Bloombergâ€™s new European headquarters rated worldâ€™s most sustainable office building The Exoskeleton: an empirical investigation into a bottom-up approach to structural design SFPA/SLMA assess potential and importance of Egypt market for U.S. softwoods in new study Starbucks opens state-of-the-art premium Reserve Roastery in Shanghai Lotus Equity Group unveils plans to develop the largest timber office building in America
Middle East design. American hardwood. Architects and designers all over the Middle East have embraced American hardwoods for the range of colours, grains and textures they offer, as well as for their consistency in grade, quality and supply and their sustainable credentials.
For more information visit www.americanhardwood.org
*Bostanli Sunset Lounge in thermally-modified ash by Studio Evren BaĹ&#x;bug in Izmir, Turkey
EDITOR’S NOTE Starbucks Reserve Roastery © Starbucks
March 2018 Issue37
PUBLISHER Andy MacGregor firstname.lastname@example.org +971 55 849 1574 MARKETING DIRECTOR Eric Hammond email@example.com +971 4 455 8400 INTERNATIONAL SALES DIRECTOR James Hamilton firstname.lastname@example.org EDITOR Tony Smith email@example.com INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATIVES Rabia Alga AntExpo Org. | Turkey firstname.lastname@example.org +90 216 541 0390 ELIAS AGGELOPOULOS Med Expo Greece email@example.com +30 210 2931011 Timber Design & Technology is published 5 times a year
by Citrus Media Group (powered by WillyMac Associates FZ LLC) Level 14, Boulevard Plaza - Tower One, Emaar Boulevard, Downtown Dubai, PO Box 334155, Dubai, UAE Is designed by dozign and is printed by SUQOON Printing Press & Publishing Great care is taken to ensure the accuracy of the contents of Timber Design & Technology but the publishers accept no responsibility for any errors or omissions. All contents are © 2018 Citrus Media Group and may not be reproduced in any form without prior consent. Letters and readers’ contributions may be edited at our discretion.
Welcome to the first issue of 2018. We kick things off by looking at the Bloomberg’s new European offices, which has been rated the world’s most sustainable office building. Designed by a Foster + Partners team, led by Norman Foster himself, the stunning City of London building, is already being lined up for architectural awards. It’s also scored on the environmental front, achieving a BREEAM rating of 98.5 percent, which is the highest design-stage score ever achieved by any major office development. Contributing in a massive way is the use of American red oak, which is not used in any token, decorative way. In fact, it’s core to the interior aesthetics and to delivering on the designers’ wellbeing and environmental goals. It’s also used in considerable quantities 37,160 m2 as per for the floor alone. When the doors opened to the world’s second Starbucks Roastery, created three years after the inaugural Seattle Roastery, customers were greeted by a multisensory coffee experience in an interactive coffee and retail destination like no other. Three wooden coffee bars, including one that is 27 meters (88 feet) long - the longest at any Starbucks - are handcrafted by premiere Chinese artisans and reference the unique roasting curve of individual coffee beans, serve to execute the Roastery’s design vision of Liz Muller, Senior Vice President of Creative Global Design for Starbucks. According to Muller, the woods are warm and walnut, and lighting is the white of the milk froth. The copper has a beautiful, authentic glow like the flame of the roaster. The most impressive feature of the store however is the ceiling canopy, which comprises 10,500 hexagonal tiles made from aluminum sheeting veneered with wood by hand. This issue also features three special supplements on behalf of the American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC), Canadian Wood and American Softwoods (AMSO), who have supported the magazine from the outset. As always, I would like to encourage you to log on to the website - www.timberdesignandtechnology.com - for the latest updates and please get in touch if you have any suggestions for subjects we should consider covering. In closing, I would like to thank our advertisers, our partners and our readers, and look forward to meeting you at the Dubai WoodShow 2018.
32 DESIGN & DECOR
Bloomberg’s new European headquarters rated world’s most sustainable office building
Starbucks opens state-of-theart premium Reserve Roastery in Shanghai
The Exoskeleton: an empirical investigation into a bottom-up approach to structural design
19 CANADIAN WOOD
58 TALL TIMBER
Naturally Beautiful Naturally Sustainable
Lotus Equity Group unveils plans to develop the largest timber office building in America
27 MARKET REPORT
SFPA/SLMA assess potential and importance of Egypt market for U.S. softwoods in new study
American Softwood species and their applications
Launch of the world’s first autonomous workshop concept at HOLZ-HANDWERK
SCM showcases complete range of high-tech solutions at the Dubai WoodShow
Wewood perfects the combination of design and woodworking between artisans and designers
CUSTOMIZED FURNITURE SET TO TAKE CHINA BY STORM
The organizers of Asia’s largest and most comprehensive woodworking machinery, furniture materials and interior decor trade fair - CIFM / interzum guangzhou - have announced the launch of a new Custom Furniture Suppliers Zone at this year’s edition, which will run from March 28 - 31. With the rapid development of the domestic furniture market and China's increasing urbanization in recent years, the growth of the customized furniture market has been fast tracked. The main consumer groups - married post-80s and 90s couples - are lifestyle, design and quality conscious, paying particular attention to the finer details from choice of wood and surfaces to handles, sliding tracks and hinges. The use of well-known brands for such materials has become a key differentiating factor.
The Custom Furniture Suppliers Zone will be located in International Hall 14.1 and will bring together upstream custom furniture enterprises. The exhibitor profile will cover products required in custom furniture production, such as hardware fittings, kitchen cabinets, wardrobe and wood panels, edge banding, surface treatment and countertops. Through this zone, the industry can learn about the innovative products and cutting-edge technologies that support the development of the custom furniture industry and learn about future development trends. It will also further augment theexisting structure of CIFM / interzum guangzhou aimed at providing more new business opportunities for attendees.
HAND-MADE LUXURY DESIGN CARPET COLLECTION RETURNS TO DOMOTEX ASIA/ CHINAFLOOR 2018 DOMOTEX asia/CHINAFLOOR and COVER Magazine have announced the second edition of the curated Luxury Brands exhibition and designer carpet collection taking place in Shanghai from March 20 - 22, 2018. The signature marquee in Hall-W5 will present 16 renowned carpet design firms who will indulge visitors with a variety of extravagant products. Each company will introduce two of their finest hand-made rugs with the goal of attracting buyers as well as industry professionals interested in collaborating on future design projects.
“After a successful show in 2017, Creative Matters is excited to return to DOMOTEX asia/CHINAFLOOR,” said Carol Sebert, President and Founder of the Toronto based firm.“Our contemporary designs are suitable for residential and corporate interiors spanning modern to classic settings, perfect for the mix of traditional and contemporary styles sought after in Asia. Creative Matters' design aesthetic and ethical production, along with the high quality of the rugs we make, are a great fit for this large and dynamic market, and the ‘Luxury Brands’ pavilion is a great way to give attendees a taste of what we do.”
The internationally renowned designers from Europe, the Middle East, and North America joining the pavilion this year include AMADI CARPETS, ARIANA RUGS, ART RESOURCES, CC-TAPIS, CREATIVE MATTERS, EDELGRUND, FRENCH ACCENTS, H.O.C. DESIGN, HOSSEIN REZVANI, LILA VALADAN, NEW MOON, RUG STAR, SAMAD, TUFENKIAN, WOOL & SILK, and ZOLLANVARI.
In celebration of this growing product niche at the exhibition, show organizers and COVER are also organizing an opportunity for international visitors to catalyze their participation by applying for the 2018 Carpet Delegation. Delegates who are selected can follow exclusive DOMOTEX asia/CHINAFLOOR Carpet Sector tours and will be personally introduced to the Luxury Brands exhibitors.
Japanese timber company Sumitomo Forestry has revealed plans for the world's tallest wooden building in Tokyo, a 350-meter skyscraper that would also be the country's highest. Sumitomo Forestry, the lumber arm of one of Japan's largest corporations, is proposing the 70-storey hybrid timber skyscraper to mark the company's 350th anniversary in 2041. Named W350, the ambitious tower would be almost four times higher than the world's current tallest timber building - the 18-storey Brock Commons Student Residence in Vancouver, Canada. At 350 meters, the skyscraper designed by Sumitomo's Tsukuba Research Laboratory in collaboration with Tokyo practice Nikken Sekkei, would also become Japan's tallest building. Timber is expected to make up 90 percent of the hybrid structure, with 185,000 cubic meters of wood planned to be used in its construction. The building would use a "braced tube structure" with columns and beams made from steel and timber, supplemented by additional diagonal steel braces. The multi-use tower containing a hotel, residential units, offices, and shops would be wrapped in large balconies covered in plants.
Image ©Sumitomo Forestry
Image ©Sumitomo Forestry
Image ©Sumitomo Forestry
WORLD'S TALLEST TIMBER TOWER PROPOSED FOR TOKYO
"The aim is to create an environmentally-friendly and timber-utilising cities where they become forests through increased use of wooden architecture for high-rise buildings," said a statement from Sumitomo Forestry. "The greenery connects from the ground to the top floors through the balcony part, and it offers a view of biodiversity in an urban setting. The interior structure is of a pure wood, producing a calm space that exudes the warmth and gentleness of wood." Sumitomo Forestry estimates the building will cost GBP 4.2 billion almost double that of a conventional high-rise building constructed with current technology. However, the company is working to reduce these costs by developing new technology. It also intends the building to be part of a wider push to encourage the use of timber in urban areas to "change cities into forests". Although historically the majority of buildings in Japan were constructed of timber, fire risk greatly reduced the number of wooden buildings. The construction of buildings made from timber was given a boost in 2010, when the Act for Promotion of Use of Wood in Public Buildings was put in place. In Tokyo, timber is also being used prominently on Kengo Kuma's stadium for the 2020 Olympics.
THE REVOLUTION SET TO CHANGE THE WORLD OF MACHINING CENTRES
THE AFFORDABLE ALLIN ONE TECHNOLOGY FREEDOM TOP QUALITY FAST FLEXIBLE CLEAN READY
Dubai Woodshow 12 - 14.03.2018. Visit us at Stand C40 - Hall 5 SCM MIDDLE EAST FZE Dubai - United Arab Emirates Tel. +971 4 8321674 - www.scmgroupmiddleeast.com
AMERICAN SOFTWOODS AIMS FOR GREATER MARKET SHARE THROUGH ITS PRESENCE AT INDIAWOOD AND DUBAI WOODSHOW International trade of softwood lumber was on pace to reach a new record high in 2017 if the trend from the first six months of 2017 continued in the second half of the year, according to Wood Resource Quarterly (WRQ). Of the ten largest lumber-exporting countries in the world, Russia, Finland, Austria and Ukraine increased shipments the most year-over-year during the first half of 2017. Russia alone accounted for 22 percent of global lumber trade in the first half 2017, which is up from 15 percent ten years ago, according to WRQ. In addition, Canada’s seven consecutive years of expanding shipments was expected to reach an end with export volumes having declined 2.2 percent during the first half of 2017.
Aiming to increase market share and raise further awareness, American Softwoods (AMSO), the promotional partnership formed by three major U.S. softwood trade associations, has announced its participation at INDIAWOOD, which takes place from March 8 - 12, 2018 at the Bangalore International Exhibition Center, and then at the Dubai WoodShow, which takes place from March 12 - 14, 2018 at the Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Center. The events will see the participation of nine and eighteen U.S.-based softwood exporters under the banner of the American Softwoods Pavilion in India and Dubai respectively. AMSO’s participation at both events is aimed at promoting American softwoods and reinforcing its market presence.
According to WRQ reports, during the first five months of 2017, lumber production in the U.S. South bounced back after having declined during the second half of 2016. The total production output from January through May was 7.3 percent higher in 2017 as compared to the same period in 2016, according to the Western Wood Products Association (WWPA). Further, lumber prices in both the U.S. and Canada have trended upward for almost two years and reached 13-year highs in July. The only exception has been pine lumber prices in the U.S. South, which fell to the lowest levels seen in almost a year halfway through last year. “With no domestic lumber resources, India and the MENA region have to rely entirely on imports to fulfil burgeoning demand. While wood is rarely used structurally in both markets, wood demand is expected to rise sharply for interior joinery (floors, molding, millwork) as well as for door and window production. Moreover, demand in the furniture production sector is also expected to rise over the coming years as the industry becomes more competitive. Given the positive projections for India and the Middle East, our participation at these events is aimed at encouraging the use of American softwoods for both internal and external projects and increasing awareness of commercially available species,” concluded Charles Trevor, Consultant to American Softwoods.
T: 1 (443) 994-0975
Image ÂŠFoster + Partners and Nigel Young
Bloomberg’s new European headquarters rated world’s most sustainable office building A major and ultra-prestigious application in the City of London could really put U.S. red oak on the European map The European market must, till now, have been something of a frustration for U.S. red oak suppliers. The species is America’s most prolific hardwood, so, in those terms, its most sustainable. In the U.S. itself, it is used extensively in a huge range of construction, interiors and manufacturing applications, while other markets, such as China and Japan, also can’t get enough. But in Europe red oak has lagged some way behind its ubiquitous U.S. white cousin in popularity. The market breakthrough it’s needed, say admirers, has been a major showcase project to demonstrate its aesthetic and performance appeal. Well now it has one - and wow. They don’t come much more major or more showcase than the just opened 1.1 million sq.ft European headquarters of global financial data, software and media colossus - Bloomberg. Designed by a Foster + Partners team, led by Norman Foster himself, the stunning City of London building, is already being lined up for architectural awards. It’s also scored on the environmental front, achieving a BREEAM rating of 98.5 percent, which is the highest design-stage score ever achieved by any major
office development. Making the building more significant for red oak still, project architect Michael Jones said the timber is not used in any token, decorative way. It’s core to the interior aesthetics and to delivering on the designers’ wellbeing and environmental goals. It’s also used in considerable quantities - 37,160 m2 for the floor alone. To answer the question why wood in the first place, and so much of it, Jones tracks back to initial conversations with Bloomberg CEO Michael Bloomberg. “Previously the company has occupied existing commercial space, but establishing their European headquarters, they felt, deserved something bespoke and tailored to the way they operate,” he said. “As well as expressing this through the architecture itself and while wanting the building to be very much of its own time, they also wanted it to be very contextual and historically rooted in its place through the palette of materials. Hence the extensive use of bronze and Derbyshire stone - 9,000 tonnes of it - but equally timber, all of which you see quite typically around London. The task was to take these materials and use them in a fresh,
Compared to a typical office building, the new Bloomberg building’s environmental strategies deliver a 73 percent saving in water consumption and a 35 percent saving in energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions. Innovative power, lighting, water and ventilation systems account for the majority of energy savings. Designed to utilize waste products, respond to the building’s external environment and adapt to its occupancy patterns, many of these solutions are first-of-a-kind.
Image ©Foster + Partners and Nigel Young
Image ©Foster + Partners and Nigel Young
According to Jones, sustainability also led Foster to timber. He added: “By this we mean not only that timber is renewable, energy efficient, carbon rich and all those other good things, but that it helps achieve sustainability in the broadest sense. The sustainability of a building is also about the wellbeing of people - and people feel better in a place featuring natural materials.”
While some discount red oak because of its pinkish hue it was this, combined with its technical properties, that actually helped decide its choice for Bloomberg and Foster. “We wanted a species with warmth that would mellow and mature with age,” added Jones. The architects and client did consider other species, but cherry was discounted due to its tendency, in certain circumstances, towards significantly darkening on exposure to light. It was also felt the white oaks of Europe and the USA would produce a finish that was too light in color, with a more ‘yellowy hue’. The fact that the U.S. produces red oak in such volumes also played in its favour. “Although there were still times I was nervous about whether we’d get the amount we needed in the time allowed, and with the homogeneity of grain and color required,” said Jones. “We were asking an awful lot of the U.S.
timber industry, but they rose to the occasion.” The significance of red oak to the interior aesthetic is obvious from the moment you enter the lobby. In fact, it helps make the building’s dramatic opening statement. Called the Vortex, this dramatic swirling space features 1,858 m2 of red oak cladding on its intersecting arching walls. Describing the space, Jones says: “The Vortex is a literal and metaphorical modern twist on the timber-lined entrance hall you find in so many classical English buildings, particularly in London.” This application is also one example in the building, as he describes it, where innovation has overcome the potential challenges of using wood. “Having this much vertical cladding risked reverberation, so the timber was micro-perforated by laser. This makes it absorbent of sound, while the aesthetic is unaffected as the holes are so small. You can’t see them until you’re about
Image ©Foster + Partners and Nigel Young
20mm from the surface,” he said. Red oak also features prominently in the multi-purpose room, a flexible space for meetings and presentations adjacent to the building’s auditorium. Here it is used in the form of glulam, a total of 1350 m3, comprising the ‘fin walls’ which define the space. The daring decision also to use timber for the flooring came out of a New York meeting between Michael Bloomberg and Jones and posed perhaps the biggest technical test. “We were talking about possible flooring types and he just asked, why can’t we use wood?” said Jones. “The key reasons you don’t often see it in offices is footfall noise - and there is capacity for just shy of 7,000 people in the Bloomberg building - and the need to access the services beneath. We wanted the aesthetic of a seamless, monolithic surface, but using conventional tongue and groove boards would cause
Image ©Foster + Partners and Nigel Young
huge problems getting to all the communication cabling and other systems.” Once again innovation overcame technical and functional hurdles. Teaming up with the contractor and building systems and materials provider Kingspan, Bloomberg devised a solution where individual boards could be lifted and refitted at will. “Each board has a magnetic strip running its length, which sticks it to the metal access floor below,” said Jones. “So you can sucker one up, lever up the surrounding boards then just drop them back into place.” This approach also means zero creaking, while the sound of footsteps is deadened by an additional acoustic layer between board and access floor. It’s also straightforward to replace any areas that suffer damage. So convinced were Kingspan by the flooring solution, they’ve now brought it to market, and it’s
already been used in a number of other projects. Using red oak in these various applications was also a logistical exercise. Over and above sourcing it - and it all had to be FSC verified sustainable or equivalent - and shipping it over the Atlantic, the Vortex paneling was laser perforated in Switzerland, the multi-purpose room glulam walls made in Germany and the flooring machined in Italy. The timber will need maintaining, but this should be minimal thanks to the combination of oil finish on the floor, lacquer on paneling and the material’s inherent natural durability. And if added testimony to the latter were needed, it is also housed in the new building. It’s constructed on the site of the Roman temple of Mithras and fresh remains, including structural timber elements, were uncovered during foundation excavations. Among other discoveries were 400 timber writing tablets and
some of these and other artefacts are now on public display in what Bloomberg describes as a ‘free new cultural destination’, the London Mithraeum, deep in their building’s basement. As to whether the project will inspire Foster to use red oak again, Jones’ response is why not? “We used to be best known for our use of steel and glass, but the commercial market is changing and we’re using more timber generally,” he said. “Businesses now want their buildings to have a different sense of personality and be more responsive to people who work in them.” “Timber is rather successful in delivering both these things. People warm to it and it makes them feel better about their environment. And, while each building is the result of conversation between client and architect, for sure we may use more red oak. Bloomberg loves the result it’s delivered and so do we,” concluded Jones.
Bloomberg’s New European Headquarters
Completion date 2017
London, United Kingdom
Foster + Partners
Foster + Partners and Nigel Young
The Exoskeleton: an empirical investigation into a bottom-up approach to structural design
Image ÂŠJeroen Christiaen & Saskia De Mol
Architects create affordable pavilion using modular woods, tie straps and sliding joints
The ‘bottom-up’ approach allowed the students to work in an empirical way; with new ideas being validated through immediate physical testing of their constructional behavior. In
this way the total design does not arise from an overarching 3D-model, deriving components from the overall shape, but instead from an iterative design process, whereby first the components and only then the overall shape is determined through prototyping. Applying this bottom-up approach to structural design enables a detachment from well-defined structural typologies. Since knowledge is gradually built up during the design process, this approach enabled them to investigate innovative structural principles or a new application of a certain material. A hands-on understanding of the structural behavior of a certain construction was also developed during the design process.
of numerous prototypes. This rapid prototyping method enabled them to quickly test and learn. Making the design process affordable, was only possible if the materials used for the physical models were cheap and the fabrication techniques were fast. Hence limitations concerning budget and availability of fabrication techniques were taken into account from the start of the design process itself. Thin plywood panels were chosen as material, and 2D CNC-techniques (laser-cutting and milling) as form process. An investigation into the characteristics and physical behavior of the material is ongoing, since this bottom-up design process starts from the possibilities that lie within the material itself.
Computer Aided Manufacturing was instrumental to this approach, as it allowed for rapid fabrication
Applying a bottom up design approach, the students did succeed to investigate the
The Exoskeleton is a pavilion that shows how Computer Aided Manufacturing can create rapid prototypes
innovative structural principle of active bending. Active bending refers to the systemized elastic deformation of a certain material, as a form-giving and self-stabilizing strategy for static structures. Handling this bottom up approach, it was possible to build a pavilion demonstrating this innovative structural principle in a short time-span, using only limited resources. As a consequence of the bottom up design approach, they designed a parametric system rather than a single pavilion. By applying the same assembly system to the designed modules with varying dimensions, different surfaces can be generated. Only two types of connections were used in the pavilion: sliding joints and tie straps. The sliding joints are a straightforward and elegant solution to connect the panels on the inside of the pavilion to those located on the outside (and the other way around). Since the panels are actively bent, the resilience force in the panels plugs them into the sliding joints. As
Image ©Jeroen Christiaen & Saskia De Mol
As a part of their master dissertation, Thibaut Van Dousselaere and Silke Van Geeteruyen investigated a ‘bottom-up’ approach to structural design by means of prototyping, a subcategory of digital fabrication. The design of a small pavilion, the Exoskeleton, served as a test case. The Exoskeleton is a pavilion that shows how Computer Aided Manufacturing can create rapid prototypes. This manufacturing process also allows for real-scale construction and experimentation with limited resources. In this project, a system of modules, designed with different dimensions, is put together with simple joints without nails or screws. This allows for different surfaces to be formed and for the pieces to be rotated and assembled at various angles and heights.
Image ÂŠJeroen Christiaen & Saskia De Mol
such, these joints are very simple, no attached parts such as nails or screws needed. Tie straps are used to keep the panels in their bent position. Tie straps enable a fast and easy assembly, but they also serve as an important control mechanism.
is digitally fabricated, in a limited time span and using only limited resources. This makes the pavilion accessible for everyone with access to a fablab, since the pavilion does not rely on complicated digital fabrication techniques.
In addition, specific targets were being put forward for the During construction, the more design of the pavilion itself. First panels that are assembled, the of all, the amount of resources higher the pavilion rises and the necessary to assemble and closer it gets to its final shape. construct the overall pavilion It was thus necessary to have a should be as limited as possible. connection that could be gradually This decreases the total cost and tightened during construction. Tie creates an affordable pavilion. straps provided the ideal solution Also, the pavilion was meant to be given that all panels could be bent just as far as needed and the straps assembled by hand and with easy disassembly being a possibility. could be tightened further as the Lastly, only materials and pavilion rises. fabrication techniques that are Overall, the objective was to build a widely available should be used, structurally challenging pavilion that making the assembly
of this pavilion accessible to a large group of people. Technology has changed the way everything is done, even in the world of architecture. The Exoskeleton is a unique design that was not only inspired by technology, but also built with the help of technology. A closer look at the finished product reveals that the objective of their research has been accomplished. In a limited span of time and with limited resources, the students were able to design and construct a full-scale pavilion as a case study to evaluate a bottom up approach to structural design. More importantly, their work lays the ground for further development and potentially application in the real world.
Project Name The Exoskeleton
Completion date 2017
Thibaut Van Dousselaere & Silke Van Geeteruyen
Jeroen Christiaen & Saskia De Mol
Image Â© British Columbia Forestry Innovation Investment Ltd
Global Lumber Resources Inc. Goodfellow Inc. Interpro Forest Products Lamco Forest Products Quebec Wood Export Bureau SPF Precut Lumber Coast Fraser Cord King
Canadian Wood Products: High Quality, Diverse and Sustainable Canada’s forest sector is very important for our economy, and an industry that is driven by passion. Passion for innovation, passion for sustainability and passion for excellence. Canadian forest products companies are global leaders in creating state-of-the-art wood products while maintaining a broad range of traditional products, from a wide range of tree species. Canadian firms offer beautiful high-end glue laminated timber (‘glulam’) structures, exquisite hardwood flooring, the essential building blocks of 2x4 lumber, as well as the full range of competitive and high-quality wood products. It is important to Canadians that our forestry sector demonstrates global leadership in taking care of our forests, a precious and unique resource. Canada’s diverse forests cover about 347 million hectares (857 million acres) with the majority being publicly owned (approximately 94 percent) and a still significant 6 percent being privately owned. Canadian governments (federal & provincial) are responsible for managing our forests, to provide not only economic but also environmental and social benefits. Rigorous forest management policies and legislation ensure that Canada is a global leader in sustainability and our forests will remain healthy for generations to come. Forest certification by independent third parties provides added assurance that our forestry companies operate legally and comply with internationally accepted standards for sustainable forest management. Canada leads the world in third-party certification, with 168 million hectares (415 million acres) certified under systems developed by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), and the Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI). The CSA and SFI standards are recognized internationally by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC). Independent studies confirm that Canada’s forests are among the most sustainably managed in the world. The area harvested each year is less than one-half of one percent of Canada’s 347 million hectares of forest. I encourage visitors to stop by the Canadian pavilion at the upcoming Dubai WoodShow. There you will be able to meet Canadian wood experts and some of Canada’s biggest producers of lumber to smaller hardwood specialists. These companies showcase a broad spectrum of wood products that are recognized for their beauty, quality, abundance and practicality. At the pavilion, you will find a Canadian Trade Commissioner Service booth that can provide information and guidance on the Canadian forest industry, and make referrals and introductions to wood sector contacts in Canada. If you are interested in more information on Canada’s sustainable forest management practices, please visit www.sfmcanada.org. For any additional enquiries and to start your engagement with Canada’s dynamic and competitive forestry sector, please feel free to contact the Trade Commissioner Service in the UAE at: UAECommerce@international.gc.ca or Mr. Dominic Leboeuf, our Trade Commissioner responsible for the Forestry sector here in the United Arab Emirates at Dominic.firstname.lastname@example.org.
Emmanuel Kamarianakis Consul General
Image © SFM
Sustainable Forest Management in Canada Forests are a key part of Canada’s identity. Over 347 million hectares of forests stretch across Canada from coast to coast - an area slightly larger than the size of India. These vibrant forests support our communities and contribute to our recreational and traditional pursuits. Sustainable Forest Management is Canada’s commitment to carefully balancing the needs of our economy, the environment, and rural communities from these forests.
Measuring and reporting for transparency Canada measures and publicly reports on its sustainability commitments. The Canadian Council of Forest Ministers has developed a criteria and indicators framework to evaluate forestry activities and evaluate whether sustainability objectives are achieved. This framework has influenced forest management policies and regulations in most provinces and territories within Canada.
Within Canada, 94 percent of our forests are publicly owned. This means they are regulated by provincial policies that contribute to our economy, protect our environment and provide benefits to our communities. Of these publicly owned forests, approximately 67 percent are managed for timber harvesting and less than 0.5 percent are harvested in any individual year.
The federal government also measures and tracks the management of Canada’s forests, and publicly reports on these through the annual State of Canada’s Forests Report. This assessment documents current rates of disturbance, regeneration, and illegal logging in a transparent way.
Sustainable Forest Management (i.e., SFM) is the guiding framework that ensures Canada’s priorities for our forests are met and the highest levels of sustainability are achieved. Canada committed to Sustainable Forest Management in 1994 as a founding signatory of the Montreal Process, and has been building on this commitment ever since. But what does Sustainable Forest Management mean in practice? It means that the harvesting of Canada’s forests is carefully planned over the next 100- to 200-years. It means that by law, all harvested areas are regenerated back to productive forests - and many harvested areas are replanted within one year. It also means that harvesting levels are regulated, illegal logging almost never occurs, and forest management practices are guided by federal and provincial species protection legislation. Canada’s Indigenous peoples are also recognized as a critical voice in the management of our forests. Governments and forest companies continue to build collaborative relationships with Indigenous communities to ensure our forests are sustainably managed.
Finally, certification provides an unbiased third-party assessment of sustainable forest management implementation. Canada has the highest amount of certified forest out of any nation: as of 2017, 48 percent of the world’s certified forests, or 168 million hectares, grow in Canada. Canada’s world-leading SFM practices are further backed by rigorous laws and a strong regulatory framework, as confirmed by third-party studies. A part of the global solution to climate change Canada’s approach to Sustainable Forest Management recognizes that our forests are part of the global solution to climate change, and they are carefully managed with that goal in mind. Forest products from Canada help to store carbon, and the full regeneration of harvested forests enables them to contribute to carbon sequestration over their lifetime. Sustainable forest management - benefiting Canadians, benefiting you Canada’s forests provide jobs to thousands of communities across Canada. Sustainable Forest Management and Canada’s rigorous standards make it possible for provinces, communities, companies and purchasers of wood products to all benefit from the progressive and transparent management of our impressive natural resource.
Global Lumber Resources Inc. Booth number: D174
Named among the fastest growing companies in Canada, Profit Magazine rated Global Lumber as one of Canada’s top 50 firms. Global Lumber Resources Inc. is Canada’s progressive hardwood lumber company, providing consistently high-quality lumber, veneer and wood panels to international markets. We are FSC and PEFC certified and we maintain stock of FSC & PEFC certified materials at our 200,000 sq.ft facility at Jebel Ali Free Zone, Dubai UAE. Products we carry include Hardwoods, Softwoods, No Added Formaldehyde MDF, NAUF Plywoods, Veneers and Laminates. Geared to cater to the joinery and contracting industry in the GCC, our local distribution facility means zero lead time for urgent needs while customer’s planned requirements can still be met by direct shipments from our stocks in Canada/ US. Global Lumber is member of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and offers extensive experience and stocks of LEED certified wood and panels. Our people are trained to help clients with their project documentation, technical details, submittals and test reports.
Image © Global Lumber Resources Inc.
22 EXHIBITOR PROFILE
Contacts Zulfiqar A. Ghumman Director, Export Sales email@example.com
Goodfellow Inc. Goodfellow Inc. has been processing and exporting wood since 1898. We dry, grade and process wood at our 4 facilities in Quebec. Our wood is kiln-dried using controlled processes on the cutting edge of technology. - Traditional drying and vacuum drying - National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA) approved Grading Staff - Forest Stewardship Council® (FSC®) certified hardwoods are available in most species
Image © Goodfellow Inc.
Booth number: D170
Contacts Jean Knittel Export Sales Manager firstname.lastname@example.org www.goodfellowinc.com
Radhakrishnan Kandamath Regional Head, Dubai Office email@example.com
EXHIBITOR PROFILE 23
Image © Interpro Forest Products
Interpro Forest Products Booth number: D176
In Canadian S4S softwoods, Interpro can supply standard boards in 1”x3”/4”/6”/8”/10”/12”, dimensional lumber in 2”x3”/4”/6”/8”/10”/12”, and squares in 3”x3” and 4”x4”. South American and European whitewood & redwood can be supplied in thicknesses & width ranging between 17mm - 200mm, lengths of 2,985 and 3,985, GRN or KD, rough sawn or S4S. In hardwoods, Interpro specializes in North American species such as Red Oak, Ash, White Oak, Poplar, Cherry, Maple, and Walnut along with European beech wood. Depending on the requirements, panel products can be
supplied from North America, Asia, and Europe in MDF, Plywood, OSB, and Blockboard.
Contacts Faizan Choudhry Director of International Marketing firstname.lastname@example.org
Image © Lamco Forest Products
Interpro Forest Products is a Canadian-owned global trading company specializing in the trade of forest products. Headquartered in Vancouver, B.C. with regional offices in the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Philippines, and South Korea, Interpro supply softwood, hardwood, and panel products to over 26 countries. By leveraging the company’s footprint across multiple markets with strong access to supply across Canada, US, South America, and Europe, Interpro Forest Products provides a competitively priced and diverse product portfolio matched with unparalleled service to its valued customers around the world.
Lamco Forest Products Booth number: D178
Lamco Forest Products is a producer of premium quality Lamco LFL® Engineered Wood Products, LamFloor® roof and floor decking and finger-joined stud and structural grades. These products are assembled using its patented tongue and groove and finger jointing process. At present, the company has a capacity of over 50 million board feet - more than enough for its customers’ beam and header, joist, tall wall stud, and floor and roof decking needs.
Contacts Jacques Girard email@example.com
Quebec Wood Export Bureau Booth number: C156
The Quebec Wood Export Bureau (QWEB) is a non-profit organization showcasing wood products from Quebec, Canada, in export markets. Representing more than 125 manufacturers in different sectors, the QWEB provides you with direct access to Quebec's vast array of wood products: softwood and value-added softwood; hardwood and valueadded hardwood; light wood frame components, massive wood frame and engineered wood; wood flooring; and wood pellets. QWEB services: - Connect buyers with suppliers - Provide technical and promotional information about wood products and the companies that manufacture them - Tell you the characteristics and uses of products - Inform you on codes and standards of products
Image © Quebec Wood Export Bureau
24 EXHIBITOR PROFILE
Contacts Sven Gustavsson Softwood Manager sgustavsson@quebecwoodexport. com
Bruno Couture Hardwood and Flooring Manager firstname.lastname@example.org
SPF Precut Lumber Established in 1990, SPF Precut Lumber is an award-winning exporter and remanufacturer of Canadian wood products, based in British Columbia, Canada. A world leader in lumber export, SPF Precut Lumber exports 200 million board feet of lumber to 20 countries around the globe; promotes Canadian softwood lumber by developing ‘blue ocean’ markets; and supports the environment, industry peers, and the community. For nearly three decades, SPF Precut Lumber has connected its global partners to on-grade wood products with the fastest delivery times, the most competitive pricing, and the largest access to supply of Canadian softwood lumber on the principle of respecting, valuing, and honoring partnerships - international and local alike. This philosophy, history, and work ethic has made SPF Precut Lumber the largest exporter of Canadian softwood lumber products to the Middle East.
Image © SPF Precut Lumber
Booth number: C150
Contacts Muhammad Amir President email@example.com
Mo Amir General Manager firstname.lastname@example.org
EXHIBITOR PROFILE 25
Image © Coast Fraser
Booth number: C154 Located in the beautiful coastal city of Vancouver, British Columbia, Coast Fraser has an established presence as an export and distribution leader in the forest product industry. Over the years, Coast Fraser has expanded internationally to reach a customer base and network of over 15 nations, and increased product lines from softwood lumber to logs and hardwood species. Our supply sources come from North America, South America and Europe. At head office, we have developed corporate departments in Logistics, Operations, Business Development and Marketing. An operating sales team has also been successfully set up in China. Coast Fraser has maintained strong relations with numerous reliable resources. These alliances allow us to establish strong, stable, and rapid delivery capabilities. Our staff, and many of the reloading yards we partner with, use an internal electronic system to easily monitor inventory, check product quality and prepare containers for shipment. This procedure proficiency automates the entire delivery process, reducing the risk of error and increasing value to our customers.
Contacts Tony Chen Business Development Coordinator email@example.com
The first Cord King firewood processor was invented in 1974 by company founder and chief engineer Bob Hanson. By 1978, he had built the first commercial firewood processor in North America. Based in Perth, Ontario, Canada, Cord King was the product of Bob’s passion for engineering excellence and a need for a machine that was both easy to use and reliable. Now, forty years later, Cord King has grown from its humble origins into an industry leader and highly respected manufacturer of high-quality firewood processors. With less than half the moving parts of other firewood processors on the market, a Cord King firewood processor needs a fraction of the maintenance, giving users more production time, and also holds its value for years to come thanks to their heavy-duty construction. Now in use in over 16 countries across the globe, and with over 20,000 machines built, Cord King has set itself apart by providing a user-friendly and innovative machine that can produce, at a minimum, 4 full cords of wood per hour.
Image © Cord King
Booth number: C152
Contacts Stephan Maisonneuve President/Owner Info@cordking.ca
Image ÂŠ AMSO
SFPA/SLMA assess potential and importance of Egypt market for U.S. softwoods in new study High potential for growth in U.S. wood product exports to Egypt given its economic growth and strong demand from the countryâ€™s furniture manufacturing industry
Image Â© AMSO
28 MARKET REPORT
The Southern Forest Products Association (SFPA) and Southeastern Lumber Manufacturer's Association (SLMA) recently released a report - Emerging Markets Program Assessment: The Egyptian Market for U.S. Softwoods. This is one of several Emerging Market Program (EMP) projects that the U.S. forest products industry undertakes to reach potentially new emerging markets. Each project is led by a team of highly experienced researchers backed by the organizational and administrative support of forest products cooperators with decades of experience administering FAS-funded market development programs. We take a closer look at the findings of the report.
Image © AMSO
Numerous indicators show strong potential for growth in U.S. wood product exports to Egypt, including overall economic growth, and strong demand in the country’s furniture manufacturing industry. U.S.
softwood lumber exports to Egypt nearly doubled to USD 8.3 million, yet the United States holds a very small share of this market, estimated at less than 1 percent. The increase in U.S. exports is impressive given the country’s political and economic instability to which Egypt has been prone over the past couple of years. One of the sectors which shows potential for U.S. exports is the furniture industry centered around the triangle of Damietta, Alexandria, and Cairo. The industry consumes huge volumes of solid wood, importing substantial volumes of beech and Spruce-Pine-Fir from Romania as well as oak from the Balkans. The U.S. industry is convinced that American softwoods could
rapidly gain share of Egypt’s furniture production industry, as well as in the construction sector given massive construction projects in the works over the coming years. Egypt is the largest market for softwood lumber in the Middle East and North Africa. Lumber demand is set to rise sharply over the coming years as its economy improves and several large-scale developments are in works. The country relies entirely on imported softwoods and buyers are seeking alternative sources due to the rising cost of imported hardwoods. U.S. softwoods are the ideal alternative and interest among buyers is rising. However, the timber trade and furniture and joinery manufacturers are
One of the sectors which shows potential for U.S. exports is the furniture industry centered around the triangle of Damietta, Alexandria, and Cairo
accustomed with European and Russian material and unfamiliar with U.S. lumber species, grades, and sizes. While economic problems remain, the long-term outlook for Egypt - and demand for imported softwood lumber - is bullish. Egypt’s growing and young population will bolster economic growth over the coming years, the construction market is about to recover from the shock of the floatation of the Egyptian Pound, tourism is slowly rebounding, and the Egyptian government is investing heavily in infrastructure. A government initiative to build one million housing units as well as a multibillion-dollar initiative for a new administrative capital to seat the national government is expected to drive growing demand for softwood lumber. With no domestic lumber resources, the country must rely entirely on imports to fulfil burgeoning demand. Egypt is the largest market for softwoods
30 MARKET REPORT
Egyptian Pound has exacerbated sales. While wood is rarely used structurally in Egypt, wood demand is expected to rise sharply for interior joinery (floors, moulding, millwork) as well as for door and window production. Demand in the furniture production sector is also expected to rise over the coming years as the country seeks to become more competitive in that sector. Low-priced European redwood is used for construction - primarily concrete forming - while U.S. Southern Pine is used for interior joinery, paneling, doors, windows, and flooring. Interviews with a major importer holds that
Southern Pine from the United States is viewed as a hardwood due to its density, and increasingly a less expensive substitute for oak. Southern Pine is also priced in the sweet spot between hardwoods (oak) and European and Russian pines. Southern Pine is also preferred for its grain pattern and is typically lightly stained to expose the grain. Looking ahead, importers hold that the market is ripe for development and technical assistance is needed immediately as buyers turn to alternative material imported from Europe. U.S. softwoods are priced right and that the opportunity is now to grow imports by providing the
technical assistance and training that enables them to properly specify U.S. material. Devaluation of the Egyptian Pound puts U.S. material in the sweet spot as buyers eagerly source alternative supply. Overall, interest in U.S. softwoods is on the rise, but much work is needed to train buyers on U.S. grades, sizes, and characteristics in a market accustomed to European and Russian material. * This article contains text from the report - Emerging Markets Program Assessment: The Egyptian Market for U.S. Softwoods. For more information or to download the report, please visit: https://sfpa.org.
Image © AMSO
Image © AMSO
in the North Africa and Middle East (MENA) region. The market imported 4.4 million cubic meters of softwood lumber in 2016, but imports are expected to fall to 3.5 million cubic meters by the end of 2017 due to sharp devaluation of the Egyptian Pound, which plummeted nearly 50 percent since 2011. Imports bottomedout in 2017 but are recovering: imports are expected to climb to four million cubic meters in 2018. U.S. softwood lumber exports to Egypt grew steadily over the past five years - rising from USD 4.3 million in 2012 to USD 8.3 million in 2016, but declined sharply 2017 in line with the country’s overall imports. Already being a very price-sensitive market, the weaker
Starbucks opens state-of-the-art premium Reserve Roastery in Shanghai
Image ÂŠ Trevor Mein
Ceiling canopy features 10,000 handmade wooden hexagon-shaped tiles inspired by the locking of an espresso shot on an espresso machine
Image Â© Starbucks
The Roastery is the epitome of coffee and retail innovation for Starbucks in China, the company’s fastest-growing market with more than 3,000 stores across 136 cities, unprecedented for any global consumer brand and with immense growth opportunity. Currently, Starbucks already has more than 600 stores in Shanghai - the largest number of stores in any city where
even more moments of discovery as they immerse themselves in the augmented reality (AR) experience. Integrating this technology into the store, located at 789 Nanjing Road W., in one of the world’s busiest shopping destinations, makes it one of the most advanced digital locations for Starbucks in the world. “The affinity we have built with our partners (employees) and customers over the past 18 years in China is special and we knew we must bring the Reserve Roastery, our boldest, most premium store ever, to Shanghai, China’s bustling metropolitan hub and one of the world’s most dynamic retail destinations, as well as a gateway to customers from across Asia and the world,” said Howard Schultz, Executive Chairman of Starbucks Coffee Company. “We’ve created a space that both recognizes and celebrates our 46-year history
Image © Starbucks
Starbucks opened its most ambitious project to date - the Starbucks Reserve Roastery in Shanghai, the first fully immersive coffee experience in Asia - in early December last year. When the doors opened to the world’s second Starbucks Roastery, created three years after the inaugural Seattle Roastery, customers were greeted by a multisensory coffee experience in an interactive coffee and retail destination like no other.
The woods are warm and walnut, and lighting is the white of the milk froth. The copper has a beautiful, authentic glow like the flame of the roaster.
As customers enter the Roastery and step through the front doors of the 2,700 square meter (30,000 square foot) building, they are greeted by the stunning sight of a two-storey copper cask, adorned with more than 1,000 traditional Chinese chops, or stamps, handengraved to narrate the storey of Starbucks and coffee. As part of their experience, customers can visit many attractions including one of three coffee bars offering multiple brewing methods, explore specially-crafted teas at the 3D printed tea bar, enjoy freshly baked Italian artisanal food by Princi, and marvel at the ceiling made of 10,000 handmade wooden hexagon-shaped tiles, inspired by the locking of an espresso shot on an espresso machine.And, all along the way, customers can point their mobile devices around the Roastery for
of coffee leadership and retail innovation with China’s rich, diverse culture."
A theater of coffee with a Chinese focus
For the first time ever, unique, small-lot Reserve coffee which Starbucks sources from more than 30 countries around the world, including coffee from China’s Yunnan Province, will be roasted in China by eight highly trained Chinese coffee roasters passing on 46 years of Starbucks roasting expertise to the first batch of Chinese roasters. Customers can watch the green beans as they are roasted, then sent through copper “symphony” pipes (named because of the musical sound the beans make as they travel through them) directly to silos at the coffee bars, where customers can enjoy a fresh cup of Reserve coffee, or to the in-house pack line to be packaged for distribution across Starbucks Reserve stores in China.
Image © Starbucks
Starbucks has a presence.
Image © Starbucks
Image © Starbucks
The three wooden coffee bars, including one that is 27 meters (88 feet) long - the longest at any Starbucks - are handcrafted by premiere Chinese artisans and reference the unique roasting curve of individual coffee beans, executing the Roastery’s design vision of Liz Muller, Senior Vice President of Creative Global Design for Starbucks. The bars serve as the stage where hundreds of baristas will handcraft some of the rarest, small-lot coffees in the world using one of six brewing methods: ModBar® Pour Over, Chemex, Coffee Press, Siphon, Espresso and the proprietary Clover-brewed coffee. According to Muller, the design always goes back to the product. Taking inspiration from the Starbucks palette, the store design goes from the green of the fresh beans to the deep dark brown of roasted coffee. The
the company’s “roasting curves,” which is the name for the recipes it uses for roasting small-batch coffee.
A groundbreaking digital experience
The Shanghai Roastery will become the first Starbucks location, and the first-of-its kind in China, to seamlessly integrate a real-time, in-store and online customer experience. Roastery customers are invited to immerse themselves in the first Starbucks augmented reality (AR) experience - accessible through the customdesigned Roastery digital web-app platform or on Alibaba’s Taobao app - by simply pointing their mobile devices at key features around the Roastery to bring to life information about the Starbucks bean-to-cup story. To help customers create their personal Roastery discovery journeys, the Roastery digital webapp platform also incorporates a
Arguably the most impressive feature of the store is the ceiling canopy, which comprises 10,500 hexagonal tiles made from aluminum sheeting veneered with wood by hand woods are warm and walnut, and lighting is the white of the milk froth. The copper has a beautiful, authentic glow like the flame of the roaster. All the furniture is uniquely designed, and Muller likes to call it their New Eames line. People really stroke the wood, which was created in a collaboration with Danish design studio OEO and Chinese craftsmen. The carved wooden stools invite customers making them feel comfortable. There are also long chaise lounges, benches, and coffee tables - all branded Star R as well as the coffee club's ergonomic walnut lounge chairs, which have copper arms wrapped in hand-stitched leather. Arguably the most impressive feature of the store is the ceiling canopy, which comprises 10,500 hexagonal tiles made from aluminum sheeting veneered with wood by hand. According to Muller, the wave shape was inspired by
digital menu and will, intuitively through AR technology, share details of the coffee bars, brewing methods, as well as other notto-be-missed unique online and offline experiences. Each step of the way, customers unlock a virtual badge and once all badges are earned, they receive a custom Roastery filter to commemorate the moment and share on social media. The Shanghai Roastery digital experience is designed by Starbucks and powered by Alibaba Group’s scene-recognition technology.
Princi, Italian artisan bakery comes to Asia
At the Shanghai Roastery, acclaimed baker Rocco Princi combines the craft of bread baking, exceptional ingredients and the “Spirito di Milano” to bring his artisanal offerings to Asia for the first time. Princi, famed for bakeries in Milan and London, joins the premium Starbucks Reserve brand as the exclusive food pairing to its rare, small-lot
Image © Starbucks
coffees. Princi is the exclusive food offering in all Starbucks Roastery locations, including Seattle, Shanghai and upcoming locations. “Rocco and his team’s passion for handcrafted food and artisanal baked goods at Princi mirrors how I feel about our coffee,” said Schultz. “His attention to detail, meticulous care in selecting the freshest, high-quality ingredients and the artistry of preparation creates an Italian food experience that perfectly pairs with our most premium coffees. I look forward to seeing Princi’s success in Seattle further extend to our Roastery in Shanghai.”
A tribute to China’s tea culture
The new Shanghai Roastery features China’s first Starbucks Teavana Bar, an entirely modern tea experience specifically designed for Chinese customers. While demonstrating deep
respect for the thousands of years of Chinese tea tradition, the Starbucks Teavana Bar reimagines a modern tea experience for customers who increasingly seek new and different tastes and experiences. Customers to the tea experience bar can select a Teavana signature pure tea or blend, served either hot or iced.
jade color with dark shadows to represent tea stains formed in a teapot over time. It is also the only tea bar created from recycled materials using a 3D printer, the only one of its kind, measuring 7.5 meters (25 feet) in length. According to Muller, coffee can be bold and loud, but the bar’s shape is beautiful and feminine like tea.
Using only the finest tea ingredients in the world, tea curators handcraft unexpected creations with tea mixology as well as nitrogen and tea. For those interested in experiencing a whole new brewing method, the Steampunk brings together science and theater. Watch tea leaves dance in the water, while steam extracts every nuanced flavor in one of tea’s most dynamic moments.
Inspired by the lima green of the traditional clay teapots in China, the tea experience bar is a light
The Shanghai location is the first of five Roasteries that are expected to open before 2020. The remaining Roasteries are slated to open in Milan and New York in 2018, as well as in Tokyo and Chicago come 2019. It is Starbucks' hope that the Roastery locations will become destinations for coffee drinkers rather than just a place to stop whilst at the mall. If the Shanghai location is an indication of things to come, the future for Starbucks looks extremely promising.
Starbucks Reserve Roastery
Sound design. American hardwoods. American tulipwood acoustic panelling by Ben Percy uplifts and updates the performance hall at the Northern Beaches Colleges Senior Campus in Freshwater, Sydney. Architects and designers all over the world have embraced American hardwoods for the range of colours, grains and textures they offer, as well as for their consistency in grade, quality and supply and their sustainable credentials.
For more information visit www.americanhardwood.org
Exports of U.S. hardwood lumber and veneer to the MENA region reach USD 96.74 million in 2017
Image ÂŠ Adrien Williams
UAE accounts for over a quarter of all U.S. hardwood lumber shipped to the region
Total exports of U.S. hardwood lumber and veneer to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region including Pakistan reached USD 96.74 million for the year 2017. The statistics, which have been compiled from the latest data released from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), reveal a 7 percent overall increase over 2016 figures. According to the data released, exports of American hardwood lumber reached a value of USD 75.46 million and a volume of 92,273 cubic meters, marking an increase of 20 percent and 17 percent respectively over 2016. A closer look at the numbers also revealed that direct shipments of U.S. hardwood veneers to the MENA region during 2017 reached a total value of USD 21.13 million, falling by 23 percent over the previous year. However, American hardwood veneers are also shipped to the region from European countries and China, while veneers are also produced in the region notably in Turkey - from imported American hardwood logs. The UAE was the region's strongest performer last year, with exports of U.S. hardwood lumber to the market rising by 86 percent in both volume and value to 24,597 cubic meters and USD 21.05 million, as compared to the previous year. This means that over a quarter of all U.S. hardwood lumber shipped to the MENA region was destined for the UAE last year.
AMERICAN HARDWOODS 41
However, a large percentage of what goes to the UAE is for re-export to neighboring Gulf markets, as well as to markets further afield. Nonetheless, a very buoyant construction sector in the UAE ahead of Dubai's World Expo 2020, is expected to keep demand for American hardwoods at a high level through this year and beyond. Among the other major destinations for American hardwoods in the MENA region, increases were also seen in exports to Saudi Arabia (up by 10 percent in volume to 6,539 cubic meters), and Jordan (up by 12 percent in volume to 4,395 cubic meters). One MENA market that showed remarkable growth in demand for U.S. hardwood lumber last year was Lebanon, to which exports grew by 70 percent in volume and 61 percent in value as compared to 2016. In addition, American hardwood veneer exports to Lebanon also increased by 27 percent to reach a value of USD 3.317 million in 2017. At the same time, exports of U.S. hardwood lumber to the region's two other major markets - Pakistan and Turkey remained almost unchanged from the previous year.
“Tactile, warm, unique, natural and sustainable are just some of the adjectives ascribed to American hardwoods by architects and designers in the Middle East. Whether it is for a one-off furniture piece or a large-scale interior fit out, hardwoods from the United States are increasingly being specified, as they become better known and more widely appreciated. As a result, the United States is the number one supplier of temperate hardwoods to the Middle East. Timber is certainly experiencing a global renaissance as a preferred material and as architects and designers seek out natural material alternatives across a variety of applications, we expect to see American hardwoods becoming increasingly widely-specified in the region,” concluded Roderick Wiles, AHEC Regional Director.
Image © Gerry O'Leary and Sandra Tinari
Image © Foster + Partners and Nigel Young
Positive of increased growth across the region, AHEC is participating at the annual ‘Dubai WoodShow’. During the three-day show, AHEC is hosting a pavilion with individual booths occupied by fourteen U.S.
hardwood exporting companies along with the Hardwood States Export Group (HSEG) - a coalition of major eastern U.S. hardwood exporting states. Confirmed exhibitors include MacDonald & Owen Lumber Company; Hartzell Hardwoods, Inc.; Atlantic Veneer Corporation; Baillie Lumber Co., Inc.; Midwest Hardwood Corporation; Hermitage Hardwood Lumber Sales; Oaks Unlimited, Inc.; American Lumber; Nina Company; Wood'n Slabs; Northland Corporation; Missouri Walnut LLC; Thompson Hardwoods, Inc.; and Wheeland Lumber Company.
Reinventing American hardwoods: exploring new possibilities for American hardwoods in exterior and structural applications
Image ÂŠ Alex de Rijke
Image ÂŠ Alex de Rijke
AMERICAN HARDWOODS 43
The wide range of American hardwood species offer the architect and designer a wonderful palette of colors, textures and grains from which to make furniture and design interiors. What they do not offer however is a very durable wood species that can be considered for outdoor applications such as cladding or decking. Meanwhile, their use in structural applications has been somewhat limited by a lack of know-how. However, this is now changing through the application of new, and relatively simple, technology coupled with a readiness to explore timber as a material for a wider range of construction solutions. The growing outdoor cladding and decking market uses significant volumes of timber, which at present uses very little American hardwoods and, therefore, it provides major scope for growth. In the hardwood forests of the United States, there are a few naturallyoccurring very durable species, such as black locust, but they are not available in commercial quantities. American white oak has been used successfully in Europe on some large projects, but allowance has to be made for sapwood and preservative treatment may be necessary. However, the application of 10,000 square meters of white oak exterior cladding on the EU Veterinary Centre in the harsh climate of Ireland back in 2002, shows that this species can be used for this purpose if handled and installed correctly.
Thermal modification of timber
With an aim to develop new markets for American hardwoods, AHEC realized early on that wood modification was going to play a very significant role. Applying wood modification processes enables a nondurable species to be used externally. Thermal modification of timber is one such generic process and it is adaptable to a range of different timber species. The modern commercial method of thermal modification that we know today was developed in Scandinavia some thirty years ago, enabling the plentiful local softwood resource to be made durable without the application of chemicals. It soon became apparent that certain temperate American hardwood species could also lend themselves very well to the thermal modification process. The leading species are ash, tulipwood, soft maple, yellow birch and red oak. Some lesser-known species such as hackberry, sapgum and basswood
Image © AHEC
Image © AHEC
Image © AHEC
also modify very well. AHEC has used thermally-modified timber (now known generically as TMT) to showcase its potential for outdoor application in a number of their design collaborations. The first project was the Infinity Bench designed by Martino Gamper for the 2012 London Design Festival. In his unique design, he used five different thermally-modified American hardwood species; tulipwood, ash, soft maple, red oak and yellow birch. The range of species used allowed for an exciting contrast in colors, grains and textures. Other bench design collaborations in thermallymodified American hardwoods include Emirati designer Khalid Shafar’s CITY’s Bench in Dubai and Australian Ben Percy’s design for Sydney Indesign 2013. An interesting project also using TMT was ‘The Cocoon’, a collaborative installation between T.ZED Architects and AHEC, which was initially designed for Downtown Design Dubai 2016 and is now serving as an observation deck at the Dubai Creek Harbour Promenade.
Building with wood
In construction, there is no other material that comes anywhere near wood in its potential to offer environmental benefits. Recent developments in construction timber products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glued-laminated (glulam) beams have meant that structural design in timber for buildings has been raised to another level. There are significant advantages to building in wood too; including lower foundation costs, as timber structures are invariably lighter; and an overall shorter construction time. Looking back to 2000, Hopkins Architects used American white oak for the Arup-designed grid-shell roof structure over the courtyard of Portcullis House in Westminster.
Initial strength testing showed American white oak to have a strength class of D50, roughly twice the strength of high grade softwood. This meant that more slender timber members could be used, allowing for structural performance along with aesthetic design. The use of white oak in Portcullis House prompted AHEC to test four commercially-important species for their strength values, so that these could be incorporated into the Eurocodes and design standards. White oak, red oak, ash and tulipwood were tested to EN338. This standard defines a range of strength classes based on values for bending strength, stiffness and density. All of these values were published in AHEC’s technical guide Structural Design in American Hardwoods, which is available on the AHEC website (www.americanhardwood.org). Interestingly, American tulipwood, although meeting the D40 strength and stiffness requirements, did not have the necessary density in order to permit it to be classified. More recently, an engineering marvel made of American white oak features in the redevelopment of the Warner Stand at one of the world’s most iconic sporting facilities, Lord’s Cricket Ground in St John’s Wood, London. In this pioneering project, the roof of the stand is formed from 11 cantilevered glue laminated (glulam) American white oak beams, manufactured in Germany by specialist timber fabricators Hess Timber, that radiate dramatically from the corner of the ground, paving the way for brave new structural uses of sustainable American hardwoods. Each beam measures 900mm x 350mm at the deepest point. The longest glulam beam weighs approximately 4 tonnes and measures 23.4 meters in length, the same as 26 cricket bats lined up nose to tail. The new
Image © Petr Krejci
Image © Jon Cardwell
AMERICAN HARDWOODS 45
structure is more than an aesthetic success and crowd pleaser. It’s the first time the species has been employed in this format on this scale and in such a performance critical environment - forming the primary structure of a roof projecting out over 2,674 spectators. AHEC’s long-standing partnership with the London Design Festival has enabled it to showcase a number of ground-breaking structural collaborations using American hardwoods in iconic London locations. The first of these was in 2008, with David Adjaye’s Sclera pavilion, which used laminated and engineered American tulipwood. Perhaps even more intricate was the 12.5 meter high American red oak Timber Wave, erected outside the entrance to the Victoria & Albert Museum in 2011. Designed by Amanda Levete of AL_A with Arup, this pushed structural design in timber to its very limits. Here, curved chords made from 7mm lamellas were glued together to form wavy laminated beams and the whole was held together with a series of cross-ties. Cross-laminated timber is quickly becoming established as an important construction material. Made from low-cost softwood, it is essentially a thicker version of plywood that is ideal for making structural wall panels and floor cassettes. So the next structural collaborative project for AHEC at the London Design Festival set out to show that American hardwoods could also be considered as the raw material for structural CLT. The result was the innovative Endless Stair, designed by Alex de Rijke of dRMM. This complex, free-standing structure explored the first use of hardwood CLT, using American tulipwood in this Escher-inspired series of staircases. While in situ, the Endless Stair allowed for many fine views over London and the
Thames from its location outside the Tate Modern Gallery. Building on their experience with the Endless Stair, dRMM designed the world’s first building made from hardwood cross-laminated timber (CLT) in the UK. Supported by AHEC, the opening of Maggie’s Oldham was a pivotal moment for modern architecture and construction. dRMM chose tulipwood for the design of Maggie’s Oldham for the positive influence wood has on people and for the beauty, strength and warmth inherent to American tulipwood. All in all, the project has been constructed from more than 20 panels of five-layer cross-laminated American tulipwood, ranging in size from 0.5m - 12m long, which were developed by CLT specialists - Züblin Timber. For AHEC, Maggie’s Oldham is one of the most important developments in a decade of research and development into structural timber innovation and one that could broaden the use of CLT in the construction industry. The creation of this product and significant use of hardwood will hopefully transform the way architects and engineers approach timber construction. Tulipwood is particularly useful in structural applications given its very high strength to weight ratio. In fact, American tulipwood CLT is around three times stronger and stiffer in ‘rolling shear’ than its softwood equivalent and its potential in wood construction is extremely promising. Through AHEC’s vision, sustainable American hardwoods are now beginning to enter new and exciting commercial markets. As the world re-embraces timber as a building material, it is hoped that they will become recognized more for the possibilities they can offer in all aspects of design and construction.
Image © Jon Cardwell
Looking good, feeling strong - timber has a new cast of performers
For decades our choice of wood species for timber construction has often been determined by price rather than performance. But times are changing and so are the products and construction techniques available to engineers who want to build in timber. Glulam has been around for a long time. I was surprised to learn that the first applications in Germany go back nearly a hundred years! But now we have Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) and Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT). The latter, undoubtedly a game changer, has helped propel large-scale timber construction from the drawing board to the construction site, where it is now increasingly being considered as a first-choice option over concrete and steel. Until recently almost all the raw material focus has been on softwood as it provides a cheap source of fiber that offers good strength performance relative to its weight and cost and will continue to do so. However, the possibility of using certain hardwood species to enhance the appearance and performance of timber structures is an exciting new development being welcomed by architects and engineers. Over the last decade, hardwood industries, especially in Europe, have looked to construction as a growth opportunity after years of declining consumption in traditional interior markets such as furniture and flooring. Of course, there is much more research and development and product testing needed. But new products are already out there being used: oak glulam, beech LVL, birch and
tulipwood CLT. Our journey to promote the use of American hardwoods for structural applications began back in 2001 with Arup’s pioneering use of American white oak beams for the courtyard roof of Portcullis House in Westminster designed by Hopkins architects. Subsequent testing at BRE produced detailed strength values for four hardwood species: white oak, red oak, ash and tulipwood. A series of iconic experimental installations followed; in 2008 David Adjaye’s Sclera (tulipwood), 2011 Amanda Levete’s Timber Wave (red oak) and 2013 dRMM’s Endless Stair (tulipwood); all landmark projects for the London Design Festival. "As a result of the Endless Stair we learnt that tulipwood is nearly three times stiffer than spruce in rolling shear and one can achieve the same strength performance as softwood with thinner panels. Then there is the advantage of more attractive colors and grain patterns, so no need to hide internal faces." But it was only last year we began to realize tulipwood’s full potential as a pioneering species for hardwood CLT, when Zublin Timber produced the first industrial sized panels. The Smile pavilion for the 2016 London Design Festival pushed the boundaries of what is possible in CLT. It was the result of an extraordinary collaboration with award-winning architect Alison Brooks and engineering masters Arup. We all knew at the time how important this experimental structure was: with its
Image © Alex de Rijke
Image © AHEC
AMERICAN HARDWOODS 47
simple form that belied the incredible complexity of the engineering challenge.
world’s most iconic sporting facilities, Lord’s Cricket Ground in St John’s Wood, London.
To us mere mortals, 60 people standing at the end of a 34m doublecurved wooden cantilever is either a crowd, or an obstruction to the perfect photo! To the timber experts at Arup it was another exciting and seemingly insurmountable challenge for what they later described as “the most ambitious CLT structure ever built”. It was, in that sense, their Everest, a chance to better themselves and reach a new high point in what can be achieved with timber. They appeared to derive a perverse pleasure from those many days and sleepless nights huddled over computer models, drawings and unreadable calculations.
Designed by Populous architects and engineered by Arup, the roof of the stand is formed from 11 cantilevered glue laminated (glulam) oak beams, the largest in Europe, that radiate dramatically from the corner of the Ground. They were produced in Germany by Hess Timber and according to Arup “the use of AWO glulam at this scale for the Warner Stand, is amongst the first of its kind in Europe and required extensive testing of its material properties and glueline integrity to satisfy European codes and standards.”
"The Smile may have been a temporary installation, now recycled, but its legacy is not temporary. It will remain an important marker for what is possible. In a recent article in the Financial Times, Edwin Heathcote’s piece about the rise of timber construction had a picture of The Smile beaming from the page and cited the importance of CLT as “lighter, faster and greener to build with than steel and concrete”." But, it is the first ever use of tulipwood CLT in a permanent structure, dRMM’s Maggie’s Cancer Care Center in Oldham that is a really defining moment and opens the door to a whole world of new possibilities as it confirms that hardwood CLT is now a viable option for architects and engineers. The opening of Maggie’s in June 2017 comes just weeks after another defining project for structural hardwood; American white oak features in the redevelopment of the Warner Stand at one of the
At a recent meeting in London of the European structural committee responsible for updating Eurocode 5 for timber, there was clear acknowledgement that more use of hardwoods will be an important element of future development of timber construction and that new codes and standards need to reflect this. A sentiment echoed at last year’s International Holzbau Forum where a number of projects were presented where both European and American hardwoods had been used innovatively and structurally. As one delegate commented from a packed auditorium “hardwoods have arrived and they are here to stay”. *This article has been written by David Venables, European Director, American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC). For more information and to download the latest publications and industry facts, please visit www.americanhardwood.org.
Image Â© AHEC
Sound for a new generation American tulipwood uplifts and updates the performance hall at this Northern Beaches Colleges Senior Campus in Freshwater
AMERICAN HARDWOODS 49
Image ©Jack Bussell
Image ©Jack Bussell
Image ©Jack Bussell
Image ©Jack Bussell
On seeing the horizontally positioned boards of solid American tulipwood, staggered in width, flowing around the stage in the Performance Theatre at Freshwater Senior Campus, you might correctly assume that this was not the creation of a standard acoustic paneling company. The design was conceived and created by young furniture designer Ben Percy from 3 cubic meters of American tulipwood.
Unfamiliar with the technical requirements of acoustic paneling, Percy’s first step was to do what he describes as a ‘ton of research’. This led to the wavy surface texture inherent in the design to minimize flat surfaces and break sound waves to reduce reverberation when the stage is in use. Percy admits that the project forced him out of his comfort zone.
Percy deliberately sought out a timber which would provide variation in color and tone to create interest in the backdrop to the 300-seat theatre. The flashes of purple and black in some sections of the wall and mottled grey that runs through others has led to stunning results and, according to Percy, is one of the most talked about elements of the design. The tulipwood has been finished with a transparent oil to ensure the natural colour remains the key feature. The proven sustainability of American tulipwood was also a key factor in the choice of material.
“I wanted to create something that referenced my background as a furniture designer. I drew on techniques from furniture design rather than paneling, such as laminating and bending the timber,” said Percy.
“I think it matters that we embrace the importance of creating designs that endure beyond a single generation – especially in an environment such as this, where young Australians are forming values and ideas for their future,” the designer commented.
The stage has provided an immediate improvement in the acoustics in the theater, which is regularly used for concerts and screenings at the school and is also made available to external companies for conferences and speaking events.
“I was happy with how easy the timber was to machine and work with” Percy adds. “I had considered other timbers such as American hard maple. It would have looked beautiful, but I think would have been too hard for this design.”
AMERICAN HARDWOODS 51
AMERICAN TULIPWOOD Liriodendron tulipifera Commercially American tulipwood is one of the most prolific hardwood species from the U.S. hardwood forests and is unique to North America, having been eliminated in Europe by the last ice age.
Tulipwood trees grow exclusively in North America and are widely distributed throughout most of the eastern United States in mixed hardwood forests. It is a single species and is not a poplar (Populus) being a Magnoliacae producing wood that is superior to the many poplar species. The trees are huge and identified by their tulip-like flowers giving rise to the name. Tulipwood grows from north to south and is one of the most sustainable hardwoods in the USA.
Tulipwood from the USA is readily available as sawn lumber in a wide range of grades and thicknesses (4/4” through to 16/4”) due to its ease of drying. A relative knot free timber average lumber widths and lengths can be higher than other commercial species. Tulipwood is used in plywood production but with more limited availability as decorative veneer. The sapwood produces the often preferred whiter wood, as the heartwood usually exhibits strong colour variation, however the use of unsorted tulipwood displaying all its natural colour variation is on the increase, especially in Europe. Tulipwood is sold domestically, and sometimes referred to in export, as ‘poplar’ but should not be confused with European or Chinese poplar.
However there is a marked difference between the sapwood and heartwood of tulipwood. The sapwood is creamy white whereas the heartwood can vary from pale yellow or brown and even green to purple in extreme cases. The wood darkens with time on exposure to UV light and the green colour will turn brown. The wood of tulipwood is straightgrained with a medium to fine texture.
Tulipwood has extraordinary overall strength properties relative to weight, making it highly suitable for structural applications, such as glue-laminated beams and cross laminated timber (CLT). The wood has relative low density, but with high bending, shock resistance, and stiffness values, but is lower in compression and hardness. The wood has medium steam-bending capability and is extremely stable when fully dry and not installed in humid conditions. It is easy to finish and stain, so is highly suitable for furniture and joinery.
Tulipwood lumber is easy to machine, plane, turn and glue with good performance screwing, although pre-boring is recommended. It tends to split when nailed. Tulipwood can easily be stained and polished to a very good finish. The wood can be susceptible to movement in performance in humid conditions. The wood is non-resistant to decay. The heartwood can be resistant to preservative treatment, whereas the sap is permeable. Overall, tulipwood can be considered for preservation with modern preservation treatment methods including thermal modification, to which it is particular suited.
Tulipwood has less strong grain characteristic than species such as ash and oak and is more like maple in character but darker in colour.
AMERICAN WALNUT Juglans nigra
American walnut is one of the most sought-after species in markets across the world and is unique to North America.
American walnut trees grow very widely across the eastern USA in mixed hardwood forests and on farms, concentrated in central states but spread from Texas to the eastern seaboard. The trees are one of the few hardwood species planted as well as occurring and regenerated naturally. They grow relatively tall and straight with few lower branches.
Walnut from the USA is available as sawn lumber and as veneer. The lumber is generally sold un-steamed and unselected for colour. Specialist producers may offer steamed walnut intended to darken the sapwood and thus reduce the colour difference between heartwood and sapwood. Recent years have seen huge global demand for this species. NHLA Grading Rules are modified for walnut allowing smaller specifications and smaller clear cuttings and sapwood is admitted without limit. Consultation with suppliers is recommended.
The sapwood of walnut is creamy white, whereas the heartwood is light
brown to dark chocolate brown, making the difference in colour quite distinct. Occasionally the heartwood has dark, even purple, streaks. The wood of walnut is generally straight grained, although sometimes with wavy or curly grain that produces its characteristic and attractive figure, sought after by designers. American walnut is quite different to European walnut, which tends to be lighter in colour.
Walnut is tough, hard and of medium density. It has moderate bending and crushing strengths and is low in stiffness. It has good steam bending classification.
American walnut works easily with hand and machine tools. It has excellent planing, turning and moulding properties. It has good nailing and gluing properties and can be stained and polished to an excellent finish. The wood dries slowly and has good dimensional stability when dry. The wood is rated as very resistant to heartwood decay and is one of the most durable (decay resistant) American hardwoods.
AMERICAN RED OAK
Quercus spp, mainly Quercus rubra
American red oak is the dominant species in the U.S. hardwood forests - with distinctive grain, and wood that is not always red in colour. The name is supposedly due to the leaf colour in the fall. Red oak may be sold on the basis of ‘northern’, ‘southern’ and ‘Appalachian’ but this may be an over-simplification of the differences according to growing location. For example, red oak grown at higher altitude will tend to be slower grown with a denser grain appearance and texture, regardless of geographical location.
Red oak trees grow only naturally and almost exclusively in North America, although planted elsewhere. They are widely distributed throughout most of the eastern United States in mixed hardwood forests. The trees are very tall. There are many sub-species, all within the red oak classification, which grow from north to south; some high in the mountains and others on low land giving rise to different characteristics.
Red oak from the USA is readily available as sawn lumber and veneer, in a wide range of grades and sizes. Thicker lumber (10/4” & 12/4”) can be sourced in relatively small volumes from specialist suppliers, but is widely produced throughout the hardwood industry from 4/4” (25.4mm) through to 8/4” (52mm). In the north the sapwood tends to be less due to the shorter growing season, than in the south where the wood is grown faster with more open grain and texture. Red oak may be sold on the basis of ‘northern’ and ‘southern’, but this may be an over-
simplification of the differences according to growing location.
In general the sapwood of red oaks is light brown and the heartwood is often, but not always, pinkish to reddish brown. The colour difference between the sapwood and heart wood is quite distinct. The wood of red oaks is generally straight-grained and coarse textured. The wood is figured with medullary rays – a feature of all true (Quercus) oaks – smaller in red oak than white oak. The wood is porous, and easily identified from the end grain, so not suitable for wine barrels.
American red oaks have very good overall strength properties relative to weight. The wood is hard and heavy with medium bending strength, stiffness and high crushing strength. It has excellent steam bending capability. Being hard, stable when dry and easy to finish and stain, it is ideal for furniture and flooring.
Red oak lumber machines well, with good performance in nailing and screwing, although pre-boring is recommended. It glues well and can be stained and polished to a very good finish. Being porous, red oak absorbs all treatments. The wood dries best slowly to minimise degrade, but with high shrinkage and can be susceptible to movement in performance in humid conditions. The wood is rated as slightly resistant to heartwood decay, but moderately easy to treat with preservatives. This makes red oak suitable for being thermally modified.
AMERICAN HICKORY Carya spp. American hickory and pecan are different species of a very diverse group, but in the round (log) they are virtually indistinguishable from each other and therefore often processed by saw mills and sold mixed together.
and maybe tinged with brown, while the heartwood is pale to yellow brown to dark in colour. Deep purple mineral streaks are a natural characteristic. Bird pecks are also a common characteristic and neither is considered a defect.
The hickories are an important group and the trees grow naturally throughout the Eastern U.S., from north to south. They are split into two groups; the more important true hickories and hickories producing pecan nuts, the latter being an important fruit-bearing tree. Trees vary in size enormously.
Hickory sawn lumber is readily available in export grades, but sold unselected for colour and mixed. The NHLA FAS grade permits a minimum width of 4 inches (101.6mm). The lower NHLA grades (1 & 2 common) can produce an attractive and fashionable rustic look. Lumber is mainly produced in thinner stock (4/4” & 5/4) although a limited amount of thicker material may be available.
The wood of hickory varies greatly in colour, grain pattern and appearance from this very diverse group. It is fine textured and the grain is usually straight but can be wavy or irregular. The sapwood is white
The wood of hickories is rather coarse and varies from strong to less strong but is heavy and very hard. It has good bending strength, shock resistance and excellent steam bending properties.
Hickory is considered difficult to machine and glue, and very hard to work with hand tools. It will hold nails and screws well but tends to split so pre-boring is advised. The wood can be sanded and polished to a good finish. It can be difficult to dry and has large shrinkage, which may affect stability under variable moisture conditions and in wider width material. The wood is non-resistant to heartwood decay and classed as moderately resistant to preservative treatment.
AMERICAN HARDWOODS 53
AMERICAN WHITE OAK
Quercus spp, mainly Quercus alba
American white oak is one of the most popular species from the U.S. hardwood forests in export markets – and is unique to North America. White oak may be sold on the basis of ‘northern’, ‘southern’ and ‘Appalachian’ but this may be an over-simplification of the differences according to growing location. For example, white oak grown at higher altitude will tend to be slower grown with a denser grain appearance and texture, regardless of geographical location.
White oak trees grow exclusively in North America and are widely distributed throughout most of the eastern United States in mixed hardwood forests. As with red oak there are many sub-species, all within the white oak classification, and together form the most common species group accounting for about 33% of the American hardwood resource. The trees are tall and easily identified by their rounded leaf form, turning brown in the fall. White oaks also grow from north to south; some high in the mountains and others on low land giving rise to different characteristics.
White oak from the USA is readily available as sawn lumber and veneer, in a wide range of grades and sizes. Due to lengthy drying times not all suppliers offer thicker lumber stock (10/4” & 12/4”) but it is available in limited volumes. In the north the sapwood tends to be less than in the south where, due to the shorter growing season, the wood is grown faster with more open grain and texture. White oak may be sold on the basis of ‘northern’ and ‘southern’, but this may be an over-simplification of the differences according to growing location.
and the heartwood is normally light to mid or even dark brown. The difference between the sapwood and heartwood of white oak is less distinct than in red oak. The wood of white oaks is mainly straightgrained with medium to coarse texture. The wood is figured with medullary rays – a feature of all true (Quercus) oaks – and these in white oak are longer than those of red oak; thus producing a more pronounced figure. The heartwood wood is not porous, so is suitable for wine barrels and exterior use.
American white oaks have excellent overall strength properties relative to weight, making them a preferred hardwood species for structural applications. The wood is hard and relatively heavy with good bending strength and compression strength but lower in stiffness. Structural testing carried out in Europe confirms that the white oak has a greater inherent fibre strength than European oak. It has excellent steam bending capability. Being hard, stable when dry and easy to finish and stain, it is highly popular for furniture and flooring, especially in export markets.
White oak lumber machines well, with good performance in nailing and screwing, although pre-boring is recommended. It glues well (although the inclusion of primers are recommended for structural gluing) and can be stained and polished to a very good finish. The wood has to be dried slowly and carefully to avoid degrade and it has high differential radial and tangential shrinkage so can be susceptible to movement in performance in humid conditions. It has excellent drilling and finishing properties. The heartwood is resistant to decay and resistant to preservative treatment.
White oaks have an attractive grain, similar to many other oaks grown globally. In general the sapwood of white oak is whitish to light brown
AMERICAN PECAN Carya spp. American hickory and pecan are different species of a very diverse group, but in the round (log) they are virtually indistinguishable from each other and therefore often processed by saw mills and sold mixed together.
Pecan trees grow naturally in the south eastern USA and principally in the Mississippi valley. It is an important fruit-bearing tree and varies in size enormously.
Pecan sawn lumber is available in export grades, but sold unselected for colour and mixed. The NHLA FAS grade permits a minimum width of 4 inches (101.6mm). The lower NHLA grades (1 & 2 common) can produce an attractive and fashionable rustic look. Lumber is mainly produced in thinner stock (4/4” & 5/4) although a limited amount of thicker material may be available.
The wood of pecan varies greatly in colour, grain pattern and
appearance from this very diverse group. It is coarsely textured and the grain is usually straight but can be wavy or irregular. The sapwood is white and maybe tinged with brown, while the heartwood is pale to yellow brown to dark in colour. Deep purple mineral streaks are a natural characteristic. Bird pecks are also a common characteristic and neither is considered a defect.
The wood of pecan is usually considered very strong with excellent stem bending classification, high crushing strength, high stiffness and very high shock resistance
Pecan is considered to have good machining properties resembling those of hickory but difficult to glue, and is very hard to work with hand tools. It holds nails and screws well but tend to split so pre-boring is advised. The wood can be sanded, stained and polished to a good finish. It can be readily dried but has fairly high shrinkage. The wood is nonresistant to heartwood decay and classed as moderately resistant to preservative treatment.
AMERICAN CHERRY Prunus serotina American cherry is a supreme hardwood species from the U.S. hardwood forests and is unique to North America, with warm colour tones and superb finishing qualities.
American forest cherry trees grow principally in the northeast of the USA in mixed hardwood forests. The species is different from the many floral cherries planted throughout the world. It is a single species; the trees growing tall and often in dense stands in several U.S. states, notably Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia and West Virginia. Cherry has a relatively short rotation, taking less time to mature than other hardwoods. Much of the current resource is the result of cherry’s ability to regenerate naturally after forest fires.
Cherry from the USA is readily available as veneer and sawn lumber in a range of grades and sizes, although limited as thicker material; 10/4” (63mm) & 12/4” (75mm). The species can be subject to cycles of popularity or fashion, so that apparent shortages of dry lumber available to deliver may not reflect the substantial resource available for harvest. Cherry may be sold selected for colour, defining the amount of sap-free material or sold sap-free one face. For example, cherry boards may be sold 90/50 meaning 90% heartwood and not less than 50% heartwood on the reverse side – or sold in other specifications. Consultation with suppliers is recommended.
and darkens on exposure to light with time. The sapwood is creamy white. Although the difference between heart and sap colour is marked, this can be reduced by steaming. The wood of cherry has a fine uniform, straight and unpronounced grain with a fine smooth texture. The small brown pith flecks, pin knots and gum pockets or streaks are natural characteristics of cherry, but their occurrence varies according to region.
Cherry has medium density, with good wood bending properties, medium strength and shock resistance, but low stiffness, and can be steam bent with care. Being hard and stable when dry the wood is very easy to stain and finish to an excellent surface. It is highly prized for furniture and interior joinery. As a relatively soft species, American cherry is only suitable for flooring in areas with low traffic, such as bedrooms, or in cultures where shoes are not worn in homes – as in Asia.
Cherry lumber is easy to machine, plane and turn. It glues well with good performance in screwing and nailing. It has excellent carving and moulding properties. Cherry can easily be sanded, stained and polished to a very fine and smooth finish. The heartwood is resistant to decay and is moderately resistant to preservative treatment. Users should take into account that both the heartwood of cherry can darken in tone quite quickly on exposure to light.
The heartwood of cherry can vary from rich red to reddish brown
AMERICAN HARD MAPLE
Acer saccharum, Acer nigrum
Hard maple, growing naturally in the hardwood forests of North America, is world-renowned for its delicate colour, hardness, fine grain and finishing quality.
American hard maple is a cold climate species although trees can grow throughout the USA in mixed hardwood forests but favouring the more northern states. The species is quite different from other maples throughout the world. The trees often grow in dense stands on many types of soil and are also farmed for their famous maple syrup. Harvesting the trees is seasonal (autumn and winter).
Hard maple from the USA is readily available as sawn lumber in a range of grades and sizes and as veneer. Lumber is regularly produced in 4/4” through to 8/4’” but limited as thicker stock. The lumber may be sold according to (white) colour selection, for which a premium is normally charged. This is usually done using the NHLA grading standard for colour sorting producing colour grades such as “1&2 white”. Consultation with suppliers is recommended.
The sapwood of hard maple is normally creamy white but can show a slight reddish/brown tinge. White sapwood lumber can be selected and
veneer is always selected. The heartwood of hard maple varies in colour from light to dark reddish brown and may also vary according to region. The difference between heart and sap colour may only be slight. Both may contain pith fleck as a natural characteristic. The wood of hard maple has a close fine texture and is generally straight grained. Hard maple can occur as ‘curly’, ‘fiddleback’ and ‘birds eye’ figure. The wood darkens on exposure to light with time.
Hard maple is hard, as the name suggests, and is heavy with good strength properties. It has high resistance to abrasion and wear as well as good steam bending properties. Accordingly it is a preferred species for flooring, including sports floors, bowling alleys and worktops.
Hard maple lumber is excellent to machine, bore, turn and finish. It glues, planes, drills and carves well but screwing and nailing is only fair. It produces good mouldings. Hard maple can easily be sanded, stained and polished to a very fine and smooth finish. The heartwood is only slightly or non-resistant to decay and the heartwood is resistant to preservative treatment. The sapwood is permeable.
AMERICAN HARDWOODS 55
Fraxinus spp, including Fraxinus americana
American ash is ideal for bending and turning- and strong and tough with distinctive grain, character and colour.
American ash trees grow commonly throughout the eastern United States in mixed hardwood forests, from the north in New York State to the southern States along the Gulf of Mexico, and everywhere in between. They grow high in the mountains and low on the plains and coastal areas giving rise to great variety of character. With such widespread distribution in latitude, climate and soil conditions, there are significant variations in ash depending on location, in particular between the slower grown northern and faster grown southern trees. There are also sub-species that add to this variety. Despite some longer-term threats by forest pests and disease to the ash standing stock of timber, ash is a prolific species.
sh from the USA is readily available as sawn lumber and veneer, in a A wide range of grades and sizes. In the north the sapwood tends to be less due to the shorter growing season, than in the south where the wood is grown faster with more open grain and texture. Ash may be sold on the basis of colour and is widely available for export. Ash was the 4th major American hardwood species to be exported worldwide by volume in 2015. Ash lumber is available in a range of grades from 4/4” (1” or 25.4mm) through to 8/4” (2” or 52mm) although limited volumes of 10/4” (2.5” or 63mm) and 12/4” (3’ or 75mm) can be sourced.
In general ash is a light coloured wood, with sapwood varying from white to yellow and heartwood light to dark brown, sometimes with lighter
streaks. The colour difference between the outer light-coloured white sapwood and inner, darker, even brown heartwood is quite distinct. Ash wood is generally straight-grained with a coarse uniform texture. Its appearance has a very strong grain contrast between the softer summer growth and hard winter growth rings. No two pieces are ever the same in appearance. Light brown flecks, or mineral streaks, sometimes referred to as ‘glassworm’, are common in ash and are treated as a natural characteristic, and are not considered as a defect under the NHLA Grading Rules. They do not undermine the integrity of the wood.
Ash wood has very good overall strength properties relative to its weight. It has excellent shock resistance, which takes some of the pain from those using hand tools and sports equipment, such as baseball bats. It steam bends very well, so is a favourite of furniture makers and hobbyists. Being very hard, stable when dry and easy to finish and stain, it is ideal for furniture and flooring.
Ash lumber machines well, with good performance in nailing, screwing, gluing and can be stained and polished to a very good finish. Black stained ash has experienced several successful fashion cycles in furniture. The wood dries fairly easily with minimal degrade. With good stability there is not much movement in performance. Ash veneer laminates well to board materials. Ash is not resistant to heartwood decay and the heartwood is moderately resistant to preservative treatment, but the sapwood is permeable. This makes ash very suitable for being thermally modified, as has now been proven through its widespread use for decking, cladding, worktops and garden furniture.
AMERICAN SOFT MAPLE
Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum
Soft maple, growing naturally in the hardwood forests of North America, is one of the most prolific and sustainable species, similar to hard maple but slightly softer in impact hardness.
American soft maples grow widely across the eastern USA in mixed hardwood forests with more red maple in the northeast and silver maple concentrated in the mid and southern states. The name can be misleading as soft maple is not technically very soft. There are a significant number of sub-species – all sold as soft maple. Several, including Pacific coast/big leaf maple (Acer macrophyllum), grow in the northwest USA, for which there are specific grading rules that apply.
Soft maple from the USA is widely available as sawn lumber in a range of sizes and grades, but rarely as veneer. The lumber is normally sold unselected for colour. West coast production is usually sold surfaced and graded from the better side, in a departure from standard NHLA Grading Rules.
Soft maples are somewhat like hard maple, but much more variable in colour, especially from one region to another. The sapwood of soft maple
is normally greyish white but can be darker, with pith flecks as a natural characteristic. The heartwood of soft maple varies in colour from light to dark reddish brown. The difference between sap and heartwood is greater than in hard maple. The wood of soft maple is generally straight grained with fine texture, with a grain pattern similar to American cherry, soft maple can be stained as a cherry substitute.
Soft maple has good bending and crushing strength, but is low in stiffness and shock resistance. It is about 25% less hard than hard maple. Accordingly it is not recommended for flooring or work tops.
Soft maple lumber is excellent to machine, bore, plane and finish. It turns, glues, planes, drills and carves well but screwing and nailing is only fair. It produces good mouldings. Soft maple can easily be sanded, stained and polished to a fine and smooth finish, and has good steam bending properties. It is regarded as a substitute for cherry when stained. Its mechanical properties and performance also make it a substitute for beech. The wood is non-resistant to decay and the heartwood is moderately resistant to preservative treatment. The sapwood is permeable.
58 TALL TIMBER
Lotus Equity Group unveils plans to develop the largest timber office building in America
Image ÂŠ Michael Green Architecture
Commercial office building to anchor Riverfront Square, a transformative 11.8-acre mixed-use development proposed for the growing Broad Street corridor of downtown Newark
Image © Michael Green Architecture
The Lotus Equity Group has announced plans to develop the United States’ largest mass timber office building as part of Riverfront Square, Newark’s most ambitious redevelopment project. Designed by visionary architecture firm - Michael Green Architecture - the first commercial building in the project will encompass up to 500,000 square feet of Class A office space designed to enhance tenant wellness and environmental sustainability. Riverfront Square will transform one of the downtown area’s most important sites into a thriving 24/7 community. The 11.8-acre site sits adjacent to the waterfront, steps from NJ Transit’s Broad Street station - accessible to Midtown Manhattan in 18 minutes and complements the future Riverfront Park designed by the internationally acclaimed James Corner Field Operations. Riverfront Square is Newark’s most ambitious mixed-use
project and is expected to provide up to 2,000 residential units, large and small-scale retail, cultural and public open space, a hotel, 2 million square feet of office space, and parking spaces in the heart of downtown. “To build the nation’s largest timber building in Newark speaks to the confidence and belief we have in the city and Riverfront Square as a worldclass location that can compete with any great city around the world,” said Ben Korman, Chief Executive Officer and Founder of Lotus Equity Group. “The vision we share with Michael Green is to design the most environmentally sustainable office tower that enhances the health of tenants and the surrounding communities through efficient planning and green design. When you merge these benefits with Newark’s emerging technology sector, Riverfront Square is primed to help companies attract and
retain valuable talent.” Korman envisions the roughly USD 1.7 billion Riverfront Square as a project that could help push Newark into the next phase of steady and organic growth. Located at the north end of Newark’s central district, the project would include about 2,000 apartments, a public square, more than 100,000 square feet of shops and restaurants, 2 million square feet of offices as well as hotel and entertainment space, all within seven to ten buildings. The building will rise in three separate sections to six, eight and eleven storeys tall and have a concrete foundation. Its columns, exterior panels, elevators, stairwells and floor systems will be made of mass timber. In addition, the interiors will boast exposed wood with a facade covered in metal panels, brick or wood. According to the architects, timber-built buildings reduce the number
of greenhouse gases emitted and more importantly save developers overall time on construction. Plus, wood connects workers to nature, creating a more pleasant and productive environment. “This project represents an opportunity for MGA, in collaboration with Lotus Equity Group, to lay the foundation for the future of Riverfront Square and the city of Newark more broadly. Good buildings are good neighbors and we envision a sustainable, efficient and architecturally-stunning future for Newark,” said Michael Green, Founder and Principal of Michael Green Architecture. Environmental advantages of timber-built buildings are largely derived from its construction. Trees absorb and hold carbon until they decompose or are burned, while the manufacture of concrete and steel accounts for an estimated 10 percent of greenhouse gas emissions.
While Newark’s building code limits heavy timber construction to six storeys, a spokesperson for Lotus stated that wooden towers in other states have received exemptions to local code limits by showing the safety of this type of construction. The developer expects New Jersey will be open to similar exemptions. According to Green, the manufactured wood that will be used for this office building is different from the typical woodstick construction used in low-rise residential buildings. Traditionally, the products used for wood towers consist of pieces or layers of wood glued together to form massive, solid columns or panels. Under fire, these engineeredtimber products create a char layer, sealing and protecting the main structural components and allowing buildings to remain standing for longer periods. More importantly, this type of wood construction can shave months from the construction schedule, eliminating the lengthy time
Image © Michael Green Architecture Image © Michael Green Architecture
Image © Stefano Boeri Architetti
Image © Michael Green Architecture
60 TALL TIMBER
it takes for wet concrete to dry and set and providing often faster assembly times for wood components. Four renowned architecture firms will lead the development of Riverfront Square, including TEN Arquitectos, Practice for Architecture and Urbanism, Minno & Wasko Architects and Planners and Michael Green Architecture. Each of the selected architects have been chosen for their own commitment to responsible community development, acting as visionary leaders who seamlessly combine architecture and design with urban sensibility. AJohn Picco, Peter Van Duyne, Sean Brady, Alex Lachmund and Christian Politan of Cushman & Wakefield have been selected as the project’s exclusive commercial brokerage team. “As companies continue to prioritize sustainability, wellness and innovation, buildings like this have become extremely attractive to tenants across industry sectors.
Newark is a growing business community, already home to noteworthy companies like Audible, Panasonic and Prudential, and Riverfront Square represents an opportunity for companies growing in or moving to the New York metro area to enter a highly desirable live, work, play development unlike any other,” said John Picco, Executive Director of Cushman & Wakefield. Lotus Equity Group is a socially conscious developer and owner deeply committed to revitalizing downtown Newark and creating a 24/7 live-work-play community. Lotus has been an integral force in Newark’s recent business development; Ben Korman is also the operating partner of C&K Properties, the longstanding owner of 2 Gateway Center, Newark’s largest office building. With its deep experience in Newark and in delivering complex projects around the world, Lotus is uniquely positioned to do its part in advancing a shared vision for Newark.
Lotus Equity Group
Newark, New Jersey, USA
Michael Green Architecture
Michael Green Architecture
HOMAG to launch the world’s first autonomous workshop concept at HOLZ-HANDWERK 1 workshop, 3 cells, 1000 possibilities: the first autonomous cell in the woodworking industry
The HOMAG Group, a worldleading company that manufactures machines and equipment for the woodworking industry, has announced plans to launch the world’s first autonomous workshop concept at HOLZ-HANDWERK. The workshop, which runs autonomously, consists of two cells that are already fully automated and interlinked. These two cells are connected by autonomous helpers: automated guided vehicles (AGV) are used, organizing all of the parts logistics tasks between the cells and making this workshop concept the first autonomous cell at HOLZHANDWERK. According to the company, the autonomous cell can make full use of its flexibility both in skilled crafts and in industry, in series and in batch size 1 production, and opens up previously unknown possibilities in future manufacturing for small and medium-sized companies.
High-tech edges with integrated workpiece handling Ideally suited for users with the widest range of parts and materials in edge processing, the EDGETEQ S-500 (previously KAL 370) edge banding machine, in combination with the LOOPTEQ O-600 return (previously TFU 521), offers maximum
flexibility. The two elements are networked to each other via the woodFlex cell control system. This control system has a modular structure, is open for future requirements or expansions, provides safety, optimizes processes and increases efficiency. To ensure the cell can process every workpiece correctly, every part is assigned a digital identity (barcode) in advance that contains all processing data. High-tech edges: Flexibility³ The new EDGETEQ S-500 offers a degree of flexibility that has never been seen before. It is able to process three profiles and also provides three different edge-joining processes at the same time. High processing flexibility and setup at the push of a button are often used as ‘adjustment screws’ to increase productivity. The new 3-profile technology is ideally suited to this. It ensures rapid, automatic and repeatable changes between three profiles and 20° chamfer. The ‘3-profile technology package’ includes a fine-milling unit for three radii, the 3-profile head on the FK30 profile trimming unit and profile scraper for more than three radii. If someone wants to change the procedure for gluing the edges (PU, EVA or
airTec zero-joint technology) at short intervals, they can now operate all three edge band application procedures on a single machine (for example, airTec can automatically be changed to EVA at the push of a button). Integrated, automated workpiece handling The fully automated part flow for the EDGETEQ S-500 is handled by the LOOPTEQ O-600 workpiece guide roller. Here the automatic return has been combined with a stacking system, which means that finished workpieces can be ejected or automatically destacked. Ejection and destacking are completed by the gantry with width-specific rotating function and the newly developed vacuum cross rail for gentle handling. The return is designed for a range of parts from 240x80 mm to 1200x3000 mm and integrated into the machine control unit of the edge banding machine.
The advantages of integrated workpiece handling include: reduction in quality costs thanks to the gentle vacuum cross rail; flexible personnel organization thanks to singleperson operation; reduced physical exertion by personnel; high-performance interlinked material flow; efficiency: defined rotation for process-oriented parts return; and complete
Image ÂŠ HOMAG
integration into the machine control unit (powerTouch).
Robot management on vertical CNC processing machine Offering availabilities of approximately 100 percent, high repeat accuracy and pinpoint parts handling, robots are reliable partners and increase the costeffectiveness of production.
The reliable, integrated parts supply makes every CNC machine a high-performance center and therefore an optimal manufacturing cell for production. At the HOLZHANDWERK trade fair, a 6-axis robot will handle automated parts for the DRILLTEQ V-500 (previously BHX 200) vertical processing center. Integration into the cell control system makes it very easy to operate the robot. Additionally, functions such as aligning, validating and rotating of parts can easily be integrated into the process. It is also very simple to implement new workpieces
during the process. Robot management offer several advantages such as: spacesaving concept; gentle handling of materials and surfaces; reduced workload for personnel; high technical availability and rising added value; and the ability to identify parts via barcode or RFID.
Flexible interlinking by driverless transport systems Small, autonomous logistics helpers connect the two fully autonomous operating cells and make a workshop that operates completely independently. Automated guided vehicles (AGV) are used, supplying the drilling cells with stacks from the edge cells that have been processed to completion.
Smart networking of the cells with the automated guided vehicles (AGV) The HOMAG ControllerMES production control system is the key to networked communication in the cell. It communicates universally with the individual control systems of the automated edge cell and the CNC robot cell, as well as with the control system of the AGV. Here the AGV cell control system is used. This is closely connected with a fleet manager, which takes over the entire planning of the AGV driving routes. The autonomous cell allows for: the combination of process knowledge about wood processing and AGV technology; material management from one source; ready for connection to the tapio ecosystem; flexible interlinking of processing cells - Spatial flexibility, no rigid interlinking by roller conveyors; and fast response times simple, subsequent changes of the product range and processing sequence. Moreover, it is also scalable and modular with simple, subsequent expansion a possibility.
Image Â© SCM
SCM showcases complete range of high-tech solutions at the Dubai WoodShow SCM, the world-leading producer of secondary woodworking machinery, will participate in the 13th edition of the Dubai WoodShow, which will take place from March 12 - 14, 2018 at the Dubai World Trade Center. From its 300 square-meter Stand C40, SCM will showcase its high-tech products: from new edgebanding solutions, which offer improved productivity, to innovative smart augmented reality glasses used for remote assistance and maintenance so that an SCM technician will always be at your side. The Italian woodworking giant, which posted doubledigit growth last year both in the field of woodworking machinery and as a Group, will also demonstrate at the Dubai WoodShow its unique ability to satisfy the needs of all types of companies, ranging from small carpentry shops, which use more 'classical' machines, to larger companies based on industrial production lines and which must still combine customized, high-quality processes with high output volumes. Participating in the Dubai WoodShow has a special added meaning for SCM this year, given that the UAE will host the Expo 2020 under the motto - Connecting Minds, Creating the Future. This is a theme that is very dear to SCM as the company is committed to offering its customers Industry 4.0 solutions that can connect operators with machines as well as interconnecting machines, in order to provide simpler, more efficient, flexible and digital
woodworking solutions. A key feature at the Dubai WoodShow is the innovative Maestro Smartech smart glasses, the most popular among the Maestro Digital Systems digital tools, which has been designed by SCM to tie technological developments to the needs of its end users. A major hit among visitors who flocked from all over the world to the SCM 2018 Open House earlier this year, the demonstration of the Smartech glasses at the show will highlight the enormous potential offered by this revolutionary instrument of communications between supplier, dealer and customer. It is, indeed, a unique augmented reality system, which provides remote assistance using a wireless interactive connection between SCM servicemen and customers, whenever and wherever needed, while keeping the operator's hands free. It is also the most innovative and most representative example of the â€˜Work Simple, Work Digitalâ€™ concept that is at the heart of SCM's message during the event. Other major attractions will include the highly versatile and flexible machines for the various woodworking processes. For edgebanding, SCM will display solutions that can speed up production without causing errors and while consistently meeting the highest quality standards. A standout example is the new AirFusion+ device, which can perform the hot-air/ zero glue line application with higher productivity (10 percent over the earlier model) and can cut ignition and start-up times
Image ÂŠ SCM
by 50 percent. The machine to demonstrate this technology is the brand new Stefani KD edgebander, designed for both small carpentry shops and large industrial companies. Equipped with an SGP glue pot, good for EVA and PUR binding, the machine is electronically driven and offers automatic axes setup for 2 different radii and for solid wood up to 12 mm thick. It also allows a continuous edgebanding of numerous panels of different shapes while maintaining high productivity levels with a speed of up to 20 m/min. Another product of great interest is the new drilling and milling machining center - the Morbidelli M100, an exclusive 5-axis all-in-one solution for small and large shops that wish to perform a wide range of woodworking processes using a single machine for highlyefficient machining of products
A key feature at the Dubai WoodShow is the innovative Maestro Smartech smart glasses, the most popular among the Maestro Digital Systems digital tools ranging from furniture to doors. Among its notable advantages are the ability to freely and safely load and unload large panels, a drastic reduction of tool changing times (thanks to its Fast14 tool holder), and a saving of up to 60 percent in drilling cycles. Also to be featured is Morbidelli CX200, the CNC vertical drilling center with two independent drilling heads, vertical routing and sawing blades, based on the exclusive Ro.Ax (rotoaxial) spindle technology, developed entirely by SCM to provide a high-precision drilling of higher quality and higher productivity while drastically reducing maintenance operations. Other innovative SCM solutions
for panel processing will be on display at the Dubai Woodshow as well. Among the sawing machines will be the Gabbiani S95, with the new Maestro Cut operator interface, which facilitates selecting and setting the most suitable cutting programme. It is a machine that is ideal for small industrial companies due to its great flexibility, small footprint (20 percent smaller) and higher productivity (up to 30 percent). Another noteworthy solution is the DMC SD 90 sanding and calibrating machine, particularly suited for medium-to-large industrial companies requiring diversified types of processing, as it can fulfil any sanding and calibrating needs by providing a wide range of technological
solutions to machine any customized workpiece imaginable. SCM will also displaying the new Sergiani GS line of presses with electronic controls and manual loading/unloading, acclaimed for its high precision and versatility in processing veneered panels, hollow-core doors and multilayer panels. Lastly, the SCM machines for processing solid wood will take center stage at the Dubai WoodShow, with Superset NT, the molding machine fit for unlimited uses preparing profiles for windows, doors, stairs, mouldings and furniture - and equipped with a SET-UP system that helps make setup operations between jobs up to 20 times faster, employing the T-SET technology for fast tool clamping and releasing to help operators manage a wide variety of tools, adding flexibility even when processing smaller batches.
Image Â© Kebony
AMERICAN SOFTWOODS 69
American softwoods are grown in the western, southeastern and northeastern states of the United States. Renowned for their strength, flexibility, versatility and beauty, they have been exported for almost 200 years. Harvested from sustainably managed forests in the U.S.A., the success of forest management and conservation in the U.S.A. means that the area of forested land is now greater than it was 75 years ago. Today, the forests occupy an area equal in size to Germany and France combined and more than 4.5 million trees are planted or seeded naturally every day.
America is recognized worldwide as a sustainable source of top quality timber. This popularity is based on: • Standardization of sizes and stress ratings • Quality control through the enforcement of a single unified grading system • Strength and durability • Suitability for preservative and fire-retardant treatments • Construction standardization and systemization The simple cell structure of softwood’s long, uniformly packed fibres gives them a high strength-to-weight ratio, making them flexible and capable of bearing heavy loads. American softwoods have the strength to sustain longer spans for trusses and joists, as well as the clear, fine-grained timber that is in demand for joinery applications, such as panelling, door frames, windows, flooring and furniture.
The diverse and wide-ranging applications of American softwoods fall into three main categories: Joinery, Structural and Outdoors. • Schools • Sports venues • Swimming pools • Theaters
Joinery The quality, grains and textures of American softwoods have long proved popular for many internal uses. Finished naturally, stained or painted, they will enhance the interior of both traditional and modern homes. American softwoods are also growing in demand for furniture manufacture but are ideal for: • Bed frames • Cabinetry • Fenestration • Flooring • Moulding • Panelling • Staircases Structural Structural timber is graded for its load-bearing and load-carrying capacity in framing systems and in heavy construction, light commercial and residential applications. The dominant American structural framing species are Douglas fir and Southern Yellow Pine. Typical structural construction applications include: • Churches • Retail developments
Outdoors When pressure preservative treated, timber can provide decades of reliable service exposed to the harshest of climates. Southern Yellow Pine is the preferred species when pressure treatment with wood preservatives is required. The unique cellular structure of Southern Yellow Pine permits deep and uniform penetration of preservatives, rendering the wood useless as a food source for fungi, termites and micro-organisms. Common outdoor applications for preservative treated timber include: • Boardwalks • Bridges • Cladding • Decks • Marinas and piers • Playground equipment
Wood is the number one green building material
Image ÂŠ AMSO
Wood surpasses competitors in durability, renewability and the fight against climate change
Contractors and homeowners alike have a time-tested way to help the environment - use wood. Building with wood has the smallest impact on the environment before, during and after construction, according to recent findings by the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) study and the Athena Sustainable Materials Institute. Homes constructed with wood products reduce energy use, use fewer natural resources and decrease environmental impacts overall. As the only self-renewable building material, wood does not need outside chemicals to regenerate and uses very little fossil fuels and natural resources to assemble it into a suitable building product. Sustainable forest management practices ensure that the supply of wood is not only being replaced but increased each time it is used. North America remains the largest single source for sustainably managed and legally harvested wood products. An essential part of green building is evaluating the environmental impacts of building materials and assemblies. A consistent and
objective way to measure this is through life-cycle assessment (LCA). LCA evaluates materials over the course of their entire lives, from extraction through manufacturing, transportation, installation, use, maintenance and disposal or recycling. This process accounts for a full range of impacts over the course of a productâ€™s life span. Impact categories include, among other things, energy use, global warming potential, air pollution and solid waste output. And when considering the life-cycle of wood construction, wood-framed buildings have a 100-year track record for safety and dependability. For many sites, a raised wood floor foundation is the best building option - for durability and to have a smaller impact on the environment. A raised wood floor foundation lasts a lifetime. Because of woodâ€™s durability, renewability and extensive life-cycle, homeowners will not have to worry about the use of more fossil fuels for non-wood alternatives - concrete and steel - to be produced as a result. Wood outperforms other products when considered over its
Image © AMSO Image © AMSO
Image © AMSO
AMERICAN SOFTWOODS 71
complete life cycle. A Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) study compared the environmental impacts of wood-framed and steel-framed homes in one American city and wood-framed and concrete-framed homes in another city to evaluate energy use and their life-cycle assessments. According to the report, the homes framed in steel and concrete would require 17 and 16 percent more energy respectively - from extraction through maintenance - than their wood-framed counterparts. The reason is that wood’s cellular structure contains air pockets that limit its ability to conduct heat, which makes it a better insulator than other materials. This helps to minimize the energy needed for heating and cooling. Building with wood also aids in the fight against climate change. Wood construction fights climate change in two ways: using less fossil fuels in the building process; and limiting the number of decaying trees which produce carbon dioxide, the primary ingredient for global warming. Growing trees absorb carbon dioxide and release clean oxygen. The
absorbed carbon dioxide is stored in the trees or wood products made from trees until they burn or biodegrade. At a certain point, depending on the tree species and growing conditions, carbon dioxide absorption tapers off. If a forest is allowed to decay, the stored carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere. However, if the forest is harvested sustainably and manufactured into building products, carbon dioxide is stored into the materials and the forest generates younger trees that absorb even more carbon dioxide - achieving a net reduction in global emissions. Wood surpasses its competitors in multiple facets not only in green, or environmentally friendly, building but in all general construction. To have the smallest impact on the environment, homeowners and contractors should consider environmentally friendly tactics. This article has been written by Richard Wallace, Vice President, Communications, Southern Forest Products Association (SFPA). For more information and to download the latest publications and industry facts, please visit www.SouthernPine.com.
DC Wharfâ€™s recreational pier highlights sustainable materials,unique landscape architecture, and unconventional carpentry
Image © Kebony
AMERICAN SOFTWOODS 73
The Recreational Pier of Washington’s newly redeveloped southwest waterfront, dubbed ‘The Wharf,’ has opened, highlighting a combination of sustainable building materials, unique landscape design and unconventional carpentry. The Recreational Pier sits at the terminus of 7th Street SW. Together with the adjacent 7th Street Park, the Recreation Pier forms a new civic connection that brings the community to the water’s edge. The curving, elliptical outline of the pier starts in the park as a poured in place concrete walk before transitioning to Kebony wood decking that pushes out onto the pier. To date, this is the largest installation of Kebony in North America.
Image © Kebony
Kebony was chosen due to its hard-wearing properties and ability to hold intense foot traffic. The patented Kebony technology is an environmentally friendly process, which modifies sustainably sourced softwoods by heating the wood with a bio-based liquid. By polymerising the wood’s cell wall, the softwoods permanently take on the attributes of tropical hardwood including high durability, hardness and dimensional stability. Kebony Clear wood - produced from Southern Yellow Pine - was used for the Pier’s decking, verticals, benches and cladding throughout, and Kebony was used for more than 100,000 square feet of decking, as well as cladding on certain store fronts and rooftop decks. The elliptical form is combined with a rolling, wave-like decking surface that descends to the midpoint (the saddle) before ramping back up the pier terminus (the belvedere). The overall effect of curvature and rolling slope helps to create a sense of movement and flow reminiscent of water waves. To execute landscape architect Robin Lollar (Vergason Landscape Architecture)’s design, general contractor Cianbro Corp.’s carpenters actually bent the Kebony modified wood, likely the first time this has been done. The transition decking between the upper and lower levels was bent and twisted to follow the curvature and incline of the pier. These boards were full depth 2”x 4”. And to create the fascia, the “nose” of the pier features an elliptical profile that was wrapped with bent 1”x 4” boards, which were
Image © Kebony
Image © Kebony
Image © Kebony
also kerfed on the backside to achieve the radii.
“Cianbro’s carpenters are very experienced and the bending was a particularly interesting process,” said Lollar. “They literally used brute force to create one of the greater successes of this project. Without bending the wood, it would be very difficult to get the adjacent cladding to lay out correctly.”
The community comprises 24 acres of land and 50 acres of water. The development team is restoring a 200-year-old fish market and has created 1,400 waterfront residences, relocating a 127-year-old yacht club and set up three unique hotels, designed and built a 6,000-person-capacity concert hall and conference center, and constructed four public piers. They’re all linked by a waterside promenade with more than 75 restaurants and shops extending along a mile of waterfront.
The Recreation Pier extends over 400 feet into the Washington Channel, consisting of both a primary, fixed deck and a lower, floating dock. The pier has a deck surface area that measures approximately 21,000 square feet, with the floating dock contributing an additional 2,500 square feet. There are two aluminum gangways that connect the fixed pier to the floating dock below. The Pier is primarily a flexible open space that can accommodate a wide range of activities and programming. Key features include a kayak launch on the floating dock, five oversized swings that accommodate two or more adults, a sculptural steel shade structure at the land’s edge, a small retail kiosk, two dozen benches, floating wetlands, and a 10-foot fire sculpture at the Belvedere. The Wharf project, in total, includes 14 signature buildings - each designed by a different architect - linked by 10 acres of public space and parks to create an ever-changing and exciting experience along the water. All told, it represents the biggest mixed-use development in DC’s
The USD 2 billion development was spearheaded by PN Hoffman and Madison Marquette, who teamed up to form Hoffman-Madison Waterfront, a development partnership that created an eclectic mix of uses and public spaces connecting people to the waterfront. Clark Construction Group built the public spaces at The Wharf. With its global headquarters based in Oslo, Norway, and with production facilities in Skien, Norway, the Kebony USA team is located in St. Clair, Michigan, with local representation both on the East and West Coasts. Kebony has received numerous awards for its environmentally friendly technology and innovation, including its naming as a World Economic Forum Technology Pioneer and a Global Cleantech 100 company. Kebony has also been embraced by leading architects, designers and developers, which are served through a global sales and distribution network.
Leers Weinzapfel Associates completes America′s first cross-laminated timber academic building Multi-disciplinary ‘Design Building’ brings together 500 students and 50 faculty across four departments into a light-filled 87,000- square-foot space
Image © Albert Vecerka / Esto
AMERICAN SOFTWOODS 75
Image © Albert Vecerka / Esto
The first and largest cross-laminated timber (CLT) academic building in the U.S. opened in 2017 at the University of Massachusetts (UMass) Amherst. Designed by Leers Weinzapfel Associates, the multi-disciplinary Design Building brings together 500 students and 50 faculty across four departments into a light-filled 87,000-square-foot space. As a beacon of sustainability, the building features energy-saving elements, such as chilled beams and radiant flooring, and targets LEED Gold certification. The Design Building, which brings together three related departments under one roof, was originally designed with a steel structure, but the Building Technology faculty had other ideas. Perceiving the building as a potential demonstration project and sustainable teaching tool for the state university, they urged the team to apply their area of research and innovation, engineered timber, instead and consider advanced timber/CLT construction. Their initial suggestions were met with resistance because it was anticipated that using wood would incur a cost premium for an already tight budget. Yet the faculty members persisted, engaging the assistance of a local former U.S. Congressman to persuade his colleague in the State legislature to earmark funds for this important demonstration project. They also recommended a key design engineer in Vancouver BC who had experience with the design of CLT structures. These efforts paid off, resulting in the necessary commitment, and the building was adapted accordingly during the design development phase.
The news of this important sustainable demonstration project spread quickly through the UMass community and was embraced at the highest levels of the administration. As such, the project has become a ready model for future building at the university and by its groundbreaking, excitement about its potential was palpable.
Cross-laminated timber CLT has long been praised for its durability, lightness, and speed of construction, however, has been slow to catch on in the U.S. relative to Europe and Canada. As the largest installation of wood-concrete composites in North America, the Design Building paves the way in the growing trend of ‘mass timber’buildings. Cast-in-place concrete and CLT make up the Design Building’s floor slabs, while glue-laminated timber was used for the posts, beams, shear wall cores, and ‘zipper’ trusses. As the first academic building in the U.S. to use to use timber for every major structural system, the building contains 52,500 square feet of wood concrete panels installed from the second floor to the fourth floor. The first floor is polished concrete whilst the basement floor is unpolished concrete. Glue-laminated timber was usedfor posts, beams, shear wall cores and ‘zipper’ trusses (so named because they converge multiple structural members to a single point).
Targeting LEED Gold Bringing together the previously dispersed departments of Landscape Architecture, Architecture, and Building Technology programs, the new Design Building is a dynamic space of exchange, collaboration,
Image © Albert Vecerka / Esto
AMERICAN SOFTWOODS 77
and experiment, celebrating a shared commitment to sustainability. As a highly visible demonstration of sustainable design practice, it is the first and largest CLT academic building in the U.S. The envelope is highly-efficient, with dedicated mechanical equipment zoned for maximum efficiency, with radiant flooring and chilled beams for energy savings. “We imagined this building as a teaching tool for the design disciplines,” said Andrea Leers,a principal at Leers Weinzapfel. “I know from my own teaching experience that there’s nothing more potent than being able to talk with students about the space around you.”
The slope of the site creates a tall four-storey facade on the west facing the mall, and the rising structure invites the community into the building and reveals the activities within. The east side of the building faces a series of smaller historic buildings along Stockbridge Way, and its three storey facade fits comfortably into this context. A durable envelope of copper colored anodized aluminum panels and vertical windows suggest the color and patterns of forest and trees of the region. A highly innovative engineered timber structure makes this an example for the sustainable use of wood and builds on the leading-edge research of the Building Construction Technology program.
Calculated expanse of glazing and skylights provide maximum daylight to the building’s interior to significantly reduce artificial lighting energy. The storm water management concept directs roof runoff via sculptural scupper to a ‘spring source’ at the top of the site and filters the water via a series of successive bio-swales and timber dams to the lower end of the site and eventually back to the Connecticut River.
Now occupied, the design building is beginning to fulfill its promise as a teaching tool for each of its disciplines. The architecture program can show students how the configuration of space enhances collaboration and experiment, provides important connections to the campus, and integrates a high level of sustainable design thinking. The landscape architecture program will point to the environmentally responsible site development including water management and upper courtyard teaching spaces. And the building technology program will enjoy a full-scale example of its research in integrated wood and concrete construction.
To create a center space of collaboration, a coiling and rising band of studios, faculty offices and classrooms surrounds a skylit Commons for gathering and presentations. The building also forms a green roof terrace, a contemplative space shared by the studios and faculty and a potential experimental space for the landscape department.
The USD 52 million project was partly funded by the Massachusetts State Legislature. Today, the building sits among several arts-related buildings at the university and looks over a quad. “Positioned in the center of campus, the building is a critical link in the university’s arts necklace,” concludes Steve Schreiber, Professor and Chair of the Architecture department.
Image © Wewood
80 WOOD WORKS
Image © Wewood
Image © Wewood
Wewood perfects the combination of design and woodworking between artisans and designers
Each piece is born from the inspiration and creativity of the most talented designers and architects, each one with his own vision and influences, contributing to the richness and diversity in Wewood’s collection. The company believes in the perfect combination of design and woodworking between artisans and designers. With the creation of solid wood furniture that combines craftsmanship know-how with high technology, Wewood offers a natural and certified product that matches the highest demands of the premium market, in terms of quality, longevity and environmental responsibility.
Wewood also has a mission to offer to the world a Portuguese product combining quality design, solid wood and innovative production. All of its pieces are designed and produced with quality and dedication with each passing a rigorous process of production until customer delivery. Each piece tells a story, which is a result of the designer's inspiration, creativity and design. The company is also always looking to innovative solutions, to break paradigms and stimulate creativity. Passion and ethics are the richest values for Wewood. Wewood aims to contribute to sustainable development
Image © Wewood
through the key practice of promoting sustainable management by developing products, which cause less environmental impact; sensitize all stakeholders for the environmental responsibility during the production process; and mostly, by using wood that comes from Sustainable Forest Cultivation (FSC). A Wewood piece is in essence turned into reality by the hands, wisdom and experience of skilled craftspeople that combine noble materials, traditional joinery, handcraft and advanced technology. The company works with solid wood, sourced from sustainable forests from Europe and US supplier, and produces, packs and ships worldwide from Portugal.
Image © Wewood
The company’s roots are in solid wood furniture manufacturing, combining design and traditional joinery methods, such as dove tail, mortise and tenon and halved joint. With a rigorous approach to detailing, Wewood takes great care to ensure that every piece is hand assembled, finished by hand and quality
controlled before being dispatched.
Image © Wewood
Wewood is a Portuguese brand founded in 2010, as the result of Research and Development Office of Móveis Carlos Alfredo - a company that specialized in manufacturing and exporting solid wood furniture since 1964. With its extensive experience in high-end joinery, the company today produces world class solid wood furniture that promotes Portuguese culture and design.
Image © Wewood
Image © Wewood
WOOD WORKS 81
82 SHOWTIME CALENDAR
The Big 5 Saudi
Middle East Covering
Malaysian International Furniture Fair
CIFM / interzum guangzhou
March 5 - 8 Jeddah Centre for Forums & Events Jeddah, Saudi Arabia www.thebig5saudi.com ............................................................................................. March 8 - 12 Bangalore International Exhibition Center Bangalore, India www.indiawood.com ............................................................................................. March 7 - 10 Saigon Exhibition and Convention Center (SECC) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam www.vifafair.com ............................................................................................. March 8 - 11 Putra World Trade Center and MATRADE Exhibition and Convention Center Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia http://2018.miff.com.my .............................................................................................
Export Furniture Exhibition
March 9 - 12 Kuala Lumpur Convention Center (KLCC) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia http://efe.my .............................................................................................
March 20 - 22 Shanghai New International Exhibition Center (SNIEC) Shanghai, China http://domotexasiachinafloor.com ............................................................................................. March 23 - 25 Lublin Trade Fair and Exhibition Center Lublin, Poland www.lubdrew.pl ............................................................................................. March 26 - 29 Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Center Dubai, United Arab Emirates www.middleeastcovering.com ............................................................................................. March 28 - 31 Pazhou Complex Guangzhou, China www.interzum-guangzhou.com .............................................................................................
April 6 - 8 Silesian Exhibition Center Sosnowiec, Poland www.dremasilesia.pl/en .............................................................................................
TECHNOMEBEL and World of Furniture
March 12-14 Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Center Dubai, UAE www.dubaiwoodshow.com .............................................................................................
April 24 - 28 Inter Expo Center Sofia, Bulgaria www.technomebel.bg/en www.furnitureexpo.bg/en .............................................................................................
Wood South China
International Famous Furniture Fair (3F)
March 12 - 14 Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Center Dubai, UAE www.difac-me.com ............................................................................................. March 16 - 18 Kielce Trade Fairs Congress Center Kielce, Poland www.targikielce.pl ............................................................................................. March 16 - 20 Guangdong Modern International Exhibition Center Houjie, Dongguan, China www.gde3f.com/en .............................................................................................
May 3 - 5 Kenyatta International Convention Centre (KICC) Nairobi, Kenya www.expogr.com/afriwood ............................................................................................. May 15 - 17 Poly World Trade Center Expo Guangzhou, China www.muyezhan.com ............................................................................................. May 23 - 25 BelExpo Minsk, Belarus www.belexpo.by/en .............................................................................................
Meeting your customer needs Managing your complexity Increasing your productivity We are YOUR SOLUTION
HOMAG â€“ YOUR SOLUTION FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY. Your customers demand more individuality. You want more productivity. Choose a partner that provides both: HOMAG. With a great deal of system expertise, end-to-end software and comprehensive industry knowledge. With tailor-made machines from all performance classes that are ready for Industry 4.0 and which produce 250,000 items of furniture per day all around the world. That makes HOMAG your solution. www.homag.com HOMAG Equipment Machinery Trading LLC Shed #3, Corner 24 & 15B Streets | Al Quoz Industrial 4 | Dubai | Phone: +971 4 273 1858| firstname.lastname@example.org
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