commutes to work.

Simulation B - Zane

Zane is thirteen years old. His parents have just told him that his father has been offered a new job as a doctor in a small rural town. They currently live one hour out of Sydney, and Zane has a long trip to and from school each day. If they move to the new town he will be able to do his schooling through SIDE. The job means a good pay rise for his father. List the advantages and disadvantages of each scenario presented below.

Scenario

Advantages

Disadvantages

1. They move to the country town.

2. Zane's parents move and Zane attends a boarding school.

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3. They stay where they are so Zane doesn’t have to leave his school. 48

Section 6: Living Now And In The Future


Where You Live

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Complete the fieldwork below.

A. Complete the table below to present information about where you live.

Advantages

Disadvantages

1. Identify one place which is 160 kilometres from your home. Answer: 2. Identify one place which is 400 kilometres from your home. Answer: 3. How far is it from your home to your closest shops? Answer:

4. How far is it to your closest bus or train station? Answer: 5. How far do you travel to school each day? Answer: 6. How far is your closest entertainment centre, e.g. movie complex? Answer: B. Summarise the main advantages and disadvantages of living in your local community.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net Section 6: Living Now And In The Future

49


Future Living 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Sheetpreview. Think book ď ą Before reading the information on page 51, complete the Prediction sections of the Think Sheet below. After reading the information on page 51, complete the rest of the Think Sheet.

Name:___________________________ Date:__________

Question 1 The population of Australia is always increasing. What kind of housing do you think the majority of people will be living in, fifty years from now?

Prediction (before reading):______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ What The Text Says (after reading):_________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Question 2 How important will it be to `live and work locally’ in the future?

Prediction (before reading):______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ What The Text Says (after reading):_________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Question 3 Will a sense of community be important to future urban developments?

Prediction (before reading):______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

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What The Text Says (after reading):_________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

50

Section 6: Living Now And In The Future


Future Living 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' i book preview.  Read the information, then complete the tasks on pages 50, 52 and 53.

'Smart growth' is a concept which has been around over the past twenty years. 'Smart growth' is an urban planning and transportation theory which focuses on the sustainable futures of cities and urban centres. It encourages: various modes of public transport, walk and cycle ways, mixed-use development, and a range of affordable housing choices.

Neighbourhoods Creating neighbourhoods which are compact and liveable is essential to the ‘smart growth’ concept. Urban sprawl is a term given to the spreading of suburbs away from a central focal point, such as a capital city. Urban sprawl uses more land and requires more infrastructures to be put in place at great cost to state governments. Redeveloping already existing areas by changing zoning structures can contribute to existing infrastructure being used and upgraded rather than using valuable resources to build new structures. In the future, we may see less detached housing on individual blocks, less surface car parks and less one-story shopping centres. Under the ‘smart growth’ concept, residential and commercial areas will be designed to incorporate public transport as an integral part of its success and sustainability. Providing more frequent buses and trains through high-use areas is key to the success of these new areas. Terms such as ‘sustainable development’ and ‘best practice’ are of great importance to future urban centres. Other terms such as: ‘new community design’, ‘new urbanism’, ‘traditional neighbourhood development’, ‘land preservation’, ‘conserving open space’, ‘creating a sense of place’, ‘preservation development’, ‘human, natural and financial capital’ and ‘Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Accounting – People, Planet, Profit’ are all central to the ‘smart growth’ concept.

work where they live if a place provides jobs for residents, a place for families and improved access to quality education. In the future would you like to be a part of an environmentally sustainable community that focuses on achieving a sense of community and place? If your answer is yes then you might consider a career in urban planning. Remember to consider the principles of 'smart growth' listed below.

Principles Of Smart Growth 1. Mixed land uses; 2. Take advantage of compact building design; 3. Create a range of housing opportunities and choices; 4. Create walkable neighbourhoods; 5. Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place; 6. Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas; 7. Strengthen and direct development towards existing communities; 8. Provide a variety of transportation choices; 9. Make development decisions predictable, fair, and cost effective; 10. Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions.

People Planet Profit

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Urban centres in the future may well focus on making new businesses more competitive by providing alternate places to shop, work and play. It is believed that people will be encouraged to

Section 6: Living Now And In The Future

51


Future Living 3

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Design A Future Community  After reading the information on page 51, complete the tasks below.

A. Design your own future ‘smart’ community. Include the following features: housing, offices, shopping areas, parks, recreation areas and public transport. Use a key to label your buildings and features.

B. What features would you like to see in a future ‘smart’ community for teenagers and young people?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

C. Complete the fieldwork below. 1. Take photographs of the services which are currently available in your local community, e.g. a skate park, a fire station, the ambulance depot. 2. Create a photo board displaying all of the services available in your area.

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Challenge

D. Who would you approach in your local area to request an additional service?

52

_____________________________________________________________ Section 6: Living Now And In The Future


Future Living 4

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  After reading the information on page 51, complete the task below.

A. Write a persuasive essay on the topic below.

Future urban developments will need to be dynamic places that cater for the needs of all people, young and old.

What to think about: 1. What is your opinion – do you agree or disagree? 2. Supporting evidence – find facts to support your opinion. 3. Essay organisation – introduction, body paragraphs, conclusion. Introduction: (In the future there will be …)

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 1: (According to …) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 2: (Secondly, statistics show …) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 3: (It is estimated that by …) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: (I therefore believe that …)

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____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Section 6: Living Now And In The Future

53


Why People Live Where They Do Glossary ď ą Complete the glossary below.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. WORD

MEANING OR EXPLANATION IN CONTEXT

GIVE AN EXAMPLE IN YOUR OWN WORDS

Civic

Consequences Customs Density Displaced Distribution Economics Feasibility Globalisation Mean Median Migration Perpetuate Perspective Population Provisions Remote Rural

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Sanitation Urban

Urban sprawl 54

Section 6: Living Now And In The Future


Population Glossary ď ą Complete the glossary below.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. WORD

MEANING OR EXPLANATION IN CONTEXT

GIVE AN EXAMPLE IN YOUR OWN WORDS

Amalgamated To join together to make a whole. Best practice

To do the best one can do.

CBD

Central Business District.

Community Resource Centre

A centre run by volunteers to support the technological needs of a society.

Home office

An area set up in the home specifically to conduct work.

Immigration

To move from one country to another.

Native title

Land rights of the traditional land owners of Australia.

Oasis town

A town which provides the essential services for surrounding towns.

Population density

The number of people living per unit of an area.

Smart growth

Smart growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in the centre of a city to avoid urban sprawl.

Stolen Generations

The children taken away from their Aboriginal families.

Sustainable development

Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment.

White Australia Policy

The White Australia Policy restricted 'non-white' immigration to Australia.

Go to www.readyed.net Section 6: Living Now And In The Future

55


Answers Page 7 A. The land, its resources and spiritual connections determined where Indigenous Australians lived pre-colonisation. After colonisation, European settlers played a part in determining where Indigenous Australians lived. Many Indigenous Australians were driven away from the places that they were connected to by new settlers' farming practices and attitudes towards them.

Page 20 A. 1.People looking for a quiet, healthy life in the countryside. 2.To country areas. 3.Migrant camps were where people who had to leave their homes during the war lived. 4. The poster depicts two men looking carefree and happy on a farm. One man is on a horse and the other is riding a tractor with his arms in the air. The inclusion of the lambs, the trees, clear skies and a picture perfect house all suggest to the viewers that they could lead this contented, worry-free life and autonomous lifestyle if they moved to Australia.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Page 10 A. 1. 500 members. 2. If one clan invaded another clan's territory there would be a conflict. B. Bands formed clans formed tribes. C. 1. families 2. servants 3. ninety 4. orphans Page 12 1.WA 2.Tasmania 3.No 4.9.3 % Page 15 A. 1901- Federation 1914 – 1918 World War I 1930s - The Great Depression 1939-1945 - World War II 1946-1971 - Post war immigration and the Baby Boom 1970s - The availability of the contraceptive pill 1980s - Low fertility rates and immigration B.1. People feel confident that they can support a family. 2. To ensure Australia would be able to form a defence force. 3. It allowed women to control when they wanted to have children if at all. 4. Continue to have families and encourage immigration. Page 16 A.1.a, 2.e, 3.g, 4.h, 5.b, 6.f, 7.i, 8.j, 9.c, 10.d Page 17 A.1.Unevenly spread. 2.New South Wales or in coastal areas along the south east and south west of Australia. 3.Northern Territory or inland Australia. 4. The least populated areas lack resources and have harsher climates.

Page 24 Urban Population – houses, swimming pools, city skyscrapers, highways, roads, cafés, apartments, skate parks, hotels, airports, petrol stations, traffic lights. Rural Population– storage sheds, swimming pools, dams, houses, stables, hotels, petrol stations, cafés. Remote Population – storage sheds, houses, stables. Page 36

S

R

O

M

E

H

O

M

E

E

M

P

I

R

E

S

U

P

P

L

I

E

L

L

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L

E

D

S

A

F

E

E

S

Page 41 C. An 'oasis town' is a town which is supporting towns around it whose businesses are closing due to population decline. Page 44 C. Accountant, Book Keeper, Author, Journalist, Online Business, Dietician

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56

Australian Geography Series: Year 7 / Unit 2 - Place and Liveability  

Year 7 - Unit 2 is part of the Australian Geography Series, which comprises nine books in total. This book has been written specifically for...

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