Policygrouping Pia Areblad Director TILLT Project manager TILLT Europe Creative Clash Brussels December 9, 2010
Artistic interventions ”When people, products, or practices from the world of the arts enter organisations” – Long term collaboration between an organisation and an artist – Employees and artist together in a collectively owned project – Focus on the process • final art piece/product not a requirement
“The interesting thing about an artist’s way of work is the ability to think differently and to create something new and unexpected out of something perceived as static and impossible to change.” Jan-Peter Idström, Chief of Clinical Studies, AstraZeneca
Aims • Develop individuals and organisations in sustainable and innovative ways; • Bring art and culture to new arenas; and • Develop artistic methods by being present in new arenas.
Policygrouping TILLT Europe • To build new sources of sustainable growth with art as catalyst – Impact and effect of artistic interventions – Conditions that favour all parts in artistic interventions
Policygrouping TILLT Europe Core partners • TILLT (SE) – intermediary organisation • c2+i (ES) – intermediary organisation • Social Science Research Center Berlin WZB (DE) • KEA European Affairs (BE) from 2010
Intermediary organisation/bridge Create unexpected meetings – create CLASHES that PROVOKE Provide the meeting with structure and support – stimulate the interaction and cross-fertilization
Intermediary organisation/bridge Create unexpected meetings – create CLASHES that he e t ng PROVOKE r s u hi e s met der s k l ma s so with ho structure Provide the emeeting e e g t ta k id er asupport s – br eand n e all h g r T o h stimulate fthe interaction and s cl a itcross-fertilization i ve s po
Work programme 2009 • • • • •
Comparative analysis Research Framework strategy Policy Discussion Dissemination Networking
Work programme 2010 Round table Spain Regional/Cross Sectoral Preparatory round table Culture 10-15 participants Co-leaders: TILLT&KEA Brussels
Working Group Hearing within the Section for Employment, Social Affairs and Citizenship (SOC) EESC – European Economic and Social Committee
20-25 participants Co-leaders: c2+i&KEA
Round table Sweden Regional/Cross Sectoral 20-25 participants Co-leaders: TILLT&KEA
Preparatory round table Cross Sectoral: employers/social partners EU-evel officials 10-15 participants Co-leaders: TILLT&KEA Brussels
Policy Recommendations EU-conference Brussels 9 December
Research to Find Value(s) in Artistic Interventions in Organizations Professor Ariane Berthoin Antal Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB)
Creative Clash Brussels December 9, 2010
Our Research Orientation • How can artistic interventions contribute to sustainable organizations, that contribute to sustainable societies, economies and environments? • We take a multi-stakeholder perspective (e.g., employees, management, artists, intermediaries, and policy makers). • Adding value for whom? And • Assessed according to whose values?
Artistic Interventions Come in Many Shapes and Sizes • “When people, products, or practices from the world of the arts enter organizations” – For a few hours, days, months, or even years – Art forms: all – In all kinds of organizations – For many different reasons.
Research so far (1): Multiple objectives •Stakeholders have diverse reasons for wanting artistic interventions in organizations •
Managers want: 1. 2. 3. 4.
people development (skills), organization development (eg to increase competitiveness), development of ideas for new products or services; “let’s see what happens”
Artists want: 1. new context in/with which to create art, 2. additional source of income, 3. opportunity to help people make organizations better places to work/influence society
Employees want: 1. ? 2. ? Very little research on their objectives yet….
Research so far (2): Indirectness • Artistic interventions may contribute to (management) objectives of increasing innovation and competitiveness, e.g. by –
– – –
Improving communication in teams, between parts of the organization, or between organization and external stakeholders; Developing creative potential (individually, collectively); Offering new leadership models; Disturbing routines and challenging limiting assumptions about what is possible.
• BUT: indirectly • IF people experience value themselves
socio-economic and natural environment organizational strategy, performance & culture interactions between people
individuals at work
socio-economic and natural environment organizational strategy, performance & culture • self-esteem
interactions between • discover/develop skills people
individuals at work
• fun to learn
• meaning of own work • energy
Research so far (3): Engaging • In every intervention there are differences and overlaps between the objectives and the effects that the diverse stakeholders value —what makes artistic interventions different is that they depend on people really engaging!
• People are more likely to want to engage in an artistic intervention – (a) if they feel there is value & meaning for them in it – (b) if they feel safe.
Research so far (4): Artists • Artists in interventions: Enter a “foreign world” to …. – – – –
Listen, learn Challenge, disturb Energize Model
– Create art
• Artists are often criticized in their “art world” for working in this “foreign world”
Research so far (5): Intermediaries • Emergence of intermediary organizations in many countries • Playing multiple roles, e.g., –Helping organizations formulate need and find artist –Generating funds –Training artists for interventions –Coaching artists during interventions –Supporting the process –Reflecting and reporting on experience
Research so far (6): Paradoxes •
Managers who have experienced artistic interventions are best positioned to provide “hard evidence” for policy- and decision-makers, but they say this is not the right approach. Arts are associated with beauty/harmony but learning is often triggered by dissonance. Objectives important for management and for learning, but artistic interventions are unpredictable and valuable effects often “side-effects.”
Research Challenges –
1. Not enough understanding about how artistic interventions “work” in organizations: – Difficult to “isolate” effects attributable to artistic interventions because they are embedded in other processes (new and ongoing) in organizations; – Processes too complex for mono-causal relations between “input (art) - to-outcome (competitiveness)” variables;
So: we need to identify the constellation of elements that are significant for “successful” artistic interventions.
2. No reliable indicators so far: – Stakeholders seek different things in an intervention, they value different outcomes—and they value outcomes differently
So: we need to develop indicators with stakeholders.
3. Tendency to want “good” results of artistic interventions and leave problems in the shadows So: we need to have the courage to address unwelcome aspects too.
Future Research to Meet Different Needs • For practitioners: • To generate knowledge of use to participants (employees, artists) and other stakeholders (management, intermediaries) in organizations experimenting with artistic interventions • To provide evidence for policy makers and decision makers from other organizations about potential value(s) in artistic interventions • For academic community: • To deepen understanding of learning, innovation and aesthetics in organizations
Mix of Methods • Action research must be at the heart of the mix of methods • It is flanked by case studies and survey research.
“Coda” back to …Research so far (7): Decision-making • Reasons decision-makers have chosen an artistic intervention: – Dissatisfaction – Curiosity – Conversations – Courage
Selected Sources • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Argyris, C. (1990), Overcoming organiz ational defenses: Facilitating organizational learning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Argyris, C. (1995), “Action science and organizational learning”, in: Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10/ 6: 20-26. Berthoin Antal, A. (2008). "“Artful Conversations” at the WZB ", from http://www.wzb.eu/gwd/kneu/veranstaltungen.en.htm. Berthoin Antal, A. (2009). Transform ing Organizations with the Arts. Research Report: A Research Framework for Evaluating the Effects of Artis tic Interventions in Organizations. TILLT Europe, Göte borg, Sweden. Buswick, Ted, Creame r, Alastair, and Pinard, Mary (2004) “(Re)Educating for Leade rship: How the Arts Can Improve Business.” London, UK: Arts & Bus iness. Accessed July 25 2010: http://www.aacorn.net/mem bers_all/buswick_ted/ReE ducating_for_Leade rship.pdf Carr, A. (2001/2002) “ Art as a form of knowledge: The implications for critical management.“ Tamara: The Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. 2/1:8-30. Cannon, M. D., Edmondson, A C. (2005), “Failing to learn and learning to fail (Intelligently): How grea t organizations put failure to work to innovate and improve”, in: Long Range Planning, No. 38, pp. 299-319. Clark, T. & Mangham, I. (2004) Stripping to the Unde rcoat: A Review and Reflections on a Piece of Organization Theatre.“ Organisation Studies 25/5: 841-851. Darso, L. (2004). Artful Creation. Learning-Tales of A rts-in-Business. Frederiksbe rg: Samfundslitte ratur. Dierkes, M., Berthoin Antal, A., Child, J, Nonaka, I. (eds.) (2001). The Handbook of Organiz ational Learning and Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Friedman, V., Rogers, T. (2009). “There’s nothing so theore tical as good action research.” Action Research. Vol.7, No.1:31-47. McNiff, S. (1998). Trust the Process. An Artist's Guide to Letting Go. Boston, Shambhala. Meusburger, P. (2009). “Milieus of Creativity: The Role of Places, Environments, and Spatial Conte xts.” In P. Meusburger, J. Funke, E. Wunder (eds.). Milieus of Creativity. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Spatiality of Creativity. Knowledge and Space, Vol. 2. Springer Ve rlag, Berlin: 97-153. Reason, P., Bradbury, H. (eds.) (2008). The SAGE Handbook of Action Research. Participative Inquiry and Practice. 2nd ed. Los Angeles. Sage. Schiuma, G. (2009) "The Value of Arts-Based Initiatives. Mapping Arts-Based Initiatives." Arts&Business, London. Accessed July 25 2010 from http://www.artsandbusiness.org.uk/Media%20library/Files/Research/Mapping%20ABIs%20%20Prof%20SchiumaFINAL.pdf Styhre, A., Eriksson, M. (2008). "Bring in the Arts and Ge t the Creativity for Free. A Study of the A rtis ts in Residence Project." Creativity and Innovation Management 17(1): 47-57. Taylor, S. S., Ladkin, D. (2009). "Understanding Arts-Based Methods in Managerial Development." Academy of Management Learning and Educa tion 8(1): 55-69. Vives, M. and Gomez de la Iglesia, R. (2009). Managing Arts and Bus iness Collaborations: A comparative analysis of four programmes in Europe. San Sebastián, TILLT Europe.
Precautions from both sides – reflections from round tables Lars Lindström Human Resources Manager Scandinavia
PAROC Creative Clash Brussels December 9, 2010
Employer perspective Risks to starting a co-operation with an artist? - Climate in different organizations. - No clear starting point or goals for the process. -Too detailed steering from organization of the process itself -Artist focus on him/her self What reduces the risks? -Structured way to communicate and prepare mgmt. -Recruitment and training of Artist and awareness of challenges. -Purpose and goals for the process and space for the artist to use his/her certain skills. What makes you anyhow, start a co-operation with an Artist? -Understanding of untraditional methods effect on org. -Willingness to come forward, where we have been hindered in development or couldn’t reach out with for exampel values.
Employer perspective What is the artists role? -To be the mind opener, stimulating organization to see in new perspectives. -Being a catalysator bringing stimulation to organization. -Ability for change and increasing communication, mind opener for new possibilities What value is he/she -Comes with new perspectives -Profesional in stimulating and challenge people to new perspectives. -No consultant with a roadmap, the Artist has the freedom how using different methods depending on the working group. Artist must continue to be an artist.