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This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Ready-Ed book preview. Acknowledgements i. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission. ii. Corel Corporation collection, 1600 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7.

Publications

Title: Australian Geography Series Year 5: Characteristics Of Places © 2013 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: Lisa Craig Illustrators: Terry Allen, Alison Mutton

iii. Wikimedia Commons. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”. iv.

page 21, The Rocks in 1810 - Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, AUTAS001124071556, New South Wales, 1810

v.

I-stock Photos.

Copyright Notice The purchasing educational institution and its staff have the right to make copies of the whole or part of this book, beyond their rights under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), provided that: 1.

The number of copies does not exceed the number reasonably required by the educational institution to satisfy its teaching purposes;

2.

Copies are made only by reprographic means (photocopying), not by electronic/digital means, and not stored or transmitted;

3.

Copies are not sold or lent;

4.

Every copy made clearly shows the footnote, ‘Ready-Ed Publications’.

Any copying of this book by an educational institution or its staff outside of this blackline master licence may fall within the educational statutory licence under the Act. The Act allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this book, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that

educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited Level 19, 157 Liverpool Street Sydney NSW 2000 Telephone: (02) 9394 7600 Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601 E-mail: info@copyright.com.au Reproduction and Communication by others Except as otherwise permitted by this blackline master licence or under the Act (for example, any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address below.

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Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 www.readyed.net info@readyed.com.au

ISBN: 978 186 397 879 8 2


Contents

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Teachers' Notes National Curriculum Links

4 5

SECTION 1: INFLUENCES: HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL Landforms And The Development Of Settlements 7 Landforms And Settlements 1 8 Landforms And Settlements 2 9 Landforms Influence Development And Settlement 10 Landforms And Development 11 Development 12 Landforms Influence Development 13 People Influence The Environment 14 Development Affects The Environment 15 Urban Development And The Environment 16 Urban Development 1 17 Urban Development 2 18 Interpreting Data 19 Inland Australia 20 The Influence Of People 21 People Influence Environments 1 22 People Influence Environments 2 23 People Influence Environments 3 24 People Influence Australian Places 25 People Influence Places 1 26 People Influence Places 2 27 Australian Places And Tourism 28 Places And Tourism 29 Tourism And The Environment 30 Tourism 31 Relationship With Country 32 A Local Planning Issue 1 33 A Local Planning Issue 2 34

A Local Planning Issue 3 A Local Planning Issue 4

35 36

SECTION 2: CLIMATE, SAVANNAHS AND BUSHFIRES Australia's Climate Zones Australia's Climate 1 Australia's Climate 2 Australia's Climate 3 Australia's Climate 4 Australia's Tropical Savannahs Climate And Vegetation 1 Climate And Vegetation 2 Indigenous Climate Zones Managing Our Savannahs Characteristics Of Savannahs Development Of Savannahs Indigenous Influence Wildlife And Savannahs Savannahs Of East Indonesia A Comparison Of Savannahs 1 A Comparison Of Savannahs 2 The Environment Wildlife Bushfires Prevention Being Prepared On Bushfire Alert 1 On Bushfire Alert 2 Fire-stick Farming

38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

Answers

63-68

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Teachers’ Notes

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Year 5: Characteristics Of Places is part of the Australian Geography Series, which comprises nine books in total. This book has been written specifically for students in Year 5 who are living in Australia and studying Geography. The activity book is arranged into two sections: Influences: Human And Environmental and Climate, Savannahs And Bushfires. Both sections are closely linked to the Australian National Curriculum. The first section, Influences: Human And Environmental, explores how landforms affect the development of settlements, and how people affect the environmental characteristics of a place through changes such as urban planning. Students are given the opportunity to investigate local planning issues and in this way begin to recognise that people influence the human characteristics of places and the management of spaces within them. The second section, Climate, Savannahs And Bushfires, introduces students to concepts related to climate such as: temperature and rainfall patterns, elevation and vegetation. Students are asked to make a link between climate and where people live. The climate zone and sustainable land use of Australia’s hot and humid savannahs is compared and contrasted with those in East Indonesia. Students will be asked to explain the threats to the savannah lands and research possible responses to these threats. This section also explores indigenous land and resource management and evaluates the changes that have occurred to the land after colonisation. The effects of bushfires on communities and environments also features. Year 5: Characteristics Of Places is a teacher-friendly resource for 10-11 year olds studying Geography. The influence of climate on human activities will be explored from multiple perspectives through tasks designed to develop thinking skills. Information is supported by ample illustrations, photograph studies and map data.

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This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. National Curriculum Links

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

The location of the major countries of Europe and North America in relation to Australia and the influence of people on the environmental characteristics of places in at least two countries from both continents (ACHGK026) • using geographical tools, for example, a globe, wall map or digital application such as Google Earth, to identify the relative location of the major countries of Europe and North America and their environmental characteristics • researching the changes made by people to a particular environment in a country in Europe or North America The influence of people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, on the environmental characteristics of Australian places (ACHGK027) • identifying how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities altered the environment through their methods of land and resource management • exploring the extent of change in the local environment over time, for example, through vegetation clearance, fencing, urban development, drainage, irrigation, farming, forest plantations or mining The influence of the environment on the human characteristics of a place (ACHGK028) • comparing how people have responded to climatic conditions in similar and different places and explaining why most Australians live close to the coast compared to inland Australia • investigating the influence of landforms, for example, river valleys such as the Murray-Darling, Yellow (Huang He), Yangtze, Amazon, Mekong or Ganges, on the development of settlements that are involved in food and fibre production • examining the effects of landforms, for example, valleys, hills, natural harbours and rivers, on the location and characteristics of their place and other places they know The influence people have on the human characteristics of places and the management of spaces within them (ACHGK029) • examining how the use of the space within their local place is organised through zoning • investigating a current local planning issue, for example, redevelopment of a site, preservation of open space or subdivision of farming land, exploring why people have different views on the issue, and developing a class response to it The impact of bushfires or floods on environments and communities, and how people can respond (ACHGK030) • mapping and explaining the location, frequency and severity of bushfires or flooding in Australia • explaining the impacts of fire on Australian vegetation and the significance of fire damage on communities • researching how the application of principles of prevention, mitigation and preparedness minimises the harmful effects of bushfires or flooding

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This is a Ready-Ed Section 1: Publications' book Influences: Humanpreview. And Environmental

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Student Information Page

Landforms And The Development Of Settlements

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Where Early Australian Settlements Developed

Title: The Rocks in 1810. Source: Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts, Tasmania.

Title: The Rocks today. Source: Greg O'Beirne. Wikimedia Commons.

The settlement in Sydney may have begun with rickety tents in 1788, but the town gradually grew over the next 200 years into the modern city of 4,575,000 people that it is today. But not all places in Australia have continued to grow in population. In 1911, the census figures revealed that the rural city of Swan Hill on the Murray River in Victoria had 21,141 inhabitants. After a century, the population is almost the same. The mining centre of Broken Hill in outback New South Wales has suffered a different fate. In 1908, Broken Hill had 35,000 residents and was the third largest urban centre in New South Wales. Today the population is 21,000. Since 1788, people in Australia have preferred to live in large coastal urban centres.

The early settlements in the colonies of Australia had to support settlers and convicts who were completely cut off from food supplies in Europe for long periods of time. For settlements to survive, there had to be: • a fresh water supply available for people and livestock; • fertile farming land for growing food for the settlement; • timber for building shelter; • a safe port on the mouth of a river for ships to transport people and goods, as no overland road system had been developed. The colonies grew in population so the need to expand settlement to other areas became essential in order to grow crops and graze livestock. Finding a crossing over the Blue Mountains in New South Wales in 1813 led to the growth of inland communities that were distanced from Sydney. Food and goods that were not consumed in the colony were sold in Europe and this provided income to develop the colonies. The first towns on ports in Australia soon became bustling hubs for buying and selling farm produce. These towns received migrants who wanted to make a better life in the colonies.

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7


Activity

Landforms And Settlements 1

ď ą Read the information on page 7 to help you to answer the questions and complete the tasks below.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. Why were the first settlements in the Australian colonies located on ports?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

2. What caused people to move away from the first settlements on ports? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Complete the cause and effect chart about the growth pattern of Sydney.

Cause

effect

Settlers in inland farming communities sent their produce to be sold by merchants in Sydney Town.

News of the prosperity and the opportunities in the colony of New South Wales reached people living in Europe.

Convicts were a cheap labour source to construct roads, bridges and public buildings in the colony and to work on farms. 4. What if Indigenous Australians living in the territories around the colonies’ port settlements had put up more resistance to Europeans taking their land? How might this have affected the growth of the first settlements?

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____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 8

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Activity

Landforms And Settlements 2

 Read the information on page 7 to help you to answer the questions and complete the tasks below. 1. Use your atlas to help you to complete the table. Name the ports and rivers on which the major Australian cities are located. Research the populations of the urban coastal centres.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. CITY

POPULATION

PORT/RIVER

Sydney (NSW) Melbourne (VIC) Brisbane (QLD) Perth (WA) Adelaide (SA) Hobart (TAS) Darwin (NT) Gold Coast/Tweed Heads (QLD/NSW) Newcastle (NSW) 2. Why was a nearby river very important to establishing settlements in the early days of the colonies? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. How do people use rivers today? Have the activities changed much since colonial times? Jot down your ideas below.

_________________

_________________

_________________ Go to www.readyed.net

_________________ _________________

_________________ Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental

9


Student Information Page

Landforms Influence Development And Settlement

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The Site Of Australia’s Capital

Burley Griffin and Marion Mahoney Griffin. They were asked to design a city “not only for the present, but for all time”. It was to be a beautiful bush city of world-class standards. The construction of the capital began in 1915 and continued until the 1940s.

The Australian Capital Territory Where to locate Australia’s national capital after Federation in 1901 caused great debate and lots of squabbling. New South Wales and Victoria, the two most populated states, competed fiercely to have the new capital within their state borders. The states of New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland and Western Australia eventually came to a decision that the first federal parliament could be built in a territory in New South Wales – but it had to be at least 160 kilometres from Sydney. The Yass-Canberra district was chosen in 1908 as the best location for Australia’s capital city. The district’s fresh air, good water supply and its bush setting near the Brindabella Ranges were among the deciding factors. The nation’s new capital city adopted a coat of arms featuring a black and white swan (image above). The name “Canberra” is believed to have come from the indigenous place name for the area. The city of Canberra was designed by the famous American architects, Walter

The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) has a land area of 2,358 square kilometres and is home to 365,000 people. It is located 390 kilometres from Sydney and 660 kilometres from Melbourne (see map below). On average, there are New South Wales 450 people living in Sydney a square kilometre N Canberra ACT in the ACT. This Pacific population density Ocean Victoria is higher than Melbourne other state capitals 0 200 kilometres or territories in Australia.

Why Canberra Is An Important Centre In Australia • •

It is the seat of Australia’s federal parliament. It is the site of cultural landmarks such as: The Australian War Memorial, National Gallery of Australia and The National Library. It is home to Australia’s major law, educational and scientific institutions. Many international embassies, consulates and organisations are located in the city.

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10


Activity

Landforms And Development

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the information on page 10 to help you to complete the questions and tasks below. 1. Why were New South Wales and Victoria rivals in deciding where the nation’s capital would be located?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

2. Use an atlas to help you with this question. Other suggestions for the nation’s capital in New South Wales included: Albury, Armidale and Tumut. Can you suggest a reason why these places were not chosen to be the national capital? PLACE

REASON FOR NOT BEING CHOSEN

Albury Armidale Tumut 3. Discuss why fresh air, good water supply and the nearby bush setting close to the Brindabella Ranges were deciding features of the development of Canberra. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

My Research  What were Walter Burley Griffin’s plans for Canberra? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Walter Burley Griffin 1912 Wikimedia Commons

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental

11


Activity

Development

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Study the map below of Yarralumla, an inner suburb of the city of Canberra.

YARRALUMLA

CAPITAL HILL Parliament House

e Prim

M

e Lodg s ' r e inist

1. Can you think of three reasons why the suburb of Yarralumla was chosen as the location for many of the international embassies and consulates in Canberra? Reason 1: _______________________________________________________________ Reason 2: _______________________________________________________________ Reason 3: _______________________________________________________________ 2. Work with a partner. How many international embassies or consulates can you identify from the flags on the map? Make a list. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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My Research

ď ą Find out the country names of other international embassies not listed on the map above. 12

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Activity

Landforms Influence Development

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Study this map of the Australian Capital Territory.

1. The location of the Australian Capital Territory gives its residents access to a good water supply. From which sources would the authorities of the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan get their water? ____________________________________________________________________ 2. How would you describe the terrain on the Australian Capital Territory's western boundary with New South Wales? ____________________________________________________________________ 3. How would this terrain contribute to the Australian Capital Territory's water catchment area? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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4. Do you think that Lake George would supply water to the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan? Justify your answer. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental

13


Activity

People Influence The Environment

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Over the years the land in the Australian Capital Territory has been used in different ways. Originally it was the traditional home of the Ngunnawal people and they would have used the land to survive. After European settlement, the area was used mainly for sheep grazing. Look at the statistics in the pie chart. It shows how the land in the Australian Capital Territory was used in 2011.

ď ą Use the pie chart together with the information on page 10 to help you to answer the questions below.

Land Use In The ACT In 2011 built environment 19% agricu lture

4%

forestry 10% un

u

5%

lives graz tock ing 8%

ma

y inl

sed

nature conservation 54%

Percentage (%) of total land area = 2, 538 square kilometres.

1. From your prior knowledge, how would the Ngunnawal people have used the land in the territory up until the arrival of the Europeans? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. What percentage of land use in 2011 was used for sheep grazing? How has this changed since European settlement? ____________________________________________________________________

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3. In 2011 how was land mainly used in the Australian Capital Territory? Why do you think this is? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 14

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Activity

Development Affects The Environment

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The Australian Capital Territory is home to various endangered species. Do your own research on two of its most iconic animals: the Earless Dragon Lizard and the Brindabella Ranges Corroboree Frog. You can find out more about these animals at the following websites: www.canberra.edu.au/centres/iae/pubs/Research-Flyer-14.pdf www.corroboreefrog.com.au/corroboree-frog

 Complete the fact files with details about the animals’ habitats and why they are endangered. Note down what is being done to conserve these species in the Australian Capital Territory.

Earless Dragon Lizard ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

Brindabella Ranges Corroboree Frog ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental

15


Student Information Page

Urban Development And The Environment

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. is enough housing to meet people’s needs in the future. At the same time, planners have to look at the effects that increased settlement will have on the environment.

Why The Region Of South-East New South Wales Is Growing

The region of south-east New South Wales that stretches in a corridor from Sydney to Canberra is experiencing changes because of its location between two major cities (see map above). Some areas of the region are growing at a steady rate in population, whilst others are not. Local government areas in the Sydney-Canberra Corridor have to manage the use of land so that there

Connecting Sydney and Canberra, this region is an important corridor for many reasons: • it transports people, goods and ideas between two major growing cities; • it offers a variety of employment opportunities; • it offers different types of lifestyles (rural and urban); • it allows people to live in the region, but commute to work to Sydney or Canberra. Air, road and rail transport networks are being improved; • it is a popular tourist destination.

Facts And Figures About The Sydney – Canberra Corridor Population (2009)

137,000

Forecast population in 2031

183,350

Forecast employment growth (2009 – 2031)

27,800 jobs

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Additional dwellings needed (2009 – 2031)

Additional employment lands needed (2009 – 2031)

16

25,200

295 hectares


Activity

Urban Development 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the information on page 16 to help you to complete the questions and tasks below.

1. Why are places like Queanbeyan, Goulburn and Bowral said to be in a “corridor” between Sydney and Canberra? Use the map on page 13 to help you with this question.

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. Why is the Sydney-Canberra Corridor an expanding region? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Write down the name of a place in your local area that has grown and developed. ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Write down how the growth of this local place has changed the local environment. You will need to do some research. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Research

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5. Find out how the space within your local place is organised through zoning. Present your findings in a form of your choice on the back of this page.

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental

17


Activity

Urban Development 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Study the two photographs of the border between Tweed Heads (New South Wales) and Coolangatta (Queensland). The top photograph was taken in 1926 and the photograph below in 2003. The road that you can see in both photographs is the main road separating the two places. ď ą Make observation notes next to each photograph.

My Notes

A

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

Source: State Library Of Queensland.

_________________________________________

My Notes

B

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Source: Wikimedia Commons.

_________________________________________

1. In what ways have the twin cities of Coolangatta and Tweed Heads changed or stayed the same over the last 80 years? Make notes by each photograph before you write your final answer. ____________________________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 18

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Activity

Interpreting Data

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Study the information below about Bowral to help you to prepare a debate. You can also use the information on page 16. POPULATION GROWTH IN BOWRAL 2001-2011 47000 46000

Residents

45000 44000 43000 42000 41000

2001

2003

2005

2007

2008

2011

Year

Fact 1

Fact 2

The travelling time from Bowral (Wingecarribee Shire) to Campbelltown by car is about 50 minutes on the M5 motorway and to Sydney it is about 1 hour and 30 minutes. Fact 3

By express train Bowral is 1 hour from Campbelltown and 1 hour and 50 minutes from Sydney (Central).

Fact 4

In Wingecarribee Shire, 61% of workers travel by car. The average rent per week is $300. The average rent in Greater Sydney is $500.

In Bowral (Wingecarribee Shire), the average age of the population is 49 years old. This is 12 years above the Australian average.

Hold A Debate To live or not to live in Bowral? Work in small groups to prepare a class debate about the pros and cons of moving to a developing area like Bowral in the Wingecarribee Shire in New South Wales. Use the data on this page and your own research to prepare your debate. Make notes on the back of this sheet. A useful website for more information on Bowral and other communities in the Southern Highlands is: http://www.highlandsnsw.com.au/towns/bowral.html

Go to www.readyed.net Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental

19


Activity

Inland Australia

ď ą Read the report which explains why some inland places are losing their residents.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' The Empty Heartland book preview. The populations of the places in the interior of Australia have been on the move now for more than 25 years. Many regional towns have lost as many as 40% of their permanent residents since 1975. The attitude of most Australians is that the outback is a land of beauty, riches and opportunities, but not a place to live. Past generations were willing to face the climate challenges of living in remote places. Today, young people prefer to commute by plane if their place of work is located far away from the attractions of urban centres. What causes population loss in rural areas? Some places, like Broken Hill (New South Wales) built their community on the wealth of massive silver, lead and zinc ore deposits that have been mined since the 1890s. But Broken Hill’s

mining days are over and operations are closing down. Younger people have left to find work in other regions. Older residents are moving to urban centres that provide better health services and retirement activities and are not as subject to natural hazards. Wheat farmers in the Shire of Northampton near Geraldton (Western Australia) have been steadily moving off their properties. In 1986, it boasted 10,371 residents. In 2011, the population had reduced by 65% to 5,139. The mining boom in Western Australia is luring young people away from farm life to well-paid jobs in other remote areas. Another reason for the loss of residents in rural areas is that smaller farms are being bought up by larger agricultural companies.

ď ą Complete the mind map below to explain why people are moving away from inland places.

Why

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Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Student Information Page

Activity

The Influence Of People

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Australia is a country of city dwellers. 89% of Australians live in cities and their suburban centres which cling to the coastline. Over 60% of the total Australian population of 22,600,000 (2012) live in the five major cities of: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. Living in cities is the way it has always been in Australian history. The pattern of settlement in the early days of colonisation has determined how cities today have developed. Australia isn’t on its own when it comes to living near the coast. It is estimated that by 2020, two-thirds of the world’s population will be living within 60 kilometres of the ocean.

Australians Prefer To Live In Urban Centres Since the mid-19th century, Australian cities have been the base for manufacturing and trade. Farm produce was transported to the capital cities on bullock wagons and later steamboats and trains to be transformed into goods to sell and export. It was important for factories

to set up near ports to load their manufactured goods. As the variety of farm produce grew in the colonies so did the variety of shops, which sold these products to the population near the cities. Factories (manufacturing) and shops (retailing) created jobs.

Suburbs Grow Around Cities Since the mid-nineteeth century people have always wanted to live near their place of work so suburbs have developed on the outskirts of cities along tram and train lines. Owning your own home has always been an Australian ideal and people have been willing to move further out when blocks of land have been scarce near the city centres. Improved road and rail systems have made commuting to work from outer suburbs to the city easier. It was owning a car though, that started the rapid expansion of suburbs in the 1950s. Some suburbs grew so much that in turn, they developed into smaller satellite cities of the capital. Liverpool and Parramatta in New South Wales and Logan and Ipswich in Queensland are good examples of satellite cities.

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Activity

People Influence Environments 1

 Read the information on page 21 to help you to answer the questions below.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. How has history shaped the way that Australia’s cities have grown?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

2. What percentage of Australia’s population does not live in big urban centres? ____________________________________________________________________ 3. How has manufacturing and retailing contributed to the growth of cities? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Why did suburbs first develop along tram and train lines? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 5. Look at the map below of the Metropolitan Area of Sydney. You will see Sydney’s four satellite cities marked on it. Why did these places grow into large urban centres in these locations? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Activity

People Influence Environments 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Study the pie chart that shows the growth of Australian Cities. Answer the questions that follow.

Where People Lived In Australia In 2011

1. Estimate the percentage of Australians who live in cities with more than three million people.

rest of Australia

_______________________________________

50,000 residents _________________________

25

100,000 residents ________________________ 1 million residents ________________________

cities inhabited by over 3 million people

0,0 plac 00 es i - 1 nh ,00 ab 0,0 ited 00 by pe op le

2. Estimate the percentage of people who live in places with less than:

p 30,0laces in 00 - hab 50,0 ited 00 p by eop l places inhabited by e 50,000 - 100,000 peo ple d by le e it b p a s inh 0 peo place - 250,00 00 0 , 0 0 1

cities inhabited by 1-3 million people

3. How do you predict Australian cities will grow in the future based on the pie chart and the information on page 21? ____________________________________________________________________ 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in the suburbs of major Australian cities? Discuss this question with a partner. Jot down your ideas in the text box below.

Advantages

Disadvantages

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23


Activity

People Influence Environments 3

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Think about how cars changed the way that cities grew after the 1950s.

1. Annotate the diagram with your ideas and drawings.

2. Share your annotated diagram with another classmate. Did you find something that you might like to add to your diagram? 3. Write a paragraph explaining how cars changed the way that people lived in cities. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 24

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Student Information Page

People Influence Australian Places

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Going shopping in the 1960s meant walking down the main street of your city or town and visiting a number of shops along the way to get the things that you needed. You would visit a greengrocer for fruit and veggies, a shoemaker to have your boots mended and a fishmonger, who not only sold fresh fish, but cooked fish and chips too! Furthermore, the owners of these different shops probably lived in a flat above their premises. This was how Europeans had organised their retail centres for centuries - on a main or high street and this way of organising shops was brought to Australia (see image above). You can still find shops like these in terraced buildings in the inner suburbs of large cities and in the main streets of many rural towns.

Shopping Centres – Bringing The City To The Suburbs Shopping centres have changed the way that Australians shop. Under one big roof, people can visit a variety of different shops and department stores, use services like the post office, bank or public library, and have something to eat or catch a movie. The growth of shopping centres has meant that people don’t have to spend time travelling into crowded city centres,

and can find the same variety of shops and products closer to home. Parking space has also made shopping centres more convenient. The location of a shopping centre is very important to its success. The site on which a centre is built has to be large enough to accommodate buildings, car parks and gardens. Property developers often buy land that was once used for factories on the outskirts of suburban areas and redevelop it into busy retail and entertainment centres. Shops want to be close to where their customers can reach them so centres are on main roads for easy access. If they are located far from train or bus routes, many centres run their own regular bus services to pick up customers. Shopping centres not only provide goods and services for a community - they provide employment for many people in the region.

Go to www.readyed.net 25


Activity

People Influence Places 1

 Read the information on page 25 to help you to answer the questions and complete the tasks below. 1. What is your local shopping centre like?

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

2. Why are shops in older inner city suburbs often organised in a strip along the main street? ________________________________________ ________________________________________ 3. How did big shopping centres “bring the city to the suburbs"? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Why is a shopping centre’s location important to its success? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 5. Work with a partner. Make a list in the box below of all the different types of shops that you know.

6. Highlight the shops in the box that you visit often. Are these the same type of shops that your grandparents might visit? _________________________________

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My Research

 What could you buy in the olden days in a: haberdashery, chandlery, hosiery, drapery and an apothecary? Where do we go today to buy these products? Write your response on the back of this sheet. 26

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Activity

People Influence Places 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. Imagine that you are a property developer planning a regional shopping centre. Highlight the age groups that will be your potential customers.

Percentage (%) Of The Population In Each Age Group

Persons - 0 to 14 years

21.6

Persons - 15 years to 24 years

16.1

Persons - 25 years to 34 years

15.7

Persons - 35 years to 44 years

14.0

Persons - 45 years to 54 years

13.4

Persons - 55 years to 64 years

10.5

Persons - 65 years to 74 years

5.0

Persons - 75 years to 84 years

2.7

Persons - 85 years and over

1.0

2. Design a floor plan for a shopping centre in the space below with a large supermarket and 15 variety shops. Don’t forget the car park and other facilities that will make shopping enjoyable at your centre. Label the floor plan neatly. It does not have to be to scale.

Design A Floor Plan

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27


Student Information Page

Australian Places And Tourism

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' There's no place like book preview. a i l a r t s Au Australia As A Tourist Destination

Come and say

G'day

The tourism industry is very important to Australia’s development because it contributes more than $70 billion a year to the economy and provides jobs for a million people. This means that 8% of the Australian workforce is employed directly or indirectly in services to tourism. The Australian Federal and State Governments actively promote Australia as a tourist destination through international and local advertising campaigns.

Australia is a vast continent with different climate zones. Some of Australia’s premier destinations for overseas tourists are:  Sydney: Australia’s first city, with its harbour and the Opera House;  The Great Barrier Reef: a reef system with over 900 islands;  Tasmania: with its World Heritage sites and natural wilderness;  The Great Ocean Road: 243 kilometres of breathtaking scenery in Victoria;  Uluru: an indigenous sacred site in the red heart of the continent. TTourist attractions develop in places where people can experience close w ccontact with Australia’s unique landforms and fauna and flora. Many la tourist places are in remote areas to of the country so getting there will o in influence how many tourists visit a p place. The capital cities of states and te territories are usually the base from w which overseas tourists start their discovery of Australia’s special places.

GREAT OCEAN ROAD

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28


Activity

Places And Tourism

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Use an atlas and visit this website www.australia.com to complete this task.

1. Label neatly on the map above the tourist destinations mentioned on page 33. Include the names of the states and territories. Visit the website and choose four more destinations to add to your tourist destination map. 2. How would you classify the destinations that you have added to the map? For example: a natural place, a city with monuments, a natural landform or a resort for leisure?   _____________________________  ______________________________  _____________________________  ______________________________ 3. Why is tourism an important industry in Australia? ____________________________________________________________________ 4. What attractions do major Australian cities have for national and international visitors? ____________________________________________________________________ 5. To attract tourists, advertisers create slogans like the ones on the posters on page 33. Hold a class competition to see who can create the best slogan to attract visitors to your region.

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My Slogan

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental

29


Activity

Tourism And The Environment

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the information about ecotourism then answer the following questions.

What Is Ecotourism?

An ever-increasing number of tourists want to experience a place’s natural attractions without damaging its environment. Ecotourism promotes sustainable tourism based on nature so that a place can be enjoyed by future generations. Some examples of ecotourism in Australia include nature walks with indigenous guides in The Top End to see rock art, camping out to stargaze in the desert and having brekkie with tiny darting penguins and albatross in Tasmania.

How Can Tourist Resorts Be Eco-Friendly? Building tourist accommodation for resorts usually meant bulldozing the natural vegetation, building resort facilities and landscaping new gardens with plants placed carefully around buildings. Eco-friendly resorts try to preserve the natural environment in several ways, by:  keeping as much of the native vegetation as possible - building around mature trees and not cutting them down;  implementing educational programmes to teach tourists about the local culture, history, plants and wildlife;  installing water and energy-saving technology;  including tourists in surveys to monitor threatened species.

1. What does ecotourism offer tourists? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. Why would state and territory governments promote ecotourism in Australia? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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3. Which places in Australia are best suited to ecotourism?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 30

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Activity

Tourism

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' 1 2 book preview. ď ą Look at the methods of transportation that tourists use to travel around Australia. Think about the advantages of each type of transport for tourists. Makes brief notes under each image. Share your ideas with a partner.

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

3

4

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

Go to www.readyed.net _________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________ _________________________

_________________________

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental

31


Activity

Relationship With Country

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Seventy percent of Indigenous Australians live in urban centres. Their lives as teachers, scientists, politicians, entertainers and athletes may have taken them far away from their traditional home, but they still have a strong relationship with their Country and people.

ď ą Research an Indigenous Australian or group from the present or past who has kept their relationship with Country alive through art, music, literature, community service or any other achievement. Mark on the map below where the person or group was born or grew up. Some suggestions: Bangarra Dance Theatre, Cathy Freeman, Albert Namatjira, Geoffrey Gurrumul Yunupingu, Senator Neville Bonner, Evonne Goolagong Cawley.

My Research ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 32

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Activity

A Local Planning Issue 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Imagine that you are campaigning to be elected as a councillor in your next local council elections. Read some of the recommended qualities and responsibilities of a councillor below. Tick the qualities that you possess.

 Enthusiastic and positive with people and a good listener.

 Can “take a knock” and carry on in the face of difficulties.

 Actions and beliefs are ethical and abide by the law.

 Good at dealing with the media and confident in presenting ideas.

 Motivated to make a contribution to the community.

 Able to take responsibility for decisions made and justify them.

 Good at debating and getting support for an argument.

 Effective reader who can find the main points in reports.

 In the space below (and on the back of the sheet) plan a speech which argues for the development of a grassed area in a local suburb. This speech should persuade others to favour the proposed development. You might be suggesting to build more houses on the grassed area, build a school, or a community centre.

________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________  Deliver your speech to the class. Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental

33


Activity

A Local Planning Issue 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Look at the chart below which shows the types of services and facilities that a community provides for its residents.

sporting clubs

community centre

aged care

homeless shelters

Community Services

libraries and museums

parks and reserves

child care centres

schools and universities

ď ą In the space below (and on the back of the sheet) plan a speech which argues against the development of one of the above services or facilities on a vacant grassed area at the end of your street. This speech should persuade others to reject the proposed development.

Speech

Go to www.readyed.net 34

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


Activity

A Local Planning Issue 3

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą With a partner, study this street map of a community called Bayside. Discuss with your partner the best location for the new swimming pool complex.

1. Mark and label on the map where the new swimming centre could be located. 2. Why have you chosen this site for the new swimming centre? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Calculate how far the swimming centre will be from: the primary school

____________

the hospital

____________

a main road

____________

Use a piece of string to help you to measure the distance along streets and roads. Match the length to the scale.

4. Share your ideas with another pair. Justify your swimming pool location. 5. Write down the directions in steps from the nature reserve to the swimming centre. Be precise and mention distances and landmarks.

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____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental

35


Activity

A Local Planning Issue 4

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Development needs to be approved by the local council. There are specific steps to getting planning for a project by the local council. Read the steps in the text boxes at the bottom of the page. Cut them out and glue them in order on the living graph. Talk about your steps with another classmate.

6 5 4 3 2 1 House Plan

ď ą Cut out the six steps. Wait for council approval before starting to build.

Discuss your building plans with the neighbours.

Talk to a local council planner to see if you can build in the zone.

Lodge a building application that includes your permit and plans.

Check to see that building complies with council rules.

Get advice from a professional to draw up building plans.

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36

Section 1: Influences: Human And Environmental


This is a Ready-Ed Section 2:Publications' book preview. Climate, Savannahs And Bushfires

Go to www.readyed.net 37


Student Information Page

Australia’s Climate Zones

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. You’ve probably heard people talk about the “Australian Climate” and images of sunny summers and wet winters come to mind. The fact is that Australia is a vast continent that experiences not just one type of climate. While people swelter in the tropical heat in Cairns in January, others in Hobart may be turning on the heater at night. Large states and territories can have several climate zones. The state of Queensland has six different types of climate in

its 1 723 936 kilometre 2 area (an area five times the size of Japan). Queensland’s climates range from hot and humid in the Gulf Country to the cool forests of the Atherton Tableland. There are six main climate zones in Australia. These zones have been determined by temperature and humidity (rainfall and water vapour) patterns recorded over a long period of time. The map below left shows these climate zones.

CLIMATE ZONES OF AUSTRALIA

Other Factors Which Influence Australia’s Climate In addition to temperature and rainfall, the following characteristics also influence the climate of a region:  the altitude or elevation of a place (for example, a high mountain);

KEY: hot & humid hot dry summer - warm winter hot dry summer - cold winter temperate (warm summer & cool winter)

 wind patterns in the Southern Hemisphere (southeast trade winds, westerlies);  types of vegetation (dense vegetation absorbs heat, snow reflects heat, etc.).

Go to www.readyed.net cool temperate warm & humid

38


Activity

Australia's Climate 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the information on page 38 to help you to answer the questions and complete the task below. 1. Why does Australia have a variety of climate zones?

____________________________________________________________________

2. In which types of climates do most people in Australia live? Think about the five most populated cities: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

____________________________________________________________________ 3. Use an atlas to help you with this task. In the space below, draw a freehand map of your state or territory.  Shade in the climate zones for your state or territory. Provide a key.  Label the capital city.  Label the place where you live.  Provide a title for your map.

The climate zone/s for my state or territory is/are:

Go to www.readyed.net 5. Research: Find out the relationship between latitude and climate. Record your findings on the back of this sheet. Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire

39


Activity

Australia's Climate 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Study this map that shows Australia’s population density. Population density refers to how many people (on average) live in one square kilometre. Darwin

Brisbane Perth Adelaide Estimated resident population. Source: Australian Demographic Statistics

Sydney Canberra Melbourne

1 dot = 1000 people Hobart

1. Which regions of Australia are more heavily populated (< 100 people per km2) and why might climate account for this? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. Which areas of Australia are less heavily populated and why might climate account for this? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Some very remote places in Queensland and Western Australia have population densities of 10 to 100 people per square kilometre. Which type of people might be living in these areas? What climate would they have to endure?

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____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

40

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Activity

Australia's Climate 3

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Mystery Capital City 1: ______________________________________ book preview. ď ą Study the climate data for two Australian capital cities. Use the data in the tables to answer the questions.

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Average Max Temperature

32

32

29

25

21

19

18

18

20

22

25

29

Average Min Temperature

17

17

16

13

10

9

8

8

9

10

13

15

Average Rainfall (mm)

7

16

15

42

106 174 163 118

70

47

27

12

Mystery Capital City 2: ______________________________________ J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Average Max Temperature

32

31

32

33

32

31

30

31

32

33

33

33

Average Min Temperature

25

25

25

24

22

20

19

21

23

25

25

25

Average Rainfall (mm)

406 342 312

97

20

1

1

6

17

71

141 235

1. Which capital city experiences a hot summer and a cool winter? ____________________________________________________________________ 2. Which capital city has a long period of high rainfall? ____________________________________________________________________ 3. In Capital City 2, can you identify the seasons of the year? Why or why not? ____________________________________________________________________ 4. In Capital City 1, what is the total average rainfall for the summer months? ____________________________________________________________________

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5. Have you guessed the mystery cities using the data in the climate tables and the information from the Climate Zones of Australia map on page 39? Write the name of the cities in the spaces provided.

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire

41


Activity

Australia's Climate 4

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Image 1: ď ą Study the two images with a partner. Using evidence from the images together with your knowledge of the areas, discuss the challenges that Australians face living in the two different climate zones. Annotate each picture with your ideas.

Climate Zone 1 Townsville, Queensland

________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Image 2: Climate Zone 2 Ferny Creek, Victoria

________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 42

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Student Information Page

Australia’s Tropical Savannahs

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. When we think about savannahs, we imagine endless grasslands of Africa populated by large mammals like lions, wildebeest and elephants. Australia’s tropical savannah (see map right), like that of southern Africa is rich in wildlife and vegetation that have adapted to living in the special climatic conditions. People have also adapted to life in the savannah environment with its many natural and mineral resources.

Characteristics Of Australia’s Tropical Savannahs Tropical savannahs stretch from Broome in the west to Rockhampton in the east. The landscape is a sea of grasses with scattered eucalyptus trees and shrubs. Savannahs do not support dense forests because there is a lack of sufficient rain throughout the entire year. The Top End’s climate is divided into two seasons as shown below.

THE WET SEASON

THE DRY SEASON

 Rain falls during heavy thunderstorms (monsoons) from December - May.

 High temperatures, little or no rainfall and clear blue skies from May - October.

 Lakes, rivers and plains turn into flooded wetlands over enormous areas.

 Lightning strikes ignite dry grass and bushfires are frequent.

 Spear grass can grow up to two metres and animals, in particular birds, flourish.

 Most vegetation recovers from the fires and quickly grows back. Wildlife feeds on plant shoots and plant bulbs.

Threats To The Tropical Savannahs The supply of water in savannah lands is vital for plant, animal and human life. Farmers and cattle grazers in this region need to construct dams and weirs to ensure that they have enough water to irrigate crops and drinking water for animals. This can affect the natural flow of water in the cycle and the plants and wildlife that depend on it. Pollution from fertilisers and chemicals from mining operations can make its way into the savannah wetlands. Introduced species like wild pigs, goats and camels can also damage vegetation and watering holes.

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43


Activity

Climate And Vegetation 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Use the information on page 43 and the photograph to answer the questions.

1. How is the vegetation in this image typical of Australia’s tropical savannahs? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. At which time of the year was this photograph taken? Give a reason for your answer. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Why can’t dense eucalyptus forests grow on the savannah’s flat lands? ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Explain how bushfires occur in the Top End. _____________________________________________________ 5. Why would the wet season in Australia’s tropical savannahs be a time of plenty for wildlife?

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____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 44

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Activity

Climate And Vegetation 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Cause effect book preview. 1. Complete the cause and effect chart to show how vegetation in savannahs can be damaged.

Cane toads have invaded the tropical savannahs in Queensland and the Northern Territory. Cane toads eat the food sources of native frogs and amphibians.

Grasses and plants that were introduced to feed grazing cattle are replacing native savannah grasses and shrubs over vast areas. Fertilisers from farms can run off into waterways like billabongs. Fertilisers cause algae to bloom and cover the surface. Some algae is toxic. 2. Many of the mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles found in tropical savannahs are unique to this environment. Prepare a Fact File (with a sketch) on one of the Top Endâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inhabitants. Make a note of its habitat, diet and habits. You could research the:

Long-tailed planigale Borroloola dtella Golden bandicoot Green pygmy goose

________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net ________________________________________ ________________________________________

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire

45


Activity

Indigenous Climate Zones

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The climate of Australia’s tropical savannahs is said to have two seasons – the wet and the dry. Indigenous Australians, whose survival depended on their deep knowledge of this environment, recognised six seasons in the cycle of life in the savannahs.

 Consult the webpage below to find information on the Six Seasons of Kakadu and complete the table below with your notes. www.kakadu.com.au/seasons/index.html

SEASON

CLIMATE AND WILDLIFE

ATTRACTIONS

Gudjewg (Monsoon season) December - March

Banggerreng (Thunderstorm season) April Yegge (Cool but humid) May - June

Wurrgeng (Cold weather season) June - August Gurrung (Hot, dry weather) August - October

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Gunumeleng (Pre-storm season) October December 46

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Student Information Page

Managing Our Savannahs

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Even though less than 600,000 people live in the northern tropical savannahs (3% of Australia’s total population), this landscape is an important natural, cultural and economic resource for Australia. The savannahs cover about 20% of the continent’s land mass and are the world’s largest remaining grasslands. The savannahs of Africa, Asia and South America have been greatly reduced and damaged by forest clearing, over-grazing by cattle and the increase in people living in this environment. Northern Australia is still an immense wilderness that has been cared for by its indigenous communities for thousands of years.

Sustainable Use Of Savannahs The tropical savannahs are rich in natural resources that contribute more than $14.5 billion to Australia’s economy each year. It is important to strike a balance between the growth of the mining, pastoral and tourism industries and the conservation of the biodiversity of the savannahs. The Australian Federal and State Governments are working with research institutions and local people to make decisions about how to manage savannah lands in a sustainable way. For example, ecologists are looking at applying traditional indigenous methods of fire management to prevent bushfires.

It Is Important To Manage The Tropical Savannahs

 Australia’s tropical savannahs are now considered as environmentally important as the Amazon rainforest and Antarctica.  The habitats of unique plants and animals need to be protected.  The Top End’s savannahs are the traditional homelands of Indigenous Australians.  The pastoral industry is a major contributor to the Australian economy. Weed, fire and feral animal control are of great concern in the savannahs.

 Some of the world’s largest mineral and ore deposits are located in the northern savannah region. The effects of mining need to be studied carefully.

Go to www.readyed.net 47


Activity

Characteristics Of Savannahs

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' preview.ECONOMIC NATURAL book CULTURAL  Read the information on page 47 to help you to complete the questions and the task below. 1. Why are Australia’s tropical savannahs an important resource? Record your answer under the different headings in the table below.

2. How have the world’s other savannah lands been affected by human activity? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. What are some of the natural “riches” of the tropical savannah lands? Use the information on page 47 and your own knowledge of this environment. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Why do you think that Indigenous Australians of the savannah regions should be consulted about savannah land management? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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5. How has the landscape of Australia’s tropical savannahs been changed since the arrival of the Europeans in the 19th century? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 48

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Development Of Savannahs

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Work In Pairs Consider this question: Should more areas of the tropical savannahs be opened up for development that will benefit the Australian economy?

ď ą One student should consider the issue from the point of view of an environmentalist and the other should imagine he/she is a mining company director. Jot down your arguments to support your points of view in the table below.

For

Against

Mini-Debate ď ą Join with another pair and hold a mini-debate. Take turns presenting your arguments for and against further development by industries.

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The most convincing argument I heard was:

___________________________________________________________________

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire

49


Activity

Indigenous Influence

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Read about how Indigenous Australians are turning to cattle-grazing in The Top End to develop their communities. Then answer the questions below. After colonisation Aboriginal communities were dispossessed of their land as settlers expanded their farming activities. In 1993, the right for Indigenous Australians to reclaim their lands and maintain their identities and customs was recognised in The Native Bill. Since then, the Indigenous Land Council has been acquiring cattle stations (many of them run down or abandoned) for communities to manage. Some properties are very sophisticated operations and export cattle internationally. Others are smaller and produce mainly for the indigenous community living on the property itself.

Many of the properties taken over by indigenous pastoralists were in a bad state because of overgrazing, invasion of weeds and poor infrastructures, such as fencing and sheds. However, older indigenous stockmen, who have had plenty of experience in the past working on cattle stations, have now become property managers. They are also training young people as stockmen, and passing on knowledge about caring for the land. This is a new project for Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s indigenous communities in the Far North. To get things up and running from scratch and be able to export quality cattle is a remarkable thing to achieve in such a short time.

1. What happened to Indigenous Australians' homelands after colonisation? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. How did the passing of The Native Bill in 1993 help to restore Indigenous Australiansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; rights? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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3. How is pastoralism helping indigenous communities?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 50

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Activity

Wildlife And Savannahs

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Research the effects that the introduced species listed below, have had on Australia’s tropical savannahs. You may also like to consider the Australian Government’s response to the impacts that these animals have had on the natural environment and native wildlife. A useful website is:www.environment.gov.au/ biodiversity/invasive/ferals/index.html

Cane Toad

EFFECTS: _______________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ RESPONSES: ____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

Water Buffalo EFFECTS: _______________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ RESPONSES: ____________________________________________

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________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire

51


Student Information Page

Activity

Savannahs Of East Indonesia

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Northern Australia has a similar climate to the eastern islands of Indonesia. The East Nusa Tenggara Province has over 500 islands – the biggest are: Sumba, Flores and West Timor. Some of these islands are less than 1,200 kilometres from Darwin (see map below). The islands were once covered by vast tropical forests, but human activity has changed them into savannah landscapes. More than five million people live on these small islands over an area that is smaller than Tasmania.

How People In East Nusa Tenggara Use The Grasslands Most people in East Nusa Tenggara live in small villages. They rely on the farm animals that they raise, and the crops that they grow each year to feed their families. This is called subsistence farming. If farmers produce more food than they can consume, it is taken to sell in town

markets to earn extra income. To create fields and garden plots for growing crops to support the community, it is a common practice to chop down tropical trees and burn the forest. This method of creating grasslands has been used in this region for at least a thousand years, but valuable forest resources are rapidly disappearing.

Effects Of Burning On The Savannahs Each year, farmers light fires in the late part of the dry season (October) to clear forest land. This burning also helps farmers to hunt small animals for food and to collect wood from the burnt trees. However, some of the fires rage out of control in the hot, dry conditions of the savannahs, just as they do in Northern Australia. These bushfires can have devastating effects on communities, such as:  the villagers’ food crops and livestock are destroyed;  homes, farm equipment and sheds are damaged;  the soil is eroded because trees have been burnt;  villagers can suffer from malnutrition and hunger;  smoke haze from fires can cause breathing problems.

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52


A Comparison Of Savannahs 1

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Read the information on page 52 to help you to complete the questions below.

1. Are the islands of West Timor, Sumba and Flores closer to Darwin or to Jakarta?

____________________________________________________________________

2. How have farmers changed the landscape over time in East Nusa Tenggara?

____________________________________________________________________ 3. What is subsistence farming? ____________________________________________________________________ 4. What risks do subsistence farmers face if there is a drought, flood or bushfire? ____________________________________________________________________ Look at the climate data for Darwin, Northern Territory. Compare this data with the climate data for Kupang, West Timor. The temperature is in o C.

Darwin

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Average Daily Temperature

32

32

29

25

21

19

18

18

20

22

25

29

Average Rainfall (mm)

7

16

15

42

106 174 163 118

70

47

27

12

Kupang

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Average Daily Temperature

27

26

26

26

26

27

27

27

28

28

27

27

Average Rainfall (mm)

389 345 209

77

36

44

19

5

9

39

139 254

5. When does Kupang, West Timor experience a dry season? Is it at the same time as Darwinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dry season? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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6. How are the climates of Darwin and Kupang similar or different?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire

53


Activity

A Comparison Of Savannahs 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Study the data about Australia’s tropical grasslands and the grasslands of East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.

Australia’s Savannah Lands

East Nusa Tenggara Province

Land Area: 1.93 million km2. Population: 600,000. Population Density: 3.2 (people living in one square kilometre). Land Use: Cattle-raising on large pastoral properties, mining, tourism, agriculture, vast areas of untouched savannahs, conservation areas for fauna and flora.

Land Area: 47,876 km2. Population: 5,000,000. Population Density: 102 (people living in one square kilometre). Land Use: Small land holdings growing crops (fruit trees, vegetables, cassava, cocoa, coffee beans, tobacco, spices), timber products, raising livestock (cattle, pigs), tourism.

1. Compare the use of tropical savannah lands in northern Australia and East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Write three facts.

Fact 1

Fact 2

Fact 3

2. Complete the legend to compare East Nusa Tenggara’s population density to Australia’s savannah land population density. You will be working with fractions.

Australia

East Nusa Tenggara

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= 10 people

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Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Activity

The Environment

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Get a pencil and eraser ready. You are going to make a geographic sketch of a traditional village on the island of Flores in East Nusa Tenggara. Don’t worry about adding too many details or colouring in the sketch. The purpose is to show the features of the houses and their surroundings. Use the picture below to help you.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BenaVillage.jpg

My sketch of Bena Village, Flores

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Discuss

 Discuss this h question with a partner: Is this village at risk from uncontrolled fires? Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire

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Activity

Wildlife

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The Island of Komodo and its gigantic lizards are found in East Nusa Tenggara. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The island’s rich biodiversity attracts tourists the world over. To find out more about Komodo and its dragons, start by visiting the Komodo National Park website at: www.komodonationalpark.org/

 Make notes based on your research of the things that tourists can see and do if they visit the Island of Komodo. You may add your own pictures or symbols.

What Tourists Can See And Do - Island Of Komodo

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Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Student Information Page

Bushfires

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. It is a sad fact that the majority of bushfires in Australia each year are not ignited by natural forces like lightning strikes, but by people – either accidentally or deliberately. Bushfires can be started by:

 leaving broken glass in dry vegetation;  embers from barbecues;  sparks from farm machinery;  uncontrolled fires lit to burn rubbish;  cigarettes thrown from cars;  accidents with matches or accelerants;  faulty electrical power lines;  arson (fires which are deliberately lit).

Prepare, Act, Survive State Emergency Prepare Services issue bushfire danger Act ratings from Surviive Low-Moderate to Code Red so that communities can be on alert and be prepared for potential hazards from fires. In the event of a bushfire, it is recommended that an emergency (waterproof ) bag be close at hand in case you have to leave your home at short notice. In your emergency (waterproof ) bag there should be:

 a portable radio and batteries;  blankets;  first aid kit and manual;  bottles of drinking water;  medications taken by family members;  important documents e.g. passports, birth certificates, etc.;  cash cards;  mobile phones and chargers;  extra change of clothes;  valuables, family photographs, etc.;  pet supplies, leash.

All year round, home owners need to keep their houses safe during the bushfire period by keeping yards free of leaves and lawn cuttings. Low tree branches and bushes near the house should be removed and flammable cchemicals stored in a shed. Fitted sscreens on doors and windows can p prevent sparks from entering the h house and setting fire to curtains and ssoft furnishings.

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 a torch with extra batteries;  big candles and matches;

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Activity

Prevention

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Act c Survive repare A Pbook preview.  What recommendations would you give to the owner of this house to make it safer in the event of a bushfire? Write your advice in the space provided.

 ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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 ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Activity

Being Prepared

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą The information on page 57 will help you to complete the tasks below.

1. Consult the Fire Danger Rating for your state or territory using a popular search engine. Use the information to colour and complete the diagram below. List ratings and the actions that people should take.

2. Look at the objects that you should keep ready in a bag on page 57. Take turns with a partner to justify how they would come in handy in a bushfire emergency. 3. Prepare, Act, Survive is a slogan promoting bushfire safety. Design a car bumper sticker with your own slogan to create bushfire awareness.

MY RESEARCH What kind of protective clothing should I wear in a bushfire threat?

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____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire

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Activity

On Bushfire Alert 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą What would you do during a bushfire alert? Work with a partner to place the actions listed at the bottom of the page on the timeline. Cut out the action plans and glue them in order on both sides of the timeline. Discuss your timeline with another pair.

Bushfire brigade arrives

Thick smoke in nearby parkland Bring pets inside. Hose down outside of house facing fire. Fill gutters with water. Alert family and neighbours about smoke in nearby parkland.

Put on protective clothing. Check for spot fires around house and put them out. Fill bath/sinks with water. Keep buckets handy.

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Store flammable materials away from house. Shut off gas at the meter.

Call 000. Give accurate details of your location.

Move furniture to centre of the room. Take down curtains. Tape windows.

Go indoors. Shut windows and doors. Place wet towels under gaps.

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Activity

On Bushfire Alert 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the poem published in 1953 in The Mail (Adelaide). It was written by Jann Gregersen (aged 14) from Fitzroy about a bushfire. Just a little child playing with a match, threw it into the bottlebrush scrub, thought it would not catch. First a wisp of trailing smoke, higher in the air, then the scrub and bushes caught, and the child ran off in fear.

The burned firebreaks around the homestead, they were nearly there too late, they stopped the fire in its crackling roar, in front of the homestead gate. The smoke and flames went roaring off, for miles across the plains. Firefighters couldn’t stop it, nothing could except the rains. The gums were black and charred, the men were tired and grimy, the country’s beauty marred.

1. Highlight in different colours in the poem the following information: FIRE IGNITION

RESPONSE BY FIREFIGHTERS

EFFECTS OF THE BUSHFIRE

2. Imagine that you were the child in the poem. Write an account of how you felt that day. Include descriptions using the five senses to make your writing vivid. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire

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Activity

Fire-Stick Farming

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ą Read the text below about fire-stick farming and complete the gaps with words or phrases chosen from the text box. Use each word or phrase once only. biodiversity venomous nutrient-rich landform fire-stick farming ecosystem European fuel load supply succulent

Indigenous Australians have been managing their environment for thousands of generations through the age-old practice of _________________________. This practice, however, does not take place today on the same scale as it used to before _________________ settlement. Smoke rising on the horizon was not necessarily an alarm for indigenous people, but often a comforting sign that their kin in a nearby territory were taking care of the land. By burning the long grasses and their seeds, indigenous people learnt that it made travelling on their search for food easier. They could also see animal tracks in the soil and be on the lookout for _______________snakes. These low intensity fires were set on a regular basis which meant that dry vegetation was being removed from the environment and thus, reduced the ________________ that could lead to bigger, uncontrollable bushfires. The smoke from fire-stick farming promoted the development of flowers on trees. This fruit was then available at different times of the year as clans moved around their territory. Native plums and apples not only provided people with a steady food ________________, but animals and birds too. Fire-stick farming left the soil _________________. Animals quickly returned to the area to forage for ________________ green shoots. The small number of mammals and reptiles killed during burning were not wasted, but gathered for food. Sometimes an area would not be visited again for two or three years to allow the ________________ to regenerate. Indigenous people developed a deep knowledge of how to manage their environment. They only set fires when conditions were right for a particular ________________ and time of year. They took into account the time of day, wind speed and direction, vegetation types, location of water supplies and proximity to sacred sites before lighting fires. As a result, indigenous people created a rich network of __________________ in the habitats that they vowed to care for.

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Section 2: Climate, Savannahs And Bushfire


Answers p.8 1. Port towns were developed to transport people and goods by ships. Port towns provided easy access to transport and goods. 2. People moved away in search of farming and grazing land. 3. Settlers in inland farming communities sent their produce to be sold by merchants in Sydney Town. Shops, businesses and houses sprang up in Sydney attracting people to work and live nearby. News of the prosperity and opportunities in the colony of New South Wales spread to Europe. Migrants arrived to settle in Sydney Town and develop the colony. Convicts were a cheap labour source to construct roads, bridges and public buildings in the colony and to work on farms. Free settlers could expand their farms and businesses more quickly with cheap labour. When convicts were pardoned, they rarely returned to Britain, but stayed on to build a future in the colonies. 4. Resistance by Indigenous Australians may have stemmed the flow of migrants to the colonies and the extent of initial land occupation by squatters.

p.11 1. Both states were keen to have the nation’s capital located within their state. Having the Australian Capital Territory located within their borders would bring the states more attention and prestige. 2. Suggested answers: Albury – too close to Melbourne. Armidale – too far away from both Sydney and Melbourne. Tumut – too cold, difficult road access through the mountains in winter. RESEARCH: Walter Burley Griffin wanted Canberra to be one of the most unique capital cities in the world. He was determined to plan a city that would meet the demands for future growth and provide a pleasant, healthy environment for its residents.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.

p. 12 1. Possible reasons: Close to Parliament House to address the Government; close to the Prime Minister’s Lodge for meetings and social receptions; close to other embassies for communication. Embassies are centrally located in the administrative sector of Canberra. 2.

p.9 CITY Sydney Melbourne

POPULATION 4.606.000 4,170,000

Brisbane

2,148,000

Perth Adelaide Hobart Darwin Gold Coast/ Tweed Heads Newcastle

1,833,000 1,263,000 216,000 130,000 577,000

PORT/RIVER Port Jackson Port Phillip Bay/ Yarra River Moreton Bay/ Brisbane River Swan River Torrens River Derwent River Darwin Harbour Tweed River

540,000

Hunter River

2. Rivers were essential for: supplying fresh water, crops and livestock and transporting goods from the inland to sea ports. 3. Rivers in urban centres are used less as a water supply and more for leisure activities like: fishing, boating and water sports. Cleaner rivers have also greatly contributed to the return of native fauna and flora to river areas.

RESEARCH: Belguim, France, Netherlands, Poland, Germany, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Nigeria, Singapore, Turkey, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, Spain, Ireland and Myanmar. p.13 1. The Googong Reservoir, Bendora and Corin Dam. 2. The western boundary is the Brindabella Range, which would be quite hilly. There are several mountains in this area. 3. Water would run off from rainfall and snow

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to the valleys below to the catchment areas where dams are located. 4. Lake George does not supply water as it is quite shallow and used for watering livestock. Students should note that piping water from Lake George would be difficult due to the distance from central Canberra and Queanbeyan.

roundabout, high-rise buildings, etc. p.15 Speeches should make use of persuasive writing techniques.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. p.14 1. The Ngunnawal people would have lived near the many creeks and rivers to collect, trap and hunt food. Their sacred sites and ceremony grounds would be marked around their territory. 2. A small percentage (less than 8%) of the land was used for sheep grazing in 2011. The majority of the land after European settlement would have been used for sheep grazing. 3. In 2011 the land was mainly used for nature conservation. This was to preserve the natural landscape that existed for Indigenous Australians and to provide green areas to protect native fauna and flora. The “bush” quality of the city is also maintained. p.15 Earless Dragon research: tracking and monitoring to study the species; trying to get support from farmers to help preserve the lizard’s habitat. Corroboree Frog research: recovery breeding programme carried out by scientists. p.17 1. These places are located on the main road and rail line between Canberra and Sydney. 2. The Sydney-Canberra Corridor transports people and goods between Sydney and Canberra; the towns in the Sydney-Canberra Corridor offer variety in lifestyle; people can commute to workplaces located in Sydney and Canberra and other urban centres in the Corridor. p.18 Picture 1: Students should note the fence that actually separated New South Wales from Queensland. Other observations: rural environment, country road (with no traffic) on which to take a leisurely stroll, few buildings (old colonial pub in background). Picture 2: Modern infrastructures like main road,

p.19 Student’s own research that should also draw upon sources on page 13. Students should evaluate the advantages (rural lifestyle, cheaper rents, etc.) and disadvantages (travel costs, time in traffic, etc.). p.20 Mind map: Young people prefer to live in urban areas; air travel allows people to commute to work; industries and businesses close down; older people move to be closer to health and recreation facilities; people move to work in other regions with job opportunities; small farms are being taken over by larger companies.

p.22 1. Australia’s settlement pattern has fanned outward along coastal regions from the first settlements on rivers and ports in each state. 2. 11%. 3. Manufacturing and retailing have created jobs and offer services that attract people to settle in an urban centre. 4. People settled near transport systems so that they could commute to work in cities. 5. All these satellite cities are located on the outskirts of Sydney on rivers. All these cities were originally farming centres supplying food for the colony. p. 23 1. About 37-40%. 2. About 15%, about 20%, about 47%. 3. The trend suggests that more people will settle in larger urban regions and move from remote areas. 4. Possible answers: Advantages: greater employment opportunities, more leisure/ recreational facilities; greater choice of schools/ universities. Disadvantages: noise and traffic pollution, lack of open spaces, crime rate.

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p.24 3. Fifty years ago, people were dependent on trains and trams to commute to work. They lived near transport systems so they could walk to and fro from stations easily. With the wider


use of cars, people could afford to move into outer suburbs and buy larger blocks of land on which to build. Improved roads made it possible for people to drive into cities to work and park.

p.30 1. Ecotourism offers people the chance to experience the natural beauty of a place that has not been significantly changed by a built environment. 2. An increasing number of tourists are looking for this type of tourism and this generates income for the economy. Ecotourism is also a way of helping to conserve the natural places in Australia. 3. Natural remote places away from urban centres with unique landforms, flora and fauna.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. p.26 2. This was a planning practice inherited from Europe. 3. Large shopping centres with franchised stores offered a similar range of products and services as the city centre. 4. A shopping centre needs to have easy road/rail access and sufficient land area to provide convenient parking. The shops in the centre should target the profile of the population living in surrounding areas. 5. List could include: department store, sports store, bookshop, dress shop, shoe shop, hairdressers, delicatessen, food take-away, bread shop etc. MY RESEARCH: Haberdashery: material for sewing and knitting; chandlery: originally a place to buy candles and wax, the meaning today has been widened to include equipment for boats; hosiery: types of leg wear (socks and stockings); drapery: textiles for home furnishings, bridal wear; apothecary: goods that you would buy at a chemist (medicines, health and beauty products, etc.). Many of these products are now purchased under one roof in large department stores.

G

p.29 1.

p.31 1. AIR TRAVEL: fast and convenient for travelling large distances between tourist destinations. 2. TRAIN: slower, but the opportunity to take in the scenery and meet other people on the journey. 3. FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE: can get off the 'beaten track' and travel to remote and otherwise inaccessible places. 4. PADDLE-STEAMER: can experience a more old-fashioned form of transport linked to Australia’s past - leisurely way of travelling to take in the river’s scenery.

t rea

p.35 1 & 2. Student’s answer should justify choice of location (close to transport, school, etc.). 3. Using string to calculate distances that are not in a direct line. 5. Directions should be in list form with time markers (first, next, after that, etc.) and include approximate distances.

Bar rie rR eef

Uluru

Sydney Opera House Great Ocean Road Tasmania

3. Tourism generates billions of dollars for the economy and creates employment directly and indirectly. 4. Australian cities offer a wide variety of cultural and recreational attractions. Their size enables them to provide a range of accommodation and retail shops.

p.35 This activity requires students to think about the process of planning approval. The order could be: Talk to a local council planner to see if you can build in the zone; Get advice from a professional to draw up plans; Discuss your building plans with the neighbours; Check to see that building complies with council rules; Lodge a building application that includes your permit and plans; Wait for council approval before starting to build.

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p.39 1. Australia has a variety of climate zones (tropical, temperate and arid) because it is so vast. 2. In the temperate climate zone and to a lesser 65


degree, the warm and humid zone. 3. Students should use the map on the information page to identify the climate zones for their state/territory. Title could read: Climate Zones in .....

savannahs do not receive sufficient rainfall. 4. The dry grasses and shrubs are easily ignited by the immense energy of a lightning strike. 5. The flooded areas make good breeding grounds for water birds and mammals that would feed on the fish and amphibians in the water.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. p.40 1. The state capital cities and coastal areas on the eastern coast, plus Adelaide, Perth, Hobart, Darwin and Canberra. Coastal areas have a more pleasant climate. They are therefore not as subject to bushfires and droughts. 2. Inland areas which have harsher climates. Such climates affect vegetation and increase the chances of natural hazards. 3. Indigenous Australians and those involved in mining. Indigenous Australians can cope with the harsh Australian climates in inland areas. Miners endure harsher climates for employment reasons.

p.41 1. Capital City 1. 2. Capital City 2. 3. There are only two apparent seasons, one with high and the other with negligible rainfall. The average temperature remains steady throughout the year. 4. 35mm. 5. Capital City 1 is actually Adelaide, but if students respond with a city in the temperate zone that would be considered correct. Capital City 2 is Darwin. p.42 Townsville, Queensland: strong winds, cyclone conditions found in hot and humid climate zones. Students may note damage done to fencing, trees and the potential threat to people and homes during cyclones. Ferny Creek, Victoria: icy road conditions and fog, which can make driving dangerous. Ferny Creek is in the cool temperate zone of Victoria. p.44 1. The landscape comprises long grasses and sparse small trees. Students may identify the large termite nest that is typical of the savannah region. 2. The vegetation in the photograph is very dry which indicates that it was taken in the dry season. 3. There are no tall eucalypts because the

p.45 CANE TOADS native animals die out because they have reduced food sources. INTRODUCED PLANTS animals, birds and insects that rely on the seeds and fruit from native vegetation could die out or move to other areas. FERTILISERS algae blooms can choke and poison water courses affecting other plants, animal life and the natural cycle of the water course.

p.46 Gudjewg Very wet. Magpie geese nest in the sedgelands. Flooding may cause goannas, snakes and rats to seek refuge in the trees. Floodplains are full, waterfalls are flowing, native vegetation is vibrant, and dramatic storms and sunsets are common at this time of year. Banggerreng Clouds have dispersed and clear skies prevail. Expanses of floodwater recede and streams start to run. Most plants are fruiting and animals are caring for their young. Can still see waterfalls from the air. Walking tracks are open. Stunning rock art to view. Yegge Relatively cool. Wetlands and water courses are carpeted with water lilies. Scrubland is burned to prevent fires in the Country and spur new growth. Particularly dramatic at this time of year as a multitude of bird species congregate in the wetlands. Wurrgeng Most creeks stop flowing and the floodplains quickly dry out. Birds of prey patrol the fire lines as insects try to escape the flames. Magpie geese are fat and heavy after weeks of abundant food.

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66

Dazzling blue skies hang overhead, and waterfalls slow to a gentle trickle into the peaceful pools below. The shrinking billabongs


are crowded with waterbirds, Gurrung Sea turtles lay their eggs on the sandy beaches of Field Island and West Alligator Head, and goannas rob their nests sometimes. White-breasted wood swallows arrive as thunderclouds build.

Australian economy by increasing exports and creating employment. Guarantees will be given to prevent pollution and habitat destruction. The savannah lands are vast and only a minute area will be mined. Profits from mining will help to develop savannah lands for tourism and wildlife conservation. AGAINST: The destruction of the natural habitat, mining on the traditional homelands of Indigenous Australians, potential pollution of water courses.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Waterbirds gather in huge flocks in the remaining waterholes and the bright yellow flowers of the kapok bush can be seen everywhere at this time of year. Gunumeleng Thunderstorms build in the afternoons. Barramundi move from the waterholes downstream to the estuaries to breed.

Rainforest walk and pontoon access to billabongs. Visit indigenous rock shelters and see rock art. See large stretches of wildflowers and paddle in rock pools. p.48 1. NATURAL Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s savannahs are the most intact in the world. They are home to unique fauna and flora. CULTURAL The savannah lands are the traditional homes of various indigenous clans. They contain important sacred and ceremonial sites. ECONOMIC The savannahs are vital for tourism, mining, cattle grazing and wildlife conservation. 2. Savannahs in Africa, Asia and South America have been greatly altered by the settlement of large populations of people, who have changed the landscape to build towns and produce food. 3. Possible answers: the fauna and flora, indigenous culture, landforms and natural features. 4. Indigenous Australians have lived continuously in this environment for thousands of years and have a deep knowledge of the natural cycles of the savannahs. 5. Cattle grazing by European settlers has resulted in areas of land with vegetation cleared, fences erected, non-native plant and animal species introduced.

p.50 1. Some homelands were occupied by European settlers and Indigenous Australians were forced to live elsewhere. 2. The Native Rights Bill recognised formally in law, Indigenous Australians' claim to their homelands. 3. Pastoralism creates employment; allows indigenous communities to return to their lands; and helps indigenous elders to pass on land management skills to young people. p. 51 Cane toad EFFECTS: rapid spread of cane toad populations are decimating food sources of native animals. The toxic secretions on skin can poison any animal that tries to eat the toad. Cane toads do not have natural predators and reproduce easily in the Australian environment. RESPONSES: Trying to destroy eggs of cane toads in water courses; meshing of ponds to prevent cane toad invasion; funding to study measures for cane toad control. Water Buffalo EFFECTS: There are about 150,000 feral water buffaloes in the Northern Territory. Buffaloes consume up to 30 kilograms of vegetation daily. Buffaloes cause damage to grasslands due to their hard hooves, soil erosion and trampling of wetland vegetation. They can also spread diseases like brucellosis. RESPONSES: Professionally culled in wetlands. Buffaloes have been managed for meat consumption for humans, pet food and for their hides for clothing and shoes. Indigenous Australians have permission to herd buffaloes for their own use.

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p.49 Possible arguments: FOR: Benefits the

p.53 1. Closer to Darwin. 2. Farmers have burnt large areas of the forest 67


to produce grasslands for agriculture and grazing. 3. Farming that produces sufficient food for community consumption with small surplus to sell locally. 4. Natural disasters can wipe out food crops destined to support a community for a year and cause famine. 5. Kupang’s dry season would be in July, August and September. Darwin’s is in Australia’s summer – December, January and February. 6. Darwin and Kupang have wet and dry seasons and both experience warm temperatures all year round. However, Kupang’s average temperature does not change significantly throughout the year and its monsoon is heavier than Darwin’s.

p. 59 YELLOW AMBER

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.

p.54 1. Three facts: Australia’s savannah lands are much larger than East Nusa Tenggara Province’s savannahs; East Nusa Tenggara’s savannahs are not mined; there are many more people living in the East Nusa Tenggara savannahs. p.55 The dense vegetation near the village would pose a threat in a fire. The roofs are made of dried grass. Note that the area around the huts is cleared and dry. p.56 KOMODO’S ATTRACTIONS: The island is a marine paradise with bountiful fauna such as: more than 1,000 species of fish, some 260 species of reef-building coral, and 70 species of sponges. Dugongs, sharks, manta rays, at least 14 species of whales, dolphins, and sea turtles also make Komodo National Park their home. The crystal waters are ideal for diving and boating. The Komodo Dragons are the main attraction, along with their prey - the Timor Deer. Many of the birds that can be observed, like the sulphur-crested cockatoo, are also found in Australia. p.58 Possible answers: cut overhanging branches near house, clean gutters, clear bushes, move hanging baskets growing near windows, move barbecue away from vegetation, fix broken roof tiles so that embers cannot enter the house, close windows and lock pets inside.

BLUE

GREEN OR LIGHT BLUE

PINK

RED

1. Fire danger ratings may vary from state to state. Light blue (low-moderate – monitor the situation). Blue (high – monitor situation, fires are being controlled). Yellow (very high – only stay at home if your house and family are well-protected). Amber (severe – leaving early is the best measure for survival). Pink (extreme – leaving early is the best measure, fires are moving at a rapid rate). Red (catastrophic – leaving early is the best measure, even the most well-prepared houses will not withstand the heat of the bushfires). My Research: protective clothing: long-sleeved shirts, jeans, hat, gloves, boots, long socks, mask or handkerchief.

p.60 The purpose of this task is for students to discuss and justify the order of their timelines. Some actions can be interchanged. The first action after sighting smoke in a nearby parkland would be to alert adults, then contact 000. Before the fire brigade arrives, family members and pets should be inside with doors and windows locked and wet towels sealing gaps. p.61 Ignition: matches (accidentally lit). Response by firefighters: burning firebreaks. Effects: uncontrolled fire, charred landscape, exhausted firefighters. p. 62 fire-stick farming, European, venomous, fuel load, supply, nutrient-rich, succulent, ecosystem, landform, biodiversity.

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Australian Geography Series: Year 5 - Characteristics of Places