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Wanmin Village 万民村 China Village Studio | Summer, 2013

Sichuan University National Cheng-Kung University University of Washington


1 Narrative and Statistical Information 叙述与统计 2 Maps 地图 3 Built Environment 聚落空间 4 Findings 发现


1 Narrative and Statistical Information 叙述与统计


Interview Background 采访背景信息 基本概况 General Info 工作情况和住房 Jobs and Housing 收入和消费支出 Income and Consumption

社会信息 Social Information

出行 Mobility 农业 Agriculture 能源 Energy 公共空间需求 Open space demand

39

households

92

people

A 临街 along the major road: 19 B 山上 on the mountains: 16 C 水边 lakeside: 3

社区和谐和小康 Faith, community and well being


Social Information 社会信息 General Info — 基本概况

沙楼村

麟凤新型社区 (建成)

流动人口、劳动力人口 Floating population and working-age labor

沙楼新型社区

麟凤村

195

同心村 同心新型社区 (建成)

1024 友助村 歧山村

成佳镇区

友助、歧山、万民 新型社区(在建)

Structure 结构:三级镇村体系 •First 一级: ChengJia town 成佳镇区, 9100 p

万民村

•Second 二级: 4 new communities 4 个新型社区, 7278 •Third 三级: Dispersed Linpan 林盘散居, 4000 人

829

358 龙凤村

Area 面积: 8.40 Km2

666


Social Information 社会信息 Sample Info 样本

Sex and age 性别和年龄 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

出生地集中在本村,除了少数从 16%

邻近村落嫁过来的女性 Birth

16%

place mostly local, except some women married from other villages 10%

8%

8%

8%

8% 6%

5%

在采访的 92 人中,健康状况基本 良好,其中因残疾不能工作的有 2

5% 4%

nearby

4%

人, 4 人因生病原因不能干活 Generally, people are healthy;

<20

20-30

30-40

40-50

男 Male

Education 教育

50-60

>60

among the 92 people interviewed, 2 people cannot work due to

女 Female

disability, and 4 people cannot work due to diseases

9.10%

4.40%

1.10%

14.40%

26.60%

没上过学 Uneducated 小学 Elementary School 初中 Middle School 高中 High School 中专 Technical School 大学 University

44.40%


Jobs and Housing 工作与居住 Job Types, Location, and Housing Area 工作种类 、工作地点与居住面积 Job type 工作种类

2

1

1

Location 工作地点

Housing area 居住面积

4

4

6

1 27

2

12

4

3

2

2

13 14

这个村庄 This village 耕作 Farming 建筑工人 Construction Worker 工厂员工 Factory Workers 政府员工 Government Workers 服务员 Waiters 其他 others

这个镇其他村庄 Other villages in this town 这个县其他镇 Other towns in this county 这个省其他县 Other counties in this province 其他省 other provinces

10 ㎡≦ S﹤50 ㎡

50 ㎡≦ S﹤100 ㎡

100 ㎡≦ S﹤200 ㎡ 200 ㎡≦ S﹤300 ㎡ 300 ㎡≦ S

" 前几年出去打过工,在一些大城市打过工,现在没有了。就在屋头讨点茶卖,收入也就万把块嘛。” “In the last several years, I’ve gone to several large cities to work, but not now. Now I’m selling tea out of my house, making around 10,000 yuan.”

“ 养猪都赚不到什么钱。稍不注意还要亏哦。” “You can’t make any money raising pigs. If you’re not careful, you can lose money.”


Income and Consumption 收入与消费 Income distribution 收入水平 Family Annual Income 家庭年收入水平 35%

30%

30%

25%

25% 20%

20% 15%

15%

10%

10% 5% 0%

0-5000

5000-10000

10000-15000

15000-20000

“ 没得啥子政府补助嘛,恩,有个 60 岁以上的老人补贴每个月 55 块钱。” “There’s barely any government subsidy. If you’re over 60 years old, all you get is 55 yuan a month.”

“ 独生子女没有啥子生活负担赛。补助嘛,一年政府补助 700 块钱。” “Only children don’t have any burden at all. Every year the government gives a subsidy of 700 yuan.”

>20000


Income and Consumption 收入与消费 Family Non-food Consumption 家庭非食物消费支出 Consumption Distribution 消费分布

7.50%

14.96% 3.23% 8.00%

20.62%

3.10%

11.75% 1.73% 7.76%

11.61%

9.73%

租房 rentcost

衣服 clothingcost

日用品 dailyitemcost

娱乐 personalitemcost

交通 transportcost

保险 insurancecost

礼物 giftcost

节庆 celebrationcost

电费 Electricity cost

水费 Water cost

电话费 Telecommunication cost

上网费 Internet cost


Income and Consumption 收入与消费 Family Food Consumption 家庭食物消费支出 Food Consumption 家庭食物消费 13.03% 26.14%

5.74%

5.54% 2.07%

8.87% 0.92% 7.20% 2.82% 0.96%

10.51%

粮食 graincost

蔬菜 vegetablecost

鱼类 fishcost

其他肉 meatcost

酒 alcoholcost

水果 fruitcost

16.20%

罐头 头 食品 头 packagedfoodcost 调料 spicecost

鸡、鸭、鹅 poultrycost

餐头 头 食物 头 restaurantcost

其他 otherfoodcost

香烟 cigarettecost


Mobility 出行行为 Travel Destination and Purposes 出行目的 Travel Destination 出行地点

Travel Purpose 出行地点目的

14 12 10 8

個數

6 4 2 0

村委會

鄉鎮

縣鎮

成都

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

其他 拜訪親戚 看病 購買日常生活用 品 村委會

鄉鎮

縣鎮

趕集

万民村村民的出行目的地主要分为:村委会,乡镇,县镇,成都。出行以乡镇为目的地的出行目的中赶集占 65% 。由于没有公交车,村民的出行方式主要是以摩托车或电瓶车为主要交通工具。 Villagers’ primary destinations: the village committee, Chengjia, Pujiang, and Chengdu. 65% of those going to Chengjia go to shop at the market. Since there is no bus, villagers primarily use motorbikes or electric bikes for transportation.

“ 我们各人都有车嘛。几分儿钟就到镇上去了。” “The tourists all have cars. They can get to town in just a few minutes

“ 去镇上主要是去卖茶叶嘛,买点吃的啊喝的啊啥子 的。” “When I go to town, mostly it’s to buy tea or to get something to eat or drink.”


Agriculture 农业 Agriculture Land Use 农地土地种类分布 Agriculture Land Use 农地土地种类分布 ( 土地整理后 )

30.00%

68.60%

Agriculture Land Use 农地土地种类分布

30.00%

22.00%

1.40% 48.00%

耕地 ( 亩 ) farmland

園地 ( 亩 ) field

林地 ( 亩 ) forest land

耕地

園地

林地

根据图表分析,林地占了土地资源的大部分,自生林保护比较好,具有发展生态旅游的潜力;茶地处在地势平坦的区域,土地比较分散,但是集 约使用;耕地面积虽然占了很大一部分,但是土地的使用率不是很高。 As shown in the chart, forest land is the majority of agricultural land. Natural forest is relatively well protected and offers the possibility of developing ecotourism. Tea fields occupy flat areas. This land is relatively dispersed but is intensively used. While farmland occupies a lot of land, its rate of utilization is not high.


Agriculture 农业 Crop Types 作物种类 Crop Types 作物种类

农忙平均月数为 7.4 个月 Average busy farming months: 7.4

7.50% 10.00%

茶葉

从 2 月到 9 月 From February to September

柑橘

25.00%

57.50%

总产量 ( 斤 )

玉米

作物种类

其他

茶叶

4524.23

2.3

0.575

柑橘

2000

1

0.25

玉米

510.

0.4

0.1

其他

610

0.3

0.075

“ 农历单日去赶场” “We go to market on odd numbered days from the lunar calendar”

亩数

百分比

搬到小区从事工作 What will you do if you move to another residential area? “ 还是种地嘛,别的不得行。不会滴嘛” “I’ll still tend the land. Anything else wouldn’t work.” “ 还是要有 块 地 才对嘛,不晓得政府给不给哇” “I still need a piece of land, but I don’t know if the government will provide it.”


Agriculture 农业 Farming Radius 耕作半径

Farming Radius 耕作半径

Expecting Farming Radius 耕作半径期望

12 >1500

10

10

9

8

7

500-1500

6 4

100-500

4

<100

2 0

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% <100

100-500

500-1500

>1500

期望保持 Wish to keep

期望减小 Wish to decrease


Energy 能源 Energy Usage 能源利用

Energy Usage 能源利用 “ 主要是烧柴嘛” “Mostly it’s burning firewood.”

18

电 /Electricity

“ 我家用滴电磁炉” “Our family uses an electric induction cooker.”

5

煤气 /Coal Gas 3

沼气 /Biogas

“ 我家烧煤气,灯啥嘀是用电嘀 嘛” “My family burns coal, but our lights are all electric.”

0 庄稼残留物和废木料 /Crops Residues 煤 /Coal

2

“ 哦……井水吃,自 12

木材 /wood 0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

来水洗东西” “We drink water from the well and use tap water for washing things.”


Open Space Demand 公共空间需求 Open Space Demand 公共空间需求度 40

“ 还是喜欢 跳舞 嘛” “I still like to dance …”

35

“ 还是可以,(笑)我们可以在那 摆龙门阵 噻” “It’s ok, (laughs) we can still gossip!”

30 25

需要 不需要 Needed Not needed

20 15 10 5 0

體育鍛鍊

小廣場

休憩亭或椅

“ 娃儿可以在那耍嘛,比路边边上 要 安全点嘛” “My daughter can play here. It’s safer than the road!” “ 院头可以耍,我们一般就打打牌 嘛,要是有 健身 嘞还是安逸嘛” “You can hang out in the courtyard. We usually play majiang. And if we want to exercise, it’s pretty easy.”


Harmonious Community 和谐社区建设 Community Environment 社区环境 “ 将来老了能有房子住嘛,小孩的 负担就没那么大,能搬到小区还是 好。” “If you have a house when you’re older, then your child’s burden is less. It’s best if you can move to a residential community.”

解决问题 /solve problem

项目支持 /support government project

“ 有车,有房嘛,衣食无忧就对喽 ~” “If you have a car, a house, clothes and food, you don’t have any worries.”

借钱会还 /borrow money or not

总体来说不喜欢这里 /don’t like community in general

“ 可以出去旅游嘛” “It means being able to travel.” “ 经济还是重要嘛,污染我可以搬 走啊” “The economy is important. If it gets polluted, I can just move.

是否会搬离如果有机会 /move or not if possible

互相帮助 /help within community 0 agree 同意

neutral 中性

5

10

15

disagree 反对

20

25

30

35

40

“ 生活要好,污染了咋的行呢?这 儿还是多美的” “Life is good. Where is the pollution. It’s still beautiful here.”


Understanding of Wellbeing 理解小康 Interview with residents 对村民的采访 Q: What is wellbeing in your eyes? (n =34,N=40) 问:什么是你眼里的小康?

Analysis: The understanding of “Xiao kang” is normally limited on the physical level. The richer the residents are, the more comprehensive way they think. 分析:对小康的认识限制于物质层面;村民越富裕,他们思考的方式越综合


Ideas of Ecology 对生态的理解 Interview with residents 对村民的采访 Q:What do you think of the environment here?(n =34,N=39) 问:你们怎么看这里的环境? A: Most of the residents are proud of their natural environment. 答:大多数居民对这里的环境感到自豪 Q: What do you think of the influence on original environment after community transformation? (n =34,N=39)

问:新农村建设后对原来环境的影响? A: They have a narrow understanding of the environment. They only mean the natural environment. So, their scope needs to be broadened. 答:村民对环境的认识狭隘,只是自然环 境。他们的范围需要扩充。

Q: What do you think of the balance of ecology and economy? (n =18,N=39) 问:生态与经济的平衡? A: The order of concern on living factors: Economy > Convenience > Ecology. 答:对生活要素思考的顺序:经济 > 便利 > 生态。


2 Maps 地图


Transportation 交通 Radial distance and car travel time from Wanmin 万民村到主要城镇的距离和车程

External road links from Wanmin 万民村的对外交通

Chengdu City 成都市 97 km / 70 min

Pujiang county

Chengya freeway Pujiang County 蒲江县 20 km / 20 min Qishan village

Ya’an city

Chengjia town 成佳镇 1 km / 4 min

Shengcha Chaoyanghu town

Road links between Chengjia and Chengdu 成佳镇与成都市之间的道路连接 Chengdu City gf re ew ay in ng m

Chengjia town

Longfeng village Highway Local road

Qi o

Pujiang county

Wanmin village

e Ch

n

ay w e re f a gy


Contents Transportation 交通 •

AAA

AAA

AAA

22


Natural Features 自然特色 Topography 地形

Hydrology 水系

B

A

B

A

A Valley Village Area 山谷村庄地区 B Plateau Village Area 高原村庄地区


Natural Features 自然特色 A Valley Village

山谷村庄

The topography of the area is quite steep (1), with agricultural fields in settlements in both valley (3) and plateau (6) areas. The Wanmin area also has a lake (2), an armored canal (4), ponds (5), and rivers. 陡坡很凸出( 1 )而山谷( 3 )与高 原( 6 )都有农田。万民村还有湖 ( 2 )水沟( 4 )池塘( 5 )与江河。 1

3

2

3

1 2

B Plateau Village

高原村庄 5

6

4

4

5

6


Social Space 社会空间


Economy 经济


Agriculture 农业 The map below shows the land use near the main road of Wanmin Village. In the inset on the right, we can see that the side of the road has a sequential pattern of land use: housing, osmanthus, fruit trees and finally the tea growing area

茶树种植区 Tea 果树种植区 fruits 桂花种植区 Osmanthus 谷物种植区 Crops

下图为万民村主干道周边的布局模式。右下角的图为其局部细节截图, 说明了比较主要道路旁典型的土地使用序列:民居、桂树、果园、茶园

住宅建筑 Architecture 主干道 Main road


3 Built Environment 聚落空间


Land Use 土地利用 Agriculture 农业 Agriculture categories are based on different kinds of topography and building environments. 作物分布根据地形起伏及不同建成环境而异 Canal 水渠

Main road 主要道路

Tea field 茶园 Livestock feeding 家畜豢养

House

Tea 茶

Vegetables 蔬菜

Vegetables 蔬菜

Vegetables 蔬菜

Animal husbandry 家畜豢养


Land Use 聚落空间 Residential 人居空间 Traditional buildings are often on secondary roads. The buildings form a close community. The surrounding space is used for agriculture. 传统屋舍位在次要道路上且为关系紧密的聚落,内部空间利用则与

Residential 川西式建筑

农业生产相关

Shed 仓储

Recreational 休闲场所

Residential 居住空间

Main road 主干道

Farm 农田

Livestock feeding 家畜豢养

Livestock feeding 家畜豢养

Shed 仓储


Land Use 聚落空间 Residential 人居空间 New buildings are usually on the main road and are mostly townhouses. The first floor is usually commercial or recreational 新建住宅多位在主要道路旁,且为连排住宅,一楼作休闲或商业活动

Townhouse 连排住宅

Main road 主干道

Residential 居住空间 Farm 农田

Commercial or Recreational 商业或休闲场所 Open space 开放空间

Open space 开放空间

Old house 旧宅

Recreational 休闲娱乐


Land Use 土地利用 Tourism 旅游 The main tourism type is “self-picking”, with service facilities such as hotels and restaurants . There are also private tea fields to let guests experience agricultural work. Most of them are quite separate because they are surrounded by their own walls. 主要旅游型态为「农家乐」,提供旅舍及餐厅等服务设施,有茶园供游客从事体验活动。 大多有外墙以至于内部利用较为独立,与外界互动较低。 Hotel 旅舍

Parking space 停车场 Restaurant 餐厅

Self-picking area 体验区 Residential 娱乐

Conference room 会议室


Residential Context 建筑背景


Street Residence 街区居住 Upper Level 第二层

Ground Level 第一层

Commercial: convenience store 商业—便利店

Recreational: majiang parlor 娱乐—麻将

Living area: multiple 居住—多种类

Atrium: heart 天井—中庭


Traditional Valley Residence 传统山区居住 Stone Panel House 石板屋

Plan 平面 The traditional layout 传统的房屋格局

Reconstruction 重建 Structure 结构 Column and tie construction 穿斗式木构

Material 材料 Stone 石材 Wood 木材

35


Contemporary Valley Residence 现在山区居住

New Sanheyuan 新型三合院式

Porch 连廊空间的利用

Garden space 屋前小花园的利用


Non-residential Structures 非居住结构

Pig sties

猪 圈

Water tanks

灌 溉 的 水 塘

Types: free-standing and attached 种类:独立式,依附式 Materials: cement, wood, brick, tile 材质:水泥、木头、红砖 、青瓦

Types: round and square 种类:圆形和方形 Materials: brick, cement 结构:砖,水泥

Trash bins

垃圾站

Types: open and closed 种类:开敞,封闭 Materials 材质:砖、水泥、瓷砖


Public Space 公共空间 Gathering Area 集会场地 Medicine station closes on weekends 卫生所在周末不开放 Library and activity centre are often empty 阅览室和活动中心平时空无一人 The square is empty until sunset 广场通常在太阳落山时才会有人 People play majiang in ground floors 在一层楼,附近居民习惯聚集在一起打麻将

Medical Station 卫生所

Library 阅览室

Activity Centre 活动中心

Villager’s home 居民家

Square 广场


4 Findings 发现


Op po rtu

Th re at s

W ea k

ne s

se s

ni tie s

势 优 s re ng th St

Findings 发现

STOP

EXPLOIT

DEFEND

Ecology 生态

Quality of Life 生活

Economic Development 生产

USE


Findings 发现

STRENTHS 优势 Ecology 生态

Quality of Life 生活 Economic Development 生产

• Changtan Lake: widely accessible source of fresh water

• 长滩湖:大范围供应的水源 地

• Beautiful natural environment, fresh air • “Chaun Xi” development

• 优美的自然风貌及居住环境 • 独特的川西居住发展模式

• Tea farming: mature industry, high-yield crop, stable employment • Eco-tourism: tea fields, Changtan Lake, local historic sites • Accessibility: close to urban centers

• 茶叶种植经济效率高且提供 稳定的经济收入来源 • 观光潜力点多;茶田、长滩 湖、历史古迹 • 离地方中心 ( 成佳镇中心 ) 距离近


Findings 发现

WEAKNESSES 劣势 Ecology 生态 Quality of Life 生活

Economic Development 生产

• Watershed vulnerability to pollution and exploitation • Lack of storm water management system • Low ability to mitigate disaster • Infrastructural inadequacies: lack of public space • Long distance between housing and fields • Lots of unused land • Basic farming technology • Pesticides/chemical fertilizer • Transportation system: unsafe roads, poor accessibility, low capacity • Few opportunities for skill upgrading • Poor documentation/preservation of cultural history

• 水体污染源众多:农业废水、 游客垃圾及养殖鱼塭污染等 ) • 缺乏雨水储水、爆洪排流系统 • 未有足够能力抵御自然灾害之 冲击 • 基础服务设施或建设不足 • 住家及农田的距离 • 土地及空间利用之闲置 • 低机械化生产模式 • 化肥及杀虫剂的使用将污染环 境 • 交通系统:安全性差、低可及 性、低道路乘载量 • 产业升级之可能性低 • 文化历史及空间未被妥善保存


Findings 发现

OPPORTUNITIES/ 机会 Ecology 生态 Quality of Life 生活

Economic Development 生产

• Growing concern about water resource protection • New Rural Development Policy • Policies promoting Chuan Xi living environment • Chengdu Master Plan • Domestic and international interest in tea culture

• 水资源的保护建设 • 新农村建设的政策支持及资 金支持 • 政府推行的川西居住发展模 式 • 总规所提出的“茶都”概念 • 国内外对于茶文化的兴趣和 关注


Findings 发现

THREATS/ 威胁 Ecology 生态

Quality of Life 生活

Economic Development 生产

• Increase in use of lake • Pollution from Chengjia Town, local agriculture • Hydro power expansion • Migration: rural to urban • Gentrification, “Disneyfication”, real estate speculation • Congestion: traffic, living environment • Oversaturation of tea supplier market • Climate change and natural disasters

• 长滩湖使用度增加遭成的影响 • 成佳镇及农业污染物的排放 • 新的水利工程建设对环境之影 响 • 都市化造成乡村空心化 • 预期商业化将造成地价哄抬 • 发展后人车拥挤程度的增加

• 茶叶加工商太多以致恶性竞争 • 气候变迁及自然灾害


Findings 发现 Ecology

• Use organic fertilizer for crops • Replace wood/coal burning with biomass energy • Rainwater collection • Implement a centralized water distribution system with lake as source

Key Problems

• Conflict between tea/tourism and the environment • Distribution of housing (proximity to road and lake) • Generational shift’s impact on tea industry • Traffic congestion associated with development

• • • •

Quality of Life

Increased diversity of public space Implement a waste water management system Improve the infrastructure Improve the quality of the living environment and buildings • Combine the linpan system with eco-tourism more effectively

Economic Development

• Form a voluntary tea grower’s collaborative • Improve the transportation systems to accommodate tourist and villagers • Increase production of tea-related products • Prioritize employment of village inhabitants over outside workers • Provide voluntary eco-tourism training workshops • Incorporate tourist education into tea industry


Findings 发现

• • • • •

生态

• • • •

使用有机肥料 以沼气替代木材作为燃料 雨水收集系统利用 自来水代替打井取水

• • • •

关键问题 茶及旅游业发展对环境的冲击 住宅分配的优化 高龄人口迁徙造成土地闲置 发展后增加的交通量对地方的冲击

生活

提升公共空间使用多元性 完善污水及排水处理系统 完善村庄公共设施 改善建物及居住环境质量 林盘住宅模式保护并配合农家乐做经济 发展

• • • • • •

生产

土地流转整合以达生产规模经济 完善观光及村落交通系统 促进茶叶副产品之开发 优先保证村落居民就业 提供观光训练课程促进产业之升级 强化地方制茶体验流程


Thank you! 谢谢!

Large Wamin Presentation  
Large Wamin Presentation  
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