'Better City, Better Life' Regenerating Shanghai Expo 2010
Tim Dudley | Thesis Proposal | Regenerative Design | Hajo Neis | January 2014
Cover Photo: Protesters hand out facemasks on a smoggy Shanghai day. Carlos Barria / REUTERS Map credit: Wikimedia Commons.
Defining the problem Setting Global Failure Type Regional Failure Site Local Failure
4 8 10
Defining the Solutions Building Local Regeneration City Local Regeneration Country Regional Regeneration Planet GLobal Regeneration
14 16 20 24 26
Regeneration Solution Failure
RE-GENERATIVE DESIGN: Redesigning and Rebuilding Cities, Towns, Neighborhoods, Streets, Buildings and Gardens, Destroyed by Natural Disaster, or Catastrophic Human Failure.
1,362,180,000 One dot represents 70 million people. The highlighted red dots - one in five - are all within China.
Map source: BigPicture/SmallWorld
Visualization of populated areas in China.
With nearly 1.4 billion citizens, China is the most populous country in the world. It is also currently the worlds second largest economy, and the world’s largest importer and exporter of manufactured goods. Nearly all of this growth has taken place in the past few decades. Since Deng Xiaoping’s economic reforms through the late 1970’s and 80’s, the Chinese economy has grown a hundredfold. This unprecedented growth shows no signs of leveling off soon, as the Chinese Government’s official policy is to become a ‘fully developed nation’– by Human Development Index standards – before the hundredth anniversary of the People’s Republic in 2049.
China’s increasing urban population
Source: Sam Rose, cargocollective.com
Like many other developing nations, China is also rapidly urbanizing. There are currently 171 cities in China with a population of over 1 million people – compared to just 9 in the United States. This number is set to rise to at least 220 in the next decade. Between 1990 and 2012, the percentage of Chinese living in urban areas grew from 26% to 52%, with over 700 million people currently living in cities. As young people continue to flock to cities for better job opportunities, this proportion is expected to rise to around 70% by 2035, an additional increase of over 300 million.
The statistics go on and on, but the message is simple:
China is growing physically, demographically, and economically at a scale and pace never before seen in human history.
Setting (Global Failure)
Worldwide coal demand grew by 170 megatonnes, or 2.3%, 2012.
China accounted for 97% of this increase.
In absolute terms, China emitted the most carbon dioxide in 2012 - releasing 9860 megatonnes into the atmosphere. The US (#2) emitted 5190 Mt of carbon dioxide, and the EU emitted 3740 Mt. Source: Trends in global CO2 emissions; 2013 Report, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency
In addition to these unchecked emissions on industrial manufacturing plants, a large portion of China is powered and heated by CO2 emitting coal plants. Coal alone is responsible for an estimated 20% of all air pollutants throughout the country. The World Bank estimates that 16 of the world’s 20 most polluted cities are in China. Air pollution from Chinese coal plants drifts into the East China Sea. Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/
In addition to air quality issues, China is also suffering from massive water shortages, water contamination, deforestation, and rapid desertification as a result of its unchecked industrial expansion. Furthermore, the effects of Chinese pollution are beginning to be felt in neighboring countries such as Japan and Korea, and have been detected as far away as Los Angeles. The New York Times writes , ‘Environmental degradation is now so severe, with such stark domestic and international repercussions, that pollution poses not only a major long-term burden on the Chinese public but also an acute political challenge to the ruling Communist Party.’
A clear day in Beijing, compared with severe smog. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Bobak
It is no stretch of imagination to conclude that China is in a state of
Catastrophic Human Failure.
Setting (Global Failure)
The astronomical rise of China has been accompanied by an equally unprecedented rise in environmental destruction and air pollution. Although China has some of the strictest air quality laws in the world, they are rarely enforced. Local authorities responsible for monitoring compliance often disregard these standards in favor of rapid economic development, and many of the nation’s worst polluters are allowed to openly violate these laws to ensure the region’s continued prosperity.
Dadun Village development in Lingshui, Hainan Province is an example of the poor urban design and building monoculture that dominates modern China. Source: Barcroft Medi, China Foto Press
Dongtan, a proposed â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;EcoCityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; north of Shanghai, was unveiled to great publicity in 2007. Planned to house 10,000 by the opening of Expo2010, and 500,000 by its completion in 2020, as of 2013 almost nothing has been constructed. If built, Dongtan would destroy a diverse wetland island at the mouth of the Yangtze River
This strategy both ignores the vast amounts of unused land within existing urban areas and destroys even more natural land in an already dangerously deteriorated environment.
Typology (Regional Failure)
Until very recently, urban housing projects in Chinese cities have been hastily planned and poorly built. In attempting to accommodate a population boom, Chinese designers and builders have sacrificed resource efficiency, material quality, and public life. Many high rises in China’s cities are uninsulated, resulting in high operating costs and further exacerbating the poor air quality. Because of substandard material use and lack of quality control, buildings constructed less than twenty years ago are literally crumbling back into the ground. Additionally, many areas are overly car dependent and lack the vibrant neighborhood character and pedestrian activity typically found in areas of similar density. Some attempts have been made recently to promote ‘EcoCities’ within China. However, few of these proposals have ever begun construction, and those that were build have fallen far short of expectations – suggesting comparisons to Potemkin Villages. Furthermore, the EcoCities that have been proposed consist entirely of sprawling development on greenfield sites.
Expo 2010 was held in Shanghai over six months at the beginning of this decade. It was the largest, most expensive, and most attended World Expo in history. The theme of Expo 2010 was ‘Better City, Better Life’ and was intended to introduce Shanghai as a major world city as well as to promote a new era of sustainability throughout China. Pavilions from 180 nations showcased the ‘best urban practices’ from around the world. At the closing ceremony, Ban Ki-moon stated that ‘millions of people learned about possibilities for making our cities healthier and safer, cities that better integrate nature and technology, cities that offer their citizens cleaner air and water, and better lives all around.’ However, many of the facts surrounding the construction and aftermath of the Shanghai Expo stand in stark contrast to the pledge of ‘Better City, Better Life.’
Over 18,000 families, mostly poor, were displaced to clear the 5km2 riverfront site. After such a massive relocation of residents, and a government investment in the tens of billions of dollars, the site was only in full operation for six months. Currently, three years after the Expoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s closing ceremony, much of the site sits abandoned. Some structures, such as the China Pavilion and the Mercedes-Benz Arena, have been converted into permanent use, and some portions of the site are under development, but a large plot of land in central Shanghai remains completely unutilized after being intentionally razed by the Chinese government. It is a blight on the city and a blank space in the vibrant density of Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest city.
Source: Frances Arnold www.creativehunt.com
Site (Local Failure)
Before & After Images Source: Google Maps
Also shown for comparison is the Lujiazui Central Business District, and the original walled city of Old Shanghai, both significantly smaller than the Expo site. 0km
Site (Local Failure)
Nearly 6km2 of densely settled urban land was completely cleared for the Expo2010 site, shown here .
Proposed Solution: Investigate methods for providing massively scalable modular housing to meet the demands of a rapidly urbanizing China, in ways that do not further contribute to its environmental destruction. Utilize the abandoned Expo site to re-grow, re-densify, and re-generate a vibrant urban neighborhood as a prototype + catalyst for future similar development.
A ‘ Living Building, for producing Living Buildings’ I believe the concept of a modular system that can come together piece-meal over time as demand calls is a better solution for urbanizing China than the current method of ‘allat-once,’ top-down, ‘towers in the park’ style development. However, rather than simply designing modular units, I am proposing a design for an assembly facility to be located on-site. Sustainable housing is – for the most part – a solved problem. With standards such as Passivehaus, LEED, or the Living Building Challenge (LBC), the methods for designing and constructing housing with little to no active operational energy are well-established. However, as the level of operating energy in a building approaches zero, the embodied energy - from raw material extraction, transport, manufacture, and construction - becomes a larger and larger proportion of a building’s total energy impact. This design addresses primarily issues of embodied energy, material sourcing, and supply chains. This facility will also have a corresponding educational component to attract the general public and raise awareness of sustainability / environmental solutions. China is currently converting part of the Expo site into a permanent World Expo Museum, and this public component will act as a working compliment to the museum area on the north bank of the Huangpu River.
Building Site gpu
Building (Local Regeneration)
Future ‘World Expo Museum’ Site Proposed Site
r e v i R gpu
Program Requirements: -Factory Floor / Assembly Line -Materials Storage -Finished Product Storage -Shipping + Logistics (waterfront) -Public Component -Oriented to engage future Expo Museum
Building (Local Regeneration)
On an urban scale, my goal is to ‘re-grow’ a mixed-use, mixedincome neighborhood within the derelict infrastructure of the former Expo 2010 site.
Subway lines and Metro Stations
Roads, pedestrian ways, and transit connections were all constructed for the Expo, and in most cases this transportation network is still in good condition. I propose using this existing network as a frame upon which to bring density back into the area. This urban analysis involves a survey of the major thoroughfares – both new and former – and transit nodes to identify areas of importance that can serve as centers in the future neighborhood. These areas will be developed first.
Major pedestrian ways
The variation in size of pavilions throughout the Expo site offers an interesting method for creating large, medium, and small centers which compliment each other in an urban hierarchy.
This exercise is more of a high-level urban study than a detailed design. My goal with the site design is not to plan out each building, but to define a network or system that allows future infill to rebuild the neighborhood organically over time.
Remaining Pavilions: Red = In-use Orange = Slated for Development Yellow = Abandoned Full survey in Appendix
City (Local Regeneration)
I have also surveyed each pavilion on the site with respect to scale, location, and current condition, identifying certain pavilions for preservation and/or adaptive reuse based on their size and relation to the site. These pavilions already have a relationship with the existing infrastructure and urban plan, and therefore have the opportunity to become activity nodes within the future residential fabric.
â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Nodes + Networksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;
PHASE ONE - PILOT
A small prototype village is constructed near the factory site, around the intersection of a major pedestrian way and a Metro station.
PHASE TWO - CATALYST
As the pilot begins to grow, more centers are begun around the identified major nodes. Unused pavilions are re-purposed for neighborhood use as groceries, child care, community centers, etc.
Nodal centers grow along the transportation framework, and begin to merge along the fringes. Density near the major nodes increases, while minor nodes form organically. The system begins to function as a feedback loop, growing upon itself in spurts independent from the initial Catalyst.
PHASE FOUR - CITY
At the end of the initial growth, boundaries are blurred and the system begins to function as an interwoven network of minor and major nodes. Pockets of low density exist between these nodes, allowing a full variety of living options for inhabitants.
City (Local Regeneration)
PHASE THREE - VIRUS
In the short term, a mixed use, sustainably built housing development will reinvigorate the riverfront, reintroduce the displaced population, and serve as a permanent testament to the principles of Expo 2010. In the long term, this could become a pilot project for future sustainable development.
Country (Regional Regeneration)
The larger goal for this design is to use the 2010 Expo site as a prototype. A ‘Living Factory’ could be constructed anywhere in China, and using this system, a healthy community could be ‘grown’ inside an existing urban area.
Ultimately, similar facilities could be built on any derelict waterfront site anywhere in the world. As a concept, Living Factories are applicable to any city or nation undergoing rapid urbanization or recovering from massive devastation, such as a major hurricane, earthquake, or tsunami. More specifically, the details within the modular system can be tailored to match the needs, traditions, and culture of a given area. This urban re-growth strategy can also be utilized to re-introduce density and vibrant community after large scale exhibitions such as Olympic Games or the Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fair.
PLanet (Global Regeneration)
As there is no single precedent that entirely matches my project, I am looking at multiple precedents in multiple areas. Each has a particular relevance to this proposal, and taken together they compliment each other in a way that will provide a solid direction for my urban and building designs. The four categories from which I pulled precedent projects are: 1. Large urban redevellopments. specifically in the aftermath of a major international exhibition (Such as a Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fair or Olympics) 2. Modular housing systems. 3. Net-zero / Living Building Standards. 4. Fabrication facilities
I began by surveying a list of past World Expositions. In the vast majority of cases, exposition sites were built on either a previously unused site, or on some kind of abandoned industrial area in need of rehabilitation. In almost every example, an Exposition or Olympics or other type of world’s fair was built in order to bring activity into an underutilized or blighted area of a given city. Similarly, most Exposition sites were set aside for permanent public use.
B A R C E L O N A
Tæjon, Korea Expo ‘93, for example, has been almost completely preserved as an amusement park and museum which visitors must pay admission to enter. Expo 2000, in Hanover, Germany, was built on a site previously used as a fairground, and afterward nearly all the pavilions were dismantled and the site returned to its former use. Finding a precedent that satisfied both the pre-use condition and post-use plan of Shanghai was a difficult task. In the end, I settled on The Olympic Village in Barcelona, Spain and Expo ‘98 in Lisbon, Portugal. Beginning with the 1992 Summer Olympic Games, and continuing with 2004’s Forum of Cultures and the establishment of the 22@ high tech district, Barcelona has made an enormous effort to modernize and invigorate itself while reconnecting the city with the waterfront. This is an interesting example because it allows one to contrast three development plans of roughly the same scale within the same city, but of varying degrees of success. The olympic site – specifically the Olympic Village – sparked infrastructure improvements that established Barcelona as a world city and began a waterfront development effort that continues today. The plan was intended to blend the new urban neighborhood with the historic Poblenou industrial district. The 2004 Forum of Cultures, by contrast, focused mostly on large-scale public attractions, and has been criticized for becoming a relatively unused space that is more of a tourist destination than a space which can be incorporated into the daily lives of Barcelona’s citizens. Investigating the differences between these two plans help inform how to treat the overall urban structure of the Shanghai Expo site.
L I S B O N E X P O ‘ 9 8
Lisbon Expo ‘98 is the closest example to my proposed program that I was able to find. Of all the modern World Expositions, it may be the only one which has successfully evolved into a self-sustaining neighborhood. Although significantly smaller than the Shanghai site, it is also built along a 3-mile stretch of riverfront close to the center city. Hoping to avoid the abandonment that plagued Seville, Spain after their 1992 Expo, the site was built to be preserved and sold – building by building – to permanent developers. In fact, each new building and site constructed for the Expo was pre-sold for redevelopment prior to the beginning of the Expo, ensuring that quick development would begin after its conclusion. Currently, the Lisbon site is a mix of public and private use. The open areas have been re-purposed as Parque das Nações (Park of the Nations), which is freely accessible and includes gardens, an observation tower, Aquarium, and a large multipurpose arena. The remainder of the site has been built into an office park and residential area, with approximately 25,000 permanent residents. Finally, Parque Expo, the state company formed to plan and oversee the event, continued as an independent consultant for other large city plans. This is the type of success I would like to see in Shanghai, and I think the top-down model of Portugals state company Parque Expo is particularly relevant to the top-down structure of China’s government.
Habitat is, at its core, more of a system than a building. It is an assembly of a few simple small modules ‘combined in many different permutations to make up the variety of house types ... grouped in spiral formations stepping back from each other.’ This concept can be applied to my ideas of regenerative design, as it allows a vast range of scale and complexity to grow from a relatively simple building block module. Habitat is also interesting because it was developed in conjunction with Montreal’s Expo 67. Not only dœs it have a connection with a World Exposition, it is still considered one of the best examples of post-exposition use, and still functions as a successful housing community.
O M E G A C E N T E R
The Omega Institute for Holistic Studies in Rhinebeck, New York is one of a very few number of Living Building Certified projects in the world. It is a wastewater filtration facility that is designed to use the treated water for garden irrigation and in a greywater recovery system, and also includes an environmental education component.
Painters Hall, in Salem, OR, is a Community Center, CafĂŠ, Office, art gallery, and event venue. It was renovated to LEED Platinum Net Zero Energy Building standards in 2010, demonstrating the potential of converting existing building stock into high-performance, sustainable building sites. Painters Hall features simple lowcost solutions for energy reduction, such as natural daylighting and passive cooling lighting, and ground-source geothermal heat exchange. It is the only ILBI certified project in Oregon.
P A I N T E R â&#x20AC;&#x2122; S H A L L
The BluHomes factory in Vallejo, CA may be the only pre-fabrication facility designed with sustainability + livability in mind. With â&#x20AC;&#x153;an extremely durable steel frame, high quality teak ceiling and lots of natural light streaming through all of the original windows,â&#x20AC;&#x2122; BluHomes sets a standard to follow in my own factory design.
PALM HARBOR HOMES Palm Harbor Homes is a modular housing company with a factory outside of Eugene, OR. It is the closest facility of its type to Portland. I am hoping to visit the factory during this term to understand the layout of factory floors and the assembly process that will take place inside my proposed building.
Gläserne Manufaktur - “Transparent Factory” is a Volkswagen production plant in Dresden, Germany. Designed by Gunter Henn, it is one of the most environmentally conscious factories in Germany, if not the world (with almost no emissions and surrounded by a public park). Additionally, part of the factory is given to a public museum about the Volkswagen production process. This project, along with other factory designs by Henn, are valuable studies in the interaction between public educational / recreational use and heavy manufacturing industry.
Factory of the Future, a prototypical research project also by Gunter Henn.
By defining the major elements and environmental considerations, this language should allow me to design each smaller piece to meet all of the desired criteria. This will hopefully result in a more comprehensive master plan, and a building that is more philosophically unified.
1.Differentiation of Neighborhoods
These patterns are divided into two categories: the first category is of the patterns most applicable to my urban design solutions, and the second category for those applicable to my building design. These are a combination of patterns from Christopher Alexander ’s A ‘ Pattern Language’ and patterns which I have defined myself. The patterns attributed to Alexander are noted, and called out by the number to which they correspond in the book.
The entire expo site covers nearly 6km2 on both sides of the Huangpu River. Before it was razed to make space for the expo, the area was home to approximately 18,000 families. One of my urban goals is to reach a population close to or above this original number. Such a large population living on such a large site cannot function as a single unit. Therefore, a Differentiation of Neighborhoods is necessary to give each community an identity within the whole. Based on the ‘Community of 7,000’ pattern, the site is divided into three Communities of around 6,000 residents. This will be done based on proximity to three major nodes identified in my study of existing post-expo structures (one north of the river, and two south). Each Community can be further subdivided into neighborhoods based on smaller nodes and variations in building type and density. The aesthetics of each neighborhood should be slightly different, and the nodes should function as independent activity centers for each population.
The central feature of the entire area, and a major draw city-wide, is the Huangpu River. A few miles downstream, The Bund has become the premiere public attraction of downtown Shanghai, featuring a public walkway, food carts, nightlife, hotels, and museums. The success of The Bund development + others along with the river + canal based history of this region of China illustrates a cultural desire for Shanghainese to be connected to waterways. Throughout the site, I will provide public access to the river. Through a combination of walkways, greenspaces, and active programming I hope to reinvigorate the riverfront as a community centerpiece and an attraction that will bring visitors from throughout Shanghai.
activity vs. privacy surrounding their unit.
4.Preserve the Waterfront
With nodes acting as centers, and the paths between them as a frame, this structure naturally creates spaces into which a gradient of residential density can be applied. The areas of highest density (most likely high-rise development, given the population demand) should be located closest to the major nodes. Smaller nodes serve as secondary maxima of density. This is intended not only to allow a majority of residents convenient access to activity centers, but also to provide a choice for incoming residents as to the level of
2.Definition of Nodes
â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Nodesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; within the site are based on the existing infrastructure and the repurposed Expo pavilions. Subway stations, major intersections of roads and pedestrian ways, and river access points are all considered nodes within the existing site. Of the pavilions, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve identified which structures remain, and noted the condition / use of each. These nodes can begin to form centers of activity and public interaction. Further, the lines drawn between the nodes can begin to string a web of movement throughout the site.
Factories are typically not public places. However, a key component to the educational program of my facility is for the working factory to be as visible as possible to the public. Programmatic adjacencies, shared circulation, common public space, and transparency are all important factors in this interaction. For example, the educational component will have a portion that looks directly into the factory floor, with corresponding signage, to give the visitor a full understanding of the process taking place within the facility. Also, recently finished modules can be put on display for the public in open courtyards. This will provide a constantly changing picture of the factoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s evolving projects.
I chose the factory site mainly because of its adjacency to the World Expo Museum (currently under construction, immediately East of my site). It is a given that the two public components should face each other, interacting as opposite walls of a central common and serving as a single destination for visitors. Programatically, all public components of my building will be oriented with respect to the Expo Museum.
7.Face the Museum
6.Public + Industry Interaction
The building Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m designing is a combination of typically separate programs: a manufactured housing facility, an educational sustainability museum, and a working prototypical housing exhibit. This variation naturally renders the building a complex, and so Alexander â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pattern relating to complexes is a good starting place for transitioning from the urban design to the building design. The major individual parts exist in two categories: Factory (Assembly Floor, Material Storage, Shipping, Office / Administration) and Public (Educational Zone, Model Homes, Lobby, Food Service, Courtyard), with an overlapping transition zone that provides each group visibility and interaction with the other.
Above all aesthetic concerns, this is an environmentally sustainable building. Therefore, material choices will be made based on environmental impact first. A certain material will only be considered if it first meets the requirements laid out by the Living Building Institute. Therefore, the label â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Goodâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Materials is very appropriate here. Specifically, as much of the building will be constructed of salvaged or recycled materials as possible. The massive walls will be rammed earth, ideally sourced from excavation sites within Shanghai. Also, as much as possible, post-construction states will be considered. In an ideal situation, the entire building will be able to be deconstructed or decomposed and the site will return to its natural state as if the building had never existed.
As the site abuts the north bank of the Huangpu River, and combining with my urban level pattern of Preservation of the Riverfront, the south edge of my site is defined by a public way. Therefore, the space between the public zone and the factory zone will be partially buffered by a publicly accessible landscaped courtyard. This courtyard should be accessible from the river, the museum, and the factory, so that anyone living playing or working on the site has equal use of the space. The courtyard can also serve as exhibition space for the factory, to demonstrate model homes or hold temporary events.
8.Utilize Industrial Heritage
The north bank of the Huangpu river is the former location of a large industrial complex, including a ship building facility complete with several dry-docks. The portion of the building facing away from the Expo Museum (west) is located convenient to these dry docks. Placing the heavier industrial uses here serves to separate potentially dangerous activity from the public (truck delivery, large construction process, etc.) while also acknowledging the history of the site. Furthermore, re-introduction of the working docks allows the river to be used for shipping and receiving, which is more efficient than the dense urban road network by which the site would otherwise be accessed.
Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. This book was a useful resource in understanding patterns, and developing my own project language. My language is a combination of patterns from Alexander’s work and patterns of my own creation. Bielefeld, Bert, and Lars-Phillip Rusch. Building Projects in China: A Manual for Architects and Engineers. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2006. This book is a guide to planning, designing, and building practices in China. I am using it as a primer for understanding how the practicalities of my proposal work in an unfamiliar country. Garcia-Ramon M-D, Albet A, “Pre-Olympic and post-Olympic Barcelona, a ‘model’ for urban regeneration today?” Environment and Planning A Vol. 32, pp 1331-1334 2000, As Barcelona is one of my urban scale precedents, this article is a good assessment of the successes and failures of that city’s redevelopment. Guo, Qinghua. Chinese Architecture and Planning: Ideas, Methods,Techniques. Stuttgart: Edition Axel Menges, 2005. “This book contemplates a large historical question: What is the character of Chinese Architecture?” I am using the study from this book to educate myself about the ideas, methods & techniques of Chinese architecture in order to fit my design into the local context. Kieran, Stephen, and James Timberlake. Refabricating Architecture: How Manufac turing Methodologies Are Poised to Transform Building Construction. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004. This book tackles questions of material, mass production, and complexity of systems. It outlines processes and mass customization in other fields and how they apply to architecture. I am using this book as a way to understand the system of prefabrication for my housing modules. McDonough, Will. ‘The Hannover Principles’ William McDonough Architects, 1992 (Unpublished) The Hannover Principles is a set of statements about designing buildings and objects with forethought about their environmental impact, their effect on the sustainability of growth, and their overall impact on society. It is similar to A Project Language in it’s construction (a short list of principles for sustainability). I am using these principles as a jumping off point for my Net-Zero building, to be expanded with Living Building Institute standards.
Moulaert, Frank. ‘The Globalized City: Economic Restructuring + Social Polarization in European Cities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005 Parts of this book analyze Lisbon’s Expo ‘98, which I am referencing along with Barcelona as an urban scale precedent.
Safdie, Moshe. ‘For Everyone A Garden.’ Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974 In contrast to ‘Beyond Habitat’, this book is a much larger portfolio of Safdie’s housing work. I am using it as a set of precedents for the medium-scale development of my site. Song,Yan, and Chengri Ding. Smart Urban Growth for China. Cambridge, Mass: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2009. “The question addressed by this volume is: How relevant are [smart growth] planning practices for guiding urban development in China?” It is a collection of studies and articles from designers and planners studying how ‘Smart Growth’ - a western concept - can work in the urban environments of Chinese cities. My urban plan will be based on the conclusions of these studies.
Safdie, Moshe. ‘Beyond Habitat.’ Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1973. Safdie’s firsthand account of the design, planning, construction, and aftermath of Habitat and Expo ‘67 are supplemented here with his philosophies on housing and housing systems. I have found it very insightful for beginning to develop my modular system.
List of Pavilions + Current Status Blue: Redeveloped, in use Green: In development / under construction Orange: Abandonded Red: Demolished Algeria B3 (Zone C) Currently “Chocolate Happy Land” Angola B3 (Zone C) Currently “Chocolate Happy Land” Argentina Australia Austria Bangladesh Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Cambodia Canada Chile CHINA E5 (Zone A) Currently China Art Palace Colombia Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Relocated to Huangua Denmark Egypt B3 (Zone C) Currently “Chocolate Happy Land” Estonia Finland France C3 (Zone C) Donated to Shanghai Germany Greece Used for Temporary Titanic exhibit Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Ireland
Israel Italy Donated to Shanghai. “Ferrari exhibition + restaurant” Japan Kazakhstan Latvia Lebanon Libya Currently “Chocolate Happy Land” Lithuania Luxembourg Donated to Shanghai. Centro Marangoni Shop Macau Mexico Abandoned / Derelict Monaco Morocco Nepal Netherlands Nigeria Currently “Chocolate Happy Land” North Korea Norway Oman Pakistan Peru Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russia Donated to Shanghai Saudia Arabia Donated to Shanghai – Reopened as “Moon Boat Serbia Slovakia Relocated to Huangua Slovenia Singapore South Africa Currently “Chocolate Happy Land” South Korea
ORGANIZATIONS United Nations Red Cross Joint Pavilion of international Organizations Urban Best Practice Area
THEME Urban Planet Urbanian City Being Urban Footprint Urban Future Expo Performance Center Currently Mercedes-Benz Arena CORPORATE Aurora Baosteel Stage Seeking Proposals for Reuse China Railway China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation Pavilion Cisco Currently “Commemoration Exhibition of Expo2010” ...to be replaced by permanent museum ~2015 Coca-cola Information and Communication Oil Private Enterprises (Joint) SAIC-GM Shanghai Corporate (Joint) Space State Grid Vanke
Spain Donated to Shanghai Sri Lanka Sweden Relocated to Wuxi Switzerland Taiwan Tunisia Currently “Chocolate Happy Land” Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine UAE Relocated to Abu Dhabi United Kingdom USA Uzbekistan Venezuela Vietnam Africa (Joint) C2 (Zone C) Currently Shanghai Expo Mart Middle East (Joint) Asia 1 (Joint) Asia 2 (Joint) Asia 3 (Joint) Central + South America (Joint) Caribbean Community (Joint) Pacific Pavilion (Joint) Europe 1 (Joint) Europe 2 (Joint)
Tim Dudley | Hajo Neis | niversity of regon | 2014