American Softwoods supplement London Olympic Park receives FSC & PEFC certification Panel discussion on Timber legality Inside â€˜Timber Landâ€™ at Hamriyah Free Zone Taller with Wood PLUS Timber industry news, new products, exhibition previews and listings and more
A N A L Y S I S | I N T E R V I E W S | D E S I G N | S U S T A I N A B I L IJune T Y2012|| www.timberdesignandtechnology.com TECHNOLOGY
American black walnut the library at Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Keeping carbon out of the atmosphere. Naturally. American hardwood.
Each kilogram of U.S. hardwood product stores the equivalent of 1.835 kilograms of CO2 for as long as it remains in use.
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FROM THE PUBLISHER
ods supplement American Softwo & PEFC certification Park receives FSC on Timber legality Panel discussion Zone at Hamriyah Free Land’ r ‘Timbe Inside Taller with Wood
, news, new products PLUS Timber industry more s and listings and exhibition preview
OGY H N O Lnology.com T E C esignandtech T Y2012|| www.timberd I L IJune SUSTAINAB | DESIGN | INTERVIEWS
Cover photo: London Olympic Velodrome
Issue 03 | JUNE 2012 Timber Design & Technology Magazine Publisher Andy MacGregor email@example.com +971 55 9199 783 Marketing Manager Eric Hammond firstname.lastname@example.org +971 4 455 8400 Editor Tony Smith email@example.com International Representatives Rabia Alga AntExpo Org. | Turkey +90 216 541 0390 firstname.lastname@example.org
ith the London Olympics just a few weeks away now, our cover story in this issue looks at the London Olympics Park. This stunning looking facility is the first in the world to be both FSC and PEFC cer tified. 100 percent of the wood is both legal and sustainable. In this issue, legal timber trading is an area we are concentrating on in some detail in fact. At the Dubai WoodShow in April I attended a very interesting seminar on this subject. Following this I asked some of the speakers to par ticipate in a discussion on the subject and you can read the thoughts of these industry exper ts here. On the subject of the WoodShow, I have just received the post show repor t and the visitor numbers were up by 20 percent to 7,058. This is most encouraging news for the industry. I have spoken to at least half of the exhibitors since the event and the feedback was positive as well. The machinery suppliers took orders for new machines and the impor ters and traders were kept busy as companies look to stock up on wood for construction projects they are winning across the region. This issue also includes a feature on the growth in size of global teak forests, in addition to an interesting feature on the potential for tall buildings made from wood. Our next issue will be in September. As always we welcome all comments on the publication and suggestions for editorial features the readers will find educational and informative. Best Wishes
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June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com
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IN THIS ISSUE
Contents 12 SUSTAINABILITY
Going Green for the Games London Olympic Park receives FSC & PEFC certification
15 ANALYSIS Timber Hub The increasingly important role of the UAE in timber trading & wood processing
18 MARKET REPORT Teak Resources and Market Assessment Natural teak forests decline, while planted teak forests increase: New FAO survey reveals trends in teak forests and markets
22 Design and Décor Good Mornington Timber helps bring together mind, body and soul at the Peninsula Hot Springs Public Bath House
Timber Land The UAE’s first and only dedicated free zone for the timber sector
28 FEATURE Taller with Wood Michael Green unveils ‘Tall Wood’ tower for Vancouver along with instruction manual for building wooden skyscrapers
32 PROFILE Farlin Group Looking into the vertically integrated Farlin Group.
34 PANEL DISCUSSION
Legality of Timber Illegal logging and the subsequent trade of illegal timber
39 SUPPLEMENT American Softwoods
p7 Latest News
Special supplement looking at the different American softwood species and their applications.
p51 Showtime June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com
News Fiji launches sustainable mahogany brand
Fijian Prime Minister Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama led the launch of a branding and mandatory compliance protocol process for Fiji Pure Mahogany, which ensures sustainability, legality, and the socially responsible use of this new hardwood brand. Fiji Pure Mahogany is set to fill the global need for an exceptional quality of legally and sustainably harvested mahogany. The brand is being filed in approximately 28 countries throughout the world to protect the intellectual property rights for the first brand to be beneficially owned by a sovereign nation - Fiji. More importantly, the brand and the mandatory and enforced protocol will ensure compliance with the numerous environmental laws, including the United States’ Lacey Act. “The development of the Fiji Pure Mahogany brand will go toward maximizing returns for all major stakeholders in a sustained manner and most importantly the present and future generations of the people of Fiji,” said Prime Minister Bainimarama. “But we must establish a foundation for Fiji Pure Mahogany that is credible, that is trusted, and that the indigenous landowners, consumers, businesses and governments around the world respect.” Attendees at the event, which took place at the Sustainable Mahogany Industries factory in Fiji (the first company granted a license to use the Fiji Pure Mahogany brand) included Frankie Reed, US Ambassador to Fiji; Henry Juszkiewicz, Chairman and CEO of Gibson Guitars; Pembroke Jenkins, past President of the U.S. Hardwood Manufacturers Association; Sustainable Mahogany Industries owner John Wagner; and members of the Fijian landowning units. The attendees also toured the entire processing facilities, witnessing first-hand the protocols governing the chain of custody for Fiji Pure Mahogany. “The Fiji Pure Mahogany brand is a win for both our countries, and it is a win for the planet,” said U.S. Ambassador Reed. “In this day and age, environmental stewardship is more important than ever. Here in Fiji, we’re taking a great step forward.” Ambassador Reed also commented on the socially responsible contributions Fiji Pure Mahogany is making to Fijian workers, in particular women, who have high-quality jobs. Ambassador Reed commented after the tour: “You can sense when employees are treated well and
a company is well managed. And that is certainly the feeling I got when I’ve been out here.” The Bainimarama Government has been working diligently to create this new standard for the mahogany industry. In March 2010, the Fijian Government passed the Mahogany Industry Development Decree, which made Fiji Hardwood Corporation Limited a forestry management company, and established the Mahogany Industry Council to license mahogany purchasers and sawmill operators, and direct the development of the industry. The Mahogany Industry Licensing & Branding Decree established the chain of custody protocols; harvesting code of practice; minimum production and packaging standards; inspections and audits standards; certificate of legality standards; safety standards; and penalties for violations of the protocol. Remarkably, Fiji re-planted zero mahogany trees only four years ago; today, more than 1,000 hectares of mahogany have been replanted. “The Fijian Government is taking bold steps in ensuring that its mahogany resource is both legally harvested and sustainably managed,” said Pem Jenkins, President and owner of Turn Bull Lumber Company and Oceania Hardwoods, LLC. “This is important to world lumber markets and this effort should make Fiji the leading producer of legal genuine mahogany in the world.” Filing of appropriate legal recognition of the Fiji Pure Mahogany brand is underway in 28 countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union, and Hong Kong. The move by the Fijian Government to create this much-needed mahogany brand standard has been roundly praised as unique and welcomed. Corruption and mismanagement of mahogany resources around the world has led to a breakdown in the supply chain - Fiji is positioned to fill the void. “Fijian mahogany is becoming a sought-after timber and is being differentiated from other lumber in the rest of the world. Increased exports of value-added goods and the licensing regime are the culmination of new thinking, focused attention and perseverance, amidst skepticism. We must all continue to work to see the potential here is realized,” added Prime Minister Bainimarama.
June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com
Green light to carbon accounting for harvested wood products The European woodworking industries has welcomed recent legislative proposal from the European Commission (EC) towards accounting rules and action plans on greenhouse gas emissions and removals resulting from activities related to land use, land use change and forestry. With the new proposal, the European Union is again in the driver’s seat in the implementation of a realistic policy of emission reductions and towards closing the important gap of unaccounted CO2 savings and emissions from forest-related activity. The sector has applauded the move from the EC to start implementing the accounting system for harvested wood products on which a final agreement had been reached at the Durban climate conference. This will give full credit to the contribution of harvested wood products to climate change mitigation. Industry representatives fully agree with the Commissioner for Climate Action Hedegaard that the initiative ‘will provide an enabling framework for more targeted policies at the national and/or EU level because carbon can be stored for a very long time in harvested wood products (houses, bridges, furniture, paper products, etc.). An increased use of such products will be the same as increasing removals and can also replace the use of more greenhouse gas intensive substitutes.’ The woodworking sector has been pointing to the positive contribution of wood products to climate change mitigation for several years already. The present proposal and the political support expressed will no doubt contribute to securing the future competitiveness of the EU woodworking sector, its contribution to the EU economy and employment, linked to providing environmental benefits.
AHEC and American Softwoods promote ‘American Wood Solutions’ at Carrefour du Bois in France The American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC), the leading international trade association for the American hardwood industry, has announced that it will be exhibiting at Carrefour du Bois in Nantes from 6th to 8th June, 2012 (Hall 10.2, Stand D21). For the first time, AHEC will have a joint stand with American Softwoods under the banner ‘American Wood Solutions’ and will be promoting strong environmental messages and potential performance through case studies, technical reports and publications. Carrefour du Bois is an important platform for timber merchants in France and attracts more than 10,000 professional visitors (timber product manufacturers, timber merchants, distributors, architects, and contracting authorities) of which 15 percent will be international visitors coming from Europe, America and North Africa. AHEC will be returning to Carrefour with good news for specifiers and the timber trade. With sustainable design solutions at the top of the agenda for the French building sector and government initiatives to further increase the use of wood in building, it represents the perfect opportunity for AHEC to talk about its life cycle research. AHEC’s recent work with LCA specialists PE International brings timber to the forefront of the materials debate and sets it above many other material sectors in terms of environmental impact largely because of its renewability and carbon storage. “We began the study two years ago and we have able to develop detailed life cycle data and Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs)
www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
for all the main commercial U.S. hardwoods in both lumber and veneer. To date, more than 50 U.S. hardwood companies have taken part in the data collection, which has allowed us to determine average values for each processing stage including forestry, sawmilling, kiln drying and transport. The lumber data collection is now complete and is currently being critically reviewed by an independent panel of experts, and we hope to share some of the early findings at Carrefour,” said Roderick Wiles, AHEC Director for Africa, Middle East, India and Oceania.
‘Made in UAE’ exhibition to spotlight wood, woodworking and furniture sectors along with other industrial sectors
The inaugural ‘Made in UAE’ exhibition will help boost trade and also increase the industrial sector’s share in the country’s gross domestic product, or GDP, according to a statement issued by the organizers. At present, the contribution of the industrial sector to the GDP stands at 14 percent and the UAE has chalked out plans
to increase this to 25 percent in the next 15 years, focusing on specific industrial fields such as petrochemicals, food and valueadded industries, among others. In addition to covering the wood, woodworking and furniture sectors, the exhibit profile of the show will cover food and beverages; textile and readymade garments; leather ; paper and paper products; chemical and chemical products; oil, rubber and plastic products; metal and non-metal raw materials; machinery and other manufacturing equipment; ceramics and tiles; cement and concrete and other building materials. Apar t from industrial units from across the country, the show will also bring together free zones, municipalities and government establishments. On its part, ‘Made in UAE’ will offer industrial establishments an opportunity to effectively showcase their cutting-edge products, their cost-effectiveness and logistical advantage to traders and dealers, thus boosting trade and becoming a key component that will drive the growth of the national economy. The inaugural edition of ‘Made in UAE’ exhibition will be held at the Expo Centre Sharjah in 2013.
South Africa faces timber shortage
SCAD unveils ‘Annual Building Materials Price’ for 2011 The Statistics Centre - Abu Dhabi (SCAD) issued its annual report on the prices of building materials for the year 2011. The report presented an analysis of the movement in the prices of the various materials used in the construction industry in the Abu Dhabi market during 2011. The dissemination of the report, which presents a wide range of price data, is intended to serve the needs of data users in the public and private sectors for the purposes of research, planning and decision making in ways that support the construction sector, besides related and dependent sectors. According to the repor t, the annual average prices of the ‘Wood’ group increased by 4.9 percent in 2011, as a result of rises in average wood prices during all the months of 2011 compared with 2010. The increases ranged between 0.3 percent in May and 7.4 percent in Februar y. SCAD’s monthly repor t of building materials prices repor t sur veys the prices of 21 groups of commodities and ser vices that represent the most impor tant materials used in the construction activity, including cement, aggregate, sand, wood, steel, concrete, and cement blocks amongst others.
Timber shor tages are being forecast in South Africa if the country’s rising demand for timber continues. Over the past six months demand has increased significantly and the country may have to turn to impor ts to meet the shortfall in the construction industry. The shor tage is being blamed on several factors, including two large forest fires in recent years that damaged around 140,000 hectares and poor forest management in government plantations. Another worry is that some plantations are being given to South Africa’s parks authority and will not be available for timber production. June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com
Waste wood to bio-fuel: CRIBE steps up with USD 6 million in Dryden
The Centre for Research and Innovation in the Bio-Economy (CRIBE) has announced that it will provide up to USD 6 million in funding to leverage a total project value of up to USD 14 million for a par tnership between Domtar and Battelle to develop a new approach to conver ting underutilized wood to fuel. “This project is a tremendous oppor tunity for forestry operations,” said Lorne Morrow, CEO for CRIBE. “Having such a prominent international R&D company working on one of our projects is a huge win for CRIBE and nor thern Ontario as a whole.” Domtar, a leading designer, manufacturer and distributor of a wide variety of fiber-based products, and Battelle, the world’s largest private Research and Development Institute, have teamed up to develop a unique, cost-effective system that if successful, will increase operational efficiencies and create a fossil fuel alternative for transpor tation fuels. This system uses ‘fast pyrolysis’ technology, a process that rapidly conver ts biomass using heat without oxygen to produce crude bio-oil and gas. The key to Battelle’s approach is in the treatment and processing of this crude bio-oil to a ‘drop-in fuel’, which can be blended directly with gasoline or diesel fuel. “This exciting par tnership is developing technology with the potential to transform the forest products industry in Nor thern Ontario,” said Michael Gravelle, Minister of Natural Resources. “It is a tremendous oppor tunity that will strengthen the sector, and our economy, so that we can continue to suppor t strong communities in the Nor th.” Domtar Dryden will use wood waste, which is currently burned for low value, as the biomass feedstock for the process. If successful, the bio-oil will be used to blend into the fuel for Domtar’s vehicle fleet or it could be used internally to offset the use of natural gas. One of the big advantages to Battelle’s system is that its unique design requires far less energy to produce the same fuel product as existing ‘fuel from wood’ technology. As well, because it simply adds to an existing operation, it reduces capital and operating costs, making it more economically viable. “This project points the way to Ontario’s future as a clean technology and innovation leader,” said Brad Duguid, Minister of Economic Development and Innovation. “This groundbreaking process will turn waste wood into fuel we need. That’s good news 10 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
for the environment and good news for our economy.” The entire project is divided into two phases wherein phase one will entail utilizing wood waste from Domtar’s Dryden mill to produce the higher value bio-oil. Once the process is optimized and results are demonstrated, phase two will involve the construction of a 100 ton/day pilot plant, to be integrated into Domtar Dryden’s facility. “We are pleased with this oppor tunity to help develop, demonstrate and commercialize this innovative technology,” said Bruno Marcoccia, Director of Research and Development at Domtar. “It will be good news for everyone if we are successful.” The project is expected to put Nor thern Ontario on the cutting edge of new technology in the forestry sector. Once developed it could be applied to many forestry operations across Nor th America to add a high value revenue stream and reduce business costs. This in turn will sustain jobs at the mill level and increase demand for products and services of suppor ting industries including forest harvesting, construction, maintenance, transpor tation and research and development industries. “We’re pleased to be partnering with CRIBE and Domtar on this exciting project,” said Charles Lucius, Battelle’s Vice President for Energy Sustainability Solutions. “This is our first time working on this type of project in Ontario and we are really looking forward to it.”
Going Green for the Games
London Olympic Park receives FSC & PEFC certification
External view of the Velodrome
s the countdown to this summer’s iconic sporting event continues, the entire London 2012 Olympic Park development has achieved dual project certification from the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) schemes for its timber usage - the first dual Project Certification in the world. The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) has achieved a ‘world first’ for securing dual project certification on the Olympic Park site, with 100 percent of the wood products supplied certified as ‘legal and sustainable’. The London 2012 Olympic park covers 2.5 square kilometers and contains the Olympic Stadium, the Aquatics Centre, the Velodrome and the Basketball Arena and is currently one of the most ambitious
12 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
construction projects in the United Kingdom. The presentation of FSC and PEFC project certification by auditors Soil Association Woodmark is being hailed as a major achievement and a procurement model for other largescale projects to follow. The scheme also saw a unique and important partnership role played by both PEFC and FSC to make sure that the levels of legal and sustainable timber procured by the ODA achieved the highest possible target. Soil Association Woodmark said the project was a world first for certification of such a huge and complex site. FSC certified material made up 67 percent of the 12,500 m³ timber products procured, while PEFC accounted for 33 percent. “It is an outstanding outcome that really shows what can be achieved
Sustainability had been embedded into the ODA’s construction project from the very beginning as one of its six priority themes
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Presentation of the certification to the ODA
and it’s a strong platform for the industry to build on,” said Peter Bonfield, leader of construction products at the ODA. Sustainability had been embedded into the ODA’s construction project from the very beginning as one of its six priority themes. With the announcement that the Olympic
Images © Olympic Delivery Authority
Images © Olympic Delivery Authority
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international, non-governmental organization dedicated to promoting responsible management of the world‘s forests. It was founded in 1993 in response to public concern about deforestation and demand for a trustworthy wood-labeling scheme.
Park is now officially FSC and PEFC cer tified, London 2012 has taken a giant leap towards achieving its ambition of being the ‘most sustainable games ever’. Alun Watkins who heads up PEFC in the UK commented: “PEFC is delighted to have worked together with FSC to help make dual
• The FSC label guarantees that the trees that are harvested are replaced or allowed to regenerate naturally. • Parts of the forest are protected entirely, in order to protect rare animals and plants. • FSC protects the rights of indigenous people to use the forest. If they have sacred sites in the forest these are exempt from felling. • The forest owner must use local workers to run the forest, and provide training, safety equipment and a decent salary. • The forest owner is often obliged to support the community in other ways, such as through the development of schools. • FSC is a market-based initiative that also ensures better conditions for the forest and the people whose livelihoods depend on it. • FSC gives an assurance that future generations will be able to enjoy the benefits of the forest. • All the wood is tracked from the forest to the store. Every link between the forest and the consumer is certified to make it clearly identifiable which wood is FSC certified and which is not. • FSC is the only wood certification scheme endorsed by the major environmental charities, including WWF, Greenpeace and The Woodland Trust. • The FSC label is not only available on wood for furniture. It can also be found on floors, decking, paper, printed matter, charcoal, kitchen utensils, latex, even venison! www.fsc.org
certification of this highly prestigious project possible. This is the first dual certified project in the world and we are proud that the UK has provided an example for others to follow in the future. We congratulate the Olympic Delivery Authority on their decision to source only certified timber. This demonstrates a strong commitment to responsible timber procurement which will help to make London 2012 one of the most successful and greenest games ever.” More than two-thirds of all wood used in the Olympic Park’s construction is FSC certified. Two excellent examples of how the ODA successfully used the FSC process include the development of the Olympics Village and Velodrome. Village developers used the certification process to ensure that they achieved the desired Code June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com 13
FSC certified material made up 67 percent of the timber products procured, while PEFC accounted for 33 percent
Close-up of the external cladding of the Velodrome
14 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
100 percent legal and sustainable timber. FSC’s contribution forms a major part of this achievement.” FSC Director General Andre de Freitas sees natural synergies between the Olympics and FSC: “FSC certified forest operations are environmentally appropriate and socially beneficial. It’s fitting that an event which is committed to excellence like the Olympics choose FSC, which sets a high bar for forest management towards a legacy of stewardship.” The Games’ East London site comprises of seven major venues across the 246-hectare Olympic Park and needed to be managed on a daily basis for the thousands of timber products entering the site. The ambitious approach was driven forward by the establishment of the Timber Supplier Panel that embedded strict policy and procurement procedures and implemented a delivery management system that was forthright in policing and educating stakeholders and their supply chains about sustainable timber and unbroken chain of custody. Charles Thwaites, Executive Director of FSC UK added: “FSC UK is delighted that the Olympic Park has achieved FSC Project Certification for such an extensive and complex site. A project of this scale proves that developers, given the sort of commitment seen here, can always find sufficient certified timber for their needs.”
Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) PEFC is dedicated to promoting sustainable forest management and is the world’s largest forest certification system and the certification system of choice for small forest owners. As an international non-profit, nongovernmental organization, PEFC is dedicated to promoting sustainable forest management through independent third-party certification. • About 238 million hectares of forest area (or 588 million acres) are managed in compliance with PEFC’s internationally accepted Sustainability Benchmark. This is an area equivalent to the size of the whole of Mexico, or France, Germany, Italy and the UK combined. • Two-thirds of all certified forests globally are certified to PEFC. • By the end of July 2011, more than 10,000 companies and organizations have achieved PEFC Chain of Custody certification. • One-third of all Chains of Custody globally have been awarded by PEFC. • 35 National Members (with 29 endorsed national certification systems) and 9 International Stakeholder Members have joined forces under the PEFC umbrella to collaboratively promote sustainable forest management. • PEFC certification is a standard of choice for public timber procurement policies in the United Kingdom, Netherlands Germany, and Japan, in addition to numerous private timber procurement policies. www.pefc.org
Images © Olympic Delivery Authority
for Sustainable Homes and BREEAM assessments, providing evidence that the timber comes from legally compliant, responsibly managed forests. This represents a tremendous commitment by the ODA to ensuring that the wood that it uses comes from forests that are responsibly managed. One only has to gaze at the magnificently designed, wood-clad Velodrome to get a sense of the scale of the project. The iconic Velodrome, host to the track cycling events and the first Olympic Park venue to be completed, was built with 5,000 square meters of PEFC certified western red cedar timber cladding and 56 kilometers of Siberian pine for the track surface sourced from certified legally-compliant, responsibly-managed forests. In total, more than two-thirds of all timber used in the construction of all Olympic venues have gained FSC certification. Holly Knight, ODA Principal Sustainability Manager, said: “We started working with FSC early in the design process to ensure we had the right systems in place to deliver homes and venues on the Olympic Park that are truly sustainable. On such a complicated site it took lots of dedicated people to make sure we received certification for
Images © Broadleaf Consulting
The increasingly important role of the UAE in timber trading & wood processing
ew people would think of the UAE as a natural destination for wood products. However, the rapid pace of construction in the Emirates has driven huge demand for plywood, softwood and other wood-based panels over the past two decades or so. At the same time, the burgeoning construction sector has led to the establishment of a multitude of furniture and fit-out manufacturers and these have become significant consumers of hardwood lumber and veneers, as well as MDF and particleboard. In fact, over this time, the UAE has also developed into the Gulf region’s main destination for wood products. Its easy-going business climate, established transpor t and communications infrastructure and the creation of Free Zones, has meant that the UAE and Dubai, in par ticular, has become the region’s timber trading epicentre. The latest estimates show that the UAE impor ted some USD 851 million wor th of wood products
in 2011, up from USD 831 million in the previous year. Of this total impor ted in 2011, over half of (est. USD 483 million) was accounted for by impor ts of plywood, MDF and OSB (oriented strand board). Of the remainder, USD 148 million was accounted for by softwood lumber, USD 104 million by hardwood lumber and USD 86 million by builder’s joinery and carpentry, which includes doors and door sets, shuttering for concrete-forming and assembled parquet panels. These values are very significant and, perhaps, seem rather high for a relatively small market, and one where construction is reported to have slowed in recent years. However, as a trading hub for the region, the UAE is also an exporter of wood products. In fact, on average, an estimated 20 to 30 percent of wood products imported are
Not only has the UAE become a timber trading hub, but it has also developed into a centre for wood processing re-exported to neighboring Gulf markets, especially Oman, as well as to East and Central Africa, Iran, Central Asia and, more recently, India. Estimates for 2011, show that around USD 209 million worth of wood products were re-exported from the UAE and the main destinations were Iran, Somalia, Rwanda, Oman, India and Iraq. Dubai, clearly, acts as an essential gateway to many other markets. It offers suppliers entry into countries that may be difficult to export to directly, whilst also providing an easily accessible entrepôt for buyers who are not willing or able to commit to large or high value shipments. Not only has the UAE become a timber trading hub, but it has also developed into a centre for wood processing. According to a report by June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com 15
Images © Broadleaf Consulting
Uae WOOD PRODUCT IMPORTS (US$ MILLION)
Source: Broadleaf Consulting
the Gulf Organization for Industrial Consulting (GOIC) based in Qatar, investments totaling some USD 121 million were made in the UAE’s wood processing sector in 2010. Moreover, of the 389 wood processing factories in the GCC (furniture and joinery), 208, or more than half, are located in the Emirates. In addition, of the 21,746 workers employed in wood processing in the GCC, 12,350 work in the UAE. Once again, location, infrastructure and business climate have all played a part in making this possible. However, in addition, the UAE enjoys ready access to low-cost, skilled labor from South Asia, notably India. The combination of all these factors, plus the ready supply of work for these factories, due to high levels 16 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
of construction, has meant that the wood processing sector has been able to enjoy steady growth since the early 1990s. Just as the UAE has become a focal point for wood trading in the region and beyond, the Emirates is now home to some of the region’s most successful joinery and interior fit-out companies. Furthermore, some of these have a truly global reach, being able to offer experience, quality and timely delivery and all at a lower cost than can be achieved in many western markets. Currently, some of the world’s largest interior fit-out companies are based in the UAE and a number of Dubai-based joinery factories are almost totally focused on production for countries outside
the UAE and even the Middle East all together. Today, there are examples of joinery works being carried out in Dubai factories for hotel projects in the UK, France and West Africa, as well as in Central Asia and even India. At the same time, most UAE joinery factories are also involved in projects all across the GCC, often stepping in to complete work where the local manufacturers do not have the necessary capacity. The pace of construction across the Gulf region is forecast to pick up in the coming years and this will translate into an even greater need for wood products and wood processing in the future. With its well-established situation for the region as a while, the UAE is likely to become even more important in the future as a hub for both trading timber and for wood processing. As such, the wood sector in the Emirates is likely to see significant growth in the coming years, attracting both higher levels of imports and increased investment in furniture and joinery manufacturing.
About the author
Roderick Wiles has been analyzing the Middle East’s markets for wood products for the past 13 years. He has traveled extensively throughout the MENA region, developing a wealth of contacts and experience and providing consultancy services to a range of government and industry clients on a long term or one-off basis. For more information, see www.broadleafconsulting.com
FARLIN GROUP OF COMPANIES STARTED IN THE LOG BUSINESS IN 1988. WE ARE NOW ONE OF THE WORLD’S LEADING SUPPLIERS OF TIMBER LOGS, SAWN TIMBER, PLYWOOD AND PANEL PRODUCTS. OUR MENA HEAD OFFICE IS STRATEGICALLY LOCATED IN JEBEL ALI FREE ZONE ALLOWING US TO SERVICE OUR HUNDREDS OF CUSTOMERS ACROSS THE GULF REGION. PLEASE CONTACT OUR SALES TEAM TODAY FOR IMMEDIATE SERVICE.
Tel: +971 (0)4 8809 889 | Fax: +971 (0)4 8809 779 | www.farlindubai.com
Natural teak forests decline, while planted teak forests increase New FAO survey reveals trends in teak forests and markets
he results of a new FAO (Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) global Teak Resources and Market Assessment conducted in 60 tropical countries show that natural teak forests are declining worldwide and that the quality of natural grown teak wood is deteriorating. On the other hand, the survey also reveals that planted teak forests are increasing in area and when good management practices are applied - producing high quality wood.
Natural teak forests in decline Natural teak forests grow in only four countries in the world: India, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand. In 2010 their combined area of natural teak forest was estimated at about 29 million hectares, almost half of it growing in Myanmar. At present, Myanmar is the
Teak is one of the most important and valuable hardwoods in the world, and planted teak forests have attracted large private sector investments in Africa, Asia and Latin America
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only country that currently produces quality teak from natural forests - India, Lao PDR and Thailand have bans on logging in natural forests or on log exports in place. According to the survey, natural teak forests declined in area by 385,000 hectares globally, or by 1.3 percent, between 1992 and 2010. Substantial declines have been particularly notable in Laos (down 68,500 hectares), India (down 2.1 million hectares), and Myanmar (down 1.1 million hectares). In Thailand, a complete ban on logging in natural forests introduced in 1989 may have contributed to the recovery of natural teak forests, which are reported to have increased by 2.9 million hectares, according to FAO’s report. “Although there is no better up-todate information on teak resources available at the moment, data provided by the survey must be handled with care,” said Walter Kollert, FAO Forestry Officer. “It is difficult to obtain precise figures on teak forest loss, because teak trees do not grow in pure stands in
Although the time until trees reach harvestable dimensions is comparatively long and on average takes between 20 and 80 years, teak planting serves local communities as a savings account and in the long run helps smallholders improve their livelihoods and the livelihoods of their children
Genetic resources conservation is needed
nature. Natural teak forests are mixed deciduous or tropical evergreen forests which have a share of teak of between 4 and 35 percent.”
Planted teak - a globally emerging forest resource
Teak is one of the most important and valuable hardwoods in the world, and planted teak forests have attracted large private sector investments in Africa, Asia and Latin America. As a result, the planted teak area has increased in Africa (Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania), Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama), South America (Ecuador, Brazil) and Asia (India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Laos). “Although the time until trees reach harvestable dimensions is comparatively long and on average takes between 20 and 80 years, teak planting serves local communities as a savings account and in the long run helps smallholders improve their livelihoods and the livelihoods of their children,” added Kollert.
In the future it can be expected that sustained production of teak logs from natural forests will be further limited due to continuing deforestation and competition for environmental services, according to Kollert. “Supply trend points to a continuing decline in the volume and quality of natural teak, which results in progressive loss of genetic resources. This is why it is essential in the near future to plan, organize and implement a programme for the genetic conservation of native teak resources in the four countries with natural teak forests,” he stressed.
Global teak market trends
Asia holds more than 90 percent of the world’s teak resources, and India alone manages 38 percent of the world’s planted teak forests. The major teak trade flows worldwide are directed towards India, while its own considerable teak production is processed within the country. Eleven out of fourteen reporting countries named India as their number one importer, absorbing 70 to 100 percent of global teak exports, including shipments of plantation logs and sawn timber from Africa and Latin America. Myanmar, India and Indonesia are expected to maintain their market position on premium quality teak though this market is limited by supply. June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com 19
Teak Resources and Market Assessment 2010 The Teak Resources and Market Assessment 2010 (TRMA 2010) is a special study of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA2010). It aims to present updated country level information on teak, which is one of the emerging hardwood resources in the world. The assessment was conducted through a standardized questionnaire sent to 69 countries, which used the existing networks of FRA national correspondents and the members of Teaknet, an international teak information network managed by the Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI), India.
Summary and Conclusions Global significance of teak: Teak is a small proportion of the worldâ€™s timber production and trade. The estimated market share of teak logs in total tropical round wood production is less than 2 percent but in terms of value it is much larger, since teak is part of the high-value hardwood market, and is a major component of the forest economies of many tropical countries. Planted teak forests have attracted large investments from the private sector in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Globally, they constitute the only planted hardwood resource that is increasing in terms of area. Survey coverage: The Teak Resources and Market Assessment 2010 (TRMA 2010) was conducted in 2011 in 69 countries, 9 of which reported that they do not grow teak. 43 countries reported that they grow teak, but of them only 38 countries were able to give data on the species. Teak areas: Natural teak forests are estimated to cover 29.035 million hectares in India, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand. Almost half of the total is in Myanmar. The area of planted teak forests reported by 38 countries is estimated to be 4.346 million hectares, of which 83 percent is in Asia, 11 percent in Africa, and 6 percent in tropical America. Taking into account the data missing from 22 teak-growing countries, this figure certainly underestimates the actual area of planted teak forests. Planted teak - a globally emerging hardwood: Planted teak is the only valuable hardwood that constitutes a globally emerging forest resource. Compared with previous surveys, the planted teak area has increased greatly in Africa (Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, United Republic of Tanzania), Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama), South America (Ecuador, Brazil) and Asia (India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Lao PDR). Age class distribution and rotation age: Planted teak forests are predominantly (77 percent) younger than 20 years. The prevailing age class distribution shows recent efforts to establish planted teak forests, but the current enthusiasm of many corporate and private investors for planted teak will maintain the youthful age structure and, in order to improve the economic rate of return, will tend to shorten the rotation period. This will lead to a significant increase in the supply of small-dimension logs grown in short rotations not exceeding 20 years. Ownership: In Africa, Asia and the Caribbean most planted 20 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
teak forests are owned by governments, generally the forestry or agricultural administration, but in Central and South America state governments own merely between 1 percent and 12 percent of planted teak forests, while the private sector holds 88 percent in Central America and 99 percent in South America. Teak is not currently a priority species in community forestry, although there are a number of cases of smallholder teak plantations, which have contributed to the improvement of rural livelihoods. Growth performance: The reported growth rates of planted teak are contentious. Many growth predictions continue to appear on the internet and in literature, predicting very high growth rates above 20 m3 per hectare per year. The actual long-term productivity of planted teak has, however, often turned out lower than predicted. Teak is not a fast growing species per se. Its growth performance depends on the quality of the planting material and the best management practices. The mean annual increment (MAI) reported by 26 countries appears rather modest and lies, for most regions, between 2 and 14 m3 per hectare per year, except for some high-intensity investment schemes in Central and South America. Log removals: A volume of ca. 0.5 million m3 is currently estimated to be harvested in natural forests and 1.5 to 2 million m3 in planted forests if all teak producing countries were accounted for. The worldâ€™s total teak supply from natural and planted forests adds up to 2 to 2.5 million m3, of which at least 60 percent are cut in India, Indonesia and Myanmar. The estimated market share of teak logs on the total tropical roundwood production is less than 2 percent. In value terms a much higher share can be expected, but there are no data to support this. Supply from natural teak forests and genetic resources: Myanmar is the only country producing quality teak from natural forests as India, Lao PDR and Thailand have logging bans in natural forests or log export bans in place. A maximum sustainable supply of quality teak from Myanmar is likely to be in the order of 400,000 m3 per year or less. In future it can be expected that the sustained production of teak logs from natural forests will be further limited due to increasing deforestation and competition for environmental services. Hence, the supply trend points to a continuing decline in
the volume and quality of natural teak and it is imperative to initiate a program for the conservation of natural teak forests if the genetic resources of natural teak are to be sustained. Global teak market trends: The global teak market has been and will continue to be governed by trends in the Asian market. Asia holds more than 90 percent of the world’s teak resources and India alone manages 38 percent of the world’s planted teak forests. The high international demand for general utility teak has broadened the traditional teak supply base from natural forests in Asia to include fastgrown, small-diameter plantation logs from Africa and Latin America. Indian demand dominates the market: The major teak trade flows worldwide are directed towards India, while its own considerable teak production is processed within the country. Eleven out of fourteen reporting countries name India as their number one importer, absorbing 70 to 100 percent of global teak exports including shipments of plantation logs and sawn timber from Africa and Latin America. In Africa, significant exporters are Benin, Ghana, the United Republic of Tanzania and Togo. In Latin America, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala and Brazil, are important teak exporters (no information was available from Costa Rica and Panama). Price and quality: Obtaining prices for teak logs and sawn timber proved to be difficult. No common international log grading rules have been established, most exporting countries’ definition of log dimensions turned out to be different, and the use of various measuring units for dimension and volume further complicated the price survey. As a general rule it can be established that teak prices are very closely related to wood quality. Quality in teak is determined by dimension, bole shape (roundness and straightness), heartwood/ sapwood ratio, regularity of annual rings, number of knots, color, texture and the soundness of the butt log. Teak from natural forests in general possesses many of these features to some extent and sells at comparatively high prices. Logs from planted teak forests are typically smaller in size and will hardly ever reach the dimension, quality features and prices of logs grown in old-growth forests. *To read the complete FAO Teak Resources and Market Assessment report, please go to: http://www.fao.org/forestry/ plantedforests/67508@170537/en/
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DESIGN & DECOR
Timber helps bring together mind, body and soul at the Peninsula Hot Springs Public Bath House White Cypress has been used in the beams and framing of the pavilion for its durability in a salty environment
eninsula Hot Springs is the first natural hot springs and day spa centre in Victoria, Australia - a sprawling property with unexpected nooks and crannies hiding small springs, baths and plunge pools of mineral rich thermal water. The project is located in a dunal environment in the Mornington Peninsula, formed over thousands of years by wind and water. This process has resulted in a softly flowing and gently rhythmic landscape of protection and intimacy. Coming up from the geothermal aquifer to feed the pools, or as rainfall collected from the roofs of the buildings to fill the lakes, water is the unifying living thread for the whole site.Tea Tree is recolonizing the former pasture while thousands of planted Casuarinas and Banksias have begun to
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restore the area to the ancient character it had when the shifting sands stabilized. Originally founded by brothers Charles & Richard Davidson and Norm Cleland, the inspiration for the project began when Charles visited several hot springs while living in Japan in 1992. This sparked off several years of touring and studying hot springs around the world. The first phase of the facility was opened in 2005 and in December 2009 the second stage Bath House centre was unveiled vastly increasing the number of bathing experiences and providing an area for children and families. Gregory Burgess worked with the owners of the spring to develop a design in harmony with the environment, allowing visitors to feel that they are connecting with the natural world around
DESIGN & DECOR
Images ÂŠ GregBurgess
Project Name: Peninsula Hot Springs Public Bath House Architect: Gregory Burgess Pty Ltd Architects Builder: GMB Constructions (Vic) Pty Ltd Joiner/Cabinet Maker: Lifestyle Designs Building Surveyor: Gardner Group Pty Ltd Electrical Engineer: Jeffrey Green Building Services ESD Consultant: Sustainable Built Environments Pty Ltd Geotechnical Engineer: HardRock Geotechnic Pty Ltd Hydraulics Engineer: Peter Tibballs & Associates Pty Ltd Landscape Architect: Taylor Cullity Lethlean (SA) Lighting Consultant: A T Lighting Pty Ltd Quantity Surveyor 1: PlanCost Australia Pty Ltd Quantity Surveyor 2: S J Foley & Associates Structural Engineer: Felicetti Pty Ltd
Gregory Burgess Architects (GBA) are renowned for their use of timber and the Peninsula Hot Springs building seems to emerge from the landscape in a way that rhymes with the rising up of the water from the earth
June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com 23
Images ÂŠ GregBurgess
The Peninsula Hot Springs utilise natural materials such as timber and stone to merge harmoniously with their coastal environment
The light-filled reception area mixes timbers and textures, creating a welcoming start to a visit to the Hot Springs
Important materials are warm timbers, such as Grey Ironbark and White Cypress pine, and stained ply, with colors resonating with the mood of the landscape and nature
24 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
Images ÂŠ GregBurgess
Images ÂŠ GregBurgess
DESIGN & DECOR
A plywood lined staircase leads to the lower foyer with its stone floor, footbaths and shelters
them, including the bird and animal life that has returned to the site since the replanting of native flora. Gregory Burgess Architects (GBA) are renowned for their use of timber and the Peninsula Hot Springs building seems to emerge from the landscape in a way that rhymes with the rising up of the water from the earth. Visitors to the Hot Springs come there to give themselves a more harmonious sense of their bodies, and this intention is helped by the way the building, the landscape, and the springs stage a reunion of nature and culture, emphasized by the use of timber, and the particular rough textures of the timber in the columns. On arrival, a serpentine path winds through the dappled shade of dense Tea tree along the edge of the carpark to an entry ramp and an elevated covered and screened timber walkway with changing vignettes of intimate corners and the wider landscape.This timber walkway takes visitors to the reception - a light-filled space with a small retail corner, arching out into the landscape. Here a generous stair connects a quiet intermediate-level relaxation room with the lower foyer - a grotto-like space with stone floor and footbaths and shelters. Inside, access is gained to the main change rooms and out to the northern public bathing areas. For the pavilion around the hot springs themselves, White Cypress has been used for the beams and framing. It is a durable timber with high termite
resistance, making it ideal for structural applications. The combination of rough and smooth textures in the columns and cross beams creates resonances with the stone used for the paving and the Tea Tree and other flora that can be seen from the springs. Important materials are warm timbers, such as Grey Ironbark and White Cypress pine, and stained ply, with colors resonating with the mood of the landscape and nature. In the change rooms, these materials are complemented by ceramic tiles along with small and precious inserts of more sumptuous woods, tiles and metals. Further, natural light is carefully modulated for contrast, mood and view. A variety of species of timbers have been specified throughout the project with certified grey ironbark featuring in the floor boards and stairs and radiata pine being used for the roof, wall and floor framing. Additionally, certified white cypress pine and silvertop ash have been used for internal cladding and external wall cladding respectively whilst sugar gum makes its way into the external decking for the project. With the venue meant as a refuge for relaxation and rejuvenation, the architectural intention is to support this by creating a harmonious and enchanting conversation between the landscape, water and buildings. This ensemble immerses the bather in a sensuous healing totality of body, mind and spirit. Timber in its rich and living variety is a key intermediary here.
The use of a variety of timbers in the building creates a sense of texture, enhanced by the stone paving and Tea Tree covered dunes
Images ÂŠ GregBurgess
Images ÂŠ GregBurgess
DESIGN & DECOR
The change rooms feature a warm combination of Grey Ironbark, White Cypress and stained plywood
MID LEVEL FOYER
A variety of species of timbers have been specified throughout the project with certified grey ironbark featuring in the floor boards and stairs and radiata pine being used for the roof, wall and floor framing. Additionally, certified white cypress pine and silvertop ash have been used for internal cladding and external wall cladding respectively whilst sugar gum makes its way into the external decking for the project.
June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com 25
The UAE’s first and only dedicated free zone for the timber sector
ituated around 20 kilometres northeast of the Sharjah city centre, the Hamriyah Free Zone has been deploying business solutions for international and local investors to access and serve a growing market of 1.5 billion people for the last 15 years. More than 1,300 new companies joined the Hamriyah Free Zone in 2011 and another 300 more were added to the free zone in only the first quarter of this year. The strength of the free zone now stands at 5,700 companies from across 138 countries and the Hamriyah Free Zone Authority (HFZA) is aiming to touch the 6,000-mark this year. The Hamriyah Free Zone, the UAE’s second biggest free zone after Jebel Ali Free Zone, has a dedicated business cluster called ‘Timber Land’, which is home to a number of timber importers, saw mills, woodworking factories and machinery companies. Timber Design & Technology takes a closer look at the Hamriyah Free Zone and Timber Land.
Established in November 1995 by an Emiri decree, the Hamriyah Free Zone is centered around the Hamriyah Port. Given that Sharjah is the only 26 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
emirate with ports on the Arabian Gulf ’s west coast and east coast with direct access to the Indian Ocean, and an international airport, which connects to 230 cities, the free zone has been able to attract investors from all across the globe. Projecting itself as a ‘Next Generation Free Zone’, Hamriyah Free Zone is spread over an area of 22 million square meters and is being steered today under the able leadership of Rashid Al Leem, Director General, Sharjah Department of Seaports & Customs and Hamriyah Free Zone Authority In a short span of over 15 years, the free zone has played an important role is accelerating business activity within
Sharjah by attracting environmentally friendly industries and enhancing the overall economic development of the country. More importantly, the free zone has attracted significant foreign domestic investment with over USD 6 billion having been pumped in by companies within the free zone since its inception.
Recognizing the significance of the small and medium sized enterprise (SME) sector in driving innovation and competition, and the role it plays the overall industrial economy of any country, the HFZA set aside an area of approximately 10 million square meters
encourage SMEs to develop further. This has led to the development of a one-of-the-kind concept bringing together diverse industries in an efficient manner. The seven sub zones that form the Hamriyah SME Zone comprise Oil & Gas Zone; Petrochemical Zone; Steel City; Construction World; Timber Land; Maritime City and Perfume Land.
within Phase II of the free zone. The result is a magnificent zone of seven clusters, officially called the Hamriyah SME Zone, which is supported by the excellent deep and inner harbor facilities in Phase I. With a vision to create an affordable yet world-class free zone, the HFZA formulated explicit policies and designed special programmes to strengthen the SME sector including an array of business incentives such as 100 percent ownership, full repatriation of capital and profits, no taxes or commercial levies, discounted long-term lease agreements, simplified procedures and highly developed infrastructure to
Timber Land is one of the seven strategic clusters that comprise the Hamriyah SME Zone and consists of 24 plots of 5,000 square meters each. The cluster aims to redefine the way the timber industry does business by integrating wood storage facilities with various industrial activities using timber. With each facility almost adjoining one another in the free zone, it provides an unparalleled logistical advantage to timber companies choosing to have their base in the free zone, especially given the high potential for the wood market and its ancillary industries in the Middle East.
The Hamriyah Free Zone, the UAE’s second biggest free zone after Jebel Ali Free Zone, has a dedicated business cluster called ‘Timber Land’, which is home to a number of timber importers, saw mills, woodworking factories and machinery companies
Demand for timber
Although glass and aluminum towers soar above the globe’s urban landscapes, demand for timber is now higher than ever. As a consumer of wood products, the US ranks number one worldwide, consuming 27 percent of the timber harvested each year. Moreover, according to the United Nations, demand for wood will double in the next 30 years with China - currently ranking number two in wood consumption - becoming the major driver in the demand for timber. Further, Asia’s wood imports have quadrupled in the past five years alone with China’s import volumes being 32 percent higher in 2011 than in the previous year. In the UAE and across the Middle East, the numerous infrastructure and building projects have led to a phenomenal demand for wood-based industries and woodworking products. The chief wood products used in the construction industry include hardwood, softwood, plywood, veneers, parquet, laminates and MDF. As the need for these products continues unabated, there is a knock-on effect for subsidiary industries as well, particularly on specialist woodworking machinery and tools, all of which augurs well for the Hamriyah Free Zone and the companies within Timber Land.
Rashid Al Leem, Director General, Sharjah Department of Seaports & Customs and Hamriyah Free Zone Authority
The success of the Hamriyah Free Zone is evident from the increasing number of companies who have set up within the free zone and the HFZA is clearly not content to rest on its laurels. Its future plans involve the development of the Hamriyah Logistic Village, aimed at providing logistics and related support services for companies operating in the free zone; and the Hamriyah Industrial Zone, a dedicated area with 144 land plots of 5,000 square meters each, which is an addition to the Hamriyah SME Zone. The Logistics Village is set to include 220 warehouses ranging in sizes from 200 up to 800 square meters and along with the Hamriyah Industrial Zone is part of the Sharjah government’s vision for industrial and commercial sustainable growth. Moving forward, the Hamriyah Free Zone aims to be a model ‘sustainable free zone’, a move that is being spearheaded by Rashid Al Leem who is aware of the challenge to make businesses and industry as ‘green’ as possible. That being said, Rashid is a firm believer that sustainability should be a fundamental component of business strategy. With a little over USD 162 million earmarked for the free zone’s expansion, the future for Timber Land and the Hamriyah Free Zone looks promising. June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com 27
TALLER WITH WOOD
Taller with Wood Michael Green unveils ‘Tall Wood’ tower for Vancouver along with instruction manual for building wooden skyscrapers
28 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
Perspective illustrated with a glulam curtain wall and podium base
Images © MGA
wooden skyscraper may seem like far-fetched idea to those who live in cities built from concrete and steel, but architect Michael Green has developed an innovative wooden tower for Vancouver that could spark a renaissance in using wood to build urban high-rise projects. If realized, Green’s Tall Wood tower could be one of the greenest skyscrapers in the world, and at 30 storeys, perhaps the tallest of its kind. “We are in a unique moment in architectural and building engineering history when shifting world needs has asked us to question some of the fundamentals of how we have built for the last century and how we will build in the next.” Wood is perhaps the most significant building material we use today that is grown by the sun. When harvested responsibly, wood is arguably one of the best tools architects and engineers have for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and storing carbon in our buildings. In any discussion pertaining to sustainable materials, we must consider that we are surrounded by a building material that is manufactured by nature; a material that is renewable, durable and strong. Michael Green sees a major opportunity for systemic change in the building industry. For the last century, there has been no reason to challenge steel and concrete as the essential structural materials of large buildings. Climate change now demands that we do. The work of thousands of scientists with the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has defined one of the most significant challenges of our time. How we address climate change in buildings is a cornerstone in how the world will tackle the need to reduce emissions of green house gases and indeed find ways to store those same gases that are significantly impacting the health of our planet. Just as the automobile industry, energy
sector and most other industries will see innovations that challenge the conventions of the way we will live in this century, the building industry must seek innovation in the fundamental materials that we choose to build with. In a rapidly urbanizing world with an enormous demand to house and shelter billions of people in the upcoming decades, we must find solutions for our urban environments that have a lighter climate impact than today’s incumbent major structural materials. This article introduces the first significant challenge to steel and
Michael Green, Principal, Michael Green Architecture
TALLER WITH WOOD
concrete in tall buildings since their adoption more than a century ago. The content highlights several years of momentum, effor t and conviction by those interested in the issues of climate change, architecture, wood design and innovation. Through various findings it aims to challenge conventions and address preconceptions. One could look at it as a story of optimism for a progressive new way of building safe and environmentally large structures, which will change the way we look at architecture.
The FFTT Approach
A pioneering idea by Michael Green, FFTT stands for ‘Finding the Forest Through the Trees’, a non-technical acronym with an important story. It is the Mass Timber panel approach, which speaks to the idea that much of the sustainable building conversation is focusing on minutia. Mass Timber are very large and dense solid panels of wood engineered for strength through laminations of different layers. The three primary Mass Timber products are Cross Laminated
Timber (CLT), made from layers of solid wood set at 90-degree orientations’; Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL), made from a matrix of thin chips; and Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL), made from thin laminations of wood similar to plywood but much larger in scale. These Mass Timber products offer significant benefits over light wood frame techniques in terms of fire, acoustic performance, and structural performance, scale, material stability and construction efficiency.
Findings that build a strong case for Tall Wood
Tall Wood has proven itself across various factors and has been fairly well received in the industry. However, consumers are still unaware of its benefits due to lack of strategic marketing and effective communication. There is also a need for ambitious developers to show industry leadership, which will further encourage other developers to follow. These and more such initiatives will further spread the various advantages of Tall Wood, some of which are
mentioned below. Wood and Climate Change Sustainable forest management and forest certification are a necessary precursor to the increased use of wood. The ability of people to embrace an increase in wood buildings comes with a strong understanding of the overall impact on the world’s forests. Deforestation is a critical contributor to anthropogenic climate change. The concept of using more wood will only be fully embraced when the harvesting of wood is understood to be truly sustainable and responsive to the environment. Diversity of the forest ecosystem will be informed in part by the evolution of LSL solutions in compliment with CLT. Markets around the world will have to work towards increasing forestry diversity, with a focus on faster growing birch and aspen, which are used in LSL, a viable Mass Timber option in the proposed FFTT system. Structural/Height Findings Mass Timber buildings are changing the scale of what is possible to be built
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TALLER WITH WOOD
Building Code/Life Safety Findings Mass Timber buildings are significantly different from light wood-frame buildings in their fire performance due to the solid nature of the timber panels and their inherent ability to resist fire without the addition of protective membrane barriers. Fire history and recent fire testing in Europe and Canada has demonstrated that solid wood structural elements can be designed to perform to a 2-hour fire-resistance rating as required for high buildings. The solid wood Mass Timber panels form a key part in the fire-rated assemblies between compartments of the building and do not create combustible spaces like light woodframe construction. Wood shaft systems can be further reinforced against vertical flame spread with non-combustible lining materials and sprinkler systems. Cost Findings The future of carbon pricing suggests scenarios beneficial to Mass Timber solutions. For example, BC’s carbon tax today impacts the energy costs used in the production of concrete but largely does not impact steel pricing that is imported from other regions. As such, current conditions imply that low energy use in wood harvest and manufacture may make Mass Timber a lower risk material in the future, one that it is less vulnerable to energy price fluctuation and carbon emission penalties. Further, future mechanisms to provide owners with carbon sequestration incentives will arguably make Mass Timber even less expensive than concrete as the carbon economy becomes more monetized. 30 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
Images © MGA
in wood around the world. Different systems will continue to evolve but the FFTT system can efficiently achieve heights of 30 storeys in a predominantly wood solution. One of the primary structural benefits of the system is the savings on foundations due to the relative weight difference between a wood structure and a concrete structure. This is particularly relevant in poor soil areas where foundation costs can be high. Moreover the wall thicknesses of Mass Timber are comparable or thinner than concrete walls due to the dramatic difference in the fundamental weight of the building. This translates to no floor area penalty to a developer interested in a FFTT building.
Interior perspective illustrating structure as finishing
Current innovations worldwide have triggered a race to create taller wood buildings, however Tall Wood buildings are not a new concept Architectural Findings FFTT allows for flexible tower planning and façade design to a height of 30 storeys and offers impressive design adaptability. The versatility is imperative as it permits open plans that will accommodate both office and residential uses. It is also beneficial to developers, since they typically rely on flexibility in tower structural systems to adjust planning layouts to meet their market goals. Moreover, exterior character and massing are crucial to adjust to the specifics of a given site, setback requirements, views and view corridors, shadowing conditions or architectural expression.
Building on history
Current innovations worldwide have triggered a race to create taller wood buildings, however Tall Wood buildings are not a new concept. 1400 years ago tall pagodas in Japan were built to 19 storeys in wood and still stand today in high seismic, wet climate environments. Several countries around the world have a history of building Tall Wood buildings - for instance in Vancouver’s Gastown neighbourhood 7 and 10-storey heavy timber buildings have stood for the last hundred years.
Modern day examples include the 9-storey Stadthaus building in London, which illustrates how Tall Wood can be a competitive system in the marketplace. More recent initiatives include a proposed 10 to 12-storey building in Melbourne Australia, a 17-storey building in Norway and a 30-storey hybrid timber and concrete building in Austria. Each building design takes a different structural approach to Mass Timber construction, and illustrates the development and expansion of this important new market, which on its way to being transformed.
Potential to revolutionize the building industry
Increasing urbanization, climate change and the need for sustainable development demands alternative safe techniques to build tall structures in a carbon neutral manner. The answer could lie in FFTT as a structural solution that has a much lighter carbon footprint than concrete and steel systems. It can help address major issues while also significantly contributing to world housing needs. However, this is only the beginning of a path to realizing built projects and more engineering, research and testing will be required to expand on the ideas. It will need architects and engineers to pursue this idea and develop increasingly broader approaches to Tall Wood buildings. The potential for FFTT is enormous and it is only the beginning of an industrial revolution that will change the way we build mid-rise and tall buildings around the globe.
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Farlin Group F
rom its early beginnings in the logging business in 1988, the Farlin Group has over the course of two decades established itself as a highly successful global organization with a turnover in excess of USD 1 billion and a reputation of integrity, honesty and reliability in the international market. Given its 24-year legacy of experience and with the overall strategic direction of Mohammad Farouk, a veteran in the logs and commodities business, the group today owns several forests across the world and its own logging facilities. Timber Design & Technology talks to Abdul Gafar, Business Development Manager at Farlin Timbers to outline the growth and development of the group and its future plans. Having made its initial foray into
32 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
the timber industry by starting out in the log business, Farlin achieved early success in dealing with logs. Today, the group sources logs from Africa, South America, South East Asia and Asia Pacific and deals with species such as Teak, Red Meranti, Dabema, and Radiata Pine amongst others. In an attempt to ensure quality, Farlin has its own facilities for logging in New Zealand and in West Africa and harvest rights in controlled forests around the world. After achieving tremendous success in the logging business, Farlin diversified its operations into coal mining in Indonesia and has been successfully exporting coal to power plants and cement factories in India and China. According to Gafar, the groupâ€™s dedication to innovation and cutting-edge technology is the core force that drives it forward - be it
The groupâ€™s dedication to innovation and cutting-edge technology is the core force that drives it forward
The Middle East contributes a significant portion of our global turnover and growth potential is quite high
in terms of developing a superior product, achieving streamlined production processes or creating timely delivery systems. “At Farlin, we have integrated various operations within the supply chain - from procurement to final distribution, creating consistent quality products and unparalleled services for our trading partners. Through our investments into offices across the world with integrated information technology, our customers can enjoy the benefits of a real-time facilitated support system. In addition, to live up to our reputation as a reliable and trustworthy trade partner of choice, we ensure timely delivery to our customers through our network of affiliated vessels operating worldwide,” said Gafar. In addition to its logging business, Farlin also deals in sawn timber, primarily focusing on temperate hardwoods (Ash, Cherry, Maple, Oak and Walnut); African timber (Mahogany, Okoumé, Iroko, Dabeema, Teak and Wawa); Asian hardwoods (Red Meranti, Red wood, Kempas,
Kapur and Keruing) and White wood (Spruce, Radiata Pine, Douglas Fir and Southern Yellow Pine). More recently, the group has launched its own brand of Film Faced Plywood - ‘Farlinplex’ - which has been widely accepted and used in many prestigious projects across the world. ‘Farlinplex’ is manufactured with high standards and boasts its superiority over many other plywood brands due to its density, strength, evenness of layers and high quality. The Middle East represents an important market for the group since there is no local supply of timber in the region. As such, the group set up Farlin Dubai to serve the requirements of the GCC and wider MENA region through a state-ofthe-art sales and distribution hub in Jebel Ali Free Zone. Positive of the potential in the region, Farlin is coming up with new development plans for the GCC and MENA region, which will be announced soon. Gafar confidently states: “The Middle East contributes a significant portion of our global turnover and growth potential is quite high given the growing construction sectors in Qatar, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Whilst the UAE represents a stable market for us, developments such as Qatar’s successful bid to host the FIFA World cup 2022 are set to trigger a construction boom, which will certainly drive up demand
for timber in the country. Our aim is to achieve 10 to 20 percent growth annually and we remain positive that we will be able surpass this.” Outside of the timber industry, the group entered the Agro Commodities operations with Cashew and Cocoa from Africa in 2010. Its coal mining operations in Indonesia encompass several mines in the Sumatera region with the majority of the coal being exported to India and China whilst Farlin Garnet Sands trades in the high grade Almandine Garnet of Indian Origin. In addition, several other ventures are being planned in the Middle East and globally to complement the current operations of the group. “With our dedication to excellence and customer service, it is little wonder that we are the trusted partner of choice for a wide variety of products including timber logs, sawn timber, plywood, MDF, panel products, coal and minerals from across the world. As a long-term player in the market, our commitment to growth differentiates us from our competitors and guides us in everything we do,” concludes Gafar.
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Legality of Timber Illegal logging and the subsequent trade of illegal timber undermines social equity, environmental conservation, sustainable development and economic growth in many countries around the world.
ith a significant proportion of global wood trade estimated to be illegal, illegal logging also undermines the legitimate forestry sector by creating unfair competition with undervalued products. In 2004 it was estimated through trade simulation models that illegal logging depressed the average price of forest products by 7-16 percent. Over the past ten years, a number of initiatives have attempted to address the ‘demand side’ drivers believed to be fuelling illegal logging. A number of regional FLEGT (Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade) processes have been initiated in different parts of the world to further advance political awareness and commitment to combating illegal logging and to develop transnational, collaborative solutions. 34 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
Furthermore, a number of importing countries are in the process of or have adopted legislation aimed at eliminating the importation of illegally harvested wood and wood products. Timber Design & Technology invited four experts on the subject to get their thoughts and opinions on the ‘Legality of Timber’. The panel included Tom Ter Horst from the European Forest Institute; Dr. Scott Bowe from the University of Wisconsin; Caitlin Clarke of the World Research Institute; and Rupert Oliver, Director, Forest Industries Intelligence Limited.
The definition of Illegal Logging
As worldwide interest in timber legality increases, so does our need to fully understand what it means and the impact it has on the globe. So we
started by asking our panel of experts if there was a commonly accepted definition of ‘Illegal Logging’. All of the panelists agreed that there is no formal international definition of illegal logging. Horst highlighted that the European Union refers to the legislation of the country where the timber was harvested to define what constitutes illegal logging. According to Bowe, illegal logging can be defined as the harvest, transport, or sale of timber and derived wood products in violation of any international, national, or local laws. The illegality can occur during any portion of the supply chain.The focus is often only on harvesting while the concept of illegal logging is broader. Clarke added that it can range from exceeding a concession’s annual allowable cut to failure to follow applicable labor laws. One of the
reasons mentioned was failures in forest governance, which results in illegal industrial-scale timber mining by organized crime syndicates. Oliver went on to say that this is concentrated in a few regions where severe failures of governance have allowed organized crime to thrive (such as Indonesia, Cambodia, Brazil and parts of Russia).
Timber legality has always been a very sensitive topic across the globe, especially amongst governments and environmentalists. However, it is important to know how serious the problem of illegal timber logging is at present times. “This results in enormous losses and damages not only to the environment, but also to governments and communities that cannot benefit from these resources,” said Horst. “In addition, honest businesses that operate by the rules are harmed by operators that can undercut them by using illegally logged timber.” He went on to state that the European Union has started to address this serious problem with its 2003 Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan. The plan includes a mix of supply and demand side activities such as new legislation (EU Timber Regulation), bilateral trade agreements and the encouragement of public and private procurement policies. According to Bowe the greatest risk of illegal logging occurs in underdeveloped regions of the world, which lack the resources for policing and convicting cases of illegal logging activity. “Many tropical forest regions of the world fit this description where limited government and corruption allow the illegal activity to occur. In developed countries such as the United States, illegal logging is extremely rare.” Clarke highlighted a 2010 study by Chatham House, which found significant declines in both illegal logging and in
In 2004 it was estimated through trade simulation models that illegal logging depressed the average price of forest products by 7-16 percent the proportion of wood imports to consumer countries thought to be of illegal origin, and it’s encouraging that the overall scale of the problem seems to be declining.That said, studies as well as anecdotal evidence indicate that in many places, illegal logging is still a very real and serious concern. “Any remote area where the reach of law enforcement is limited, where governance problems are widespread, and where there is a financial incentive for bad actors to engage in illegal activity is more likely to have problems,” added Clarke. Oliver believes that by its very nature, illegal activity in any sector is ‘below the radar’ and goes unrecorded. He observed that the estimates of levels of illegal logging are often poorly researched, based on hearsay and drawing on far-reaching and dubious assumptions.
In some instances they are still heavily dependent on how the term is defined. The level of illegal wood exported from Papua New Guinea, for example, has been variously estimated at 0 percent or 100 percent. The accepted number depends on different interpretations of the legal framework and different biases with respect to the legitimacy of industrial logging in tropical forests.
Revenue and Loss
Given that illegal logging is still a major concern, the next question that arose was if there is an estimate on the volume or value of illegal logging, and the estimated loss as a result of the same. Horst highlighted a recent report from the World Bank, which estimated that illegal logging generates about USD 10-15 billion around the world each year.This results in enormous losses and damages not only to the environment, but also to governments and communities that cannot benefit from these resources. In addition, honest businesses that operate by the rules are harmed by operators that can undercut them by using illegally logged timber. Bowe believes that illegal logging activity is hard to measure, but
Rupert is an internationally recognized independent authority with 20 years experience on environmental issues related to the timber trade and forest management. He has traveled widely, studying forestry practices and market development in North America, Europe, the Far East, and Africa. He is regularly consulted by international and national agencies in the international forest products sector and is a regular speaker at international conventions. As a strong believer in the contribution that forestry and timber can make to sustainable development, he holds a Masters degree in Forest Business Administration. Rupert is Director of Forest Industries Intelligence Limited and also a consultant to the American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC) for sustainability issues.
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emphasized on some studies that suggest that 5-10 percent of the global industrial roundwood production could be derived from illegal sources. However, Clarke spoke about a recent World Bank study that suggested up to 90 percent of all logging in some countries is conducted illegally. Even though there are estimates (for example from the World Bank), which are high and frequently repeated by policy makers to help generate interest in the issue and encourage action, Oliver believes that the numbers are not based on reliable research using a consistent definition of illegal logging and are therefore pretty meaningless.
Harmful effects of illegal logging
The harmful effects of illegal logging go far beyond revenue losses to governments and businesses the world over. Bowe views illegal logging to be a short-term gain by criminals at the expense of the environment, local communities, and economic interests of the region. Speaking on the subject, Horst said: “Illegal logging has a devastating impact on some of the world’s most valuable remaining forests and the people that live in them and rely on the resources they provide. Its environmental effects include deforestation, the loss of biodiversity and the emission of green house gases.” The direct impacts on people include conflicts with indigenous and local populations, violence and human rights abuses, the fuelling of corruption and exacerbation of poverty. In some cases it has even funded armed conflict. “Besides that, it undermines the legitimacy of the forest sector and efforts of governments to implement sustainable forest management,” adds Horst. Clarke agrees with Horst in that illegal logging damages the reputation of the
wood products industry and has a very broad range of serious harmful effects. These include deforestation and forest degradation, biodiversity, carbon storage and climate change, governance and the rule of law, revenue loss, competitiveness and free markets. Oliver quoted from the text of the 1998 G8 Summit, when illegal logging first entered the mainstream of international political discussion. He believes it to be as relevant today as it was then. “Illegal logging robs national and sub-national governments, forest owners and local communities of significant revenues and benefits, damages forest ecosystems, distorts timber markets and forest resource assessments and acts as a disincentive to sustainable forest management.”
Mechanisms to counter illegal logging
The only way to stop or at least minimize the harmful effects of illegal logging is for governments to take the necessary steps to counter it. The panelists were asked to shed some light on the different government mechanisms that are in place to counter
Dr. Scott Bowe
The harmful effects of illegal logging go far beyond revenue losses to governments and businesses the world over the threat of illegal logging. Horst mentioned the EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade Action Plan of 2003. This action plan identifies a number of supply and demand measures to deal with the issue of illegal logging. These include activities to promote trade in legal timber, adoption of legislative measures and promoting public procurement policies. Bowe spoke about how large wood consuming markets such as the United States and the European Union are addressing illegal logging through the supply chain. These regions are implementing laws that require wood users to apply ‘due care’ and ‘due diligence’ in their procurement practices to avoid the entry of illegal wood products into their supply chains. In the United States, amendments to the Lacey Act require wood users to use due
Scott is a Professor and Wood Products Specialist in the Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology at the University of Wisconsin. He earned his Ph.D. in Forest Products at Virginia Tech, a M.S. in Forest Products from the University of Minnesota, and a B.S. in Forest Science from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Scott works closely with the wood products industry in Wisconsin and neighboring states. His current applied research projects focus on forest products markets, wood product life-cycle analysis, and wood manufacturing process improvement - all strategies for remaining competitive within a global forest products marketplace.
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diligence in their procurement practices to avoid the entry of illegal wood products into their supply chains. Clarke outlined a broad collection of different government mechanisms. For instance, producer-country government policies include laws and regulations such as logging bans, forest codes, and export restrictions. With a market for illegally harvested products, however, such policies are fighting an oftenoverwhelming economic incentive to break the law. This is why there is the second category of government mechanisms: consumer or demandside policies. These include public procurement policies, like Denmark’s or the UK’s, which require the governments of those countries to source only legally (and preferably sustainably) produced forest products, in order to guarantee a market for these products. The starting point according to Oliver is the development of an equitable forest governance framework, which gives fair and secure access to forest resources and sends out the right incentives to encourage legal and sustainable use and management. Many tropical countries - which tend to be
In the United States, amendments to the Lacey Act require wood users to use due diligence in their procurement practices to avoid the entry of illegal wood products into their supply chains considered ‘high risk’ on illegal logging - are now heavily engaged in national processes of stakeholder dialogue with the aim of improving overall forest governance. Meanwhile major timber consuming countries, including the US and the EU, are implementing timber trading laws to support these national processes in producer countries.
Implications of measures aimed at fighting illegal logging Whilst there exist different mechanisms to fight illegal logging, we should also try and understand the implications of these measures being implemented to eliminate and/or reduce illegal logging in
the industry. These measures will mean that there will be a level playing field for timber trade in Europe, states Horst. Legitimate operators can no longer be undercut by operators who bring in illegal timber. At the same time, the operators within the EU market have to have information on the source of their timber, do a risk assessment to find out if there is a risk of illegal timber in their supply and if this is the case, they have to mitigate this risk. Industry operators in the Middle East exporting to the European Union will increasingly get requests from their clients in the European Union to give detailed information on the source of the timber and timber products they export to the European Union. Bowe sees two main implications; firstly, the environmental benefit by protecting forest habitat, clean water, wildlife, and local communities; and secondly the expansion of market opportunities. According to Clarke these measures change, and are meant to change, the risk calculus for the industry. She further stated that it’s now very important to make sure you’re conducting due diligence to avoid illegally sourced products, because if you do have illegally sourced material, you may find important markets are closed to you. The introduction of these laws certainly creates new challenges for the wood industry as pressure mounts to provide credible assurances that wood supply is legally sourced. This will be particularly challenging for manufacturers engaged in long and complex supply chains that might be sourcing and combining wood from numerous countries and selling into a wide range of markets with differing due diligence requirements. However, there should also be significant positive benefits for the wood industry. Progressive removal of illegal wood from trade and refinement of risk assessment and legality verification
Tom Ter Horst
Tom is the Communications officer for the European Forest Institute’s EU FLEGT Asia Regional Programme. His work focuses on raising awareness on the issue of illegal logging and providing information on the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan initiated by the European Union.
June 2012 | www.timberdesignandtechnology.com 37
procedures should help reduce volatility in wood markets and increase financial returns for responsible producers. It should also help improve the legitimacy and reputation of the international wood products trade, contributing to greater opportunities for improved investment in the sector.
Illegal timber and the Middle East
Considering that the Middle East is an important market for timber, it is important to know if trade in illegal timber is a big problem in the Middle East. The question also arises as to what can countries that don’t have natural forests and import the majority of their timber do to further the campaign against illegal logging. Sharing his thoughts Horst said that trade data from the FAO shows that some countries in the Middle East source timber and timber products from places where there is a risk of illegal timber coming into the supply chain. One of the options to ensure that timber imports are legal is to source from countries where the European Union has a bilateral agreement with - also called a ‘Voluntary Partnership Agreement’ where the partner country has agreed with the EU to only export legally verified timber, more commonly known as FLEGT licensed timber. By buying FLEGT licensed timber, the chances of sourcing illegal timber are minimal. Bowe thinks it is safe to assume that some illegally produced timber is finding its way into the Middle East. As markets such as the United States and the European Union enact policies to stop the flow of illegal timber into their home markets, it is reasonable to assume that the volumes of illegal timber will increase into markets that do not have these policies. It will be up to the wood user to
practice due diligence in these markets to limit the import of illegal timber. Clarke believes the problem to be more serious in that the Middle East is a major importer of timber products, and its ports are an important transhipment point. It is still a fairly ‘legality-insensitive’ market - in other words, not too many questions are asked about the origin of the wood and whether it was produced legally. Oliver on the other hand says it is almost impossible to say how large the problem is in the Middle East. The timber trade situation in the region suggests it may be significant. Middle Eastern countries are often large wood importers and many rely heavily on wood derived from relatively high risk areas in Central Africa, South East Asia, and Eastern Europe.There is also little evidence yet that importing companies in the region are working proactively to minimize the risk of handling illegally sourced wood.
Countering the threat at every level
Despite the necessary steps being taken at the macro level to counter the threat of illegal logging, it’s interesting to know
how joineries, interior designers and architects can play a role in countering the threat of illegal logging, if they can at all. Horst believes they need to ensure that the timber they source or specify to use in their designs is from legal sources. Bowe feels the same in that without due diligence laws, it is up to the joineries, designers, and architects to act diligently and specify wood from responsible sources. To maintain their quality reputations, they must consider the combined picture of legality, sustainability, and quality in all of their design and building projects. Properly sourced, wood is one of the world’s most sustainable and renewable resources according to Clarke. She insists that professionals need to ask questions and take the time to inform themselves about the wood they use, beyond its physical specifications. Finally Oliver summed up the discussion by highlighting the fact that in addition to taking their own measures, they need to encourage their own suppliers to implement due diligence systems designed to minimize the risk of illegal wood entering supply chains.
Caitlin Is a research analyst with the World Resources Institute in Washington, DC, where she works with the Forest Legality Team to support legal trade in Forest products. Caitlin holds a degree in Environmental Studies from Yale University, where she studied landscape ecology and natural resource management.
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Images © American Softwoods
merican softwoods are grown in the western, southeastern and northeastern states of the United States. Renowned for their strength, flexibility, versatility and beauty, they have been exported for almost 200 years. Harvested from sustainably managed forests in the USA, the success of forest management and conservation in the USA means that the area of forested land is now greater than it was 75 years ago. Today, the forests occupy an area equal in size to Germany and France combined and more than 4.5 million trees are planted or seeded naturally every day.
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America is recognized worldwide as a sustainable source of top quality timber. This popularity is based on: • Standardization of sizes and stress ratings • Quality control through the enforcement of a single unified grading system • Strength and durability • Suitability for preservative and fireretardant treatments • Construction standardization and systemization. The simple cell structure of softwoods’ long, uniformly packed fibres gives them a high strength-to-weight ratio, making them flexible and capable of bearing heavy loads. American softwoods have the strength to sustain longer spans for trusses and joists, as well as the clear, fine-grained timber that is in demand for joinery applications, such as panelling, door frames, windows, flooring and furniture.
Today, the forests occupy an area equal in size to Germany and France combined and more than 4.5 million trees are planted or seeded naturally every day
Application The diverse and wide-ranging applications of American Softwoods fall into three main categories: Joinery, Structural and Outdoors.
The quality grains and textures of American softwoods have long proved popular for many internal uses. Finished naturally, stained or painted, they will enhance the interior of both traditional and modern homes.
Images © American Softwoods
American softwoods are also growing in demand for furniture manufacture but are ideal for : • Bed frames • Cabinetry • Fenestration • Flooring • Moulding • Panelling • Staircases
Typical structural construction applications include: • Churches • Retail developments • Schools • Sports venues • Swimming pools • Theatres
When pressure preser vative treated, timber can provide decades of reliable service exposed to the harshest of climates. Southern Yellow Pine is the preferred species when pressure treatment with wood preser vatives is required. The unique cellular structure of Southern Yellow Pine permits deep and uniform penetration of preser vatives, rendering the wood useless as a food source for fungi, termites and micro-organisms. Common outdoors applications for preservative treated timber include: • Boardwalks • Bridges • Cladding • Decks • Marinas and piers • Playground equipment
The various species of softwoods from southern and western America provide a wide range of choices, including industrial, commercial, structural and domestic applications
Images © American Softwoods
Structural timber is graded for its loadbearing and load-carrying capacity in framing systems and in heavy construction, light commercial and residential applications. The dominant American structural framing species are Douglas Fir and Southern Yellow Pine.
Images © American Softwoods
American softwood timber is marketed by members of the Southern Forest Products Association (SFPA) and the Softwood Expor t Council (SEC), known jointly as American Softwoods. The various species of softwoods from southern and western America provide a wide range of choices, including industrial, commercial, structural and domestic applications. Much of the US softwood expor ted is for interior applications, such as doors, windows, picture frames, mouldings, flooring, panelling, and other millwork - a prime destination for Southern Yellow Pine, Eastern white pine and fir species. Fur ther, furniture components and edge-glued panels are also key uses for softwood lumber whilst western species, such as Douglas fir and hemlock in clear grades, are prized for wood window and door stock as well as for window frames.
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Ponderosa Pine Pinus ponderosa
Western red cedar Thuja plicata
Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menziesii
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is light in color, with large amounts of creamy white to straw-colored sapwood and minimal amounts of light reddish-brown heartwood. Along with Sugar, Idaho White and Lodgepole pine, it forms a commercially important group called the Western pines (Pinus spp.).
Ponderosa pine is valued primarily for its appearance and is suitable for any application that requires a light to moderately strong, splinter-free, stable wood, such as jointed drawers, windows, shutters and stairs.
Distribution and availability
Ponderosa has a range that extends from Canada to Mexico and from the Pacific Ocean to South Dakota and is widely available.
Physical and mechanical properties Ponderosa is light and soft-textured, with a uniform, close, straight grain that is delicately figured after dressing. It seasons well, with a minimum of warping and cupping.
Slightly durable and moderately easy to treat with preservative.
Western Red Cedar is a slow-growing, longlived tree, whose aromatic wood is highly decay-resistant. The sapwood, usually less than 2.5 centimetres wide is almost pure white, while the heartwood varies from a dark reddish brown to light yellow.
Primarily used in cladding, shingles and other exterior applications, such as greenhouses. Also useful in boatbuilding and marine structure as well as interior panelling, window sashes and built-in furniture.
Distribution and availability
Found in the Pacific Northwest and inland to the Rocky Mountains in stands totaling 48.7 million cubic metres. Exceptional coastal area trees reach a height of 60 metres, a diameter of 4.9 metres and an age of 1,000 years or more. Readily available.
Physical and mechanical properties
A coarse-textured softwood, weighing 376 kg per cubic metre, with a close, uniform, straight grain and an extreme resistance to decay. Dimensionally stable, it takes paint, stains or varnishes easily. When untreated, it weathers to a silvery-grey.
Straight-grained and moderately heavy, with limited resin, this is one of the most attractive and strongest of the Western softwood species. The wood has a slight rosy cast; the sapwood generally a light straw color and the heartwood a deep russet brown.
Its appearance is prized for joinery, panelling, cabinets, flooring, windows and cladding. Its strength, straightness and ease of fabrication make it the perfect high-performance timber for structural uses, such as metal plate-connected trusses, framing, bridges and large heavy members.
Distribution and availability
One of the tallest on the continent, this species accounts for a fifth of North Americaâ€™s total softwood reserves and is grown on 14 million hectares of forest in the Western Woods region. Readily available.
Physical and mechanical properties
Medium texture, with a weight of 540 kg per cubic metre, and a high density, specific gravity and strength-to-weight ratio. Very stiff, with high strength values in bending, tension, horizontal sheer and compression. High shrinkage when seasoned from a green state, but minimal shrinkage and swelling once seasoned.
Very durable. Difficult to treat with preservative.
Moderately durable. Difficult to treat incising is recommended for maximum penetration of preservative.
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Western hemlock Tsuga heterophylla General description
Among the harder, stronger western softwoods, it is marketed and sold separately as well as in the Hem-fir species combination. Springwood is whitish to light yellow-brown; summerwood frequently has a purplish or reddish-brown tinge; heartwood not distinct. Small black streaks often appear in the wood.
It is used for framing and architectural members and is a prime species for mouldings, millwork and panelling.
Distribution and availability
Grows best in the Pacific Northwest between sea level and 1850 metres. Readily available.
Physical and mechanical properties Straight grain and fine texture with a weight of 465 kg per cubic metre.
Slightly durable. Difficult to treat with preservative.
Southern Yellow Pine Pinus palustris, Pinus elliotti Pinus echinata and Pinus taeda
Hem-fir Tsuga heterophylla and Abies spp
A species combination of Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and five of the true firs: California Red fir (Abies magnifica), Grand fir (Abies grandis), White fir (Abies concolor), Noble fir (Abies procera) and Pacific Silver fir (Abies amabilis). Fine-grained and with interchangeable structural performance, these trees are marketed together as an elegant softwood, classified as a White Wood, combining beauty and strength. A very light colour, from creamy white spring wood to a light strawbrown (hemlock) or reddish-brown (firs).
The four main species of Southern Yellow Pine are Longleaf (Pinus palustris), Slash (Pinus elliotti), Shortleaf (Pinus echinada) and Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). The wood has a distinctive color and grain - its sapwood ranges from white to yellowish and heartwood from yellow to reddish-brown. It combines looks, strength, and extreme ease of treatment with the highest nail-holding ability.
Most is used structurally, for floor and roof trusses, joists, rafters and carcassing. Ease of treatment makes it particularly good for decking and outdoor use. Character and impact resistance make it suitable for flooring, panelling and joinery.
Distribution and availability
Grows on 78 million hectares of forest land in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North and South Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee,Texas and Virginia. Widely available.
Physical and mechanical properties Medium texture. Weight ranges from 537 to 626 kg per cubic metre. High density gives it natural strength, weight, and impact and wearing resistance. It has a higher specific gravity than European Redwood and, although easy to work with, stands up well to rough treatment.
Joinery that requires precision machining, a pale color and excellent gluing, such as mouldings, exposed ceilings, doors, louvres, windows, furniture, flooring and laminated structural and non-structural products. Structural products, such as framing and engineered systems.
Physical and mechanical properties Straight grain and fine texture sands to a silky smoothness with virtually no tendency to split. Weight ranges from 537 to 626 kg per cubic metre. Knotty appearance grades for joinery; lower knotty grades for general construction. Good strength and stiffness. Good insulating properties. Holds its original color well.
Working properties Machining Nailing
Slightly durable. Difficult to treat with preservative.
Slightly durable. Extremely easy to treat with preservative. June 2012 | www.americansoftwoods.com 43
Export Analysis: American Softwoods
Images © Tom Lipman
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However, North Africa and the Middle East imported USD 20.4 million of softwood lumber in 2011, which represents an increase of 153 percent over 2010 USD 6.1 million, followed by Liberia with USD 1.8 million. In the GCC, Saudi Arabia and the UAE emerged as the top markets with exports of over USD 1.188 million and USD 930,000 respectively. More importantly, exports to Saudi Arabia and the UAE grew by 67 percent and 30 percent respectively - a sign of the potential for growth in the region. In terms of species, the greatest increases were seen in Lodgepole pine, Ponderosa pine, and other pine lumber. The main product imported to the Middle Eastern region is Southern Yellow Pine and finger jointed lumber. In 2011, the North African region experienced increases in other pine lumber. Similar to the Middle Eastern region, the main product imported from the US in North Africa is Southern Yellow Pine. Western US softwood species such as Douglas fir are well known in the Middle East thanks to their use by American oil companies over the past 20 years for general construction and other uses. Other durable species such as Western Red Cedar and California Redwood have also been used. All construction grade species could be used
in wood frame construction projects. Given the current world currency realignment, there is also an opportunity for furniture and interior grade species to compete against the lower quality softwoods from the EU and Scandinavia. Joinery exports to the Middle East for 2011 were down 36 percent from 2010 to a value of USD 1.7 million. However, even with the decrease, joinery remains the leader of US imports in the main builder’s carpentry category. Window frames follow joinery with USD 1.2 million. “Owing to its sustainability, durability, and beauty, interest in and demand for timber across the globe is increasing. What’s more, American softwoods have been something of a well-kept secret of late and we are keen
Images © Tom Lipman
In 2010, the Arab Spring brought about a political, social, and economic transformation in the Middle East and North Africa. With change comes uncertainty, but also economic reform agendas that are conducive to growth while maintaining stability. Despite turmoil in the region, the Middle East and North Africa region recorded economic growth of 4.3 percent in 2011, a slight increase from the 4.1 percent growth increase in 2010. The region was relatively affected by the global recession, and consequently there has not been any major change in the direction of economic policy. Notwithstanding, the oil and gas sector is set to remain a critical determinant of economic performance in the Middle East and North Africa region. Although American hardwoods are well established in the Middle East and North Africa, US softwood lumber, structural wood panels and engineered wood products have generally not yet achieved significant market penetration. However, North Africa and the Middle East imported USD 20.4 million of softwood lumber in 2011, which represents an increase of 153 percent over 2010. According to data released by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), North Africa accounted for USD 10 million and the Middle East accounted for USD 10.4 million. Jordan and Lebanon are the import leaders in the Middle Eastern region, with respective import values of USD 3.4 million and USD 1.5 million. In North Africa, Egypt imported the highest value from the US with
to bring their benefits and beauty to a wider audience. We remain upbeat with the increased demand for American softwoods in the Middle East in general and the UAE in particular, and we hope to generate a lot of interest in the coming year,” added Richard Kleiner, Director of International Market Development, Southern Forest Products Association.
Lebanon Lebanon is the second largest importer of US softwood lumber with USD 2.3 million in 2011. This was a 17 percent decrease from 2010. The collapse of the government in early 2011 over its backing of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon and unrest in neighbouring Syria slowed economic growth to 1.5 percent after four years of 8 percent average growth. In September 2011 the Cabinet endorsed a bill that would provide USD 1.2 billion in funding to improve Lebanon’s downtrodden electricity sector, but fiscal limitations will test the government’s ability to invest in other areas, such as water. United Arab Emirates The UAE imported USD 930,000 worth of US softwood lumber in 2011, which represents an increase of 30 percent from 2010. According to the Gulf Organization for Industrial Consulting, the UAE invested USD 121 million into the country’s wood industry at the end of 2010. There were 208 wood factories in the UAE, the most of all GCC countries. The global financial crisis, tight international credit, and deflated asset prices constricted the economy in 2009 and 2010. However, the UAE authorities tried to blunt the crisis by increasing spending and boosting liquidity in the banking sector. The crisis hit Dubai hardest, as it was heavily exposed to depressed real estate prices. Dubai lacked sufficient cash to meet its debt obligations, prompting global concern about its solvency. The economy is expected to continue a slow rebound. The UAE’s strategic plan for the next few years focuses on diversification and creating more opportunities for nationals
Images © Tom Lipman
Jordan Although Jordan has the smallest economy in the Middle East, it is the region’s largest importer of wood products from the US. In 2011, Jordan imported USD 3.4 million from the US. This was a 252 percent increase from 2010. The global economic slowdown and regional turmoil have depressed Jordan’s GDP growth, impacting export-oriented sectors, construction, and tourism. In 2011 the government approved two economic relief packages and a budgetary supplement, largely to improve the living conditions for the middle and poor classes.
The same conditions that suggest increased hardwood consumption in the Middle East in the future also apply to the softwood industry through improved education and increased private sector employment. Egypt In 2011, Egypt imported USD 6.1 million of US softwood lumber, representing an 86 percent increase from 2010. Despite the relatively high levels of economic growth in recent years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remained poor and contributed to public discontent. After unrest erupted in January 2011, the Egyptian Government drastically increased social spending to address public dissatisfaction, but political uncertainty at the same time caused economic growth to slow significantly, reducing the government’s revenues.
“Through our participation at the Dubai WoodShow and other exhibitions, we aim to promote further the diverse end uses of American Softwoods, which include industrial, commercial, structural and domestic applications. Much of the US softwood exported is for interior applications, such as doors, windows, picture frames, mouldings,
flooring, panelling, and other millwork - a prime destination for Southern Yellow Pine, Eastern white pine and fir species. Further, furniture components and edge-glued panels are also key uses for softwood lumber whilst western species, such as Douglas fir and hemlock in clear grades, are prized for wood window and door stock as well as for window frames,” added Natalie Macias, International Marketing Manager, Softwood Export Council. The same conditions that suggest increased hardwood consumption in the Middle East in the future also apply to the softwood industry. The very factors that create niche market opportunities for hardwoods create many of the same opportunities for softwoods. American Softwoods will continue to conduct trade visits and market analysis and participate in major trade shows. Market information gathered will be used to formulate a more targeted approach in terms of specific product focus and market niches. “American softwoods have been exported for almost 200 years, and it is our role to make sure the industry is fully aware of the advantages, opportunities and benefits of species such as Southern Yellow Pine, Douglas fir, hemlock and eastern white pine in a wide range of applications, both commercial and domestic. We aim to encourage the use of American softwoods for both internal and external projects and to work with the timber industry, providing technical information and assistance to develop the market for these under-used species,” added Craig Larsen, President, Softwood Export Council. June 2012 | www.americansoftwoods.com 45
oday, wood takes on the mantle of new technology with glued engineered building products that maximize the forest resource and deliver optimum design values to the design professional. Engineered wood products are a high-performance, consistent, reliable and environmentally responsible choice for everything from commercial buildings to industrial structures and materials handling applications to home projects. Wood, and more specifically engineered wood, is a renewable building material and is a good choice for the environment, for green building, and for long-term life cycle performance. With intensified interest in environmental impact and green building, it’s important to consider the attributes that make wood a good choice for the environment. It’s also important to understand how engineered wood products can be used to meet the emerging standards and requirements for green building. The manufacture of wood products requires substantially less energy than the production of other building products such as steel and concrete. Wood product manufacture results in fewer greenhouse gas and other air-polluting emissions. And wood design compares favorably on the solid waste scale. Its environmental attributes make wood the natural choice for sustainable design.
Plywood: The original engineered wood product Plywood is manufactured from sheets of cross-laminated veneer and bonded under heat and pressure with durable, moistureresistant adhesives. Engineered for superior strength, stiffness and versatility, plywood has been one of the most ubiquitous building products for decades. Plywood manufactured by US industry mills is available in a wide variety of grades
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Images © American Softwoods
Engineered wood products manufactured by US industry members include: a. Plywood b. Oriented Strand Board (OSB) c. Glued Laminated Timber (Glulam) d. I-joist e. Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) f. Oriented Strand Lumber (OSL)
Engineered Wood: Constructing a green future for the environment
ranging from smooth, natural surfaces suitable for finish work and underlayment to more economical grades used for wall sheathing, subfloors and siding. With more than a dozen common thicknesses and over twenty different grades, it’s easy to specify the right plywood panel for the job. Plywood is used predominantly in floor, wall and roof sheathing, siding, concrete forms, furniture, boats, industrial containers and pallets.
AMERICAN SOFTWOODS Oriented Strand Board (OSB): Unlimited Applications
OSB is manufactured from rectangularshaped strands of wood that are oriented lengthwise and then arranged in layers at right angles to one another, laid up into mats, and bonded together with moistureresistant, heat-cured adhesives. This results in a structural engineered wood panel that shares many of the strength and performance characteristics of plywood. OSB is a solid panel product of consistent quality without laps, gaps or voids. OSB panels can be manufactured from a wide range of fast-growing species and from relatively small trees. The production process utilizes a maximum amount of wood fiber from each tree that is harvested, and because the process is very highly automated the yield of finished product is very high. OSB is widely used in residential and commercial construction, and is gaining popularity in markets such as materials handling and the manufacturing of upholstered furniture. The manufacturing process makes it possible for panel makers to add innovative features such as a slipresistant texture to panels designed for roof sheathing, and to supply oversized and metric panels.
Glued Laminated Timber: Over 100 years of strength, beauty and reliability
Glued laminated timber, or glulam, is a highly innovative and versatile construction material with many end uses, ranging from simple beams and headers in residential construction to soaring glulam arches for domed stadium roofs spanning more than 152 metres Glulam is composed of individual wood laminations, or â€˜lamsâ€™, specifically selected and positioned in the timber, based on their performance characteristics, and bonded together with durable, moistureresistant adhesives. Increased design values and improved product performance make this cost competitive material the natural choice for every project from simple beams and headers in residential construction to soaring glulam arches for domed stadium roofs spanning more than 152 metres feet. Glulam is available in depths from 15 to 183 centimetres or greater and in lengths up to 30 metres and longer. The strength and durability of glulam beams make them an ideal choice for large, open designs where long spans are required. In fact, glulam is the only engineered wood product that can be produced in curved shapes and is available in a range of appearance characteristics to meet end-use requirements.
Compression lams at top Core lams in center Tension lams at bottom
June 2012 | www.americansoftwoods.com 47
AMERICAN SOFTWOODS I-Joist: A high-performance advantage
I-joists are â€˜Iâ€™-shaped engineering wood structural members designed for use in floor and roof construction. I-joists are comprised of top and bottom flanges of various widths united with webs of various depths, and offer strength, versatility and economy for use in residential and light commercial applications. The product is prefabricated using sawn or structural composite lumber flanges and OSB webs, bonded together with exteriortype adhesives. The flanges resist common bending stresses while the web provides outstanding shear performance. I-joists
can be manufactured using solid sawn lumber or structural composite lumber for the flange components, and plywood or oriented strand board for the web. This versatility allows the manufacturer to make the most efficient use of wood fiber resources in their region while producing products that consistently perform to known standards. APA Performance Rated I-joists are manufactured to specific dimensions commonly used in residential construction. They are ideal for long spans and readily available from most builder supply sources and mostly used for floor and roof framing.
Structural Composite Lumber: Making the best use of resources
(LSL), and oriented strand lumber (OSL), are solid, highly predictable and uniform engineered wood products that are sawn to consistent sized and are virtually free from warping and splitting. SCL products generally out-perform conventional lumber when either face- or edge-loaded. SCL is generally manufactured with the grain of each layer of veneers, strands or flakes oriented parallel to the length of the billet. Because the grade and quality of each individual layer can be closely controlled, variations in product properties are lower than in conventional sawn lumber products. As a result, the properties and performance of SCL can be more confidently predicted.The most common use is in beams, headers, rafters, studs, joists, columns and I-joist flange material.
Structural composite lumber (SCL) is a family of engineered wood products created by bonding layers of dried and graded wood veneers or strands with moisture-resistant adhesive into blocks of material known as billets that are cured in a heated press. The manufacturing process enables large billets to be made from the strongest fibers of relatively small trees of many species, providing an efficient utilization of wood fiber resources. SCL is typically available in various dimensions and is easily worked in the field using conventional construction tools. Members of the SCL family, which includes laminated veneer lumber (LVL), parallel strand lumber (PSL), laminated strand lumber
Rim Board: An integral system component
Rim Board is a specially designed component that is engineered to work in concer t with wood I-joists to deliver a complete engineered wood framing solution. Rim Board can be made from plywood, OSB, glulam or SCL. Conventional solid-sawn lumber rim boards typically do not match the depths of the new generation of wood I-joists. Rim Board closes the space between the sill plate and the bottom wall plate, or between the top plate and bottom plate in multi-floor construction. In addition to closing the void, rim board is an integral structural component that transfers both lateral and ver tical forces. To function properly, the rim board must match the depth of framing members, and have similar dimensional change characteristics. Rim Boards can be manufactured using plywood, OSB, glulam or LVL. Depending on the product used, building material suppliers can deliver Rim Boards in 48 www.americansoftwoods.com | June 2012
lengths up to 24 feet. These engineered wood Rim Boards have greater dimensional stability, higher strength, increased structural reliability, more consistent quality and a lower tendency to check or split than sawn lumber.
AMERICAN SOFTWOODS American Softwoods
American Softwoods (AMSO) is a promotional par tnership formed by three major U.S. softwood trade associations, the Southern Forest Products Association (SFPA), the Softwood Expor t Council (SEC) and the Engineered Wood Association (APA). The campaign encourages the use of American softwoods for both internal and external projects and increase awareness of its commercially available species. AMSO also works with the timber industry, providing technical information and assistance to develop the market for American softwoods. Renowned for their strength, flexibility, versatility and beauty, American softwoods have been expor ted for almost 200 years. Harvested from sustainably managed forests in the USA, the success of forest management and conservation in the USA means that forested land is now greater than it was 75 years ago, and is increasing year on year. For more information, please visit: www.americansoftwoods.com
Softwood Export Council (SEC)
Headquar tered in Por tland, Oregon, the Softwood Expor t Council is a trade council comprising U.S. softwood grading agencies, industr y trade associations, state expor t promotional development agencies, and others interested in expanding international markets for U.S. softwood lumber. On behalf of the U.S. softwood lumber industr y, the SEC coordinates overseas market development activities with the Foreign Agricultural Ser vice, and aids American expor ts of softwood products by providing information and assistance to agents, impor ters, designers, and users of these products in other countries. Through trade association and grading agency members, SEC represents expor ters of softwood lumber, veneer, mouldings and millwork, and component products. The SEC is an independent organization governed by a Board of Directors, under a set of Bylaws. International marketing activities are conducted under the guidelines of the FAS market promotion programs. For more information, please visit: www.softwood.org
Southern Forest Products Association (SFPA)
SFPA was founded in 1915 as the Southern Pine Association. Today, SFPA is recognized as one of the foremost trade organisations in the forest products industry and represents Southern Pine lumber manufacturers from the states of Virginia, Nor th Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas. SFPA’s member companies produce about 43 percent of the Southern Pine lumber in the United States. Today, SFPA is building momentum and demand for Southern Pine products with marketing effor ts focused on structural, specialty/industrial and treated lumber applications. Annual production of Southern Pine lumber reached a modern-era record of 19.00 billion board feet in 2005. SFPA continues to serve as an information clearinghouse to design/build professionals, providing informative seminars, technical guides and references, and online content. SFPA remains at the forefront of promoting members’ products around the globe. For more information, please visit www.sfpa.org
APA - The Engineered Wood Association
Images © American Softwoods
For more than seventy years, APA - The Engineered Wood Association has focused on helping the industry create structural wood products of exceptional strength, versatility and reliability. Combining the research effor ts of scientists at APA’s 42,000-square-foot Research Center with the knowledge gained from decades of fieldwork, and cooperation with its’ member manufacturers, APA promotes new solutions and improved processes that benefit the entire industry. Originally founded as the Douglas Fir Plywood Association, and then later recognized as the American Plywood Association, APA changed its name to APA - The Engineered Wood Association to better reflect the range of products manufactured by APA members and the international scope of the Association. APA members are comprised of well-known industry leaders, whose mills produce the majority of the structural wood panel products manufactured in North America, plus a host of engineered wood products that include glued laminated timber (glulam), composite panels, wood I-joists, and structural composite lumber. For more information, please visit: www.apawood.org June 2012 | www.americansoftwoods.com 49
mation on your Formore more information information onon your For your inable American choice of sustainable American choice of sustainable American luding certified Softwoods, including certified Softwoods, including certified w Pine, Western Southern Yellow Pine, Western Southern Yellow Pine, Western Red Douglas Fir, Hemlock uglas Fir,Cedar, Hemlock Red Cedar, Fir,visit Hemlock and Eastern White Pine, hite Pine, visitDouglas www.americansoftwoods.com and Eastern White Pine, visit softwoods.com www.americansoftwoods.com
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Exhibitions coming up This season Carrefour International du Bois 2012
With its complete timber concept, the Carrefour International du Bois is the only tradeshow of its kind in Europe. Organized by Atlanbois and the Nantes - Saint Nazaire Port Authority, the event attracts great interest both in France and abroad. It has established itself as the leading trade show amongst timber professionals, bringing together over 500 exhibitors and almost 10,000 visitors from 60 countries over the course of three days. A biennial event, the 2010 edition saw a host of institutional events run alongside the trade show including nearly 30 conferences, general assemblies and internal meetings making this an extremely important event for decision makers and for the entire French and European timber industry. The French forestry industry generates a turnover of over 40 billion euros and accounts for 425,000 jobs. The activities associated with timber and forests are diverse, drawing on a wide range of industries, such as forest exploitation, timber sawing, the manufacture of timber panels and paper pulp, timber frames/joinery etc. This industry is characteristically present across the whole country and encompasses both artisans and processing industries, from large companies down to very small ones. The Carrefour International du Bois trade show supplies an ideal setting to keep up with new products and innovations in the construction industry with the Timber Techniques and Solutions area, attracting project managers, architects, quantity surveyors and designers, as well as any professional keen to adopt sustainable timber-based solutions. Date: 6 - 8 June Venue: La Beaujoire Exhibition Centre Location: Nantes, France Timings: 6 - 7 June (Wednesday & Thursday), 9:30 18:30 and 8 June (Friday), 9:30 - 18:00 Expected Attendees: 10,000+ WEBSITE: www.timbershow.com
China Furniture & Woodworks 2012 After 16 years of development, China Furniture & Woodworks is now recognized as the most comprehensive trade fair for the furniture industry in North China and an important trade platform for suppliers, manufacturers and buyers both at home and overseas. The event in 2011 attracted over 484 exhibitors from 21 countries and regions. Providing access to Northern China, Japanese, Korean and Russian markets, it is considered the most valuable trade show for furniture manufacturers and the woodworking industry in China. 2012 is expected to be bigger and better following the support of the China National Furniture Association, whose nationwide network not only has the dominant influence over Chinaâ€™s furniture industry but also links the Chinese market with the overseas furniture industry. This year, the China Furniture & Woodworks event aims to continue serving the vertical sectors of the furniture and wood products manufacturing industry with better service and high quality business opportunities. Date: 8 - 11 June Venue: Dalian Star-Sea Convention & Exhibition Center (DSCEC) Location: Dalian, China Timings: 8 - 10 June (Friday - Sunday), 9:00 - 17:00 and 11 June (Monday) 9:00 - 14:00 Exhibition Size: 14,000 sqm (indoor) + 6,000 sqm (outdoor) Expected Attendees: 15,000+ WEBSITE: www.sinoexhibition.com/furniture/index_e.asp
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Wood Tech India 2012 Wood Tech India ranks among the finest woodworking industryrelated trade events in India.The show serves up convenient corporate interaction opportunities for a large contingent of experienced business experts from this sector and all the latest industry trends and innovations are closely examined here. Given that India’s economy has sustained a consistent growth rate of over 7 percent in the last eight years, the wood market in India is expected to grow by an average of 20 percent per year. Held at the Chennai Trade Centre over three days, the show welcomes more than 40,000 attendees, with leading interior designers, furniture producers, architects and distinguished industry decision makers being some of the key visitors at the event. Also attracting foreign exhibitors in large numbers, the show focuses on the display and demonstrations of a varied array of woodworking machines, handling tools, portable power machines, laminates, plywood and veneers.
Galiforest 2012 Following the success of the first edition of Galiforest in 2010 that saw the attendance of over 100 exhibitors from 14 countries, over 5,000 visitors linked to the forestr y sector and an estimated turnover of 7 million euros are expected to attend the second edition by Feira Internacional de Galicia. The show is positioned as a leading international Forestr y Monographic Show for Southern Europe. Set to ensure an effective balance between demand and supply, another mainstay of the second edition is innovation, creating scenarios seeking to enhance technological improvement, sustainability and forest development. The event itself is held in the midst of a forest that has been facilitated with excellent roads and communications infrastructure allowing exhibitors to hold live demonstrations. Galiforest 2012 will be held in the Agro-Forest Training Centre of Sergude, a mere 15 kilometres from the tourist town of Santiago de Compostela. Interestingly, the capital city of Galicia is reputed as the first Spanish forestr y producer and the region where forest owners, and manufacturers and impor ters of machiner y are based. Exhibitors from sectors that include forestry machiner y, timber production, primar y processing industries, training and research will engage in demonstrations of machiner y, sessions to analyze and discuss issues faced by the industr y, timber auctions and display of technological innovations. Date: 28 - 30 June Venue: Agro-Forest Training Centre of Sergude, Boqueixón, Santiago de Compostela Location: Galicia, Spain Timings: 10:00 - 20:00 Expected Attendees: 5,000+ WEBSITE: www.galiforest.com
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Date: 6 - 8 July Venue: Chennai Trade Centre Location: Nandambakkam - Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Timings: 10:00 - 16:00 (Business Visitors) and 16:00 - 18:00 (General Visitors) Expected Attendees: 40,000+ WEBSITE: www.woodtechindia.in
Project Lebanon 2012 Project Lebanon 2012, the 17th edition of the International Construction Trade Exhibition for Lebanon and the Middle East is the premier event of its kind in the region bringing together industry leaders from around the world. In the 2011 edition, 827 exhibiting companies from over 25 countries showcased their latest products and services to over 24,000 visitors. The event will allow for unique face-to-face networking opportunities with a high quality audience and enable participants to establish new contacts, renew existing partnerships, and explore new business opportunities. The Lebanese construction market has proved to be the most resilient and sustainable market in the region despite the difficult political situation, owing its strength to solid economic fundamentals. Lebanon’s construction sector has accredited its resilience to the firm demand by Arab nationals, Lebanese expatriates, and locals in spite of the surge in real estate prices. Project Lebanon is held concurrently with Energy Lebanon 2012 - the International Trade Exhibition for Power, Electricity, Lighting and HVAC for Lebanon and the Middle East and EcoOrient 2012 - the International Trade Exhibition and Conference for Environmental Technologies, Sustainability, Alternative Energy, Water Technology and Clean Energy. Date: 5 - 8 June Venue: Beirut International Exhibition and Leisure (BIEL) Location: Beirut, Lebanon Timings: 16:00 - 22:00 Exhibition Size: 25,000 sqm+ Expected Attendees: 24,000+ WEBSITE: www.projectlebanon.com
WoodPro Africa 2012
WoodPro Africa embraces all aspects of the wood product and aluminum window industries and is a forum for key industry players to showcase the latest trends, technologies and products as well as being a vital networking opportunity for the large number of small wood product and aluminum windows companies in Africa eager to develop greater global competitiveness. Leading wood product manufacturers and wholesalers, including suppliers of equipment, services and technology associated with the manufacture and conversion of wood products, and manufacturers and converters of aluminum products and services related to wood products application will be participating, as well as many renowned international producers of wood processing machinery. This year, the focus is around residential and commercial energy efficient window and door systems, a concept that is of great interest to architects, quantity surveyors and property developers, as well as the rapid growth in demand for laminated safety wood products and the role of double-glazing - an advantage for energy-saving, safety and cost saving. As part of the Star Interbuild Africa 2012 exhibition and four other co-locating shows, the exhibition will provide exhibitors with an outstanding opportunity to meet new and existing customers, launch new products, generate sales, enhance company image and build brand awareness, interact with distributors, and gain competitive insight. The 2010 Star Interbuild Africa show attracted 8,886 visitors - an increase of 12.7 percent over the previous edition - from all over the African continent as well as from Europe, Asia and Australia.The majority of visitors were top decision-makers from building-related industries. Recognized as the leading, long-standing and highly successful building services and construction exhibition, Star Interbuild Africa includes Glass Expo Africa, FRIGAIR Workshop & Expo, PlumbDrain Africa and EcoAfribuild in addition to WoodPro. The exhibition will incorporate all aspects of interior and exterior building design and products across residential, commercial and industrial developments in addition to a wide spectrum of the hardware and allied products industries, and a showcase for the woodworking industry including timber processing, woodworking machinery, complementary equipment, finishes and fittings, and furniture manufacturing supplies. EcoAfribuild, a new addition for 2012, is a natural extension to Interbuild Africa and will focus on the designs, technologies, materials and solutions relevant in the South African context and the effect each has on the environmental impact of buildings. The show will highlight the next generation of building and infrastructure, providing insight around the latest in global eco-friendly technologies and the transformation towards an eco-friendly built environment with a spotlight on energy efficiency, resource efficiency and environmentally-friendly technologies.
BIFE 2012, the international fair of furniture and wood products, furniture fittings, interior decorations, machinery and equipment for logging and wood processing, will be held from 5th to 9th of September 2012 at the ROMEXPO Exhibition Center in Bucharest. Open to trade visitors and also to the general public, the fair aims to bring together and promote special offers and trends in the market. This year’s edition of the trade fair will run under the slogan - ‘PLAY DESIGN FEEL’ - reflecting the way that furniture producers and distributors deal with an attitude change of a significant sector of Romanian consumers, for whom innovation, color, functionality, and last but not least, the qualityprice ratio have become mandatory to the selling process. Romania has a remarkable forest area - about 6.4 million hectares of forest which roughly equates to 1.35 billion cubic meters of timber. The forest mix can be broken down into 32 percent beech; 30 percent softwood; and 38 percent oak and other species. Although in recent years the maximum volume of timber approved for operation (by government decision) has been increasing, the actual volume harvested has decreased. Given the importance of the forest resource-based industries in Romania, and the potential for growth, especially in the furniture industry, BIFE is the ideal meeting place for both producers and distributors of furniture, as well as manufacturers and distributors of technology and equipments for the logging and wood processing, offering everyone the chance to meet and discuss new business strategies, partnerships and collaborations. BIFE 2012 is being organized by ROMEXPO in partnership with the Romanian Chambers of Commerce and Industry and the Romanian Furniture Club Association. Date: 5 - 9 September Venue: ROMEXPO Exhibition Center Location: Bucharest, Romania Timings: 5 - 8 September (Wednesday - Saturday), 10: 00 - 18: 00 and 9 September (Sunday), 10:00 - 16: 00 Expected Attendees: 8,000+ WEBSITE: www.bife.ro
Date: 15 - 18 August Venue: Expo Centre, Nasrec Location: Johannesburg, South Africa Timings: 10:00 - 18:00 Expected Attendees: 8000+ WEBSITE: www.woodpro.co.za | www.interbuild.co.za
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Dubai WoodShow 2012 attracts over 400 exhibitors
he Dubai International Wood & Wood Machinery Show (Dubai WoodShow 2012), the leading event for the timber industry in the region, attracted over 400 exhibitors from across the globe over the course of its three-day run in April (3-5, 2012). According to Strategic Marketing & Exhibitions, organizers of the event, show space this year increased by more than 40 percent to 9,072 square meters. Additionally, the show was moved to the Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Centre. The exhibition was inaugurated by H.E. Abdul Rahman Saif Al Ghurair, Chairman of the Dubai Chamber of Commerce and Industry (DCCI) and was supported by many institutions and specialized councils in the timber sector, including the American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC), French Timber, Malaysian Timber Council, African Forest Model Network and several other international councils. Speaking at the opening of the show, Dawood Al Shezawi, CEO of Strategic Marketing & Exhibitions, said: “It is our pleasure to introduce the seventh edition of the exhibition, the largest and most advanced in terms of participants. Given the presence of so many industry leaders and investors, this is a positive indicator of the growth and development of the Dubai WoodShow. It also emphasizes its
strategic role in gathering the owners of specialized businesses and investors from the timber sector.” The exhibition this year featured two large halls equally divided between materials and machinery, with several leading woodworking machinery manufacturers marking their return to the show. The organizers also hosted a seminar on ‘Timber Legality’, working in close co-operation with the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce (KADIN). By far the largest international group was from China with 45 exhibitors plus 3 from Taiwan, followed by Germany and Italy with 31 and 26 exhibitors respectively, the majority of whom were machinery companies. North America accounted for 35 exhibitors, of which USA had 23; Canada fielded 12; and both France and India 10 each. Local exhibitors from the UAE amounted to 33. Other country groups represented came from all over the world including Austria, Cameroon, Malaysia, Russia, Singapore, Switzerland, Indonesia and Turkey. “The show provides an opportunity to learn the latest techniques and innovations, equipment and developments in the sector, while turning the attention of manufacturers and timber merchants to sustainable and renewable resources and the desire to lessen the environmental
burden. The exhibition also serves as a unique platform to discuss future trends in the sector through the gathering of companies and construction contractors, manufacturers and designers from around the region,” added Shezawi. In total 34 countries participated, making the Dubai WoodShow 2012 thoroughly international while the improving economic climate in the GCC helped to make it an upbeat show. Early estimates indicated a doubling of visitors and an informal exit poll suggested that most of the exhibitors were very pleased and would return next year. One local exhibitor said it had fielded a sales team of 12 staff and commented that they had really needed more staff to cope with such a busy show. The next Dubai WoodShow is scheduled for 9-11 April, 2013.
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SHOW REVIEW ‘Timber Legality’ Seminar at Dubai WoodShow 2012
Delegates from producing countries around the world gathered at a seminar in Dubai on 4th April to consider the issue of ‘Assuring verified legal timber products to meet new requirements in the global market and the impact on the Middle East and GCC market’. The seminar was initiated in co-operation between the show organizers Strategic Marketing and the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce (KADIN). The event opened with a welcome from H.E. Juma Al Kait, Deputy Minister of Trade UAE, who commented that the “efforts for sustainability of forests had produced results, in which many countries had participated; now all producing and consuming countries are committed to trade in legal timber, especially those present”. Delegations from several African countries included H.E. Ngole Philip Ngwese, Minister of Forestry and Wildlife in Cameroon and Alhassan Attah, Executive Director, Ghana Timber Industry Development Division of the Ghana Forestry Commission. Delegations from the Indonesian Trade Promotion Centre, the Malaysian Timber Council and the
Malaysian Timber Certification Council also participated. The panel of expert speakers, moderated by wood industry consultant Michael Buckley from Singapore, presented details of existing and new regulations for the trade in timber and wood products. Tom Ter Horst of EFI explained the principles of the new European Timber Regulations (EUTR) that will affect almost all imported wood and many paper products from March 2013 to stop trade in illegal material at EU borders, whilst Caitlin Clarke of World Research Institute in USA spoke about the Lacey Act Timber Amendment, which focuses on illegal wood products at any part of the supply chain entering
the USA market. Additionally, Maidiward, from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, highlighted the Timber Legality Assurance System (SVLK) now being implemented in Indonesia that requires all wood product exporters to be licensed under a Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) with the EU. Professor Scott Bowe from the University of Wisconsin gave a comprehensive view of the sustainability of the American hardwood resource and discussed the importance of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) work now being undertaken by the American hardwood industry. Further, Robianto Koestomo from KADIN discussed the challenges facing the trade in verified legal timber from an Indonesian business perspective.
EXPO Calendar Project Lebanon
Woodmach Cebu 2012
5th-8th June BIEL Beirut, Lebanon
19th-21st July Waterfront Cebu City Hotel & Casino Cebu, Philippines
WOODWORKING KAZAN 2012
Wood Products & Technology 2012 21st-24th August The Swedish Exhibition Centre Gothenburg, Sweden
www.svenskamassan.se/kalender/2012/tra-teknik-2012 6th-8th June Kazanskaya Yarmarka Exhibition Centre Kazan, Russia
24th-27th July Anhembi Exhibition Pavilion S찾o Paulo, Brazil
22nd-25th August Georgia World Congress Center Georgia, USA
The Carrefour International du Bois - International Timber Trade Show 2012
2nd-6th July Permanent Ground for Tabriz International Exhibition Co. Tabriz, Iran
Internationale Wood Fair
6th-8th June La Beaujoire Exhibition Centre Nantes, France
www.timbershow.com China Furniture and Woodworks 2012 8th-11th June Dalian Star-Sea Convention & Exhibition Center and Dalian World Expo Plaza Dalian, China
www.sinoexhibition.com/furniture EXPO AMPIMM 2012
30th August - 2nd September Klagenfurter Messe Klagenfurt, Austria
Movinter (Furniture Fair)
17th-20th July Interior Eventos Mirassol, Brazil
www.movinter.com.br Interbuild Africa 2012 15th-18th August Expo Centre, Nasrec JHB, South Africa
13th-15th June Centro Banamex Mexico City, Mexico
15th-18th August Expo Guadalajara Mexico
FIMA 2012 14th-17th June La Paz, Bolivia
www.portalferias.com/fima-2012-la-pazbolivia_11349.htm Furnitech Woodtech 2012 20th-23rd June BITEC - Bangkok International Trade and Exhibition Centre Bangkok, Thailand
www.furnitechwoodtech.com Galiforest 2012 28th-30th June Agro-Forest Training Centre of Sergude Galicia, Spain
www.galiforest.com Wood Tech India 2012 6th-8th July Chennai Trade Centre Chennai (TN), India
www.woodtechindia.in Manchester Furniture Show 15th-18th July Manchester Central Manchester, UK
www.manchesterfurnitureshow.com Interbuild Qingdao 2012 17th-19th July Qingdao International Convention Center Qingdao, China
58 www.timberdesignandtechnology.com | June 2012
International Woodworking Fair (IWF) 2012
BIFE 5th-9th September ROMEXPO Exhibition Centre Bucharest, Romania
www.bife.ro Forst live 2012 7th-9th September Reitplatzgel채nde Hermannsburg Hermannsburgi, Germany
www.forst-live.de WOODWORKING 11th-14th September Sport Complex Minsk, Belarus